WorldWideScience

Sample records for axis view techniques

  1. Inelastic scattering using the three-axis spectrometer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currat, R.

    1999-01-01

    The three-axis technique is a basic neutron scattering technique for inelastic work on single-crystal specimens. There is, at the moment, a fair degree of complementarity between TAS instruments on steady-state sources and TOF instruments on steady-state or pulsed sources. The technique is described, the issue of TAS versus TOF method is discussed, and investigations relating to the resolution functions are presented. (K.A.)

  2. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  3. Optical Axis Identification Technique for Free Space Optics Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tashiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes optical axis adjustment technique for an active free space optics transmission system. This system precisely controls the direction of a collimated thin laser beam using a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes. Before beginning laser beam feedback control, it is required to guide the laser beam within the range of the positioning photodiodes for initial laser beam alignment. This paper proposes an arrival position presumption method of laser beam traveling along the long distance from transmitter. A positioning sensor containing several photodiodes measures laser luminescence distribution, and analytically calculates the optical axis of laser beam according to the modified Gaussian beam optics based on four or five distributed local intensity of laser luminescence. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the presumption, and results reveal that the method is effective in leading the laser beam onto a distant receiver.

  4. Development of automatic extraction method of left ventricular contours on long axis view MR cine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Shinichi; Iijima, Naoto; Yamasaki, Kazunari; Fujita, Akinori

    1995-01-01

    In the MRI cardiac function analysis, left ventricular volume curves and diagnosis parameters are obtained by extracting the left ventricular cavities as regions of interest (ROI) from long axis view MR cine images. The ROI extractions had to be done by manual operations, because automatization of the extraction is difficult. A long axis view left ventricular contour consists of a cardiac wall part and an aortic valve part. The above mentioned difficulty is due to the decline of contrast on the cardiac wall part, and the disappearance of edge on the aortic valve part. In this paper, we report a new automatic extraction method for long axis view MR cine images, which needs only 3 manually indicated points on the 1st image to extract all the contours from the total sequence of images. At first, candidate points of a contour are detected by edge detection. Then, selecting the best matched combination of candidate points by Dynamic Programming, the cardiac wall part is automatically extracted. The aortic valve part is manually extracted for the 1st image by indicating both the end points, and is automatically extracted for the rest of the images, by utilizing the aortic valve motion characteristics throughout a cardiac cycle. (author)

  5. Craniospinal axis irradiation: an improved electron technique for irradiation of the spinal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Li; Vijayakumar, S.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Muller-Runkel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors review dosimetric features of craniospinal axis irradiation in the areas of matching cranial and spinal fields, with reference to normal structures within the spinal field. The implications of the use of photon or electron modalities for the spinal port were evaluated. A novel method of matching the cranial photon and the spinal electron fields involving a computer-aided junction design is presented, involving moving the photon beam in three steps to degrade its penumbra to match that of the electron field. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in a Rando phantom and computed tomography-based dose-volume histogram study for an illustrative paediatric case were used to compare dose to normal structures within the spinal field. Results show that the use of electrons for the spinal field leads to better sparing of deep seated normal structures. For bone marrow, the use of a customized bolus for the spinal field results in an improved dose distribution, making electrons potentially superior to photons for radiobiological reasons. (author)

  6. Soot volume fraction fields in unsteady axis-symmetric flames by continuous laser extinction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bonnety, Jérôme; Guibert, Philippe; Morin, Céline; Legros, Guillaume

    2012-12-17

    A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.

  7. Four-chamber view and 'swing technique' (FAST) echo: a novel and simple algorithm to visualize standard fetal echocardiographic planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, L; Romero, R; Jodicke, C; Oggè, G; Lee, W; Kusanovic, J P; Vaisbuch, E; Hassan, S

    2011-04-01

    To describe a novel and simple algorithm (four-chamber view and 'swing technique' (FAST) echo) for visualization of standard diagnostic planes of fetal echocardiography from dataset volumes obtained with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and applying a new display technology (OmniView). We developed an algorithm to image standard fetal echocardiographic planes by drawing four dissecting lines through the longitudinal view of the ductal arch contained in a STIC volume dataset. Three of the lines are locked to provide simultaneous visualization of targeted planes, and the fourth line (unlocked) 'swings' through the ductal arch image (swing technique), providing an infinite number of cardiac planes in sequence. Each line generates the following plane(s): (a) Line 1: three-vessels and trachea view; (b) Line 2: five-chamber view and long-axis view of the aorta (obtained by rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis); (c) Line 3: four-chamber view; and (d) 'swing line': three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view and/or long-axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view and stomach. The algorithm was then tested in 50 normal hearts in fetuses at 15.3-40 weeks' gestation and visualization rates for cardiac diagnostic planes were calculated. To determine whether the algorithm could identify planes that departed from the normal images, we tested the algorithm in five cases with proven congenital heart defects. In normal cases, the FAST echo algorithm (three locked lines and rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis) was able to generate the intended planes (longitudinal view of the ductal arch, pulmonary artery, three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view, long-axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view) individually in 100% of cases (except for the three-vessels and trachea view, which was seen in 98% (49/50)) and simultaneously in 98% (49/50). The swing technique was able to generate the three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view and/or long-axis

  8. Assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by nuclear medicine techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Jackenhoevel, F.; Krone, W.

    2002-01-01

    The following article reviews nuclear medicine techniques which can be used for assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For planar and SPECT imaging somatostatin-receptor- and dopamine-D2-receptor-scintigraphy are the most widely distributed techniques. These nuclear medicine techniques may be indicated in selected cases to answer differential diagnostic problems. They can be helpful to search for presence and localization of receptor positive tissue. Furthermore they can detect metastasis in the rare cases of a pituitary carcinoma. Scintigraphy with Gallium-67 is suitable for further diagnostic evaluation in suspected hypophysitis. Other SPECT radiopharmaca do not have relevant clinical significance. F-18-FDG as PET radiopharmacon is not ideal because obvious pituitary adenomas could not be visualized. Other PET radiopharmaca including C-11-methionine, C-11-tyrosine, F-18-fluoroethylspiperone, C-11-methylspiperone, and C-11-raclopride are available in specialized centers only. Overall indications for nuclear medicine in studies for the assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are rare. Original studies often report only about a small number of patients. According to the authors' opinion the relevance of nuclear medicine in studies of clinically important endocrinologic fields, e. g. localization of small ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, tumor localization in ectopic ACTH syndrome, localization of recurrent pituitary tissue, assessment of small incidentalomas, can not be definitely given yet. (orig.) [de

  9. Viewing Teaching Techniques in Enhancing Viewing Comprehension Skills of Undergraduate Students in Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ortega-Dela Cruz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s generation of digital natives, students find it unexciting to sit down and read literary texts in its entirety. Thus, students nowadays hardly understand and appreciate literature as a subject. This calls for additional challenge to teachers who had been used to deliver their lessons or any subject matter in traditional ways. This study used descriptive-correlational research design to unveil the most effective viewing teaching techniques that will help develop the viewing comprehension skills of literature students in a tertiary level. Findings reveal how literature students perceive the use of movies or videos as a powerful viewing teaching technique. Result of chi-square test of independence indicates the viewing teaching techniques are not significantly related to students’ viewing comprehension. This suggests that no single teaching technique suits the learners’ interest and ability to learn. Therefore, teachers can make use of technology combined with other viewing techniques to ensure that students will find a love for literature that will help establish their academic success in the future.

  10. FAST (Four chamber view And Swing Technique) Echo: a Novel and Simple Algorithm to Visualize Standard Fetal Echocardiographic Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto; Jodicke, Cristiano; Oggè, Giovanna; Lee, Wesley; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel and simple algorithm (FAST Echo: Four chamber view And Swing Technique) to visualize standard diagnostic planes of fetal echocardiography from dataset volumes obtained with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and applying a new display technology (OmniView). Methods We developed an algorithm to image standard fetal echocardiographic planes by drawing four dissecting lines through the longitudinal view of the ductal arch contained in a STIC volume dataset. Three of the lines are locked to provide simultaneous visualization of targeted planes, and the fourth line (unlocked) “swings” through the ductal arch image (“swing technique”), providing an infinite number of cardiac planes in sequence. Each line generated the following plane(s): 1) Line 1: three-vessels and trachea view; 2) Line 2: five-chamber view and long axis view of the aorta (obtained by rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis); 3) Line 3: four-chamber view; and 4) “Swing” line: three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view and/or long axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view, and stomach. The algorithm was then tested in 50 normal hearts (15.3 – 40 weeks of gestation) and visualization rates for cardiac diagnostic planes were calculated. To determine if the algorithm could identify planes that departed from the normal images, we tested the algorithm in 5 cases with proven congenital heart defects. Results In normal cases, the FAST Echo algorithm (3 locked lines and rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis) was able to generate the intended planes (longitudinal view of the ductal arch, pulmonary artery, three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view, long axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view): 1) individually in 100% of cases [except for the three-vessel and trachea view, which was seen in 98% (49/50)]; and 2) simultaneously in 98% (49/50). The “swing technique” was able to generate the three-vessels and trachea view, five

  11. Dynamic Analysis Techniques for the Reconstruction of Architectural Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.

    2007-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of software systems is an important discipline in many software engineering contexts. It is essential that software engineers are assisted as much as possible during this task, e.g., by using tools and techniques that provide architectural views on the software at hand. This

  12. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. William

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

  13. A review on computational fluid dynamic simulation techniques for Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemian, Masoud; Ashrafi, Z. Najafian; Sedaghat, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A review on CFD simulation technique for Darrieus wind turbines is provided. • Recommendations and guidelines toward reliable and accurate simulations are presented. • Different progresses in CFD simulation of Darrieus wind turbines are addressed. - Abstract: The global warming threats, the presence of policies on support of renewable energies, and the desire for clean smart cities are the major drives for most recent researches on developing small wind turbines in urban environments. VAWTs (vertical axis wind turbines) are most appealing for energy harvesting in the urban environment. This is attributed due to structural simplicity, wind direction independency, no yaw mechanism required, withstand high turbulence winds, cost effectiveness, easier maintenance, and lower noise emission of VAWTs. This paper reviews recent published works on CFD (computational fluid dynamic) simulations of Darrieus VAWTs. Recommendations and guidelines are presented for turbulence modeling, spatial and temporal discretization, numerical schemes and algorithms, and computational domain size. The operating and geometrical parameters such as tip speed ratio, wind speed, solidity, blade number and blade shapes are fully investigated. The purpose is to address different progresses in simulations areas such as blade profile modification and optimization, wind turbine performance augmentation using guide vanes, wind turbine wake interaction in wind farms, wind turbine aerodynamic noise reduction, dynamic stall control, self-starting characteristics, and effects of unsteady and skewed wind conditions.

  14. An Overview of Techniques for Cardiac Left Ventricle Segmentation on Short-Axis MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnobaev Arseny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, heart diseases are the leading cause of death. Left ventricle segmentation of a human heart in magnetic resonance images (MRI is a crucial step in both cardiac diseases diagnostics and heart internal structure reconstruction. It allows estimating such important parameters as ejection faction, left ventricle myocardium mass, stroke volume, etc. In addition, left ventricle segmentation helps to construct the personalized heart computational models in order to conduct the numerical simulations. At present, the fully automated cardiac segmentation methods still do not meet the accuracy requirements. We present an overview of left ventricle segmentation algorithms on short-axis MRI. A wide variety of completely different approaches are used for cardiac segmentation, including machine learning, graph-based methods, deformable models, and low-level heuristics. The current state-of-the-art technique is a combination of deformable models with advanced machine learning methods, such as deep learning or Markov random fields. We expect that approaches based on deep belief networks are the most promising ones because the main training process of networks with this architecture can be performed on the unlabelled data. In order to improve the quality of left ventricle segmentation algorithms, we need more datasets with labelled cardiac MRI data in open access.

  15. Reliability of a new method for measuring coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Xue; Liu, Qian; He, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane plays a key role in an evaluation of patients with trunk imbalance, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. An established, widely used practice in evaluating trunk imbalance is to drop a plumb line from the C7 vertebra to a key reference axis, the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) in full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs, and measuring the distance between them, the C7-CSVL. However, measuring the CSVL is subject to intraobserver differences, is error-prone, and is of poor reliability. Therefore, the development of a different way to measure trunk imbalance is needed. This study aimed to describe a new method to measure coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), which measures the angle at the intersection between the C7 plumb line and an axis line drawn from the vertebral centroid of the C7 to the middle of the superior border of the symphysis pubis, and to compare the reliability of the ALAT with that of the C7-CSVL. A prospective study at a university hospital was used. The patient sample consisted of sixty-nine consecutively enrolled men and women patients, aged 10-18 years, who had trunk imbalance defined as C7-CSVL longer than 20 mm on computed full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation between C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities. Using a picture archiving and communication system, three radiologists independently evaluated trunk imbalance on the 69 computed radiographs by measuring the C7-CSVL and by measuring the angle determined by the ALAT. Data were analyzed to determine the correlations between the two measures of trunk imbalance, and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each of them. Overall results from the measurements by the C7-CSVL and the ALAT were significantly moderately correlated

  16. Some views about PET technique establish and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zuhan

    2001-01-01

    About 2100 patients had been performed in Nanfang PET center since its establish in November, 1999. The clinical practice showed that the positron emission tomography (PET) had unique value for the diagnosis of malignancy, cardiac coronal artery disease, myocardium viability and for lesion localization of epilepsy and other cerebral function diseases. It had important impact to treatment of these diseases and improved the treatment outcomes of them. It also promoted the scientific studies and other correlative subjects and enhanced the station of nuclear medicine. Its integrative benefit was very great. In order to develop this technique more smoothly, authors would give the views on some questions such as how to look on PET images, its clinical value, its price and its cost-effectiveness. The authors would also give some proposal which could not be neglectable for establish of PET technique

  17. A technique for automatically extracting useful field of view and central field of view images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Aheer, Deepak; Kumar, Jay Prakash; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Patel, Chetan; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to ensure the uniform response of the single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera system before using it for the clinical studies by exposing it to uniform flood source. Vendor specific acquisition and processing protocol provide for studying flood source images along with the quantitative uniformity parameters such as integral and differential uniformity. However, a significant difficulty is that the time required to acquire a flood source image varies from 10 to 35 min depending both on the activity of Cobalt-57 flood source and the pre specified counts in the vendors protocol (usually 4000K-10,000K counts). In case the acquired total counts are less than the total prespecified counts, and then the vendor's uniformity processing protocol does not precede with the computation of the quantitative uniformity parameters. In this study, we have developed and verified a technique for reading the flood source image, remove unwanted information, and automatically extract and save the useful field of view and central field of view images for the calculation of the uniformity parameters. This was implemented using MATLAB R2013b running on Ubuntu Operating system and was verified by subjecting it to the simulated and real flood sources images. The accuracy of the technique was found to be encouraging, especially in view of practical difficulties with vendor-specific protocols. It may be used as a preprocessing step while calculating uniformity parameters of the gamma camera in lesser time with fewer constraints.

  18. A technique for automatically extracting useful field of view and central field of view images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Aheer, Deepak; Kumar, Jay Prakash; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Patel, Chetan; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to ensure the uniform response of the single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera system before using it for the clinical studies by exposing it to uniform flood source. Vendor specific acquisition and processing protocol provide for studying flood source images along with the quantitative uniformity parameters such as integral and differential uniformity. However, a significant difficulty is that the time required to acquire a flood source image varies from 10 to 35 min depending both on the activity of Cobalt-57 flood source and the pre specified counts in the vendors protocol (usually 4000K-10,000K counts). In case the acquired total counts are less than the total prespecified counts, and then the vendor's uniformity processing protocol does not precede with the computation of the quantitative uniformity parameters. In this study, we have developed and verified a technique for reading the flood source image, remove unwanted information, and automatically extract and save the useful field of view and central field of view images for the calculation of the uniformity parameters. This was implemented using MATLAB R2013b running on Ubuntu Operating system and was verified by subjecting it to the simulated and real flood sources images. The accuracy of the technique was found to be encouraging, especially in view of practical difficulties with vendor-specific protocols. It may be used as a preprocessing step while calculating uniformity parameters of the gamma camera in lesser time with fewer constraints

  19. Computerized data reduction techniques for nadir viewing remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

    1985-01-01

    Computer resources have been developed for the analysis and reduction of MAPS experimental data from the OSTA-1 payload. The MAPS Research Project is concerned with the measurement of the global distribution of mid-tropospheric carbon monoxide. The measurement technique for the MAPS instrument is based on non-dispersive gas filter radiometer operating in the nadir viewing mode. The MAPS experiment has two passive remote sensing instruments, the prototype instrument which is used to measure tropospheric air pollution from aircraft platforms and the third generation (OSTA) instrument which is used to measure carbon monoxide in the mid and upper troposphere from space platforms. Extensive effort was also expended in support of the MAPS/OSTA-3 shuttle flight. Specific capabilities and resources developed are discussed.

  20. An Alternative Technique in the Treatment of Celiac Axis Stenosis Diagnosed During Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel C. C. Machado

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac compression is usually a benign condition, but when surgery necessitates division of collaterals from the superior mesenteric artery, it may cause life-threatening celiac organ ischemia. Celiac axis obstruction is found in 12.5% to 49.7% of patients during abdominal angiography. In such patients, the arterial blood supply to the stomach, spleen, and liver is sustained through extraordinarily welldeveloped pathways in the pancreas.

  1. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H [Department of Automatic Measurement and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, PO Box 305, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  2. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H. P.; Jin, Y. Q.; Ha, Y. W.; Liu, L. H.

    2006-10-01

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  3. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system

  4. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure

  5. Validation of Left Atrial Volume Estimation by Left Atrial Diameter from the Parasternal Long-Axis View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canciello, Grazia; de Simone, Giovanni; Izzo, Raffaele; Giamundo, Alessandra; Pacelli, Filomena; Mancusi, Costantino; Galderisi, Maurizio; Trimarco, Bruno; Losi, Maria-Angela

    2017-03-01

    Measurement of left atrial (LA) volume (LAV) is recommended for quantification of LA size. Only LA anteroposterior diameter (LAd) is available in a number of large cohorts, trials, or registries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LAV may be reasonably estimated from LAd. One hundred forty consecutive patients referred to our outpatient clinics were prospectively enrolled to measure LAd from the long-axis view on two-dimensional echocardiography. LA orthogonal dimensions were also taken from apical four- and two-chamber views. LAV was measured using the Simpson, area-length, and ellipsoid (LAV e ) methods. The first 70 patients were the learning series and the last 70 the testing series (TeS). In the learning series, best-fitting regression analysis of LAV-LAd was run using all LAV methods, and the highest values of F were chosen among the regression equations. In the TeS, the best-fitting regressions were used to estimate LAV from LAd. In the learning series, the best-fitting regression was linear for the Spearman method (r 2  = 0.62, F = 111.85, P = .0001) and area-length method (r 2  = 0.62, F = 112.24, P = .0001) and powered for the LAV e method (r 2  = 0.81, F = 288.41, P = .0001). In the TeS, the r 2 value for LAV prediction was substantially better using the LAV e method (r 2  = 0.89) than the Simpson (r 2  = 0.72) or area-length (r 2  = 0.70) method, as was the intraclass correlation (ρ = 0.96 vs ρ = 0.89 and ρ = 0.89, respectively). In the TeS, the sensitivity and specificity of LA dilatation by the estimated LAV e method were 87% and 90%, respectively. LAV can be estimated from LAd using a nonlinear equation with an elliptical model. The proposed method may be used in retrospective analysis of existing data sets in which determination of LAV was not programmed. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Investigation of Students' Views about Enzymes by Fortune Lines Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Murat; Çetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate ninth grade students' views about enzymes using fortune lines technique and to obtain the students' views about fortune lines technique. Participants were 38 ninth grade students in a Technique Vocational Girls High School in the city of Kocaeli, Turkey. After instruction of subject of enzymes, the participants were…

  7. Ultrasonic off-normal imaging techniques for under sodium viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, T.E.; Horn, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced imaging methods have been evaluated for the purpose of constructing images of objects from ultrasonic data. Feasibility of imaging surfaces which are off-normal to the sound beam has been established. Laboratory results are presented which show a complete image of a typical core component. Using the previous system developed for under sodium viewing (USV), only normal surfaces of this object could be imaged. Using advanced methods, surfaces up to 60 degrees off-normal have been imaged. Details of equipment and procedures used for this image construction are described. Additional work on high temperature transducers, electronics, and signal analysis is required in order to adapt the off-normal viewing process described here to an eventual USV application

  8. The edge of chaos: A nonlinear view of psychoanalytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    The field of nonlinear dynamics (or chaos theory) provides ways to expand concepts of psychoanalytic process that have implications for the technique of psychoanalysis. This paper describes how concepts of "the edge of chaos," emergence, attractors, and coupled oscillators can help shape analytic technique resulting in an approach to doing analysis which is at the same time freer and more firmly based in an enlarged understanding of the ways in which psychoanalysis works than some current recommendation about technique. Illustrations from a lengthy analysis of an analysand with obsessive-compulsive disorder show this approach in action. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  10. Susceptibility to saline contamination of coastal confined aquifer of the Uraba banana axis with hydrogeochemical and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Zuniga, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    The project has covered an area of study of 8916 km 2 is located in the Northwestern part of the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Interest area is geologically constituted by tertiary sedimentary rocks (T1 and T2) and alluvial deposits (Quaternary). Hydrogeological units, potentially better use of groundwater, have been established for the unit T2 (confined aquifer) and quaternary deposits.) The area has been of 2600 mm/year to 3600 mm/year of average rainfall. The susceptibility to saline contamination has been determined of coastal aquifer of the Uraba banana axis. Hydrochemical and geological information, geophysics, hydraulic and hydrochemical is used improving existing conceptual hydrogeological model. A hydrochemical characterization has been performed to evaluate the processes of salinity in the confined aquifer. The integration of geological information, geophysical and hydrogeological has been methodology used to validate the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer, its geometry and operation, updating the conceptual hydrogeological model. The use of complementary tools been able to determine and identify processes that may affect natural physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. The results have showed that salinization processes present in the coastal aquifer of Uraba Banana Axis could be linked to water-rock interaction, to mixtures with water have become saline as a result of transgression - regression processes in the former study. The hydrogeochemical techniques have become a complementary tool to the hydrogeology allowing respond the questions were presented in complex systems, such as the case of coastal aquifers, where sanitation is usually associated with saline intrusion processes and can also be obeying the conjunction with other hydroclimatological and hydrodynamic aspects. (author) [es

  11. Instrumentation and signal processing for the detection of heavy water using off axis-integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Singh, P. J.; Gaikwad, D. Y.; Udupa, D. V.; Topkar, A.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental setup is developed for the trace level detection of heavy water (HDO) using the off axis-integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique. The absorption spectrum of water samples is recorded in the spectral range of 7190.7 cm-1-7191.5 cm-1 with the diode laser as the light source. From the recorded water vapor absorption spectrum, the heavy water concentration is determined from the HDO and water line. The effect of cavity gain nonlinearity with per pass absorption is studied. The signal processing and data fitting procedure is devised to obtain linear calibration curves by including nonlinear cavity gain effects into the calculation. Initial calibration of mirror reflectivity is performed by measurements on the natural water sample. The signal processing and data fitting method has been validated by the measurement of the HDO concentration in water samples over a wide range from 20 ppm to 2280 ppm showing a linear calibration curve. The average measurement time is about 30 s. The experimental technique presented in this paper could be applied for the development of a portable instrument for the fast measurement of water isotopic composition in heavy water plants and for the detection of heavy water leak in pressurized heavy water reactors.

  12. A dual-view digital tomosynthesis imaging technique for improved chest imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C., E-mail: cshaw@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) has been shown to be useful for reducing the overlapping of abnormalities with anatomical structures at various depth levels along the posterior–anterior (PA) direction in chest radiography. However, DTS provides crude three-dimensional (3D) images that have poor resolution in the lateral view and can only be displayed with reasonable quality in the PA view. Furthermore, the spillover of high-contrast objects from off-fulcrum planes generates artifacts that may impede the diagnostic use of the DTS images. In this paper, the authors describe and demonstrate the use of a dual-view DTS technique to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed volume image data for more accurate rendition of the anatomy and slice images with improved resolution and reduced artifacts, thus allowing the 3D image data to be viewed in views other than the PA view. Methods: With the dual-view DTS technique, limited angle scans are performed and projection images are acquired in two orthogonal views: PA and lateral. The dual-view projection data are used together to reconstruct 3D images using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization iterative algorithm. In this study, projection images were simulated or experimentally acquired over 360° using the scanning geometry for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). While all projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images, selected projections were extracted and used to reconstruct single- and dual-view DTS images for comparison with the CBCT images. For realistic demonstration and comparison, a digital chest phantom derived from clinical CT images was used for the simulation study. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged for the experimental study. The resultant dual-view DTS images were visually compared with the single-view DTS images and CBCT images for the presence of image artifacts and accuracy of CT numbers and anatomy and quantitatively compared with root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) values

  13. Comparison radiation dose of Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique with fixed tube current multi-detector row CT scanning of lower extremity venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Lee, Jong Seok; Jang, Keun Jo; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo

    2007-01-01

    Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique automatically adjusts tube current based on size of body region scanned. The purpose of the current study was to compare noise, and radiation dose of Multi-Detector row CT (MDCT) of lower extremity performed with Z-axis modulation technique of automatic tube current modulation with manual selection fixed tube current. Fifty consecutive underwent MDCT venography of lower extremity with use of a MDCT scanner fixed tube current and Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique (10, 11 and 12 HU noise index, 70∼450 mA). Scanning parameters included 120 kVp, 0.5 second gantry rotation time, 1.35:1 beam pitch, and 1 mm reconstructed section thickness. For each subject, images obtained with Z-axis modulation were compared with previous images obtained with fixed tube current (200, 250, 300 mA) and with other parameters identical. Images were compared for noise at five levels: iliac, femoral, popliteal, tibial, and peroneal vein of lower extremity. Tube current and gantry rotation time used for acquisitions at these levels were recorded. All CT examinations of study and control groups were diagnostically acceptable, though objective noise was significantly more with Z-axis automatic tube current modulation. Compared with fixed tube current, Z-axis modulation resulted in reduction of CTDIvol (range, -6.5%∼-35.6%) and DLP (range,-0.2%∼-20.2%). Compared with manually selected fixed tube current, Z-axis automatic tube current modulation resulted in reduced radiation dose at MDCT of lower extremity venography

  14. Wide field of view computed tomography and mid carpal instability: The value of the sagittal radius–lunate–capitate axis – Preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repse, Stephen E., E-mail: stephrep@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Health, VIC (Australia); Koulouris, George, E-mail: GeorgeK@melbourneradiology.com.au [Melbourne Radiology Clinic, Ground Floor, 3-6/100 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Centre for Orthopaedic Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Troupis, John M., E-mail: john.troupis@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging & Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Monash Health and Department of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique insight into the assessment of mid carpal instability. • 4D CT using sagittal reconstructions along the radius–lunate–capitate axis. • 4D CT observations of vacuum phenomenon, trigger lunate and capitate subluxation. • Earlier recognition of mid carpal instability. - Abstract: Purpose: Dynamic four dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has recently emerged as a practical method for evaluating complex functional abnormality of joints. We retrospectively analysed 4D CT studies undertaken as part of the clinical management of hand and wrist symptoms. We present our initial experience of 4D CT in the assessment of functional abnormalities of the wrist in a group of patients with mid carpal instability (MCI), specifically carpal instability non-dissociative. We aim to highlight unique features in assessment of the radius–lunate–capitate (RLC) axis which allows insight and understanding of abnormalities in function, not just morphology, which may be contributing to symptoms. Materials and methods: Wide field of view multi-detector CT scanner (320 slices, 0.5 mm detector thickness) was used to acquire bilateral continuous motion assessment in hand flexion and extension. A maximum z-axis coverage of 16 cm was available for each acquisition, and a large field of view (FOV) was used. Due to the volume acquisition during motion, reconstructions at multiple time points were undertaken. Dynamic and anatomically targeted multi-planar-reconstructions (MPRs) were then used to establish the kinematic functionality of the joint. Results: Our initial cohort of 20 patients was reviewed. Three findings were identified which were present either in isolation or in combination. These are vacuum phenomenon, triggering of the lunate and capitate subluxation. We provide 4D CT representations of each and highlight features considered of clinical importance and their significance. We also briefly discuss how the current classifications of dynamic wrist

  15. Wide field of view computed tomography and mid carpal instability: The value of the sagittal radius–lunate–capitate axis – Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repse, Stephen E.; Koulouris, George; Troupis, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique insight into the assessment of mid carpal instability. • 4D CT using sagittal reconstructions along the radius–lunate–capitate axis. • 4D CT observations of vacuum phenomenon, trigger lunate and capitate subluxation. • Earlier recognition of mid carpal instability. - Abstract: Purpose: Dynamic four dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has recently emerged as a practical method for evaluating complex functional abnormality of joints. We retrospectively analysed 4D CT studies undertaken as part of the clinical management of hand and wrist symptoms. We present our initial experience of 4D CT in the assessment of functional abnormalities of the wrist in a group of patients with mid carpal instability (MCI), specifically carpal instability non-dissociative. We aim to highlight unique features in assessment of the radius–lunate–capitate (RLC) axis which allows insight and understanding of abnormalities in function, not just morphology, which may be contributing to symptoms. Materials and methods: Wide field of view multi-detector CT scanner (320 slices, 0.5 mm detector thickness) was used to acquire bilateral continuous motion assessment in hand flexion and extension. A maximum z-axis coverage of 16 cm was available for each acquisition, and a large field of view (FOV) was used. Due to the volume acquisition during motion, reconstructions at multiple time points were undertaken. Dynamic and anatomically targeted multi-planar-reconstructions (MPRs) were then used to establish the kinematic functionality of the joint. Results: Our initial cohort of 20 patients was reviewed. Three findings were identified which were present either in isolation or in combination. These are vacuum phenomenon, triggering of the lunate and capitate subluxation. We provide 4D CT representations of each and highlight features considered of clinical importance and their significance. We also briefly discuss how the current classifications of dynamic wrist

  16. What is the optimal cutoff value of the axis-line-angle technique for evaluating trunk imbalance in coronal plane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Fu, Yu-Chuan; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Yu-Min; Zhou, Yong-Jin; Tian, Nai-Feng; He, Jia-Wei; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2017-02-01

    Accurately evaluating the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane is significant for patients before and after treatment. We preliminarily practiced a new method, axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), for evaluating coronal trunk imbalance with excellent intra-observer and interobserver reliability. Radiologists and surgeons were encouraged to use this method in clinical practice. However, the optimal cutoff value of the ALAT for determination of the extent of coronal trunk imbalance has not been calculated up to now. The purpose of this study was to identify the cutoff value of the ALAT that best predicts a positive measurement point to assess coronal balance or imbalance. A retrospective study at a university affiliated hospital was carried out. A total of 130 patients with C7-central sacral vertical line (CSVL) >0 mm and aged 10-18 years were recruited in this study from September 2013 to December 2014. Data were analyzed to determine the optimal cutoff value of the ALAT measurement. The C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements were conducted respectively twice on plain film within a 2-week interval by two radiologists. The optimal cutoff value of the ALAT was analyzed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Comparison variables were performed with chi-square test between the C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements for evaluating trunk imbalance. Kappa agreement coefficient method was used to test the intra-observer and interobserver agreement of C7-CSVL and ALAT. The ROC curve area for the ALAT was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.753-0.894, pimbalance (p>.05). Intra-observer agreement values for the C7-CSVL measurements by observers 1 and 2 were 0.79 and 0.91 (pimbalance in the coronal plane with a high level of intra-observer and interobserver agreement, which suggests that the ALAT is suitable for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Density characterization of radiochromic film through source axis distance (SAD) technique in linac with slab phantom for radiotherapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariani, Yousida; Haris, Bambang

    2017-05-01

    Characterization of radiochromic film density is accomplished through Source Axis Distance (SAD) technique in a slab phantom Linac with various depths and breadths of field. Type of the film used is gafchromic RTQA2. The dose of radiation exposure of the film may cause changes in the film density. This research aims to determine the relation between the density and the dose depth through the characteristic of curves to identify the depth of the dose and particular breadth of the field as a reference for the dose of radiotherapy patients. The result shows that the higher the dose is absorbed, the darker the film will be, yet the lower the density is obtained. The dose depth is determined by measuring the amount of dose received at various depths and breadths of field using film that is placed on the slab phantom with 6 MV linac radiation and dose of 300 cGy. The variation of the depth at 1.5 cm; 4 cm; 6 cm; 8 cm; 10 cm, the field size at 4 × 4 cm2, and the dose depth at 359.7 cGy; 315.3 cGy; 281.4 cGy; 241.2 cGy; 220.5 cGy were settled. The field size 6 × 6 cm2 takes the dose depth 354.6 cGy; 314.1 cGy; 282.6 cGy; 244.5 cGy; 224.7 cGy. The field size 8 × 8 cm2 takes the dose depth 351.6 cGy; 313 cGy; 283.8 cGy; 247.2 cGy; 228 cGy. The field size 10 × 10 cm2 takes the dose depth 348.9 cGy; 342.6 cGy; 248.4 cGy; 249.6 cGy; 231 cGy.

  18. Density characterization of radiochromic film through source axis distance (SAD) technique in linac with slab phantom for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariani, Yousida; Haris, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of radiochromic film density is accomplished through Source Axis Distance (SAD) technique in a slab phantom Linac with various depths and breadths of field. Type of the film used is gafchromic RTQA2. The dose of radiation exposure of the film may cause changes in the film density. This research aims to determine the relation between the density and the dose depth through the characteristic of curves to identify the depth of the dose and particular breadth of the field as a reference for the dose of radiotherapy patients. The result shows that the higher the dose is absorbed, the darker the film will be, yet the lower the density is obtained. The dose depth is determined by measuring the amount of dose received at various depths and breadths of field using film that is placed on the slab phantom with 6 MV linac radiation and dose of 300 cGy. The variation of the depth at 1.5 cm; 4 cm; 6 cm; 8 cm; 10 cm, the field size at 4 × 4 cm 2 , and the dose depth at 359.7 cGy; 315.3 cGy; 281.4 cGy; 241.2 cGy; 220.5 cGy were settled. The field size 6 × 6 cm 2 takes the dose depth 354.6 cGy; 314.1 cGy; 282.6 cGy; 244.5 cGy; 224.7 cGy. The field size 8 × 8 cm 2 takes the dose depth 351.6 cGy; 313 cGy; 283.8 cGy; 247.2 cGy; 228 cGy. The field size 10 × 10 cm 2 takes the dose depth 348.9 cGy; 342.6 cGy; 248.4 cGy; 249.6 cGy; 231 cGy. (paper)

  19. ENHANCING THE LISTENING MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT OF THE ELEVENTH GRADERS BY USING DRAMA MOVIES VIEWING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suramto Suramto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether or not there was a significant differencein students’ listening motivation and achievement after they were taught by dramamovies viewing technique. The objects of the study were 60 eleventh graders. A quasiexperimental design was used in this study.Data were collected by using motivationquestionnaire and listening achievement tests. The results showed that the students whowere treated by drama movies viewing technique achieved higher mean score inlistening motivation (80.57 and listening achievement (81.46. Drama movies viewingtechnique also gave contribution in listening motivation (31.9% and listeningachievement (61.8%.Keywords: drama movies viewing techniques, listening motivation, and listeningAchievement.

  20. APPLICABILITY OF CONSOLIDATED TECHNIQUES IN THE VIEW OF ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations are more and more interested in groups of companies. In some cases, these regulations require for preparing the consolidated financial statements. This is the task of the parent company who keeps the consolidated accounts. To accomplish its goals, the consolidated accounting uses a couple of, so-called, consolidation techniques. These are applied in the case of groups of companies with a complex structure. Their goal is to elaborate the consolidated financial statements using a set of methods and empirical skills. In this article we synthetize and apply the consolidation techniques in the view of Romanian accounting regulations. The Romanian practice has revealed, especially, two techniques: one based on direct consolidation and another one based on multiple levels (phased consolidation. Therefore, this work regards only the technical side of consolidated accounting, accounting records being evaded. Furthermore, we focus only on the preparation of the consolidated balance sheet in the case of some hypothetical groups of companies.

  1. Development of a volumetric projection technique for the digital evaluation of field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Stephen; Cook, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Current regulations for field of view requirements in road vehicles are defined by 2D areas projected on the ground plane. This paper discusses the development of a new software-based volumetric field of view projection tool and its implementation within an existing digital human modelling system. In addition, the exploitation of this new tool is highlighted through its use in a UK Department for Transport funded research project exploring the current concerns with driver vision. Focusing specifically on rearwards visibility in small and medium passenger vehicles, the volumetric approach is shown to provide a number of distinct advantages. The ability to explore multiple projections of both direct vision (through windows) and indirect vision (through mirrors) provides a greater understanding of the field of view environment afforded to the driver whilst still maintaining compatibility with the 2D projections of the regulatory standards. Field of view requirements for drivers of road vehicles are defined by simplified 2D areas projected onto the ground plane. However, driver vision is a complex 3D problem. This paper presents the development of a new software-based 3D volumetric projection technique and its implementation in the evaluation of driver vision in small- and medium-sized passenger vehicles.

  2. Simplified zygomatic arch radiographic technique to overcome the drawback of jug handle view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddana Gouda Siddana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The imaging of the zygomatic arch is very important in the diagnosis and management of zygomatic arch fractures. It is accomplished by jug handle radiography (a variation of the submentovertex view and sometimes with modifications like the tangential or tea cup projection. For these techniques, the patient has to be positioned in a way which makes it non-applicable in cases having cervical injuries or suspected cervical injuries. Aims and Objectives: To devise a new approach with which the image of the zygomatic arch can be obtained with normal head position, in either sitting or supine position, using a dental X-ray machine and an occlusal film, which can even be used in patients with cervical injuries or suspected cervical injuries, without any complications. Materials and Methods: The present approach requires a dental X-ray machine and an occlusal X-ray film thereby eliminating the need for additional equipment like a general X-ray machine and extraoral film cassette. This approach can be carried out in a conventional dental setup to rule out zygomatic arch fractures. Conclusion: This technique can be applied in patients having cervical injuries or suspected cervical injuries, thus overcoming the drawback of the jug handle view, and is easy to master. This technique can be used in a conventional dental setup and holds good with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable principle of radiation protection and safety.

  3. Spectral ballistic imaging: a novel technique for viewing through turbid or obstructing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'el; Sternklar, Shmuel

    2003-08-01

    We propose a new method for viewing through turbid or obstructing media. The medium is illuminated with a modulated cw laser and the amplitude and phase of the transmitted (or reflected) signal is measured. This process takes place for a set of wavelengths in a certain wide band. In this way we acquire the Fourier transform of the temporal output. With this information we can reconstruct the temporal shape of the transmitted signal by computing the inverse transform. The proposed method benefits from the advantages of the first-light technique: high resolution, simple algorithms, insensitivity to boundary condition, etc., without suffering from its main deficiencies: complex and expensive equipment.

  4. COMPARISON OF TWO VARIANTS OF A KATA TECHNIQUE (UNSU: THE NEUROMECHANICAL POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Felici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize from a neuromechanical point of view a jump performed within the sequence of Kata Unsu in International top level karateka. A modified jumping technique was proposed to improve the already acquired technique. The neuromechanical evaluation, paralleled by a refereeing judgment, was then used to compare modified and classic technique to test if the modification could lead to a better performance capacity, e.g. a higher score during an official competition. To this purpose, four high ranked karateka were recruited and instructed to perform the two jumps. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded in a bipolar mode from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemious muscles of both lower limbs. Mechanical data were collected by means of a stereophotogrammetric system and force platforms. Performance was associated to parameters characterizing the initial conditions of the aerial phase and to the CoM maximal height. The most critical elements having a negative influence on the arbitral evaluation were associated to quantitative error indicators. 3D reconstruction of the movement and videos were used to obtain the referee scores. The Unsu jump was divided into five phases (preparation, take off, ascending flight, descending flight, and landing and the critical elements were highlighted. When comparing the techniques, no difference was found in the pattern of sEMG activation of the throwing leg muscles, while the push leg showed an earlier activation of RF and GA muscles at the beginning of the modified technique. The only significant improvement associated with the modified technique was evidenced at the beginning of the aerial phase, while there was no significant improvement of the referee score. Nevertheless, the proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a

  5. Radical prostatectomy: evolution of surgical technique from the laparoscopic point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cathelineau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To review the literature and present a current picture of the evolution in radical prostatectomy from the laparoscopic point of view. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive Medline literature search. Articles obtained regarding laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP and our experience at Institut Montsouris were used for reassessing anatomical and technical issues in radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: LRP nuances were reassessed by surgical teams in order to verify possible weaknesses in their performance. Our basic approach was to carefully study the anatomy and pioneer open surgery descriptions in order to standardized and master a technique. The learning curve is presented in terms of an objective evaluation of outcomes for cancer control and functional results. In terms of technique-outcomes, there are several key elements in radical prostatectomy, such as dorsal vein control-apex exposure and nerve sparing with particular implications in oncological and functional results. Major variations among the surgical teams' performance and follow-up prevented objective comparisons in radical prostatectomy. The remarkable evolution of LRP needs to be supported by comprehensive results. CONCLUSIONS: Radical prostatectomy is a complex surgical operation with difficult objectives. Surgical technique should be standardized in order to allow an adequate and reliable performance in all settings, keeping in mind that cancer control remains the primary objective. Reassessing anatomy and a return to basics in surgical technique is the means to improve outcomes and overcome the difficult task of the learning curve, especially in minimally access urological surgery.

  6. LabVIEW interface with Tango control system for a multi-technique X-ray spectrometry IAEA beamline end-station at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, P.M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bogovac, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sghaier, H. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Institut Superieur d’Informatique et de Mathematiques de Monastir (ISIMM), Departement de technologie, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Leani, J.J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); IFEG – CONICET, Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Czyzycki, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Osan, J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Environmental Physics Department, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kaiser, R.B. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); and others

    2016-10-11

    A new synchrotron beamline end-station for multipurpose X-ray spectrometry applications has been recently commissioned and it is currently accessible by end-users at the XRF beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. The end-station consists of an ultra-high vacuum chamber that includes as main instrument a seven-axis motorized manipulator for sample and detectors positioning, different kinds of X-ray detectors and optical cameras. The beamline end-station allows performing measurements in different X-ray spectrometry techniques such as Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (µXRF), Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF), Grazing Incidence/Exit X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (GI-XRF/GE-XRF), X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). A LabVIEW Graphical User Interface (GUI) bound with Tango control system consisted of many custom made software modules is utilized as a user-friendly tool for control of the entire end-station hardware components. The present work describes this advanced Tango and LabVIEW software platform that utilizes in an optimal synergistic manner the merits and functionality of these well-established programming and equipment control tools. - Highlights: • A new methodology for control of a synchrotron beamline end-station is shown. • The new control system comprises a novel binding of Tango control system with LabVIEW interface. • The reliability of the control system is demonstrated by examples of analytical applications.

  7. A technique of taking samples from inside the pressure tube along the axis of the fuel channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ageing process through its complex mechanisms affects in time more or less the component parts, the systems and the structures of the nuclear power plant. For CANDU type nuclear power plant the main component part in operation is the pressure tube, made from Zr - 2,5% Nb alloy, used in extreme hard operation conditions (static and dynamic loading from high pressure and temperature and high neutron flux). The pressure tube endures, in time, changing of the material and of the geometry. Additionally, the excessive hydrogen uptake initiates the Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) mechanism on the pressure tubes. For checking the evolution of the hydride / deuteration phenomena in the material of the pressure tube and especially to establish the real lifetime as compared to design lifetime it is useful to initiate, develop and apply a technology and a complex equipment for taking samples directly from inside the pressure tube, this enabling the determination of the hydrogen content. In the paper are showed briefly: - the evolution in time of the techniques for axial taking of the samples from inside of the pressure tube used in the CANDU 6 NPP; - the reasons that determined us to develop one of these technologies; - the technological facilities needed to apply it. (author)

  8. A technique of taking samples from inside the pressure tube along the axis of the fuel channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ageing process through its complex mechanisms affects in time more or less the component parts, the systems and the structures of the nuclear power plant. For CANDU type nuclear power plant the main component part in operation is the pressure tube, made from Zr - 2,5% Nb alloy, used in extreme hard operation conditions (static and dynamic loading from high pressure and temperature and high neutron flux). The pressure tube endures, in time, changing of the material and of the geometry. Additionally, the excessive hydrogen uptake initiates the Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) mechanism on the pressure tubes. For checking the evolution of the hydride/deuteration phenomena in the material of the pressure tube and especially to establish the real lifetime as compared to design lifetime it is useful to initiate, develop and apply a technology and a complex equipment for taking samples directly from inside the pressure tube, this enabling the determination of the hydrogen content. In the paper are showed briefly: - the evolution in time of the techniques for axial taking of the samples from inside of the pressure tube used in the CANDU 6 NPP; - the reasons that determined us to develop one of these technologies; - the technological facilities needed to apply it. (author)

  9. Assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by nuclear medicine techniques; Nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur Abklaerung endokrinologischer Erkrankungen der Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Achse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Jackenhoevel, F.; Krone, W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik II fuer Innere Medizin

    2002-04-01

    The following article reviews nuclear medicine techniques which can be used for assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For planar and SPECT imaging somatostatin-receptor- and dopamine-D2-receptor-scintigraphy are the most widely distributed techniques. These nuclear medicine techniques may be indicated in selected cases to answer differential diagnostic problems. They can be helpful to search for presence and localization of receptor positive tissue. Furthermore they can detect metastasis in the rare cases of a pituitary carcinoma. Scintigraphy with Gallium-67 is suitable for further diagnostic evaluation in suspected hypophysitis. Other SPECT radiopharmaca do not have relevant clinical significance. F-18-FDG as PET radiopharmacon is not ideal because obvious pituitary adenomas could not be visualized. Other PET radiopharmaca including C-11-methionine, C-11-tyrosine, F-18-fluoroethylspiperone, C-11-methylspiperone, and C-11-raclopride are available in specialized centers only. Overall indications for nuclear medicine in studies for the assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are rare. Original studies often report only about a small number of patients. According to the authors' opinion the relevance of nuclear medicine in studies of clinically important endocrinologic fields, e. g. localization of small ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, tumor localization in ectopic ACTH syndrome, localization of recurrent pituitary tissue, assessment of small incidentalomas, can not be definitely given yet. (orig.) [German] Diese Uebersichtsarbeit fasst die nuklearmedizinischen Untersuchungsverfahren zur Abklaerung endokrinologischer Erkrankungen der Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Achse zusammen. Bei den planaren und SPECT-Unter suchungen sind Somatostatin-Rezeptor- und Dopamin-D2-Rezeptor-Szintigraphie die verbreitetsten Untersuchungstechniken. Im Einzelfall sind sie zur Differenzialdiagnostik, zum Nachweis und zur

  10. AN IMAGE-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION USING MULTI-VIEW UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the development of the urban areas, the automatic reconstruction of the buildings, as an important objects of the city complex structures, became a challenging topic in computer vision and photogrammetric researches. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs images is examined to provide a 3D model of complex building façades using an efficient image-based modelling workflow. The main steps of this work include: pose estimation, point cloud generation, and 3D modelling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on UAV images and a dense point cloud is generated. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using Delaunay 2.5D triangulation and refined to obtain an accurate model of building. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough details of building based on visual assessment.

  11. Evaluation of localization errors for craniospinal axis irradiation delivery using volume modulated arc therapy and proposal of a technique to minimize such errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Pamela; Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Esquivel, Carlos; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To dosimetrically evaluate the effects of improper patient positioning in the junction area of a VMAT cranio-spinal axis irradiation technique consisting of one superior and one inferior arc and propose a solution to minimize these patient setup errors. Methods: Five (n = 5) cranio-spinal axis irradiation patients were planned with 2 arcs: one superior and one inferior. In order to mimic patient setup errors, the plans were recalculated with the inferior isocenter shifted by: 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm superiorly, and 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm inferiorly. The plans were then compared with the corresponding original, non-shifted arc plans on the grounds of target metrics such as conformity number and homogeneity index, as well as several normal tissue dose descriptors. “Gradient-optimized” plans were then created for each patient in an effort to reduce dose discrepancies due to setup errors. Results: Percent differences were calculated in order to compare each of the eight shifted plans with the original non-shifted arc plan, which corresponds to the ideal patient setup. The conformity number was on average lower by 0.9%, 2.7%, 5.8%, and 9.1% for the 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm inferiorly-shifted plans and 0.4%, 0.8%, 2.8%, and 6.0% for the respective superiorly-shifted plans. The homogeneity indices were, averaged among the five patients and they indicated less homogeneous dose distributions by 0.03%, 0.3%, 1.0%, and 2.8% for the inferior shifts and 0.2%, 1.2%, 6.3%, and 15.3% for the superior shifts. Overall, the mean doses to the organs at risk deviate by less than 2% for the 1, 2, and 5 mm shifted plans. The 10 mm shifted plans, however, showed average percent differences, over all studied organs, from the original plan of up to 5.6%. Using “gradient-optimized” plans, the average dose differences were reduced by 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.2%, and 2.1% for 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm shifts, respectively compared to the originally optimized plans, and the maximum dose differences were

  12. Left ventricular aneurysm in short axis: a comparison of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and thallium-201 SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Short axis magnetic resonance images of a left ventricular aneurysm were compared to similar views obtained by echocardiography and by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography. Images of the dyskinetic left ventricular apex and the contractile left ventricular base were analyzed and compared. Unlike the previously reported orthogonal plane magnetic resonance images, short axis imaging provided representative and quantitative information in views comparable to those obtained by standard noninvasive imaging techniques. These data indicate that short axis magnetic resonance imaging is capable of identifying and sizing the aneurysmal and the residual segments of the left ventricle. The findings may be of prognostic value in patients with left ventricular aneurysm

  13. A novel 3D volumetric voxel registration technique for volume-view-guided image registration of multiple imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guang; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Capala, Jacek; Arora, Barbara C.; Coleman, C. Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide more clinically useful image registration with improved accuracy and reduced time, a novel technique of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric voxel registration of multimodality images is developed. Methods and Materials: This technique can register up to four concurrent images from multimodalities with volume view guidance. Various visualization effects can be applied, facilitating global and internal voxel registration. Fourteen computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) image sets and two computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) image sets are used. For comparison, an automatic registration technique using maximization of mutual information (MMI) and a three-orthogonal-planar (3P) registration technique are used. Results: Visually sensitive registration criteria for CT/MR and CT/PET have been established, including the homogeneity of color distribution. Based on the registration results of 14 CT/MR images, the 3D voxel technique is in excellent agreement with the automatic MMI technique and is indicatory of a global positioning error (defined as the means and standard deviations of the error distribution) using the 3P pixel technique: 1.8 deg ± 1.2 deg in rotation and 2.0 ± 1.3 (voxel unit) in translation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such positioning error has been addressed. Conclusion: This novel 3D voxel technique establishes volume-view-guided image registration of up to four modalities. It improves registration accuracy with reduced time, compared with the 3P pixel technique. This article suggests that any interactive and automatic registration should be safeguarded using the 3D voxel technique

  14. Gravity Reduction View: A Radiographic Technique for the Evaluation and Management of Weber B Fibula Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Ehrlichman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While various radiographic parameters and application of manual/gravity stress have been proposed to elucidate instability for Weber B fibula fractures, the prognostic capability of these modalities remains unclear. Determination of anatomic positioning of the mortise is paramount. We propose a novel view, the Gravity Reduction View (GRV, which helps elucidate non-anatomic positioning and reducibility of the mortise.Methods: The patient is positioned lateral decubitus with the injured leg elevated on a holder with the fibula directed superiorly. The x-ray cassette is placed posterior to the heel, with the beam angled at 15˚ of internal rotation to obtain a mortise view. Our proposed treatment algorithm is based upon the measurement of the medial clear space (MCS on the GRV versus the static mortise view (and in comparison to the superior clear space (SCS and is based on reducibility of the MCS. A retrospective review of patients evaluated utilizing the GRV was performed.Results: 26 patients with Weber B fibula fractures were managed according to this treatment algorithm. Mean age was 50.57 years old (range: range:18-81, SD=19. 17 patients underwent operative treatment and 9 patients were initially treated nonoperatively. 2 patients demonstrated late displacement and were treated surgically. Using this algorithm, at a mean follow-up of 26 weeks, all patients had a final MCS that was less than the SCS (final mean MCS 2.86 mm vs. mean SCS of 3.32 indicating effectiveness of the treatment algorithm.Conclusion: The GRV is a novel radiographic view in which deltoid competency, reducibility and initial positioning of the mortise are assessed by comparing a static mortise view with the appearance of the mortise on the GRV. We have developed a treatment algorithm based on the GRV and have found it to be useful in guiding treatment and successful at achieving anatomic mortise alignment.

  15. The Impact of Silent and Freeze-Frame Viewing Techniques of Video Materials on the Intermediate EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shahani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern technologies has been widely prevalent among language learners, and video, in particular, as a valuable learning tool provides learners with comprehensible input. The present study investigated the effect of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ listening comprehension. To this end, 45 intermediate EFL learners participated in this quasi-experimental study. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental groups (using two types of viewing techniques and the control group. While the difference between the two experimental groups was not statistically significant, the experimental groups outperformed the control group significantly.

  16. Agreement of Tracing and Direct Viewing Techniques for Cervical Vertebral Maturation Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatworakul, Opas; Manosudprasit, Montian; Pisek, Poonsak; Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate agreement among three methods for cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) assessment, comprising direct viewing, tracing only, and tracing with digitized points. Two examiners received training and tests of reliability with each CVM method before evaluation of agreement among methods. The subjects were 96 female-cleft lateral cephalometric radiographs (films of eight subjects for each age ranged from seven to 18 years). The examiners interpreted CVM stages of the subjects with four-week interval between uses of each method. The range of weighted kappa values for paired comparisons among the three methods were: 0.96-0.98 for direct viewing and tracing only comparison; 0.93-0.94 for direct viewing and tracing with digitized points comparison; and 0.96-0.97 for tracing only and tracing with digitized points comparison. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value among the three methods was 0.95. These results indicated very good agreement among methods. Use of direct viewing is suitable for CVM assessment without spending more time for tracing. However, the three methods might be used interchangeably.

  17. Boxes of Poison: Baroque Technique as Antidote to Simple Views of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Rich and complex meaning making experiences, such as those associated with virtual play, sit uneasily with the view of literacy reflected in and sustained by current systems of accountability in education. This article develops a baroque perspective as a way of destabilizing the "regime of truth" associated with simple models of…

  18. In-flight interband calibration on AVHRR data by a cloud-viewing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Wald , Lucien

    1997-01-01

    ISBN 90-5410-933-5; International audience; A significant degradation in the responsivity of the AVHRR radiometers aboard the NOAA satellite series, affects the index vegetation (NDVI), which is an important source of information for monitoring vegetation conditions on regional and global scales. Many studies have been carried out which use the viewing Earth calibration approach in order to provide accurate calibration correction coefficients for the computation of the vegetation index using ...

  19. GPU-accelerated few-view CT reconstruction using the OSC and TV techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matenine, Dmitri [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. de Physique; Hissoiny, Sami [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. de Genie Informatique et Genie Logiciel; Despres, Philippe [Centre Hospitalier Univ. de Quebec, QC (Canada). Dept. de Radio-Oncologie

    2011-07-01

    The present work proposes a promising iterative reconstruction technique designed specifically for X-ray transmission computed tomography (CT). The main objective is to reduce diagnostic radiation dose through the reduction of the number of CT projections, while preserving image quality. The second objective is to provide a fast implementation compatible with clinical activities. The proposed tomographic reconstruction technique is a combination of the Ordered Subsets Convex (OSC) algorithm and the Total Variation minimization (TV) regularization technique. The results in terms of image quality and computational speed are discussed. Using this technique, it was possible to obtain reconstructed slices of relatively good quality with as few as 100 projections, leading to potential dose reduction factors of up to an order of magnitude depending on the application. The algorithm was implemented on a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) and yielded reconstruction times of approximately 185 ms per slice. (orig.)

  20. A Roadmap of Risk Diagnostic Methods: Developing an Integrated View of Risk Identification and Analysis Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Ray; Ambrose, Kate; Bentrem, Laura

    2004-01-01

    ...), which is envisioned to be a comprehensive reference tool for risk identification and analysis (RI AND A) techniques. Program Managers (PMs) responsible for developing or acquiring software-intensive systems typically identify risks in different ways...

  1. Parental Presence/Absence in the Dental Operatory as a Behavior Management Technique: A Review and Modified View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Hicham; Al-Shahrani, Asma; Al-Ghutaimel, Hayat; Al-Otaibi, Adel; Al-Kahtani, Salim

    2018-02-01

    Parental presence/absence in the dental operatory (also called: Parent-in-parent-out technique) is an extremely controversial aspect of the nonpharmacological BMTs. Historically, dentists used to exclude parents from dental operatory to avoid their interference with the dentist's aptitude to build a rapport and relationship with the child, hence increasing the child management problems by disrupting treatment and making the dentist unfocused and uncomfortable. The purpose of this article is to review and emphasize on the importance of parental presence/absence in the dental operatory, especially in a certain age group, as a behavior management technique (BMT) in pediatric dentistry, and to present a modified view of this technique. This article reviews the current literature concerning behavior management in pediatric dentistry. It includes a medline database search and review of the comprehensive textbooks in pediatric dentistry. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians. Parent-in-parent-out technique in dental operatory is advocated to gain emotional support and avoid the effect of traumatic separation, especially in younger children or special health-care needs patients. The parent-in-parent-out technique in dental operatory is underused, or misused. This article clarifies the proper use of this technique along with a minor modification to it to make it more effective on young apprehensive dental patients.

  2. A View into Successful Teaching Techniques: Teaching Malay Language as a Foreign Language in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Sadik, Azlina Md

    2016-01-01

    This paper will highlight successful teaching techniques used in class in teaching the Malay Language 1 course in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The course is to equip foreign students for their studies and also as means of basic communication with the locals in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the emphasis in Malay language teaching are focused to…

  3. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  4. THEMATIC PROGRESSION PATTERN : A TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL VIEWED FROM WRITING APPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Nurdianingsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of conducting this research was to find out : (1 whether or not the use of thematic progression pattern is more effective than direct instruction in teaching writing to the second semester students at English Education Department; (2 the students who have a low writing apprehension have better writing skill than those who have a high writng apprehension; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching technique and writing apprehension in teaching writing skill. This reasearch was an experimental research design. The population of this research was the second semester students at English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Meanwhile the sample of this research was selected by using cluster random sampling. The instruments of data collection were witing test and writing apprehension questionnaire. The findings of this study are: (1 thematic progression pattern is more effective than direct instruction in teaching writing; (2 the students who have low writing apprehension have better writing skill than those who have high writing apprehension; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching technique and writing apprehension in teaching writing skill. It can be summarized that thematic progression pattern is an effective technique in teaching writing skill at the second semester students of English Education Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The effectiveness of the technique is affected by writing apprehension.

  5. A new technique for quantifying symmetry and opening angles in quartz c-axis pole figures: Implications for interpreting the kinematic and thermal properties of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, N. J. R.; Weinberg, R. F.; Wilson, C. J. L.; Law, R. D.

    2018-07-01

    Variations in flow kinematics influence the type of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in plastically deformed quartz, yet we currently lack a robust means of quantifying the diagnostic symmetries that develop in the c-axis (0001) pole figure. In this contribution, we demonstrate how the symmetry of common c-axis topologies may be quantified by analysing the intensity distribution across a line transect of the pole figure margin. A symmetry value (S) measures the relative difference in intensities between marginal girdle maxima in the pole figure, and thus the degree to which the pole figure defines orthorhombic or monoclinic end member symmetries. This provides a semi-quantitative depiction of whether the rocks underwent coaxial or non-coaxial flow, respectively, and may subsequently be used to quantify other topological properties, such as the opening angle of girdle maxima. The open source Matlab® toolbox MTEX is used to quantify pole figure symmetries in quartzite samples from the Main Central Thrust (NW Himalaya) and the Moine Thrust (NW Scotland).

  6. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  7. Combined short- and long-axis ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to conventional techniques: A cross-over randomized controlled manikin trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeshita

    Full Text Available Visualizing the needle tip using the short-axis (SA ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization approach can be challenging. It has been suggested to start the process with the SA approach and then switch to the long-axis (LA; however, to our knowledge, this combination has not been evaluated. We compared the combined short- and long-axis (SLA approach with the SA approach in a manikin study.We performed a prospective randomized controlled cross-over study in an urban emergency department and intensive care unit. Resident physicians in post-graduate years 1-2 performed a simulated ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture using the SA and SLA approaches on manikins. Twenty resident physicians were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1 one group performed punctures using the SA approach followed by SLA; and (2 the other performed the same procedures in the opposite order. We compared the success rate and procedure duration for the two approaches. Procedural success was defined as insertion of the guide-wire into the vein while visualizing the needle tip at the time of anterior wall puncture, without penetrating the posterior wall.Six resident physicians (30% performed both approaches successfully, while 12 (60% performed the SLA approach, but not the SA, successfully. Those who performed the SA approach successfully also succeeded with the SLA approach. Two resident physicians (10% failed to perform both approaches. The SLA approach had a significantly higher success rate than the SA approach (P < 0.001. The median (interquartile range procedure duration was 59.5 [46.0-88.5] seconds and 45.0 [37.5-84.0] seconds for the SLA and SA approaches, respectively. The difference of the duration between the two procedures was 15.5 [0-28.5] seconds. There was no significant difference in duration between the two approaches (P = 0.12.Using the SLA approach significantly improved the success rate of internal jugular vein puncture performed by

  8. Characterization of reactively sputtered c-axis aligned nanocrystalline InGaZnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, David M.; Zhu, Bin; Ast, Dieter G.; Thompson, Michael O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Levin, Barnaby D. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Greene, Raymond G. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Crystallinity and texturing of RF sputtered c-axis aligned crystal InGaZnO{sub 4} (CAAC IGZO) thin films were quantified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Above 190 °C, nanocrystalline films with an X-ray peak at 2θ = 30° (009 planes) developed with increasing c-axis normal texturing up to 310 °C. Under optimal conditions (310 °C, 10% O{sub 2}), films exhibited a c-axis texture full-width half-maximum of 20°. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed these results, showing alignment variation of ±9° over a 15 × 15 nm field of view and indicating formation of much larger aligned domains than previously reported. At higher deposition temperatures, c-axis alignment was gradually lost as polycrystalline films developed.

  9. Accuracy required and achievable in radiotherapy dosimetry: have modern technology and techniques changed our views?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, David

    2013-06-01

    In this review of the accuracy required and achievable in radiotherapy dosimetry, older approaches and evidence-based estimates for 3DCRT have been reprised, summarising and drawing together the author's earlier evaluations where still relevant. Available evidence for IMRT uncertainties has been reviewed, selecting information from tolerances, QA, verification measurements, in vivo dosimetry and dose delivery audits, to consider whether achievable uncertainties increase or decrease for current advanced treatments and practice. Overall there is some evidence that they tend to increase, but that similar levels should be achievable. Thus it is concluded that those earlier estimates of achievable dosimetric accuracy are still applicable, despite the changes and advances in technology and techniques. The one exception is where there is significant lung involvement, where it is likely that uncertainties have now improved due to widespread use of more accurate heterogeneity models. Geometric uncertainties have improved with the wide availability of IGRT.

  10. The Rorschach: projective technique or psychometric test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, E; Reznikoff, M; Moreland, K L

    1995-04-01

    Various approaches to the Rorschach Technique are described in terms of the idiographic-nomothetic axis and the perceptual-content axis. It is suggested that it is most productive to view the Rorschach as a projective tool, with perceptual scoring a secondary factor. Current efforts at objectification of the Rorschach are not seen as useful as efforts to enhance its projective qualities. Some possible ways are discussed in which the projective value of the instrument can be maximized.

  11. Theoretical tool movement required to diamond turn an off-axis paraboloid on axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Current techniques for manufacturing off-axis paraboloids are both expensive and insufficiently accurate. An alternative method, turning the workpiece about its axis on a diamond-turning machine, is presented, and the equations describing the necessary tool movement are derived. A discussion of a particular case suggests that the proposed technique is feasible

  12. Multi-view 3D scene reconstruction using ant colony optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysostomou, Dimitrios; Gasteratos, Antonios; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Sirakoulis, Georgios C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method performing high-quality 3D object reconstruction of complex shapes derived from multiple, calibrated photographs of the same scene. The novelty of this research is found in two basic elements, namely: (i) a novel voxel dissimilarity measure, which accommodates the elimination of the lighting variations of the models and (ii) the use of an ant colony approach for further refinement of the final 3D models. The proposed reconstruction procedure employs a volumetric method based on a novel projection test for the production of a visual hull. While the presented algorithm shares certain aspects with the space carving algorithm, it is, nevertheless, first enhanced with the lightness compensating image comparison method, and then refined using ant colony optimization. The algorithm is fast, computationally simple and results in accurate representations of the input scenes. In addition, compared to previous publications, the particular nature of the proposed algorithm allows accurate 3D volumetric measurements under demanding lighting environmental conditions, due to the fact that it can cope with uneven light scenes, resulting from the characteristics of the voxel dissimilarity measure applied. Besides, the intelligent behavior of the ant colony framework provides the opportunity to formulate the process as a combinatorial optimization problem, which can then be solved by means of a colony of cooperating artificial ants, resulting in very promising results. The method is validated with several real datasets, along with qualitative comparisons with other state-of-the-art 3D reconstruction techniques, following the Middlebury benchmark. (paper)

  13. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  14. Users' behavior in ExsiteView. Internet-based multi-agent technique for building management; Gebruikersgedrag centraal bij ExsiteView. Internetgebaseerde multi-agenttechniek voor gebouwbeheer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, W.; Van der Velden, J.A.P.; Zeiler, W. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    Within the ExsiteView project attention is paid to internet-based multi-agent techniques for an optimal control of climate installations in the built environment. It is expected that by means of this technique energy consumption in the built environment can be reduced, focusing on the behavior of the users of the building and its facilities. The aim of the ExsiteView project is to realize innovative forms of building management systems and remote control. Sub-projects are InsiteView, EcoView and Smart. [Dutch] Binnen het ExsiteView-project wordt specifiek onderzoek verricht naar internetgebaseerde multi-agenttechniek voor optimale besturing tijdens de beheerfase van de klimaatinstallaties in de gebouwde omgeving. De verwachting is dat met de nieuwe techniek het gebruik van energie in de gebouwde omgeving vooral gedurende de gebruiksfase sterk beperkt kan blijven. Kenmerkend hierbij is de aandacht voor het gedrag van de gebruiker. Het doel van het ExsiteView project is innovatieve vormen van gebouwbeheer en besturing op afstand te realiseren. Onderdelen van dit project zijn InsiteView, EcoView en Smart.

  15. Ultrasonographic extended-view technique for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Cesare; Battaglia, Bruno; Mancini, Fulvia; Paradisi, Roberto; Fabbri, Raffaella; Venturoli, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    To estimate whether, by using a new ultrasonographic technique (extended view; XTD view), young lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a more android fat distribution in comparison with normally menstruating women with ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and healthy control subjects, matched for both age and body mass index. Prospective observational study. University Hospital. Forty-nine lean women with PCOS, 42 eumenorrheic women with bilateral PCO and 40 healthy volunteers with regular ovulatory cycles. Fasting blood sampling, ultrasonographic and Doppler analyses and blood pressure monitoring. Medical examination, biochemical and hormonal parameters, ultrasonographic abdominal fat measurements, ultrasonographic evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and Doppler analysis of ophthalmic artery. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed to analyze glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels. The XTD ultrasonographic preperitoneal area was significantly larger in women with PCOS than in control subjects (p=0.011). The preperitoneal/subcutaneous ratio was significantly higher in women with PCOS (1.1±0.26) compared with women with PCO (0.84±0.13; p=0.05) and control women (0.67±0.13; pPCOS women (1.93±0.57) than in control subjects (1.84±0.38; p=0.041). Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher in women with PCOS than in those with PCO and in control subjects. Women with PCOS have an android fat pattern correlated with an age-dependent increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. DARHT Axis-I Diode Simulations II: Geometrical Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a venerable diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. Many of the largest hydrodynamic experiments study mockups of nuclear weapons, and are often called hydrotests for short. The dual-axis radiography for hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility uses two electron linear-induction accelerators (LIA) to produce the radiographic source spots for perpendicular views of a hydrotest. The first of these LIAs produces a single pulse, with a fixed {approx}60-ns pulsewidth. The second axis LIA produces as many as four pulses within 1.6-{micro}s, with variable pulsewidths and separation. There are a wide variety of hydrotest geometries, each with a unique radiographic requirement, so there is a need to adjust the radiographic dose for the best images. This can be accomplished on the second axis by simply adjusting the pulsewidths, but is more problematic on the first axis. Changing the beam energy or introducing radiation attenuation also changes the spectrum, which is undesirable. Moreover, using radiation attenuation introduces significant blur, increasing the effective spot size. The dose can also be adjusted by changing the beam kinetic energy. This is a very sensitive method, because the dose scales as the {approx}2.8 power of the energy, but it would require retuning the accelerator. This leaves manipulating the beam current as the best means for adjusting the dose, and one way to do this is to change the size of the cathode. This method has been proposed, and is being tested. This article describes simulations undertaken to develop scaling laws for use as design tools in changing the Axis-1 beam current by changing the cathode size.

  17. The Power of Traditional Design Techniques: The Effects of Viewing a Japanese Garden on Individuals With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Seiko; Gianfagia, Thomas J; Munafo, John P; Fujii, Eijiro; Shen, Xuting; Sun, Minkai; Shi, Bertram Emil; Liu, Congcong; Hamano, Hiroshi; Herrup, Karl

    2017-07-01

    This study is to examine how viewing a Japanese garden affects Japanese patients with dementia. In a previous study, authors explored the effect on individuals with Alzheimer's disease of viewing an indoor Japanese garden at a nursing home in the United States and reported that viewing the garden significantly reduced the heart rate, evoked short-term and long-term memories, and improved behavioral symptoms. However, it was unclear whether these effects were caused by the design of Japanese garden or unfamiliarity of the design to Caucasians. We constructed a Japanese garden on the rooftop of a hospital in Japan and assessed with a total of 25 subjects on the following categories: (1) eye movement, (2) heart rate, and (3) behavior under four different conditions: (a) open view of the site before construction of the Japanese garden (the control space), (b) open view of the Japanese garden, (c) view of the Japanese garden through closed door, and (d) view of Japanese garden through closed door with the chrysanthemum scent. Findings/Results: Viewers' eyes scanned larger area while viewing the Japanese garden, and viewing the Japanese garden significantly reduced heart rate and improved behavioral symptoms than the control space. We also found that the effect of viewing the same Japanese garden differed across three conditions: the view through an open door, a closed door, and a closed door with added scent.

  18. Use of Jigsaw Technique to Teach the Unit "Science within Time" in Secondary 7th Grade Social Sciences Course and Students' Views on This Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply the jigsaw technique in Social Sciences teaching and to unroll the effects of this technique on learning. The unit "Science within Time" in the secondary 7th grade Social Sciences text book was chosen for the research. It is aimed to compare the jigsaw technique with the traditional teaching method in…

  19. Development of a computerized method for identifying the posteroanterior and lateral views of chest radiographs by use of a template matching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Li Qiang; Ishida, Takayuki; Doi, Kunio

    2002-01-01

    In picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) or digital archiving systems, the information on the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral views for chest radiographs is often not recorded or is recorded incorrectly. However, it is necessary to identify the PA or lateral view correctly and automatically for quantitative analysis of chest images for computer-aided diagnosis. Our purpose in this study was to develop a computerized method for correctly identifying either PA or lateral views of chest radiographs. Our approach is to examine the similarity of a chest image with templates that represent the average chest images of the PA or lateral view for various types of patients. By use of a template matching technique with nine template images for patients of different size in two steps, correlation values were obtained for determining whether a chest image is either a PA or a lateral view. The templates for PA and lateral views were prepared from 447 PA and 200 lateral chest images. For a validation test, this scheme was applied to 1,000 test images consisting of 500 PA and 500 lateral chest radiographs, which are different from training cases. In the first step, 924 (92.4%) of the cases were correctly identified by comparison of the correlation values obtained with the three templates for medium-size patients. In the second step, the correlation values with the six templates for small and large patients were compared, and all of the remaining unidentifiable cases were identified correctly

  20. Exploded view diagrams of mathematical surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Karpenko, Olga A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a technique for visualizing complicated mathematical surfaces that is inspired by hand-designed topological illustrations. Our approach generates exploded views that expose the internal structure of such a surface by partitioning it into parallel slices, which are separated from each other along a single linear explosion axis. Our contributions include a set of simple, prescriptive design rules for choosing an explosion axis and placing cutting planes, as well as automatic algorithms for applying these rules. First we analyze the input shape to select the explosion axis based on the detected rotational and reflective symmetries of the input model. We then partition the shape into slices that are designed to help viewers better understand how the shape of the surface and its cross-sections vary along the explosion axis. Our algorithms work directly on triangle meshes, and do not depend on any specific parameterization of the surface. We generate exploded views for a variety of mathematical surfaces using our system. © 2006 IEEE.

  1. Patients' views of receiving lessons in the Alexander technique and an exercise prescription for managing back pain in the ATEAM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Dennison, Laura; Coker, Rebecca; Webley, Frances; Middleton, Karen; Barnett, Jane; Beattie, Angela; Evans, Maggie; Smith, Peter; Little, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Lessons in the Alexander Technique and exercise prescription proved effective for managing low back pain in primary care in a clinical trial. To understand trial participants' expectations and experiences of the Alexander Technique and exercise prescription. A questionnaire assessing attitudes to the intervention, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, was completed at baseline and 3-month follow-up by 183 people assigned to lessons in the Alexander Technique and 176 people assigned to exercise prescription. Semi-structured interviews to assess the beliefs contributing to attitudes to the intervention were carried out at baseline with14 people assigned to the lessons in the Alexander Technique and 16 to exercise prescription, and at follow-up with 15 members of the baseline sample. Questionnaire responses indicated that attitudes to both interventions were positive at baseline but became more positive at follow-up only in those assigned to lessons in the Alexander Technique. Thematic analysis of the interviews suggested that at follow-up many patients who had learned the Alexander Technique felt they could manage back pain better. Whereas many obstacles to exercising were reported, few barriers to learning the Alexander Technique were described, since it 'made sense', could be practiced while carrying out everyday activities or relaxing, and the teachers provided personal advice and support. Using the Alexander Technique was viewed as effective by most patients. Acceptability may have been superior to exercise because of a convincing rationale and social support and a better perceived fit with the patient's particular symptoms and lifestyle.

  2. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  3. Under-Sodium-Viewing as one technique for periodic inspections in sodium-cooled fast reactors-- possibilities and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.

    1979-07-01

    Periodic inspections are gaining increasingly technical importance for fast sodium cooled reactors. Among others the reactor tank and its internals have to be inspected, whereby licensing experts partly are requesting the standards of Light Water Reactors. This leads to difficulties in sodium cooled reactors because of the non-transparent coolant sodium and their compact structure. In order to avoid the complete dumping of the sodium, the under sodium viewing shall be applied besides other inspection methods. Since this is a new method, which is still in its development phase, this report presents and discusses the technical and physical basis and outlines possibilities and limits [de

  4. Oral to nasal tube exchange under fibroscopic view: a new technique for nasal intubation in a predicted difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Enric; Garcés, Antonio; Artés, David; Mabrock, Maged

    2008-07-01

    For a predicted difficult airway, oral intubation techniques are well established in pediatric anesthesia, but nasotracheal intubation remains a problem. There are many reports concerning this, but the risk of bleeding, added to the lack of cooperation make this procedure difficult and hazardous. We describe a modification of the nasal intubation technique in two stages. First an oral intubation and then exchanging the oral for a nasal tube, in the case of a 13-year-old boy affected by an advanced stage of cherubism. Oral intubation using a laryngeal mask technique has already been reported, but problems appear during the exchange procedure and even more when direct laryngoscopy is impossible. Fiberscopic control of the exchange, and the introduction of a Cook Exchange Catheter into the trachea through the oral tube before withdrawal, permits oxygenation of the patient and acts as a guide for oral tube reintroduction if required.

  5. Anterior fixation of the axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Fontes, Ricardo B V

    2010-09-01

    Although anterior fixation of the axis is not commonly performed, plate fixation of C2 is an important technique for treating select upper cervical traumatic injuries and is also useful in the surgical management of spondylosis. To report the technique and outcomes of C2 anterior plate fixation for a series of patients in which the majority presented with symptomatic degenerative spondylosis. Forty-six consecutive patients underwent single or multilevel fusions over a 7-year period; 30 of these had advanced degenerative disease manifested by myelopathy or deformity. Exposure was achieved with rostral extension of the standard anterior cervical exposure via careful soft tissue dissection, mobilization of the superior thyroid artery, and the use of a table-mounted retractor. It was not necessary to remove the submandibular gland, section the digastric muscle, or make additional skin incisions. Screws were placed an average of 4.6 mm (+/- 2.3 mm) from the inferior C2 endplate with a mean sagittal trajectory of 15.7 degrees (+/- 7.6 degrees). Short- and long-term procedure-related mortality was 4.4%, and perioperative morbidity was 8.9%. Patients remained intubated an average of 2.5 days following surgery. Dysphagia was initially reported by 15.2% of patients but resolved by the 8th postoperative week in all patients. Arthrodesis was achieved in all patients available for long-term follow-up. Multilevel fusions were not associated with longer hospitalization or morbidity. Anterior plate fixation of the axis for degenerative disease can be accomplished with acceptable morbidity employing an extension of the standard anterolateral route.

  6. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  8. The factors forming investor’s failure: Is financial literacy a matter? Viewing test by cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amari Mouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply cognitive map-related techniques to extract causal knowledge from a specific problem domain. This paper proposes to draw an average cognitive map in order to identify the failure factors of the Tunisian small investors. Our paper extends traditional and behavioral finance and previous research by proposing a new approach to building an average cognitive map for the explanation of small investors’ failure in the stock market.

  9. Dynamic View on Nanostructures: A Technique for Time Resolved Optical Luminescence Using Synchrotron Light Pulses at SRC, APS, and CLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heigl, F.; Jurgensen, A.; Zhou, X.-T.; Lam, S.; Murphy, M.; Ko, J.Y.P.; Sham, T.K.; Rosenberg, R.A.; Gordon, R.; Brewe, D.; Regier, T.; Armelao, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental technique using the time structure of synchrotron radiation to study time resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence. In particular we are taking advantage of the bunched distribution of electrons in a synchrotron storage ring, giving short x-ray pulses (10-10 2 picoseconds) which are separated by non-radiating gaps on the nano- to tens of nanosecond scale - sufficiently wide to study a broad range of optical decay channels observed in advanced nanostructured materials.

  10. Service design: a review of methods and techniques inthe point of view of service operations management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As in many developing countries, the service sector in Brazil is responsible for generating income and employment for a significant portion of the population. Due to this economic relevance, service organizations are faced with an increasingly demanding and competitive market. This demand greater innovation and business planning. Despite this, the process of service development remains a relatively unexplored subject in the literature. Several issues regarding the planning and management remain without clear ideas or propositions that guide their appropriate treatment. The result of this situation, the methods and techniques that help design the services are not properly disseminated. These are scattered through the literature of operations management services. Given this framework, the light of a review of the literature and concerning the elements that compose the service project according to the works of Machuca, Zamora-Gonzalez and Aguilar-Escobar (2007 and Edvardsson (1997, the present work points and examine the methods and techniques suggested by many authors and works on the area of Service Operations. It was found that the knowledge about the methods and techniques is diffuse. This knowledge is concentrated on the design process and determining the location of services.

  11. Tuning the DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-24

    Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a well-known diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories, and the Dual-Axis Radiography for Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos produces flash radiographs of large hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) make the bremsstrahlung radiographic source spots for orthogonal views of each test. The 2-kA, 20-MeV Axis-I LIA creates a single 60-ns radiography pulse. The 1.7-kA, 16.5-MeV Axis-II LIA creates up to four radiography pulses by kicking them out of a longer pulse that has a 1.6-{mu}s flattop. The Axis-II injector, LIA, kicker, and downstream transport (DST) to the bremsstrahlung converter are described. Adjusting the magnetic focusing and steering elements to optimize the electron-beam transport through an LIA is often called 'tuning.' As in all high-current LIAs, the focusing field is designed to be as close to that of the ideal continuous solenoid as physically possible. In ideal continuous solenoidal transport a smoothly varying beam size can easily be found for which radial forces balance, and the beam is said to be 'matched' to the focusing field. A 'mismatched' beam exhibits unwanted oscillations in size, which are a source of free energy that contributes to emittance growth. This is undesirable, because in the absence of beam-target effects, the radiographic spot size is proportional to the emittance. Tuning the Axis-II LIA is done in two steps. First, the solenoidal focusing elements are set to values designed to provide a matched beam with little or no envelope oscillations, and little or no beam-breakup (BBU) instability growth. Then, steering elements are adjusted to minimize the motion of the centroid of a well-centered beam at the LIA exit. This article only describes the design of the tune for the focusing solenoids. The DARHT Axis-II LIA was required to be re-tuned after installing an

  12. Shot H3837: Darht's First Dual-Axis Explosive Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Jacob; McNeil, Wendy Vogan; Harsh, James; Hull, Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Test H3837 was the first explosive shot performed in front of both flash x-ray axes at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility. Executed in November 2009, the shot was an explosively-driven metal flyer plate in a series of experiments designed to explore equation-of-state properties of shocked materials. Imaging the initial shock wave traveling through the flyer plate, DARHT Axis II captured the range of motion from the shock front emergence in the flyer to breakout at the free surface; the Axis I pulse provided a perpendicular perspective of the shot at a time coinciding with the third pulse of Axis II. Since the days of the Manhattan Project, penetrating radiography with multiple frames from different viewing angles has remained a high-profile goal at the Laboratory. H3837 is merely the beginning of a bright future for two-axis penetrating radiography.

  13. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: a historic view (1953-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Federico J

    2004-09-01

    The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953) was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biologia Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine), more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication.

  14. Scientific publications about DNA structure-function and PCR technique in Costa Rica: A historic view (1953-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J Albertazzi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of knowledge depends on the access to the information and its immediate use. Models are useful to explain specific phenomena. The scientific community accepts some models in Biology after a period of time, once it has evidence to support it. The model of the structure and function of the DNA proposed by Watson & Crick (1953 was not the exception, since a few years later the DNA model was finally accepted. In Costa Rica, DNA function was first mentioned in 1970, in the magazine Biología Tropical (Tropical Biology Magazine, more than 15 years after its first publication in a scientific journal. An opposite situation occurs with technical innovations. If the efficiency of a new scientific technique is proved in a compelling way, then the acceptance by the community comes swiftly. This was the case of the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The first PCR machine in Costa Rica arrived in 1991, only three years after its publication. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 417-421. Epub 2004 Dic 15.La diseminación del conocimiento depende de la disponibilidad de la información y aplicar dicha información para resolver una problema. Los modelos sirvan para explicar fenómenos determinados. En Biología los modelos son aceptados por la comunidad científica después de cierto tiempo si ha probado su validez y reconocido la evidencia para apoyar dicho modelo. El modelo estructural y función de la molécula de ADN propuesto por Watson y Crick (1953 no fue la excepción pues tardó varios años en ser completamente aceptado por la comunidad científica. En Costa Rica la primera publicación relacionada con la función del ADN fue en la Revista Biología Tropical fue en 1970, más de 15 años después de ser propuesta. La situación contraria se presenta cuando son innovaciones técnicas. Si la eficiencia es demostrada, rápidamente se incorpora dentro de la comunidad. Este fue el caso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, abreviado en inglés como

  15. Theoretical tool movement required to diamond turn an off-axis paraboloid on axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    High-quality, off-axis parabolic reflectors, required by the CTR and laser-fusion programs at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and other ERDA laboratories, are currently manufactured by hand. There are several drawbacks to this method, including lead times of up to a year, costs in excess of dollars 75,000 for a small reflector, and unsatisfactory limits to the tolerances obtainable. This situation has led to a search for cheaper and more accurate methods of manufacturing off-axis paraboloids. An alternative method, turning the workpiece about its axis on a diamond-turning machine, is presented, and the equations describing the necessary tool movement are derived. A discussion of a particular case suggests that the proposed technique is feasible

  16. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  17. Distortion definition and correction in off-axis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Off-axis optical configurations are becoming more and more used in a variety of applications, in particular they are the most preferred solution for cameras devoted to Solar System planets and small bodies (i.e. asteroids and comets) study. Off-axis designs, being devoid of central obstruction, are able to guarantee better PSF and MTF performance, and thus higher contrast imaging capabilities with respect to classical on-axis designs. In particular they are suitable for observing extended targets with intrinsic low contrast features, or scenes where a high dynamical signal range is present. Classical distortion theory is able to well describe the performance of the on-axis systems, but it has to be adapted for the off-axis case. A proper way to deal with off-axis distortion definition is thus needed together with dedicated techniques to accurately measure and hence remove the distortion effects present in the acquired images. In this paper, a review of the distortion definition for off-axis systems will be given. In particular the method adopted by the authors to deal with the distortion related issues (definition, measure, removal) in some off-axis instruments will be described in detail.

  18. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF GEOREFERENCED POINT CLOUDS PRODUCED VIA MULTI-VIEW STEREO TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO IMAGERY ACQUIRED VIA UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Harwin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are becoming viable environmental remote sensing tools. Sensor and battery technology is expanding the data capture opportunities. The UAV, as a close range remote sensing platform, can capture high resolution photography on-demand. This imagery can be used to produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis techniques (MVS combining computer vision and photogrammetry. This study examines point clouds produced using MVS techniques applied to UAV and terrestrial photography. A multi-rotor micro UAV acquired aerial imagery from a altitude of approximately 30–40 m. The point clouds produced are extremely dense (<1–3 cm point spacing and provide a detailed record of the surface in the study area, a 70 m section of sheltered coastline in southeast Tasmania. Areas with little surface texture were not well captured, similarly, areas with complex geometry such as grass tussocks and woody scrub were not well mapped. The process fails to penetrate vegetation, but extracts very detailed terrain in unvegetated areas. Initially the point clouds are in an arbitrary coordinate system and need to be georeferenced. A Helmert transformation is applied based on matching ground control points (GCPs identified in the point clouds to GCPs surveying with differential GPS. These point clouds can be used, alongside laser scanning and more traditional techniques, to provide very detailed and precise representations of a range of landscapes at key moments. There are many potential applications for the UAV-MVS technique, including coastal erosion and accretion monitoring, mine surveying and other environmental monitoring applications. For the generated point clouds to be used in spatial applications they need to be converted to surface models that reduce dataset size without loosing too much detail. Triangulated meshes are one option, another is Poisson Surface Reconstruction. This latter option makes use of point normal

  19. Constraints on Spin Axis and Thermal Properties of Asteroids in the WISE Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Emery, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    It has widely been accepted that dynamical state of asteroids can strongly be influenced by radiation forces (e.g., Yarkovsky and YORP). Determination of an object’s thermal properties and spin state are a critical step towards understanding the effects of these forces. In this respect, observations of thermal flux emitted from the surfaces of asteroids are a powerful tool. The emission of flux is determined by the temperature distribution which is controlled by the thermal inertia, rotation rate, and spin axis orientation. By gathering data at multiple viewing geometries, the temperature distribution can be modeled accurately enough to separate the effects attributed to (some of) these parameters. Over the length of its mission, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) observed many asteroids in two epochs (i.e., on either side of opposition) such that data for both morning and afternoon times were gathered. We have begun a project that employs a Thermophysical Model (TPM) in order to analyze these multi-epoch thermal observations with the goal of deriving the thermal properties and spin axis of a large number of asteroids. Here, we first investigate the validity and limits of our method on objects with a previously determined spin axis. Asteroid (413) Edburga has a published spin axis of λ = 202o, β = - 45o (ecliptic longitude and latitude, respectively) using the lightcurve inversion method. With our technique, we estimate a solution consistent with the previous estimate. Applying our TPM to WISE multi-epoch thermal observations of (155) Scylla (no known spin axis estimate), we also place estimates for the ecliptic longitude and latitude of its spin axis. Analysis of multi-epoch thermal data enables determination of spin axis orientation without knowing the rotation period, in contrast to the lightcurve inversion method. This is due to the coupling of thermal inertia and rotation rate in determining the longitudinal distribution of temperature. Their

  20. Optic axis-driven new horizons for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boardman Allan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad assertion here is that the current hyperbolic metamaterial world is only partially served by investigations that incorporate only some limited version of anisotropy. Even modest deviations of the optic axis from the main propagation axis lead to new phase shifts, which not only compete with those created by absorption but end up dominating them. Some progress has been attempted in the literature by introducing the terms “asymmetric hyperbolic media”, but it appears that this kind of asymmetry only involves an optic axis at an angle to the interface of a uniaxial crystal. From a device point of view, many new prospects should appear and the outcomes of the investigations presented here yield a new general theory. It is emphasised that the orientation of the optic axis is a significant determinant in the resulting optical properties. Whereas for conventional anisotropic waveguides homogeneous propagating waves occur over a limited range of angular dispositions of the optic axis it is shown that for a hyperbolic guide a critical angular setting exists, above which the guided waves are always homogeneous. This has significant implications for metawaveguide designs. The resulting structures are more tolerant to optic axis misalignment.

  1. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  2. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift

  3. Tunable Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer: A Technique for High Resolving Power, Wide Field Of View Observation Of Diffuse Emission Line Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sona

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discuss the need for new technology in broadband high-resolution spectroscopy based on the emerging technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and to propose new solutions that should enhance and generalize this technology to other fields. Spectroscopy is a proven tool for determining compositional and other properties of remote objects. Narrow band imaging and low resolving spectroscopic measurements provide information about composition, photochemical evolution, energy distribution and density. The extension to high resolving power provides further access to temperature, velocity, isotopic ratios, separation of blended sources, and opacity effects. In current high resolving power devices, the drawback of high-resolution spectroscopy is bound to the instrumental limitations of lower throughput, the necessity of small entrance apertures, sensitivity, field of view, and large physical instrumental size. These limitations quickly become handicapping for observation of faint and/or extended targets and for spacecraft encounters. A technique with promise for the study of faint and extended sources at high resolving power is the reflective format of the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are compact and naturally tailored for both high etendue (defined in section 2.2.5) and high resolving power. In contrast, to achieve similar spectral grasp, grating spectrometers require large telescopes. For reference, SHS is a cyclical interferometer that produces Fizeau fringe pattern for all other wavelengths except the tuned wavelength. The large etendue obtained by SHS instruments makes them ideal for observations of extended, low surface brightness, isolated emission line sources, while their intrinsically high spectral resolution enables one to study the dynamical and physical properties described above. This document contains four chapters. Chapter 1, introduces a class of scientific targets that formerly have

  4. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  5. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 42: ELECTRONICS: RETROSPECTIVE VIEW, SUCCESSES AND PROSPECTS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Preparation of brief scientific and technical review about sources, retrospective view, basic stages, achievements, problems, trends and prospects of development of world electronics for period of 20th-21st centuries. Methodology. Known scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information of world level in area of a vacuum electronics, semiconductor electronics, vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, and also optical electronics. Results. A brief analytical scientific and technical review is resulted about the primary and present states, achievements, trends and prospects of development of electronics in the developed countries of the world. From positions of approach of the systems advantages and lacks of semiconductor microelectronics are described as compared to a vacuum electronics. Considerable progress is marked in development of semiconductor element base (microtransistors, microprocessors, microcontrollers and other for creation of different electronic devices and computing engineering. Information, touching the determining deposit of electronic companies of the «Silicon Valley» in the USA in providing of technological breach in area of modern microelectronics, production of computers and their microprocessors, software and creation of devices of mobile communication development, is resulted. The basic problems of space microelectronics are affected. The possible ways of further development are indicated in the world of electronics, including vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, and also optical electronics. The special attention is turned for urgent development of high-efficiency protective facilities specialists against cyber attacks hackers on the computer systems. In a review an accent is done on the sharp necessity of acceptance the proper services of drastic measures for a fight with cyber terrorism. Originality. Systematization of the

  6. Synchronizing XPath Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    The increasing availability of XML-based data sources, e.g., for publishing data on the WWW, means that more and more applications (data consumers) rely on accessing and using XML data. Typically, the access is achieved by defining views over the XML data, and accessing data through these views....... However, the XML data sources are often independent of the data consumers and may change their schemas without notification, invalidating the XML views defined by the data consumers. This requires the view definitions to be updated to reflect the new structure of the data sources, a process termed view...... synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...

  7. Off-axis and inline electron holography: Experimental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Formanek, Petr; Koch, C.T.; Lubk, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Electron holography is a very powerful technique for mapping static electric and magnetic potentials down to atomic resolution. While electron holography is commonly considered synonymous with its off-axis variant in the high energy electron microscopy community, inline electron holography is widely applied in low-energy electron microscopy, where the realization of the off-axis setup is still an experimental challenge. This paper demonstrates that both inline and off-axis holography may be used to recover amplitude and phase shift of the very same object, in our example latex spheres of 90 and 200 nm in diameter, producing very similar results, provided the object does not charge under the electron beam.

  8. Six axis force feedback input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  9. Singlet Delta Oxygen: A Quantitative Analysis Using Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output-Spectroscopy (ICOS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jeffrey E

    2006-01-01

    .... The method is based on off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS). The primary goal for this research effort is to utilize the ICOS technique and demonstrate its ability to provide quantitative data of singlet delta oxygen...

  10. Development of triple axis neutron spectrometer (Paper No. 24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.C.; Wadhwa, N.R.; Goveas, S.H.

    1987-02-01

    The triple axis neutron spectrometers are the basic instruments intended for use with neutron beams from reactors. Various types of spectrometers, each devoted to different kinds of measurement can be designed and manufactured, once a prototype having all the attributes of a versatile instrument is designed and developed. With the view to achieving self reliance in this field, Central Workshops of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay designed and developed a prototype of triple axis spectrometer meeting the specifications prepared by Nuclear Physics Division of BARC . This spectrometer, with a moving wedge system was successfully manufactured and installed at 'DHRUVA'. Another version of this spectrometer, called the 'Polarised Neutron Spectrometer' was also built and exported to South Korea and installed at Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute, Seoul. This paper deals with basic concept, development of design, engineering of mechanical assemblies, the manufacturing approach and problems encountered during manufacture. (author). 3 figs

  11. Design optimization and analysis of vertical axis wind turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarral, A.; Ali, M.; Sahir, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is clean and renwable source of energy and is also the world's fastest growing energy resource. Keeping in view power shortages and growing cost of energy, the low cost wind energy has become a primary solution. It is imperative that economies and individuals begin to conserve energy and focus on the production of energy from renewable sources. Present study describes a wind turbine blade designed with enhanced aerodynamic properties. Vertical axis turbine is chosen because of its easy installment, less noisy and having environmental friendly characteristics. Vertical axis wind turbines are thought to be ideal for installations where wind conditions are not consistent. The presented turbine blade is best suitable for roadsides where the rated speed due to vehicles is most /sup -1/ often 8 ms .To get an optimal shape design symmetrical profile NACA0025 has been considered which is then analyzed for stability and aerodynamic characteristics at optimal conditions using analysis tools ANSYS and CFD tools. (author)

  12. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction from radial long-axis tomography. A new reconstruction algorithm for ECG-gated technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1997-01-01

    Radial long-axis tomography can provide views similar to contrast left ventriculography (LVG) including the basal and apical areas of the left ventricle, not possible in routine short-axis tomography. We applied this method to ECG-gated Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial SPECT images to estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was performed with a temporal resolution of 10 frames per R-R interval. LVEF was calculated on the basis of left ventricular volume estimates at end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) with using an ellipsoid body model. To validate this method, LVEF's derived from ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT were compared with those from LVG in 11 patients with coronary artery disease. There was a close linear correlation between LVEF values calculated from Tc-99m MIBI SPECT and those from LVG (r=0.89, p<0.001), although the gated SPECT underestimated LVEF compared to LVG. The technique showed excellent reproducibility (intra-observer variability, r=0.96, p<0.001; inter-observer variability, r=0.71, p<0.005). The radial long-axis tomography technique gives a good estimate of LVEF, in agreement with estimates based on LVG. ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT can, therefore, be applicable to assess myocardial perfusion and ventricular function at the same time. (author)

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction from radial long-axis tomography. A new reconstruction algorithm for ECG-gated technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Uehara, Toshiisa [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Radial long-axis tomography can provide views similar to contrast left ventriculography (LVG) including the basal and apical areas of the left ventricle, not possible in routine short-axis tomography. We applied this method to ECG-gated Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial SPECT images to estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was performed with a temporal resolution of 10 frames per R-R interval. LVEF was calculated on the basis of left ventricular volume estimates at end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) with using an ellipsoid body model. To validate this method, LVEF`s derived from ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT were compared with those from LVG in 11 patients with coronary artery disease. There was a close linear correlation between LVEF values calculated from Tc-99m MIBI SPECT and those from LVG (r=0.89, p<0.001), although the gated SPECT underestimated LVEF compared to LVG. The technique showed excellent reproducibility (intra-observer variability, r=0.96, p<0.001; inter-observer variability, r=0.71, p<0.005). The radial long-axis tomography technique gives a good estimate of LVEF, in agreement with estimates based on LVG. ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT can, therefore, be applicable to assess myocardial perfusion and ventricular function at the same time. (author)

  15. SU-F-T-473: Evaluation of Off-Axis And Peripheral Dose Using Different Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, B; Prakasarao, A; Singaravelu, G [Anna University, Chennai, TamilNadu (India); Palraj, T; Rai, R [Dr. Rai Memorial Cancer Institute, Chennai, TamilNadu (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy, measurement of off-axis and peripheral dose is a tedious task. The dose distribution along the beam central axis give only part of the information required for an accurate dose description inside the patient. Dose distributions in 2-D and 3-D are determined with central axis data in conjunction with off-axis dose profiles. Combining a central axis dose distribution with off-axis data results in volume dose matrix that provides 2-D and 3-D information on dose distribution. By considering the importance of these two parameters this study investigates and compares the off axis and peripheral dose measurement using Ionization chamber, MOSFET, Radiochromic film and EDR2 film. Methods: In the measurement of off-axis and peripheral doses 0.6cc farmer type chamber, EDR-2 film, MD-55 radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors were used for both 6MV and 15MV beams. The off-axis and peripheral dose was measured at every 1 cm interval by changing the position of the couch without disturbing the other experimental setup in particular, the phantom with detector position. Results: Readings were obtained for both 6MV and 15MV photon beams at SSD technique for various field size using MOSFET, Ionization chamber and Radiochromic film. The results shows the percentage difference between various detectors for various field sizes. For Peripheral dose measurement were taken from the edge of the field size and for off axis it is measured form central axis dose. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study shows that no detector is ideal and only a comparison between different detectors highlights the weaknesses of each detector. MOSFET provides adequate dose assessment in off-axis and peripheral regions in 6MV and 15MV photon beams. Film dosimetry in general a convenient method to generate one- and two-dimensional dose distributions. The result of this indicates that MOSFET is flexible tool for relative dosimetry as films.

  16. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 44: TRADITIONAL POWER ENGINEERING. NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS: RETROSPECTIVE VIEW, STATE AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Preparation of brief scientific and technical review about a retrospective view, modern state, achievements, problems, tendencies and prospects of development of world nuclear energy. Methodology. Known scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information, present in scientific monographs, journals and internet-reports, world level in area of nuclear energy. Results. A brief analytical scientific and technical review is resulted about a retrospective view, modern state, basic achievements, existent problems, tendencies and prospects of development of nuclear energy in the industrially developed countries of the world. Considerable progress is marked in development and creation of technical base of modern nuclear energy, including the nuclear power stations (NPP such their basic devices as nuclear reactors, steam generators, steam turbines and turbogenerators. The basic charts of construction of NPP producing in the world now about 11 % are described annual production electric power. It is indicated that in Ukraine a production of electricity volume at NPP makes more than 50 %, and in France − more than 70 % in annual power balance of country. Nuclear-physical bases of work of nuclear reactor are resulted on thermal-neutron, widely in-use at NPP. The design of most safe water-waters of nuclear power-reactor of type of WWER-1000 is described by thermal power 1000 MW, applied presently at NPP of Ukraine. Basic classification of nuclear reactors is presented. Technical information is resulted about largest NPP of the world. Master data are indicated about a nuclear fuel and radio-active offcuts of nuclear reactors of NPP. Basic measures and facilities are described for the increase of safety of nuclear reactors and NPP. Advantages and lacks of NPP are marked by comparison to the thermal power plants. Nuclear energy of Ukraine is considered and basic technical descriptions

  17. Quantitative diffusion MRI using reduced field-of-view and multi-shot acquisition techniques: Validation in phantoms and prostate imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Holmes, James; Rabanillo, Iñaki; Guidon, Arnaud; Wells, Shane; Hernando, Diego

    2018-04-17

    To evaluate the reproducibility of quantitative diffusion measurements obtained with reduced Field of View (rFOV) and Multi-shot EPI (msEPI) acquisitions, using single-shot EPI (ssEPI) as a reference. Diffusion phantom experiments, and prostate diffusion-weighted imaging in healthy volunteers and patients with known or suspected prostate cancer were performed across the three different sequences. Quantitative diffusion measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient, and diffusion kurtosis parameters (healthy volunteers), were obtained and compared across diffusion sequences (rFOV, msEPI, and ssEPI). Other possible confounding factors like b-value combinations and acquisition parameters were also investigated. Both msEPI and rFOV have shown reproducible quantitative diffusion measurements relative to ssEPI; no significant difference in ADC was observed across pulse sequences in the standard diffusion phantom (p = 0.156), healthy volunteers (p ≥ 0.12) or patients (p ≥ 0.26). The ADC values within the non-cancerous central gland and peripheral zone of patients were 1.29 ± 0.17 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s and 1.74 ± 0.23 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s respectively. However, differences in quantitative diffusion parameters were observed across different number of averages for rFOV, and across b-value groups and diffusion models for all the three sequences. Both rFOV and msEPI have the potential to provide high image quality with reproducible quantitative diffusion measurements in prostate diffusion MRI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. THE USE OF THE FORCEPS BIOPSY AS AN AUXILIARY TECHNIQUE FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MAJOR DUODENAL PAPILLA USING THE FOWARD-VIEWING UPPER ENDOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Saber de ANDRADE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: - Conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy is the best method for evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but it has limitations for the identification of the major duodenal papilla, even after the use of the straightening maneuver. Side-viewing duodenoscope is recommended for optimal examination of major duodenal papilla in patients at high risk for lesions in this region. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the biopsy forceps during conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy as an additional tool to the straightening maneuver, in the evaluation of the major duodenal papilla. METHODS: A total of 671 patients were studied between 2013 and 2015, with active major duodenal papilla search in three endoscope steps: not straightened, straightened and use of the biopsy forceps after straightening. In all of them it was recorded whether: major duodenal papilla was fully visualized (position A, partially visualized (position B or not visualized (position C. If major duodenal papilla was not fully visualized, patients continued to the next step. RESULTS: A total of 341 were female (50.8% with mean age of 49 years. Of the 671 patients, 324 (48.3% major duodenal papilla was identified in position A, 112 (16.7% in position B and 235 (35% in position C. In the 347 patients who underwent the straightening maneuver, position A was found in 186 (53.6%, position B in 51 (14.7% and position C in 110 (31.7%. Of the 161 remaining patients and after biopsy forceps use, position A was seen in 94 (58.4%, position B in 14 (8.7% and position C in 53 (32.9%. The overall rate of complete visualization of major duodenal papilla was 90%. CONCLUSION: The use of the biopsy forceps significantly increased the total major duodenal papilla visualization rate by 14%, reaching 604/671 (90% of the patients (P<0.01 and it can be easily incorporated into the routine endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luiz Felipe; Giordano, Marcos; Cardoso, Gustavo Novaes; Farias, Rafael Baptista; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP) view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film. An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements. From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements. Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  20. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film.METHODS: An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements.RESULTS: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  1. Blade pitch optimization methods for vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Peter

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer an inherently simpler design than horizontal-axis machines, while their lower blade speed mitigates safety and noise concerns, potentially allowing for installation closer to populated and ecologically sensitive areas. While VAWTs do offer significant operational advantages, development has been hampered by the difficulty of modeling the aerodynamics involved, further complicated by their rotating geometry. This thesis presents results from a simulation of a baseline VAWT computed using Star-CCM+, a commercial finite-volume (FVM) code. VAWT aerodynamics are shown to be dominated at low tip-speed ratios by dynamic stall phenomena and at high tip-speed ratios by wake-blade interactions. Several optimization techniques have been developed for the adjustment of blade pitch based on finite-volume simulations and streamtube models. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is evaluated and the basic architecture for a feedback control system is proposed. Implementation of variable blade pitch is shown to increase a baseline turbine's power output between 40%-100%, depending on the optimization technique, improving the turbine's competitiveness when compared with a commercially-available horizontal-axis turbine.

  2. Employing the nominal group technique to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women on community pharmacy weight management services and educational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Normalized Point Source Sensitivity for Off-Axis Optical Performance Evaluation of the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Troy, Mitchell; Angeli, George

    2010-01-01

    The Normalized Point Source Sensitivity (PSSN) has previously been defined and analyzed as an On-Axis seeing-limited telescope performance metric. In this paper, we expand the scope of the PSSN definition to include Off-Axis field of view (FoV) points and apply this generalized metric for performance evaluation of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We first propose various possible choices for the PSSN definition and select one as our baseline. We show that our baseline metric has useful properties including the multiplicative feature even when considering Off-Axis FoV points, which has proven to be useful for optimizing the telescope error budget. Various TMT optical errors are considered for the performance evaluation including segment alignment and phasing, segment surface figures, temperature, and gravity, whose On-Axis PSSN values have previously been published by our group.

  4. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  5. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  6. Environmental stressors and epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Richard; Sawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a brief summary of several key studies that broaden our understanding of stress and its epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-axis function and behavior. Clinical and animal studies suggest a link among exposure to stress, dysregulation of the HPA-axis, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses. Recent studies have supported the notion that exposure to glucocorticoids and stress in various forms, duration, and intensity during di...

  7. Zograscopic viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.; Wijntjes, M.; Van Doorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates

  8. Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.

  9. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  10. Neutral axis as damage sensitive feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdardottir, D H; Glisic, B

    2013-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is the process of continuously or periodically measuring structural parameters and the transformation of the collected data into information on real structural conditions. The centroid of stiffness is a universal parameter and its position in a cross-section can be evaluated for any load-carrying beam structure as the position of the neutral axis under conveniently chosen loads. Thus, a change in the position of the neutral axis within a cross-section can indicate a change in the position of the centroid of stiffness, i.e., unusual structural behaviors. This paper proposes a novel monitoring method based on deterministic and probabilistic determination of the position of the neutral axis under conveniently chosen conditions. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is potentially applicable to a large variety of beam-like structures. Data from two existing structures were used to validate the method and assess its performance: Streicker Bridge at Princeton University and the US202/NJ23 highway overpass in Wayne, NJ. The results show that the neutral axis location is varying even when damage is not present. Reasons for this variation are determined and the accuracy in the evaluation assessed. This paper concludes that the position of the neutral axis can be evaluated with sufficient accuracy using static and dynamic strain measurements performed on appropriate time-scales and indicates its potential to be used as a damage sensitive feature. (paper)

  11. Neutral axis as damage sensitive feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, D. H.; Glisic, B.

    2013-07-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is the process of continuously or periodically measuring structural parameters and the transformation of the collected data into information on real structural conditions. The centroid of stiffness is a universal parameter and its position in a cross-section can be evaluated for any load-carrying beam structure as the position of the neutral axis under conveniently chosen loads. Thus, a change in the position of the neutral axis within a cross-section can indicate a change in the position of the centroid of stiffness, i.e., unusual structural behaviors. This paper proposes a novel monitoring method based on deterministic and probabilistic determination of the position of the neutral axis under conveniently chosen conditions. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is potentially applicable to a large variety of beam-like structures. Data from two existing structures were used to validate the method and assess its performance: Streicker Bridge at Princeton University and the US202/NJ23 highway overpass in Wayne, NJ. The results show that the neutral axis location is varying even when damage is not present. Reasons for this variation are determined and the accuracy in the evaluation assessed. This paper concludes that the position of the neutral axis can be evaluated with sufficient accuracy using static and dynamic strain measurements performed on appropriate time-scales and indicates its potential to be used as a damage sensitive feature.

  12. Zograscopic viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The "zograscope" is a "visual aid" (commonly known as "optical machine" in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened "plasticity" of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common "explanations" of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  13. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  14. Aeroelastically coupled blades for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew F.

    2016-02-23

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a vertical axis wind turbine blade configured to rotate about a rotation axis. The vertical axis wind turbine blade includes at least an attachment segment, a rear swept segment, and optionally, a forward swept segment. The attachment segment is contiguous with the forward swept segment, and the forward swept segment is contiguous with the rear swept segment. The attachment segment includes a first portion of a centroid axis, the forward swept segment includes a second portion of the centroid axis, and the rear swept segment includes a third portion of the centroid axis. The second portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced ahead of the first portion of the centroid axis and the third portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced behind the first portion of the centroid axis in the direction of rotation about the rotation axis.

  15. Binocular optical axis parallelism detection precision analysis based on Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Bingqi

    2018-02-01

    According to the working principle of the binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument, and in view of all components of the instrument, the various factors affect the system precision is analyzed, and then precision analysis model is established. Based on the error distribution, Monte Carlo method is used to analyze the relationship between the comprehensive error and the change of the center coordinate of the circle target image. The method can further guide the error distribution, optimize control the factors which have greater influence on the comprehensive error, and improve the measurement accuracy of the optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument.

  16. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  17. In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Ra, Hyejun; Qiu, Zhen; Friedland, Shai; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Loewke, Kevin; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Wang, Thomas D.; Mandella, Michael J.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2012-02-01

    Near-infrared confocal microendoscopy is a promising technique for deep in vivo imaging of tissues and can generate high-resolution cross-sectional images at the micron-scale. We demonstrate the use of a dual-axis confocal (DAC) near-infrared fluorescence microendoscope with a 5.5-mm outer diameter for obtaining clinical images of human colorectal mucosa. High-speed two-dimensional en face scanning was achieved through a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner while a micromotor was used for adjusting the axial focus. In vivo images of human patients are collected at 5 frames/sec with a field of view of 362×212 μm2 and a maximum imaging depth of 140 μm. During routine endoscopy, indocyanine green (ICG) was topically applied a nonspecific optical contrasting agent to regions of the human colon. The DAC microendoscope was then used to obtain microanatomic images of the mucosa by detecting near-infrared fluorescence from ICG. These results suggest that DAC microendoscopy may have utility for visualizing the anatomical and, perhaps, functional changes associated with colorectal pathology for the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  18. Optical diffraction tomography: accuracy of an off-axis reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostencka, Julianna; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    Optical diffraction tomography is an increasingly popular method that allows for reconstruction of three-dimensional refractive index distribution of semi-transparent samples using multiple measurements of an optical field transmitted through the sample for various illumination directions. The process of assembly of the angular measurements is usually performed with one of two methods: filtered backprojection (FBPJ) or filtered backpropagation (FBPP) tomographic reconstruction algorithm. The former approach, although conceptually very simple, provides an accurate reconstruction for the object regions located close to the plane of focus. However, since FBPJ ignores diffraction, its use for spatially extended structures is arguable. According to the theory of scattering, more precise restoration of a 3D structure shall be achieved with the FBPP algorithm, which unlike the former approach incorporates diffraction. It is believed that with this method one is allowed to obtain a high accuracy reconstruction in a large measurement volume exceeding depth of focus of an imaging system. However, some studies have suggested that a considerable improvement of the FBPP results can be achieved with prior propagation of the transmitted fields back to the centre of the object. This, supposedly, enables reduction of errors due to approximated diffraction formulas used in FBPP. In our view this finding casts doubt on quality of the FBPP reconstruction in the regions far from the rotation axis. The objective of this paper is to investigate limitation of the FBPP algorithm in terms of an off-axis reconstruction and compare its performance with the FBPJ approach. Moreover, in this work we propose some modifications to the FBPP algorithm that allow for more precise restoration of a sample structure in off-axis locations. The research is based on extensive numerical simulations supported with wave-propagation method.

  19. RITA: The reinvented triple axis spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Clausen, K.N.; Aeppli, G.; McMorrow, D.R.; Kjems, J.K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1995-11-01

    Risoe National Laboratory was reported to be in the process of developing a new spectrometer design, RITA, based on the triple axis design. The spectrometer will attempt to incorporate more recent innovations such as multilayer supermirrors and microstrip proportional counters into a rethinking of the triple-axis spectrometer. By optimizing the beam optics, using supermirrors and extending the analyser to map regions of (Q, {omega}) space using an array of independently controllable pyrolytic graphite crystals focussed on an area detector, it was hoped that the efficiency of single-crystal inelastic experiments could be increased by as much as a factor of 20. 7 figs., 20 refs.

  20. Equilibrium studies of helical axis stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Harris, J.H.; Rome, J.A.; Cantrell, J.L.; Lynch, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The equilibrium properties of helical axis stellarators are studied with a 3-D equilibrium code and with an average method (2-D). The helical axis ATF is shown to have a toroidally dominated equilibrium shift and good equilibria up to at least 10% peak beta. Low aspect ratio heliacs, with relatively large toroidal shifts, are shown to have low equilibrium beta limits (approx. 5%). Increasing the aspect ratio and number of field periods proportionally is found to improve the equilibrium beta limit. Alternatively, increasing the number of field periods at fixed aspect ratio which raises and lowers the toroidal shift improves the equilibrium beta limit

  1. Future view of electric power supply techniques. Distribution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Toshio

    1988-06-20

    Present situations surrounding the power distribution are described, and the problems and future trend of the power distribution are reviewed. It is described for the situations that the gravity of a power demand is transfering from industrial use to home use and the dependence on electrical energy is increasing. It is pointed out for the features that the distribution system exists on not only supply side but also customer side, the system is complicated and two-dimentional, and there is a tremendous amount of facility. High voltage, high frequency and automatic distribution, and the distributed power sources such as fuel cells are described in terms of the problems to ensure the power supply. The protection and decreasing of service interruptions, the protection of harmonic wave, and long-life equipments are described in terms of the problems to ensure the power quality. As for the problems to ensure a comfortable life and space, the communication system using the distribution system for a customer service or automatic operation in a house, and the enviromental harmony by a small facility or underground distribution are described. (1 tab)

  2. The application of image processing in the measurement for three-light-axis parallelity of laser ranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Qianqian

    2008-12-01

    When laser ranger is transported or used in field operations, the transmitting axis, receiving axis and aiming axis may be not parallel. The nonparallelism of the three-light-axis will affect the range-measuring ability or make laser ranger not be operated exactly. So testing and adjusting the three-light-axis parallelity in the production and maintenance of laser ranger is important to ensure using laser ranger reliably. The paper proposes a new measurement method using digital image processing based on the comparison of some common measurement methods for the three-light-axis parallelity. It uses large aperture off-axis paraboloid reflector to get the images of laser spot and white light cross line, and then process the images on LabVIEW platform. The center of white light cross line can be achieved by the matching arithmetic in LABVIEW DLL. And the center of laser spot can be achieved by gradation transformation, binarization and area filter in turn. The software system can set CCD, detect the off-axis paraboloid reflector, measure the parallelity of transmitting axis and aiming axis and control the attenuation device. The hardware system selects SAA7111A, a programmable vedio decoding chip, to perform A/D conversion. FIFO (first-in first-out) is selected as buffer.USB bus is used to transmit data to PC. The three-light-axis parallelity can be achieved according to the position bias between them. The device based on this method has been already used. The application proves this method has high precision, speediness and automatization.

  3. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  5. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  6. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W; Keller, P [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Retrieval of Vertical Aerosol and Trace Gas Distributions from Polarization Sensitive Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Friess, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    An accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols is crucial for our understanding of the chemical and dynamical processes in the lower troposphere. Their accurate determination is typically only possible by means of laborious and expensive airborne in-situ measurements but in the recent decades, numerous promising ground-based remote sensing approaches have been developed. One of them is to infer vertical distributions from "Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy" (DOAS) measurements. DOAS is a technique to analyze UV- and visible radiation spectra of direct or scattered sunlight, which delivers information on different atmospheric parameters, integrated over the light path from space to the instrument. An appropriate set of DOAS measurements, recorded under different viewing directions (Multi-Axis DOAS) and thus different light path geometries, provides information on the atmospheric state. The vertical profiles of aerosol properties and trace gas concentrations can be retrieved from such a set by numerical inversion techniques, incorporating radiative transfer models. The information content of measured data is rarely sufficient for a well-constrained retrieval, particularly for atmospheric layers above 1 km. We showed in first simulations that, apart from spectral properties, the polarization state of skylight is likely to provide a significant amount of additional information on the atmospheric state and thus to enhance retrieval quality. We present first simulations, expectations and ideas on how to implement and characterize a polarization sensitive Multi-Axis DOAS instrument and a corresponding profile retrieval algorithm.

  8. Single-shot dual-wavelength in-line and off-axis hybrid digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    We propose an in-line and off-axis hybrid holographic real-time imaging technique. The in-line and off-axis digital holograms are generated simultaneously by two lasers with different wavelengths, and they are recorded using a color camera with a single shot. The reconstruction is carried using an iterative algorithm in which the initial input is designed to include the intensity of the in-line hologram and the approximate phase distributions obtained from the off-axis hologram. In this way, the complex field in the object plane and the output by the iterative procedure can produce higher quality amplitude and phase images compared to traditional iterative phase retrieval. The performance of the technique has been demonstrated by acquiring the amplitude and phase images of a green lacewing's wing and a living moon jellyfish.

  9. Nanoscratch Characterization of GaN Epilayers on c- and a-Axis Sapphire Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition to form gallium nitride (GaN epilayers on c- and a-axis sapphire substrates and then used the nanoscratch technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine the nanotribological behavior and deformation characteristics of the GaN epilayers, respectively. The AFM morphological studies revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of the scratches formed on the GaN epilayers. It is suggested that cracking dominates in the case of GaN epilayers while ploughing during the process of scratching; the appearances of the scratched surfaces were significantly different for the GaN epilayers on the c- and a-axis sapphire substrates. In addition, compared to the c-axis substrate, we obtained higher values of the coefficient of friction (μ and deeper penetration of the scratches on the GaN a-axis sapphire sample when we set the ramped force at 4,000 μN. This discrepancy suggests that GaN epilayers grown on c-axis sapphire have higher shear resistances than those formed on a-axis sapphire. The occurrence of pile-up events indicates that the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which we measured under the sites of critical brittle transitions of the scratch track, resulted in ductile and/or brittle properties as a result of the deformed and strain-hardened lattice structure.

  10. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (UARPE2AXIS2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  11. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001 (UARPE2AXIS1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  12. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the view update problem for XML views published from relational data. We consider XML views defined in terms of mappings directed by possibly recursive DTDs compressed into DAGs and stored in relations. We provide new techniques to efficiently support XML view updates...... specified in terms of XPath expressions with recursion and complex filters. The interaction between XPath recursion and DAG compression of XML views makes the analysis of the XML view update problem rather intriguing. Furthermore, many issues are still open even for relational view updates, and need...... to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  13. Organization of co-occurring Axis II features in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, Kenneth L; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Kernberg, Otto F

    2008-06-01

    Considerable heterogeneity exists in the comorbid Axis II features that frequently accompany borderline personality disorder (BPD). These features have potential to be meaningfully organized, relate to specific BPD presentation, and have implications for treatment process and outcome. The present study explored patterns of Axis II comorbidity in order to identify subtypes of BPD. A well-defined sample of 90 patients diagnosed with BPD was recruited as part of an RCT study. Participants were administered the International Personality Disorder Examination (Loranger, 1999) to diagnose BPD and assess comorbid Axis II features. Other measures were also administered to assess aspects of current work and relationship functioning, symptomatology, and self-concept. Q-factoring was used to develop subtypes based on commonly occurring Axis II profiles, identifying three: Cluster A (elevated paranoid and schizotypal features), Cluster B (elevated narcissistic and histrionic features), and Cluster C (elevated avoidant and obsessive-compulsive features). An additional factor analysis revealed two dimensions underlying the comorbid features identifiable as: extraversion versus introversion and antagonism versus constraint. Validity of these two maps of comorbidity was explored in terms of the BPD criteria themselves, as well as on work and relationship functioning, identity diffusion, views of self and others, positive and negative affect, behavioural dyscontrol, and symptomatic distress. Clinically meaningful subtypes can be identified for BPD based on co-occurring Axis II features. Further research is needed to replicate and further establish base-rates of these subtypes as well as their differential implications for treatment.

  14. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  15. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  16. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  17. Creating a benchmark of vertical axis wind turbines in dynamic stall for validating numerical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelein, D.; Ragni, D.; Tescione, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental campaign using Particle Image Velocimetry (2C-PIV) technique has been conducted on a H-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) to create a benchmark for validating and comparing numerical models. The turbine is operated at tip speed ratios (TSR) of 4.5 and 2, at an average chord...

  18. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1969-01-01

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...... or experimentally determined probability distributions may be used. The application to the study of the dispersion relation for excitations in a crystal is outlined...

  19. Interplay between tilted and principal axis rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradip; Roy, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2014-01-01

    At IUAC-INGA, our group has studied four neutron rich nuclei of mass-110 region, namely 109,110 Ag and 108,110 Cd. These nuclei provide the unique platform to study the interplay between Tilted and Principal axis rotation since these are moderately deformed and at the same time, shears structures are present at higher spins. The salient features of the high spin behaviors of these nuclei will be discussed which are the signatures of this interplay

  20. Interplay between tilted and principal axis rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Pradip [Ananda Mohan College, 102/1 Raja Rammohan Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    At IUAC-INGA, our group has studied four neutron rich nuclei of mass-110 region, namely {sup 109,110}Ag and {sup 108,110}Cd. These nuclei provide the unique platform to study the interplay between Tilted and Principal axis rotation since these are moderately deformed and at the same time, shears structures are present at higher spins. The salient features of the high spin behaviors of these nuclei will be discussed which are the signatures of this interplay.

  1. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

    2010-11-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology.

  2. Early time implosion symmetry from two-axis shock-timing measurements on indirect drive NIF experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. D., E-mail: moody4@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Munro, D. H.; Barker, D. A.; Baker, K. L.; Döppner, T.; Hash, N. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; LaFortune, K.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacGowan, B. J.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Widmayer, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Boehly, T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    An innovative technique has been developed and used to measure the shock propagation speed along two orthogonal axes in an inertial confinement fusion indirect drive implosion target. This development builds on an existing target and diagnostic platform for measuring the shock propagation along a single axis. A 0.4 mm square aluminum mirror is installed in the ablator capsule which adds a second orthogonal view of the x-ray-driven shock speeds. The new technique adds capability for symmetry control along two directions of the shocks launched in the ablator by the laser-generated hohlraum x-ray flux. Laser power adjustments in four different azimuthal cones based on the results of this measurement can reduce time-dependent symmetry swings during the implosion. Analysis of a large data set provides experimental sensitivities of the shock parameters to the overall laser delivery and in some cases shows the effects of laser asymmetries on the pole and equator shock measurements.

  3. Quantitative cine-left ventriculography - Superiority of 45 .deg. RAO view to straight AB view -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The volumetry by cineangiocardiography is known to have the most diagnostic and prognostic value in the evaluation of various valvular heart diseases and ischemic heart diseases. Although many authors favor the area-length method for the volumetry of left ventricle, 45 .deg. RAO projection seems to be more simple, inexpensive and accurate technique, considering the positional relationship of cardiac valves and obliquity of the long axis of left ventricle within the chest cage. Authors present the anatomical, geometrical and radiological basis for the superiority of 45 .deg. RAO protection by analyzing 20 normal heart specimen and 115 cineangiocardiograms of valvular heart diseases, and the results as follows: 1. Blood flow and motility of the mitral and aortic valves can be more clearly demonstrated by 45 .deg. RAO projection than by AP view. 2. The long diameter of left ventricular silhouette made 45 .deg. RAO projection reflects 90% or more of real diameter. 3. In RAO 45 .deg. position, patient's left nipple is optimal and convenient level for the ruler offering accurate magnification coefficient of left ventricle. 4. Ejection fraction after the extrasystole is exaggerated regardless of the left ventricular function, so it is desirable to exclude the 2 or 3 beats after extrasystole

  4. Determination of High-Frequency d- and q-axis Inductances for Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Vetuschi, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliable method for the experimental determination of high-frequency d- and q -axis inductances for surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machines (SMPMSMs). Knowledge of the high-frequency d- and q-axis inductances plays an important role in the efficient design...... of sensorless controllers using high-frequency signal injection techniques. The proposed method employs a static locked-rotor test using an ac +dc power supply. By injecting a high-frequency rotating voltage vector into the machine, the d- and q-axis inductances may simultaneously be determined with no need...

  5. Guy cable design and damping for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibrations of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed, and a technique for damping cable vibrations was mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  6. Interferometric system with tracking refractometry capability in the measuring axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, J; Holá, M; Číp, O; Hrabina, J; Oulehla, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined interferometric arrangement designed for measurement of one-axis displacement over a specified measuring range with mechanical referencing. This concept allows simultaneous measurement of the carriage position from both sides together with monitoring of the overall range. This can be used in configuration with in-line monitoring of the fluctuations of the refractive index-–tracking refractometry. Similarly, the wavelength of the laser source can be stabilized over the measuring range, effectively compensating for the refractive index changes. Otherwise, monitoring of length of the measuring range can give information about the thermal dilatation effects of frame of the whole measuring setup. This technique can find its way into high-precision positioning systems in nanometrology. (technical design note)

  7. Small angle neutron scattering using a triple axis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.U.; Goyal, P.S.; Kamal, L.; Yunus, S.M.; Datta, T.K.; Rahman, M.O.; Azad, A.K.; Begum, S.; Zakaria, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    SANS techniques has been developed on a triple axis neutron spectrometer at TRIGA Mark II (3 MW) research reactor, AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Double crystal (with very small mosaic spread ∼ 1 min.) diffraction known as Bonse and Hart's method has been employed. Such a device is a useful tool for small angle scattering in the Q range between 10 -5 and 10 -1 Angstroms -1 and for real time experiments at short time scales. Therefore, large objects and large distance interparticle correlations can be easily investigated. The results of SANS' measurements using alumina (A1 2 0 3 ) sample are presented. The radius of gyration has been determined and the data has been fitted to the scattering function of a sphere. 9 refs., 6 figs.,

  8. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, S F

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  9. Equilibrium calculations for helical axis stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    An average method based on a vacuum flux coordinate system is presented. This average method permits the study of helical axis stellarators with toroidally dominated shifts. An ordering is introduced, and to lowest order the toroidally averaged equilibrium equations are reduced to a Grad-Shafranov equation. Also, to lowest order, a Poisson-type equation is obtained for the toroidally varying corrections to the equilibium. By including these corrections, systems that are toroidally dominated, but with significant helical distortion to the equilibrium, may be studied. Numerical solutions of the average method equations are shown to agree well with three-dimensional calculations

  10. Three-axis asymmetric radiation detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mario Pierangelo; Gedcke, Dale A.; Raudorf, Thomas W.; Sangsingkeow, Pat

    2000-01-01

    A three-axis radiation detection system whose inner and outer electrodes are shaped and positioned so that the shortest path between any point on the inner electrode and the outer electrode is a different length whereby the rise time of a pulse derived from a detected radiation event can uniquely define the azimuthal and radial position of that event, and the outer electrode is divided into a plurality of segments in the longitudinal axial direction for locating the axial location of a radiation detection event occurring in the diode.

  11. Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Dierck; Franke, Gesa; Hinkel, Laura; Bonin, Tim; Koch, Peter; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a full-field swept-source OCT using an off-axis geometry of the reference illumination. By using holographic refocusing techniques, a uniform lateral resolution is achieved over the measurement depth of approximately 80 Rayleigh lengths. Compared to a standard on-axis setup, artifacts and autocorrelation signals are suppressed and the measurement depth is doubled by resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity. Holographic refocusing was done efficiently by Fourier-domain resampling as demonstrated before in inverse scattering and holoscopy. It allowed to reconstruct a complete volume with about 10μm resolution over the complete measurement depth of more than 10mm. Off-axis full-field swept-source OCT enables high measurement depths, spanning many Rayleigh lengths with reduced artifacts.

  12. Development of five axis robotic system for an industrial neutron tomography imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, R J; Radke, M G; Mishra, J K; Arunkumar, G V.D.; Ramakumar, M S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Div. of Remote Handling and Robotics

    1994-12-31

    Tomography is one of the latest techniques in the field of nondestructive testing. X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons are used as an energy source whereas five axis manipulator is designed to move the specimen across the beam. The 5 axis robotic system has been indigenously developed, designed, manufactured and tested to move up to 10 kg payload. Computer is necessary to process and store data and retrieve it for processing. The same computer is used for control of manipulator. Computer aided tomography is carried out for research and industrial use. Neutron beam will be used either for evaluation of organic materials in attenuation based measurements or for evaluation on the basis of neutron activation of materials like nuclear fuels. The paper describes the indigenously developed 5-axis robotic system as a part of a facility built around Kamini reactor at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. (author). 4 figs.

  13. Extracellular matrix dynamics during vertebrate axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirók, András; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

    2004-04-01

    The first evidence for the dynamics of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) pattern formation during embryogenesis is presented below. Fibrillin 2 filaments were tracked for 12 h throughout the avian intraembryonic mesoderm using automated light microscopy and algorithms of our design. The data show that these ECM filaments have a reproducible morphogenic destiny that is characterized by directed transport. Fibrillin 2 particles initially deposited in the segmental plate mesoderm are translocated along an unexpected trajectory where they eventually polymerize into an intricate scaffold of cables parallel to the anterior-posterior axis. The cables coalesce near the midline before the appearance of the next-formed somite. Moreover, the ECM filaments define global tissue movements with high precision because the filaments act as passive motion tracers. Quantification of individual and collective filament "behaviors" establish fate maps, trajectories, and velocities. These data reveal a caudally propagating traveling wave pattern in the morphogenetic movements of early axis formation. We conjecture that within vertebrate embryos, long-range mechanical tension fields are coupled to both large-scale patterning and local organization of the ECM. Thus, physical forces or stress fields are essential requirements for executing an emergent developmental pattern-in this case, paraxial fibrillin cable assembly.

  14. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  15. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, ∼ 5 m Curved Guide, ∼ 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, ∼ 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world

  16. The Distal Humerus Axial View: Assessment of Displacement in Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souder, Christopher D; Farnsworth, Christine L; McNeil, Natalie P; Bomar, James D; Edmonds, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of childhood medial epicondyle humerus fractures continues to be associated with significant debate. Several studies demonstrate that standard radiographic views are unable to accurately portray the true displacement. Without reliable ways to assess the amount of displacement, how can we debate treatment and outcomes? This study introduces a novel imaging technique for the evaluation of medial epicondyle fractures. An osteotomy of a cadaveric humerus was performed to simulate a medial epicondyle fracture. Plain radiographs were obtained with the fracture fragment displaced anteriorly in 2-mm increments between 0 and 18 mm. Anteroposterior (AP), internal oblique (IR), lateral (LAT), and distal humerus axial (AXIAL) views were performed. Axial images were obtained by positioning the central ray above the shoulder at 15 to 20 degrees from the long axis of the humerus, centered on the distal humerus. Displacement (mm) was measured by 7 orthopaedic surgeons on digital radiographs. At 10 mm displacement, AP views underestimated displacement by 5.5±0.6 mm and IR views underestimated by 3.8±2.1 mm. On LAT views, readers were not able to visualize fragments with displacement. Displacement ≥10 mm from LAT views was overestimated by 1 reader by up to 4.6 mm and underestimated by others by up to 18.0 mm. AXIAL images more closely estimated the true amount of displacement, with a mean 1.5±1.1 mm error in measurement for displacement and a mean 0.8±0.7 mm error for displacements of ≥10 mm. AXIAL measurements correlated strongly with the actual displacement (r=0.998, Pdisplacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures. The newly described AXIAL projection more accurately and reliably demonstrated the true displacement while reducing the need for advanced imaging such as computed tomography. This simple view can be easily obtained at a clinic visit, enhancing the surgeon's ability to determine the true displacement.

  17. En face view of the mitral valve: definition and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider Javed; Shahul, Sajid; Qazi, Aisha; Swaminathan, Madhav; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    A 3-dimensional echocardiographic view of the mitral valve, called the "en face" or "surgical view," presents a view of the mitral valve similar to that seen by the surgeon from a left atrial perspective. Although the anatomical landmarks of this view are well defined, no comprehensive echocardiographic definition has been presented. After reviewing the literature, we provide a definition of the left atrial and left ventricular en face views of the mitral valve. Techniques used to acquire this view are also discussed.

  18. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive disorder: recent progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Hiroshi; Hori, Hiroaki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Ota, Miho

    2012-08-01

    Depression is a stress-induced disorder and there is compelling evidence for the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities in the disease. Chronic hyperactivity of the HPA axis and resultant excessive glucocorticoid (hypercortisolism) may be causal to depression. We demonstrated that the dexamethasone (DEX)/CRH test is a sensitive state-dependent marker to monitor HPA axis abnormalities. Restoration from HPA axis abnormalities occurs with clinical responses to treatment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in depression. We found that glucocorticoid (DEX) suppresses BDNF-induced dendrite outgrowth and synaptic formation via blocking the MAPK pathway in early-developing cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrated that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and TrkB (a specific receptor of BDNF) interact and that DEX acutely suppresses BDNF-induced glutamate release by affecting the PLC-gamma pathway in cultured cortical neurons, indicating a mechanism underlying the effect of excessive glucocorticoid on BDNF function and resultant damage in cortical neurons. In a macroscopic view using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we found that individuals with hypercortisolism detected by the DEX/CRH test demonstrated volume loss in gray matter and reduced neural network assessed with diffusion tensor imaging in several brain regions. Finally, we observed that individuals with hypocortisolism detected by the DEX/CRH test tend to present more distress symptoms, maladaptive coping styles, and schizotypal personality traits than their counterparts, which points to the important role of hypocortisolism as well as hypercortisolism in depression spectrum disorders.

  20. Imaging of particles with 3D full parallax mode with two-color digital off-axis holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Mohammed, Soumaya; Bouamama, Larbi; Picart, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an approach based on two orthogonal views and two wavelengths for recording off-axis two-color holograms. The approach permits to discriminate particles aligned along the sight-view axis. The experimental set-up is based on a double Mach-Zehnder architecture in which two different wavelengths provides the reference and the object beams. The digital processing to get images from the particles is based on convolution so as to obtain images with no wavelength dependence. The spatial bandwidth of the angular spectrum transfer function is adapted in order to increase the maximum reconstruction distance which is generally limited to a few tens of millimeters. In order to get the images of particles in the 3D volume, a calibration process is proposed and is based on the modulation theorem to perfectly superimpose the two views in a common XYZ axis. The experimental set-up is applied to two-color hologram recording of moving non-calibrated opaque particles with average diameter at about 150 μm. After processing the two-color holograms with image reconstruction and view calibration, the location of particles in the 3D volume can be obtained. Particularly, ambiguity about close particles, generating hidden particles in a single-view scheme, can be removed to determine the exact number of particles in the region of interest.

  1. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  2. The Proline Regulatory Axis and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phang, James Ming; Liu, Wei; Hancock, Chad; Christian, Kyle J., E-mail: phangj@mail.nih.gov [Metabolism and Cancer Susceptibility Section, Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2012-06-21

    Studies in metabolism and cancer have characterized changes in core pathways involving glucose and glutamine, emphasizing the provision of substrates for building cell mass. But recent findings suggest that pathways previously considered peripheral may play a critical role providing mechanisms for cell regulation. Several of these mechanisms involve the metabolism of non-essential amino acids, for example, the channeling of glycolytic intermediates into the serine pathway for one-carbon transfers. Historically, we proposed that the proline biosynthetic pathway participated in a metabolic interlock with glucose metabolism. The discovery that proline degradation is activated by p53 directed our attention to the initiation of apoptosis by proline oxidase/dehydrogenase. Now, however, we find that the biosynthetic mechanisms and the metabolic interlock may depend on the pathway from glutamine to proline, and it is markedly activated by the oncogene MYC. These findings add a new dimension to the proline regulatory axis in cancer and present attractive potential targets for cancer treatment.

  3. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P; Keller, P [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  4. A Portable Single Axis Magnetic Gradiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Nielsen, Otto V

    2001-01-01

    not provide vector information about the magnetic field. Secondly, one of the sensors measures the ambient magnetic field and is used to compensate for the main field at both sensors. Several methods have been developed for characterization of the 2 gradiometer, and the calibration of the gradient......The single axis magnetic gradiometer based on two compact detector compensation (CDC) fluxgate ringcore sensors separated 20 cm is described. Despite its high stability and precision better than 1 nT, the calibration procedures are not straightforward. Firstly, the mono-axial measurement does...... measurements is achieved by using a magnetic dipole of strength 2 mAm(2). In a coil facility, the gradient can be determined with an accuracy of 0.3 nT/m(RMS)....

  5. RITA-type triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennow, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The RITA spectrometer at Risoe National Laboratory was the first to incorporate a complete re-thinking of the neutron-path from source, through detector to analysis. Since then, other RITA-type spectrometers such as SPINS at NIST, RITA-II at PSI have been built, and several new spectrometers around the world are adapting the same philosophy. The main novelty of RITA was the introduction of a single back-end tank featuring both an analyser block with multiple individually turnable analyser blades and a 2D position sensitive detector. Several new triple-axis spectrometers are presently being built at existing and future sources, and almost all of them have learnt from the experience with RITA. (R.P.)

  6. Real-time quantitative phase reconstruction in off-axis digital holography using multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T

    2014-04-15

    We present a new approach for obtaining significant speedup in the digital processing of extracting unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis digital holograms. The new technique digitally multiplexes two orthogonal off-axis holograms, where the digital reconstruction, including spatial filtering and two-dimensional phase unwrapping on a decreased number of pixels, can be performed on both holograms together, without redundant operations. Using this technique, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time to our knowledge, unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis holograms with 1 megapixel in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a MATLAB platform, without using graphic-processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This new technique is important for real-time quantitative visualization and measurements of highly dynamic samples and is applicable for a wide range of applications, including rapid biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing. After comparing the speedups obtained by the new technique for holograms of various sizes, we present experimental results of real-time quantitative phase visualization of cells flowing rapidly through a microchannel.

  7. Dynamic behaviour studies of a vertical axis wind turbine blade using Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) and Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Belloni, F.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of a modified blade fitted onto a small 1 kW vertical-axis wind turbine is studied by two different approaches: Classical modal analysis (EMA) is carried out to validate the results of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). In traditional modal analysis (EMA) one axis accelerometers...... it is excited by random and wind forces. The cameras are programmed in LabView to take pictures at the same time with 180 fps and store them on a high speed hard disk. The output deflection will be investigated in frequency domain by peak picking method, and then AR (Autoregressive) model is applied to describe...

  8. X-ray microfocusing with off-axis ellipsoidal mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu, E-mail: yumoto@spring8.or.jp; Koyama, Takahisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors for two-dimensionally focusing X-rays to nanometer sizes have not been realized because of technical problems in their fabrication processes. The objective of the present study is to develop fabrication techniques for ellipsoidal focusing mirrors in the hard-X-ray region. We design an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror for use under total reflection conditions up to the X-ray energy of 8 keV. We fabricate an ellipsoidal mirror with a surface roughness of 0.3 nm RMS (root-mean-square) and a surface figure error height of 3.0 nm RMS by utilizing a surface profiler and surface finishing method developed by us. The focusing properties of the mirror are evaluated at the BL29XUL beamline in SPring-8. A focusing beam size of 270 nm × 360 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) at an X-ray energy of 7 keV is observed with the use of the knife-edge scanning method. We expect to apply the developed fabrication techniques to construct ellipsoidal nanofocusing mirrors.

  9. Propagation of angular errors in two-axis rotation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrington, Geoffrey K.

    2003-10-01

    Two-Axis Rotation Systems, or "goniometers," are used in diverse applications including telescope pointing, automotive headlamp testing, and display testing. There are three basic configurations in which a goniometer can be built depending on the orientation and order of the stages. Each configuration has a governing set of equations which convert motion between the system "native" coordinates to other base systems, such as direction cosines, optical field angles, or spherical-polar coordinates. In their simplest form, these equations neglect errors present in real systems. In this paper, a statistical treatment of error source propagation is developed which uses only tolerance data, such as can be obtained from the system mechanical drawings prior to fabrication. It is shown that certain error sources are fully correctable, partially correctable, or uncorrectable, depending upon the goniometer configuration and zeroing technique. The system error budget can be described by a root-sum-of-squares technique with weighting factors describing the sensitivity of each error source. This paper tabulates weighting factors at 67% (k=1) and 95% (k=2) confidence for various levels of maximum travel for each goniometer configuration. As a practical example, this paper works through an error budget used for the procurement of a system at Sandia National Laboratories.

  10. The intercomparison of the dose distributions between conformation techniques with pions and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Akanuma, A.

    1990-01-01

    To compare conformation radiation treatment with pions vs photons, dose volume histograms (DVH) to the critical organs, including the spinal cord, kidney, and intestine, were examined in a patient with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma. For photon conformation treatment, the following techniques were used: 360 degree rotation conformation technique (photon conformation), 4 fixed field technique (photon 4-field), and 2-axis conformation technique (photon 2-axial conformation). According to the DVH reduction method, complication probability was estimated. The concave portion of the target was conformed by pion conformation treatment, but not by photon conformation treatment. Pion conformation for the intestine showed the best DVH, whereas photon 4-field technique showed the worst DVH. For the kidney, pion conformation showed better DVH as compared with any other photon conformation treatment technique. In the spinal cord, photon 2-axial conformation was far superior, followed by pion conformation and then photon conformation and 4-field technique. A 2-axial technique showed a bigger inhomogeneity inside the target volume which is critical in curative treatment. TD 50 was 72 Gy for pion conformation, 53 Gy for photon conformation, 51 Gy for photon 4-field, and 68 Gy for photon 2-axial conformation. Complication probabilities for these conformation techniques at 60 Gy were 3%, 85%, 97%, and 9%. In view of tumor control probabilities, pion seems to have the biggest therapeutic ratio among these techniques. (N.K.)

  11. Effect of field-of-view on the Coriolis illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Muis, H.; Kooi, F.L.

    2008-01-01

    Tilting the head during rotation about an Earth-vertical axis produces cross-coupled stimulation of the semicircular canals. Without visual feedback on the actual self-motion, this leads to the so-called Coriolis illusion. We investigated the effect of the field-of-view (FOV) on the magnitude and

  12. Multi-view collimators for scintillation cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, J.; Grenier, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This patent specification describes a collimator for obtaining multiple images of a portion of a body with a scintillation camera comprises a body of radiation-impervious material defining two or more groups of channels each group comprising a plurality of parallel channels having axes intersecting the portion of the body being viewed on one side of the collimator and intersecting the input surface of the camera on the other side of the collimator to produce a single view of said body, a number of different such views of said body being provided by each of said groups of channels, each axis of each channel lying in a plane approximately perpendicular to the plane of the input surface of the camera and all of such planes containing said axes being approximately parallel to each other. (author)

  13. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computer-based data acquisition and control, the graphical interface program LabVIEW from National Instruments is so ubiquitous that in many ways it has almost become the laboratory standard. To date, there have been approximately fifteen books concerning LabVIEW, but Professor Essick's treatise takes on a completely different tack than all of the previous discussions. In the more standard treatments of the ways and wherefores of LabVIEW such as LabVIEW Graphical Programming: Practical Applications in Instrumentation and Control by Gary W. Johnson (McGraw Hill, NY 1997), the emphasis has been instructing the reader how to program LabVIEW to create a Virtual Instrument (VI) on the computer for interfacing to a particular instruments. LabVIEW is written in ''G'' a graphical programming language developed by National Instruments. In the past the emphasis has been on training the experimenter to learn ''G''. Without going into details here, ''G'' incorporates the usual loops, arithmetic expressions, etc., found in many programming languages, but in an icon (graphical) environment. The net result being that LabVIEW contains all of the standard methods needed for interfacing to instruments, data acquisition, data analysis, graphics, and also methodology to incorporate programs written in other languages into LabVIEW. Historically, according to Professor Essick, he developed a series of experiments for an upper division laboratory course for computer-based instrumentation. His observation was that while many students had the necessary background in computer programming languages, there were students who had virtually no concept about writing a computer program let alone a computer- based interfacing program. Thus the beginnings of a concept for not only teaching computer- based instrumentation techniques, but aiso a method for the beginner to experience writing a com- puter program. Professor Essick saw LabVIEW as the ''perfect environment in which to

  14. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices. (paper)

  15. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  16. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyang Zhu; Hailin Huang; Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter defi...

  17. Exploded view diagrams of mathematical surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Karpenko, Olga A.; Li, Wilmot; Mitra, Niloy J.; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique for visualizing complicated mathematical surfaces that is inspired by hand-designed topological illustrations. Our approach generates exploded views that expose the internal structure of such a surface by partitioning

  18. Concept of a Programmable Fixture for 3-Axis CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dalloul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CNC machine is the one of the major reasons for industrial advancement in recent decades for its ability of producing accurate parts. The most commen CNC machines are of 3-axis and adopted widely in the industrial sector. However, for producing more complicated parts 5-axis CNC machines are required. Although the introduction of the 5-axis machine came after the 3-axis CNC machine has established itself and many manufacturers did not make the move toward the newer model and its high pricing compared to the 3-axis model did not help either. In this time the development of a fixture or a platform to help transfer the 3-axis to a 5-axis to some degree. This paper discusses the concept of a programmable fixture that gives 3-axis CNC machine the freedom to act in similar manner as the 5-axis. The paper describes the mechanism with some initial results of the testing. Result showed that the platform moves in translation manner with an average error of 5.58 % and 7.303% average error for rotation movement.

  19. Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as a starting point for a line of research establishing incremental predictive utility for a separate suicide risk assessment in the DSM framework. A standardized suicide risk assessment protocol, measures of depressive, anxious, and eating disordered symptomatology, as well as an index of comorbidity were administered to a sample of 412 adult outpatients. Our data indicate that data from standardized suicide risk assessments are associated with indices of symptomatology severity as well as comorbidity, controlling for GAF. These results support the nonredundancy of the assessments and suggest the utility of longitudinal investigations of the predictive utility of a sixth DSM axis in the assessment of suicide risk.

  20. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  1. Evaluation of the optical axis tilt of zinc oxide films via noncollinear second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, F. A.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.; Sibilia, C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated noncollinear second harmonic generation form zinc oxide films, grown on glass substrates by dual ion beam sputtering technique. At a fixed incidence angle, the generated signal is investigated by scanning the polarization state of both fundamental beams. We show that the map of the generated signal as a function of polarization states of both pump beams, together with the analytical curves, allows to retrieve the orientation of the optical axis and eventually, its angular tilt, with respect to the surface normal.

  2. Towards a virtual platform for aerodynamic design, performance assessment and optimization of horizontal axis wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Valdivieso, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study and improvement of the techniques involved on a virtual platform for the simulation of the Aerodynamics of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines, with the ultimate objective of making Wind Energy more competitive. Navier-Stokes equations govern Aerodynamics, which is an unresolved and very active field of research due to the current inability to capture the relevant the scales both in time and space for nowadays industrial-size machines (with rotors over 100 m...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis, off-axis electron holography and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn

    2014-01-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (<50 nm) from mixed FeCl3 / FeCl2 precursor solution at pH ~ 12 has been confirmed using complementary characterisation techniques of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Off-axis electron holography allowed for visuali......The hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (holography allowed...

  4. Caudal Septal Stabilization Suturing Technique to Treat Crooked Noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Bahadir; Erdim, Ibrahim; Guvey, Ali; Oghan, Fatih; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2016-10-01

    To rotate the nasal axis and septum to the midline using an L-strut graft and a novel caudal septal stabilization suturing technique to treat crooked noses. Thirty-six patients were included in the study. First, an L-strut graft was prepared by excising the deviated cartilage site in all patients. Second, multiple stabilization suturing, which we describe as a caudal septal stabilization suturing technique with a "fishing net"-like appearance, was applied between the anterior nasal spine and caudal septum in all patients. This new surgical technique, used to rotate the caudal septum, was applied to 22 I-type and 14 C-type crooked noses. Correction rates for the crooked noses were compared between the 2 inclination types with angular estimations. Deviation angles were measured using the AutoCAD 2012 software package and frontal (anterior) views, with the Frankfurt horizontal line parallel to the ground. Nasal axis angles showing angle improvement graded 4 categories as excellent, good, acceptable, and unsuccessful for evaluations at 6 months after surgery in the study. The success rate in the C-type nasal inclination was 86.7% (±21.9) and 88% (±16.7) in the I-type. The overall success rate of L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing in crooked nose surgeries was 87.5% (±18.6). "Unsuccessful" results were not reported in any of the patients. L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing techniques are efficacious in crooked noses according to objective measurement analysis results. However, a longer follow-up duration in a larger patient population is needed.

  5. Effective solidity in vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The flow surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). This is done in a low-speed wind tunnel with a scale model that closely matches geometric and dynamic properties tip-speed ratio and Reynolds number of a full size turbine. Previous results have shown a strong dependance on the tip-speed ratio on the wake structure of the spinning turbine. However, it is not clear whether this is a speed or solidity effect. To determine this, we have measured the wakes of three turbines with different chord-to-diameter ratios, and a solid cylinder. The flow is visualized at the horizontal mid-plane as well as the vertical mid-plane behind the turbine. The results are both ensemble averaged and phase averaged by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine. By keeping the Reynolds number constant with both chord and diameter, we can determine how each effects the wake structure. As these parameters are varied there are distinct changes in the mean flow of the wake. Additionally, by looking at the vorticity in the phase averaged profiles we can see structural changes to the overall wake pattern.

  6. Mitochondrial–Lysosomal Axis in Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moles

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure and a major indication for liver transplantion in the United States and Europe. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying APAP hepatotoxicity, there is still an urgent need to find novel and effective therapies against APAP-induced acute liver failure. Hepatic APAP metabolism results in the production of the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI, which under physiological conditions is cleared by its conjugation with glutathione (GSH to prevent its targeting to mitochondria. APAP overdose or GSH limitation leads to mitochondrial NAPQI-protein adducts formation, resulting in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and necrotic cell death. As mitochondria are a major target of APAP hepatotoxicity, mitochondrial quality control and clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy, emerges as an important strategy to limit oxidative stress and the engagement of molecular events leading to cell death. Recent evidence has indicated a lysosomal–mitochondrial cross-talk that regulates APAP hepatotoxicity. Moreover, as lysosomal function is essential for mitophagy, impairment in the fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes-containing mitochondria may compromise the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, resulting in exacerbated APAP hepatotoxicity. This review centers on the role of mitochondria in APAP hepatotoxicity and how the mitochondrial/lysosomal axis can influence APAP-induced liver failure.

  7. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  8. Creating a Multi-axis Machining Postprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vavruška

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the postprocessor creation process. When using standard commercially available postprocessors it is often very difficult to modify its internal source code, and it is a very complex process, in many cases even impossible, to implement the newly-developed functions. It is therefore very important to have a method for creating a postprocessor for any CAM system, which allows CL data (Cutter Location data to be generated to a separate text file. The goal of our work is to verify the proposed method for creating a postprocessor. Postprocessor functions for multi-axis machiningare dealt with in this work. A file with CL data must be translated by the postprocessor into an NC program that has been customized for a specific production machine and its control system. The postprocessor is therefore verified by applications for machining free-form surfaces of complex parts, and by executing the NC programs that are generated on real machine tools. This is also presented here.

  9. A two-dimensional matrix correction for off-axis portal dose prediction errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents a follow-up to a modified calibration procedure for portal dosimetry published by Bailey et al. [“An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors,” Med. Phys. 36, 4089–4094 (2009)]. A commercial portal dose prediction system exhibits disagreement of up to 15% (calibrated units) between measured and predicted images as off-axis distance increases. The previous modified calibration procedure accounts for these off-axis effects in most regions of the detecting surface, but is limited by the simplistic assumption of radial symmetry. Methods: We find that a two-dimensional (2D) matrix correction, applied to each calibrated image, accounts for off-axis prediction errors in all regions of the detecting surface, including those still problematic after the radial correction is performed. The correction matrix is calculated by quantitative comparison of predicted and measured images that span the entire detecting surface. The correction matrix was verified for dose-linearity, and its effectiveness was verified on a number of test fields. The 2D correction was employed to retrospectively examine 22 off-axis, asymmetric electronic-compensation breast fields, five intensity-modulated brain fields (moderate-high modulation) manipulated for far off-axis delivery, and 29 intensity-modulated clinical fields of varying complexity in the central portion of the detecting surface. Results: Employing the matrix correction to the off-axis test fields and clinical fields, predicted vs measured portal dose agreement improves by up to 15%, producing up to 10% better agreement than the radial correction in some areas of the detecting surface. Gamma evaluation analyses (3 mm, 3% global, 10% dose threshold) of predicted vs measured portal dose images demonstrate pass rate improvement of up to 75% with the matrix correction, producing pass rates that are up to 30% higher than those resulting from the radial correction technique alone. As

  10. Research of z-axis geometric dose efficiency in multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Moon Chan

    2006-01-01

    With the recent prevalence of helical CT and multi-slice CT, which deliver higher radiation dose than conventional CT due to overbeaming effect in X-ray exposure and interpolation technique in image reconstruction. Although multi-detector and helical CT scanner provide a variety of opportunities for patient dose reduction, the potential risk for high radiation levels in CT examination can't be overemphasized in spite of acquiring more diagnostic information. So much more concerns is necessary about dose characteristics of CT scanner, especially dose efficient design as well as dose modulation software, because dose efficiency built into the scanner's design is probably the most important aspect of successful low dose clinical performance. This study was conducted to evaluate z-axis geometric dose efficiency in single detector CT and each level multi-detector CT, as well as to compare z-axis dose efficiency with change of technical scan parameters such as focal spot size of tube, beam collimation, detector combination, scan mode, pitch size, slice width and interval. The results obtained were as follows; 1. SDCT was most highest and 4 MDCT was most lowest in z-axis geometric dose efficiency among SDCT, 4, 8, 16, 64 slice MDCT made by GE manufacture. 2. Small focal spot was 0.67-13.62% higher than large focal spot in z-axis geometric dose efficiency at MDCT. 3. Large beam collimation was 3.13-51.52% higher than small beam collimation in z-axis geometric dose efficiency at MDCT. Z-axis geometric dose efficiency was same at 4 slice MDCT in all condition and 8 slice MDCT of large beam collimation with change of detector combination, but was changed irregularly at 8 slice MDCT of small beam collimation and 16 slice MDCT in all condition with change of detector combination. 5. There was no significant difference for z-axis geometric dose efficiency between conventional scan and helical scan, and with change of pitch factor, as well as change of slice width or interval for

  11. Three-axis optical force plate for studies in small animal locomotor mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S. Tonia

    2006-01-01

    The use of force plates to measure whole-body locomotor mechanics is a well-established technique. However, commercially available force plates are not sensitive enough for use on small-bodied vertebrates or invertebrates. The standard design for single- and multiple-axis, high-sensitivity force plates built by individual research groups uses semiconductor foil strain gauges to measure deflections; yet foil strain gauges are highly temperature and position sensitive, resulting in a drifting base line and nonlinear responses. I present here a design for a three-axis optical force plate that was successfully calibrated to measure forces as small as 1.5 mN and is capable of determining the position of center of pressure with a mean error of 0.07 cm along the X axis and 0.13 cm along the Y axis. Using optical sensors instead of foil strain gauges to measure deflection, this force plate is not subject to temperature-related drift and is more robust against slight positioning inaccuracies. This force plate was used to measure forces produced by amphibious fishes weighing less than 2 g as they jumped off the force platform

  12. A self-calibration method in single-axis rotational inertial navigation system with rotating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanpei; Wang, Lingcao; Li, Kui

    2017-10-01

    Rotary inertial navigation modulation mechanism can greatly improve the inertial navigation system (INS) accuracy through the rotation. Based on the single-axis rotational inertial navigation system (RINS), a self-calibration method is put forward. The whole system is applied with the rotation modulation technique so that whole inertial measurement unit (IMU) of system can rotate around the motor shaft without any external input. In the process of modulation, some important errors can be decoupled. Coupled with the initial position information and attitude information of the system as the reference, the velocity errors and attitude errors in the rotation are used as measurement to perform Kalman filtering to estimate part of important errors of the system after which the errors can be compensated into the system. The simulation results show that the method can complete the self-calibration of the single-axis RINS in 15 minutes and estimate gyro drifts of three-axis, the installation error angle of the IMU and the scale factor error of the gyro on z-axis. The calibration accuracy of optic gyro drifts could be about 0.003°/h (1σ) as well as the scale factor error could be about 1 parts per million (1σ). The errors estimate reaches the system requirements which can effectively improve the longtime navigation accuracy of the vehicle or the boat.

  13. Trust-based collective view prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Tiejian; Xu, Guandong; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Collective view prediction is to judge the opinions of an active web user based on unknown elements by referring to the collective mind of the whole community. Content-based recommendation and collaborative filtering are two mainstream collective view prediction techniques. They generate predictions by analyzing the text features of the target object or the similarity of users' past behaviors. Still, these techniques are vulnerable to the artificially-injected noise data, because they are not able to judge the reliability and credibility of the information sources. Trust-based Collective View

  14. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  15. Late Presentation of a Type III Axis Fracture with Spondyloptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Choi, David; Casey, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with an undiagnosed Effendi type III classification fracture and spondyloptosis of the axis with remarkably normal neurology. We discuss his surgery 4 years since the initial injury, and the presentation, features and management of fractures of the axis. PMID:18430325

  16. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  17. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M; Onishi, N; Tajima, N [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T

    1998-03-01

    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  18. A psychology of the human brain–gut–microbiome axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508

  19. The Performance Characteristics of a Closed Loop, One Axis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a closed loop one axis solar tracking device of the polar axis type, which achieves an accurate tracking of the sun with a steady state error of less, than 2%. This prototype uses a photo-sensing system to generate an error signal. This error signal switches on a relay, which actuates an electromechanical ...

  20. Vertical-axis wind turbine experiments at full dynamic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Miller, Mark; Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John; Hultmark, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    This study presents results from pressurized (upto 200 atm) wind tunnel tests of a self-spinning 5-blade model Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The model is geometrically similar (scale ratio 1:22) to a commercially available VAWT, which has a rotor diameter of 2.17 meters and blade span of 3.66 meters, and is used at the Stanford university field lab. The use of pressurized air as working fluid allows for the unique ability to obtain full dynamic similarity with field conditions in terms of matched Reynolds numbers (Re), tip-speed ratios (λ), and Mach number (M). Tests were performed across a wide range of Re and λ, with the highest Re exceeding the maximum operational field Reynolds number (Remax) by a factor of 3. With an extended range of accessible Re conditions, the peak turbine power efficiency was seen to occur roughly at Re = 2 Remax and λ = 1 . Beyond Re > 2 Remax the turbine performance is invariant in Re for all λ. A clear demonstration of Reynolds number invariance for an actual full-scale wind turbine lends novelty to this study, and overall the results show the viability of the present experimental technique in testing turbines at field conditions.

  1. Exploring point-cloud features from partial body views for gender classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Aaron; McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen; Tamburino, Louis; Mendoza-Schrock, Olga

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we extend a previous exploration of histogram features extracted from 3D point cloud images of human subjects for gender discrimination. Feature extraction used a collection of concentric cylinders to define volumes for counting 3D points. The histogram features are characterized by a rotational axis and a selected set of volumes derived from the concentric cylinders. The point cloud images are drawn from the CAESAR anthropometric database provided by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Human Effectiveness Directorate and SAE International. This database contains approximately 4400 high resolution LIDAR whole body scans of carefully posed human subjects. Success from our previous investigation was based on extracting features from full body coverage which required integration of multiple camera images. With the full body coverage, the central vertical body axis and orientation are readily obtainable; however, this is not the case with a one camera view providing less than one half body coverage. Assuming that the subjects are upright, we need to determine or estimate the position of the vertical axis and the orientation of the body about this axis relative to the camera. In past experiments the vertical axis was located through the center of mass of torso points projected on the ground plane and the body orientation derived using principle component analysis. In a natural extension of our previous work to partial body views, the absence of rotational invariance about the cylindrical axis greatly increases the difficulty for gender classification. Even the problem of estimating the axis is no longer simple. We describe some simple feasibility experiments that use partial image histograms. Here, the cylindrical axis is assumed to be known. We also discuss experiments with full body images that explore the sensitivity of classification accuracy relative to displacements of the cylindrical axis. Our initial results provide the basis for further

  2. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M V; Kessing, L V

    2001-01-01

    disorder. The HPA axis is a complex neuroendocrine network with multiple integrated levels of control, and it is likely that the dysregulation involves abnormalities at several sites within the axis. At present, it is not clear whether the abnormalities are related to the affective episodes only......This paper reviews studies of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity in patients with affective disorders. It is concluded that, despite methodological drawbacks in most studies, dysregulation of the HPA axis seems to be a consistent finding in a proportion of patients with affective...... or to the disorder itself. There is a need for prospective studies of larger samples of patients to be followed during successive affective episodes with a combination of measurements of the HPA-axis activity and brain imaging....

  3. Three-Axis Ground Reaction Force Distribution during Straight Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masataka; Nakai, Akihito; Shimoyama, Isao

    2017-10-24

    We measured the three-axis ground reaction force (GRF) distribution during straight walking. Small three-axis force sensors composed of rubber and sensor chips were fabricated and calibrated. After sensor calibration, 16 force sensors were attached to the left shoe. The three-axis force distribution during straight walking was measured, and the local features of the three-axis force under the sole of the shoe were analyzed. The heel area played a role in receiving the braking force, the base area of the fourth and fifth toes applied little vertical or shear force, the base area of the second and third toes generated a portion of the propulsive force and received a large vertical force, and the base area of the big toe helped move the body's center of mass to the other foot. The results demonstrate that measuring the three-axis GRF distribution is useful for a detailed analysis of bipedal locomotion.

  4. Theoretical performance of cross-wind axis turbines with results for a catenary vertical axis configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. J.; Stephens, M. V.; Dagenhart, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A general analysis capable of predicting performance characteristics of cross-wind axis turbines was developed, including the effects of airfoil geometry, support struts, blade aspect ratio, windmill solidity, blade interference and curved flow. The results were compared with available wind tunnel results for a catenary blade shape. A theoretical performance curve for an aerodynamically efficient straight blade configuration was also presented. In addition, a linearized analytical solution applicable for straight configurations was developed. A listing of the computer program developed for numerical solutions of the general performance equations is included in the appendix.

  5. Principal axis-based correspondence between multiple cameras for people tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Min; Zhou, Xue; Tan, Tieniu; Lou, Jianguang; Maybank, Steve

    2006-04-01

    Visual surveillance using multiple cameras has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Correspondence between multiple cameras is one of the most important and basic problems which visual surveillance using multiple cameras brings. In this paper, we propose a simple and robust method, based on principal axes of people, to match people across multiple cameras. The correspondence likelihood reflecting the similarity of pairs of principal axes of people is constructed according to the relationship between "ground-points" of people detected in each camera view and the intersections of principal axes detected in different camera views and transformed to the same view. Our method has the following desirable properties: 1) Camera calibration is not needed. 2) Accurate motion detection and segmentation are less critical due to the robustness of the principal axis-based feature to noise. 3) Based on the fused data derived from correspondence results, positions of people in each camera view can be accurately located even when the people are partially occluded in all views. The experimental results on several real video sequences from outdoor environments have demonstrated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of our method.

  6. S3D depth-axis interaction for video games: performance and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Collins, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Game developers have yet to embrace and explore the interactive stereoscopic 3D medium. They typically view stereoscopy as a separate mode that can be disabled throughout the design process and rarely develop game mechanics that take advantage of the stereoscopic 3D medium. What if we designed games to be S3D-specific and viewed traditional 2D viewing as a separate mode that can be disabled? The design choices made throughout such a process may yield interesting and compelling results. Furthermore, we believe that interaction within a stereoscopic 3D environment is more important than the visual experience itself and therefore, further exploration is needed to take into account the interactive affordances presented by stereoscopic 3D displays. Stereoscopic 3D displays allow players to perceive objects at different depths, thus we hypothesize that designing a core mechanic to take advantage of this viewing paradigm will create compelling content. In this paper, we describe Z-Fighter a game that we have developed that requires the player to interact directly along the stereoscopic 3D depth axis. We also outline an experiment conducted to investigate the performance, perception, and enjoyment of this game in stereoscopic 3D vs. traditional 2D viewing.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shamsoddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, large eddy simulation (LES is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS stresses: (a the Smagorinsky model; and (b the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a the actuator swept-surface model (ASSM, in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e., the actuator swept surface; and (b the actuator line model (ALM, in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e., the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES has been applied and validated for the simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASSM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied, and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASSM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient.

  8. Leaf and inflorescence axis anatomy of Brazilian species of Rapateoideae (Rapateaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela L. Daltin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of leaves and inflorescence axes of Spathanthus (2 spp., Rapatea (2 spp., Cephalostemon(1 sp., and Duckea(1 sp. (Rapateoideae, Rapateaceae was studied to identify useful characters for taxonomy. The cross-section shape of inflorescence axis differentiates the genera, while the cross-section shape and structure of leaf midrib has a specific value. The following characteristics are exclusive of Spathanthus: silica cells randomly distributed in the leaf epidermis; plicate chlorenchyma in the leaf blade; presence of fiber bundles in the mesophyll and in the inflorescence axis parenchyma. Spathanthus is also distinguished by the number, type and distribution of vascular bundles in the inflorescence axis. The genus Rapatea is characterized by the presence of stomata and silica cells only on the abaxial epidermis of the leaves and chlorenchyma composed of arm cells in the leaf blade. Characteristics with diagnostic value for Cephalostemon riedelianusare: leaf epidermal cells with straight to slightly sinuous walls in frontal view, inflorescence axes presenting a defined cortex, fiber bundles facing the larger vascular bundles and a fistulous pith. The anatomical characteristics of the leaves and inflorescence axes thus proved to be of taxonomic value in generic and specific levels. They are also useful to differentiate Rapateoideae from other subfamilies of Rapateaceae.

  9. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately. (paper)

  10. Effective shunt impedance comparison between s-band standing wave accelerators with on-axis and off-axis couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Funk, L.W.; Hutcheon, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The effective shunt impedances of a side-coupled S-band standing wave accelerating structure and a structure employing on-axis couplers have been compared by measuring the energy of accelerated electrons. Criteria for choosing an on-axis coupled structure compared to side-coupled and ''disk and washer'' accelerating structures are given. (author)

  11. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  12. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Chistyakov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm"−"2) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm"−"2 improved the orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm"−"2 showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  13. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianliang, E-mail: Jianliang.lin@swri.org [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Chistyakov, Roman [Zpulser LLC, Mansfield, MA 02048 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Highly <0001> orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the <0001> texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly <0001> c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm{sup −2}) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a <0001> preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm{sup −2} improved the <0001> orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm{sup −2} showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  14. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention provides a control rod system locking device adapted to engage an elongated extension shaft, releasably coupled at one end to the control rod assembly and releasably coupled at its other end to the control rod drive, to prevent rotation of the shaft about its longitudinal axis with respect to the control rod assembly

  15. Mapping local anisotropy axis for scattering media using backscattering Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghui; Sun, Minghao; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; Guo, Yihong; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging techniques can be used to detect the micro-structure variations of superficial biological tissues, including the sizes and shapes of cells, the structures in cells, and the densities of the organelles. Many tissues contain anisotropic fibrous micro-structures, such as collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and muscle fibers. Changes of these fibrous structures are potentially good indicators for some pathological variations. In this paper, we propose a quantitative analysis technique based on Mueller matrix for mapping local anisotropy axis of scattering media. By conducting both experiments on silk sample and Monte Carlo simulation based on the sphere-cylinder scattering model (SCSM), we extract anisotropy axis parameters from different backscattering Mueller matrix elements. Moreover, we testify the possible applications of these parameters for biological tissues. The preliminary experimental results of human cancerous samples show that, these parameters are capable to map the local axis of fibers. Since many pathological changes including early stage cancers affect the well aligned structures for tissues, the experimental results indicate that these parameters can be used as potential tools in clinical applications for biomedical diagnosis purposes.

  16. Fabrication of off-axis parabolic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezik, M.J.; Gerth, H.L.; Sladky, R.E.; Washington, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The report describes the fabrication process, including metal preparation, copper electroplating, single-crystal-diamond turning, optical inspection, and polishing, used to manufacture the focusing mirrors for the 10-kJ laser fusion experiment being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Fabrication of these mirrors by the techniques described resulted in diffraction-limited optics at a 10.6 μm wavelength

  17. A technique for reproducible roentgenprograms of the intercondylar sulcus for the study of the femoropatellar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelbel, R.; Bergmann, G.; Rohlmann, A.

    1979-01-01

    Roentgenographic documentation of certain features of FP-joint geometry and orientation may serve as guideline in deciding on the form of treatment for chondromalacia or recurrent patellar dislocation. Reproducible conditions for taking roentgen films are equally important for this purpose as well as for quantitative measurements and possible statistical work. A new positioning device for the patient's legs has been designed utilizing a parallellogram frame. The roentgenographic technique for skyline views at 30 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 inclination of the central beam relative to the femoral axis is described. The advantages over previous techniques are the ease of handling the positioning frame, the need for only vertical and horizontal adjustment of the roentgen tube, independence of the type of tube or table, reproducibility of cassette and patient positioning. (orig.) [de

  18. Generation of Binary Off-axis Digital Fresnel Hologram with Enhanced Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wai Ming Tsang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of high resolution printer and digital micromirror device (DMD has enabled real, off-axis holograms to be printed, or projected onto a screen. As most printers and DMD can only reproduce binary dots, the pixels in a hologram have to be truncated to 2 levels. However, direct binarizing a hologram will lead to severe degradation on its reconstructed image. In this paper, a method for generating binary off-axis digital Fresnel hologram is reported. A hologram generated with the proposed method is referred to as the "Enhanced Sampled Binary Hologram" (ESBH. The reconstructed image of the ESBH is superior in visual quality as compare with the one obtained with existing technique, and also resistant to noise contamination.

  19. Adaptive Sliding Mode Robust Control for Virtual Compound-Axis Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure mode of virtual compound-axis servo system is proposed to improve the tracking accuracy of the ordinary optoelectric tracking platform. It is based on the structure and principles of compound-axis servo system. A hybrid position control scheme combining the PD controller and feed-forward controller is used in subsystem to track the tracking error of the main system. This paper analyzes the influences of the equivalent disturbance in main system and proposes an adaptive sliding mode robust control method based on the improved disturbance observer. The sliding mode technique helps this disturbance observer to deal with the uncompensated disturbance in high frequency by making use of the rapid switching control value, which is based on the subtle error of disturbance estimation. Besides, the high-frequency chattering is alleviated effectively in this proposal. The effectiveness of the proposal is confirmed by experiments on optoelectric tracking platform.

  20. Design and analysis of power supply and information transfer to three-axis gyroscope stabilizer platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyanin Lev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on problems of the engineering implementation of 3-axis gyrostabilizer of the camera for orthophotography performed from light and ultralight aircrafts. The functional diagram of gyrostabilizer is characterized by a lighter ball-bearing having a large inner diameter used for the platform suspension on its internal (vertical axis. The problem is to transfer the supply voltage to the platform and the electric signals to and from the platform. Design solutions concerning the power supply and information transfer are supported by the experimental techniques suggested in this paper, namely: the use of the rolling contact; three-phase gyro motor power supply replaced by that from the single-phase network; signal transmission from the precession angle sensor using the air transformer; current and voltage frequency division; DC mode selection for the torquer. The results obtained prove the efficiency of the suggested design solutions.

  1. Deep CNNs Along the Time Axis With Intermap Pooling for Robustness to Spectral Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwaran; Kim, Geonmin; Kim, Ho-Gyeong; Oh, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Soo-Young

    2016-10-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with convolutional and pooling operations along the frequency axis have been proposed to attain invariance to frequency shifts of features. However, this is inappropriate with regard to the fact that acoustic features vary in frequency. In this paper, we contend that convolution along the time axis is more effective. We also propose the addition of an intermap pooling (IMP) layer to deep CNNs. In this layer, filters in each group extract common but spectrally variant features, then the layer pools the feature maps of each group. As a result, the proposed IMP CNN can achieve insensitivity to spectral variations characteristic of different speakers and utterances. The effectiveness of the IMP CNN architecture is demonstrated on several LVCSR tasks. Even without speaker adaptation techniques, the architecture achieved a WER of 12.7% on the SWB part of the Hub5'2000 evaluation test set, which is competitive with other state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Thoughts on the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.; Mainz Univ.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull. (orig.) [de

  3. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H; Mueller, H A; Wagner, H; Baetz, W

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  4. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A

    2003-06-01

    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  5. High-speed optical three-axis vector magnetometry based on nonlinear Hanle effect in rubidium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizbekyan, Hrayr; Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Aleksandr; Movsisyan, Marina; Papoyan, Aram

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic-field-compensation optical vector magnetometer based on the nonlinear Hanle effect in alkali metal vapor allowing two-axis measurement operation has been further elaborated for three-axis performance, along with significant reduction of measurement time. The upgrade was achieved by implementing a two-beam resonant excitation configuration and a fast maximum searching algorithm. Results of the proof-of-concept experiments, demonstrating 1 μT B-field resolution, are presented. The applied interest and capability of the proposed technique is analyzed.

  6. QlikView scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This mini book offers information about QlikView scripting written in an easy-to-understand manner, and covers QlikView scripting from basic to advanced features in a compact format.If you are a basic orintermediate developer with some knowledge of QlikView applications and a basic understanding of QlikView scripting and data extraction and manipulation, this book will be great for you. If you are an advanced user, you can also use this book as a reference guide and teaching aid. If you are a QlikView project team member such as a business user, data/ETL professional, project manager, orsystem

  7. Development of 3-axis precise positioning seismic physical modeling system in the simulation of marine seismic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Shin, S.; Ha, J.; Lee, D.; Lim, Y.; Chung, W.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic physical modeling is a laboratory-scale experiment that deals with the actual and physical phenomena that may occur in the field. In seismic physical modeling, field conditions are downscaled and used. For this reason, even a small error may lead to a big error in an actual field. Accordingly, the positions of the source and the receiver must be precisely controlled in scale modeling. In this study, we have developed a seismic physical modeling system capable of precisely controlling the 3-axis position. For automatic and precise position control of an ultrasonic transducer(source and receiver) in the directions of the three axes(x, y, and z), a motor was mounted on each of the three axes. The motor can automatically and precisely control the positions with positional precision of 2''; for the x and y axes and 0.05 mm for the z axis. As it can automatically and precisely control the positions in the directions of the three axes, it has an advantage in that simulations can be carried out using the latest exploration techniques, such as OBS and Broadband Seismic. For the signal generation section, a waveform generator that can produce a maximum of two sources was used, and for the data acquisition section, which receives and stores reflected signals, an A/D converter that can receive a maximum of four signals was used. As multiple sources and receivers could be used at the same time, the system was set up in such a way that diverse exploration methods, such as single channel, multichannel, and 3-D exploration, could be realized. A computer control program based on LabVIEW was created, so that it could control the position of the transducer, determine the data acquisition parameters, and check the exploration data and progress in real time. A marine environment was simulated using a water tank 1 m wide, 1 m long, and 0.9 m high. To evaluate the performance and applicability of the seismic physical modeling system developed in this study, single channel and

  8. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  9. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  10. design and implementation of a microcontroller based dual axis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In this paper, an efficient microcontroller-based dual axis solar radiation tracker which can be used to align a single photovoltaic (PV) ... replaced them with wind turbine generating stations. ... tracker which has both horizontal and vertical axle.

  11. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  12. Particle orbit analysis for LHD helical axis configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.

    1993-04-01

    Fast ion orbits for helical magnetic axis configurations in LHD (Large Helical Device) are analyzed and compared with the standard circular axis case. Boundaries between passing and helically trapped particle regions show clear differences: in the non-planar axis case the helically trapped region spreads, near the magnetic axis, over a much wider band across the 90deg pitch angle value and shows a very marked asymmetry. The locally trapped particle region is also wider than in the standard case. The differences in the loss cone boundaries of the two cases are rather small, however, the effects of re-entering criteria are very important in both cases. On the contrary, effects of finite coil size are not significant. (author)

  13. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  14. Off-axis vortex breakdown in a shallow whirlpool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N; López-Herrera, José María

    2013-06-01

    The off-axis emergence of vortex breakdown (VB) is revealed. The steady axisymmetric flow in a vertical sealed cylinder, which is partially filled with water and the rest is filled with air, is driven by the rotating bottom disk. The numerical simulations show that VB can emerge away from the rotation axis, interface, and walls. As the rotation intensifies, VB first develops in the water region. If the water height is less (larger) than nearly one half of the cylinder radius, VB emerges off (on) the axis. As the rotation further increases, the off-axis VB ring touches the interface and then a thin countercirculation layer develops in the air flow above the water VB domain. This two-fluid VB ring shrinks (it even disappears in a very shallow whirlpool) as the interface approaches the bottom disk.

  15. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits

  16. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits.

  17. Design of a Three-Axis Machine Tool Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the design improvement process of the components in a tool module for a three-axis machine tool, which occurred during the period of March-April 2002 in support of a critical U.S...

  18. Proper time axis of a closed relativistic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.; Fadeev, N.G.; Shavokhina, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    The definition of a proper time axis of a closed relativistic system of colliding particles is given. The solution of the proper time axis problem is presented. If the light velocity c equals the imaginary unit i, then in the case of a plane motion of the system the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the known in engineering mechanics problem about the reduction of any system of forces, applied to a rigid body, to the dynamic screw. In the general case, when c=i, the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the problem about the reduction to the dynamic screw of a system of forces, applied to a rigid body in a four-dimensional Euclidean space

  19. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  20. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  1. Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our...

  2. Three-Axis Gasless Sounding Rocket Payload Attitude Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas released by current sounding rocket payload attitude control systems (ACS) has the potential to interfere with some types of science instruments. A single-axis...

  3. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated ...

  4. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  5. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  6. Major and minor axis kinematics of 22 ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.; Heckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    Rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles have been determined for the major and the minor axes of 22 elliptical galaxies. Rotation was detected in all but one galaxy, even though the sample was biased toward round ellipticals. Minor axis rotation larger than major axis rotation was measured in two galaxies, NGC 4406 and NGC 7507. Roughly 10 percent of ellipticals may show large minor axis velocities relative to those on the major axis. A simple model is used to derive a rotational axis from the observed minor and major axis velocities to a typical accuracy of 6 deg. The rotational and photometric minor axes aligned to better than 10 deg for 60 percent of the sample, implying that the direction of the angular momentum is related to the orientation of the figure of the galaxy. IC 1459 has a kinematically distinct core with its angular momentum opposite to the angular momentum of the outer parts, and NGC 4406 has a core with its angular momentum perpendicular to that of the outer parts. 46 refs

  7. Axis of eye rotation changes with head-pitch orientation during head impulses about earth-vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C; Clendaniel, Richard A; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess how the axis of head rotation, Listing's law, and eye position influence the axis of eye rotation during brief, rapid head rotations. We specifically asked how the axis of eye rotation during the initial angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) changed when the pitch orientation of the head relative to Earth-vertical was varied, but the initial position of the eye in the orbit and the orientation of Listing's plane with respect to the head were fixed. We measured three-dimensional eye and head rotation axes in eight normal humans using the search coil technique during head-and-trunk (whole-body) and head-on-trunk (head-only) "impulses" about an Earth-vertical axis. The head was initially oriented at one of five pitch angles (30 degrees nose down, 15 degrees nose down, 0 degrees, 15 degrees nose up, 30 degrees nose up). The fixation target was always aligned with the nasooccipital axis. Whole-body impulses were passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 80 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 1000 degrees /s2. Head-only impulses were also passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 150 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 3000 degrees /s2. During whole-body impulses, the axis of eye rotation tilted in the same direction, and by an amount proportional (0.51 +/- 0.09), to the starting pitch head orientation (P rotation could be predicted from vectorial summation of the gains (eye velocity/head velocity) obtained for rotations about the pure yaw and roll head axes. Thus, even when the orientation of Listing's plane and eye position in the orbit are fixed, the axis of eye rotation during the VOR reflects a compromise between the requirements of Listing's law and a perfectly compensatory VOR.

  8. Relationships of neuroticism and extraversion with axis I and II comorbidity among patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Isometsä, Erkki

    2009-04-01

    High comorbidity with axis I and II disorders among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients may in part be due to the predisposing personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion. However, a comprehensive view of this relationship is lacking. MDD patients (n=193) in the Vantaa Depression Study were interviewed at baseline and at 6 and 18 months with the SCAN and SCID-II, and a general population comparison group (n=388) surveyed by mail. Neuroticism and extraversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory. A dose-exposure relationship between standardized levels of neuroticism and extraversion and type and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders among patients with MDD was hypothesized. Prevalence and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders increased significantly with increasing level of neuroticism. In contrast, as the level of extraversion increased, the prevalences of social phobia and cluster C personality disorders decreased. Patients with pure MDD or with any comorbid axis I or II disorder had z-scores of neuroticism of +0.46, +0.90 and +1.30 and of extraversion of -0.34, -0.47 and -0.84, respectively. Patients' personality scores were not pre-morbid. Among MDD patients, a positive dose-exposure relationship appears to exist between neuroticism and prevalence and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders. A negative relationship exists between level of extraversion and prevalence of social phobia and cluster C personality disorders. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that high neuroticism and low extraversion predispose to comorbid axis I and II disorders among patients with MDD.

  9. Human cancers converge at the HIF-2alpha oncogenic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franovic, Aleksandra; Holterman, Chet E; Payette, Josianne; Lee, Stephen

    2009-12-15

    Cancer development is a multistep process, driven by a series of genetic and environmental alterations, that endows cells with a set of hallmark traits required for tumorigenesis. It is broadly accepted that growth signal autonomy, the first hallmark of malignancies, can be acquired through multiple genetic mutations that activate an array of complex, cancer-specific growth circuits [Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100:57-70; Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (2004) Cancer genes and the pathways they control. Nat Med 10:789-799]. The superfluous nature of these pathways is thought to severely limit therapeutic approaches targeting tumor proliferation, and it has been suggested that this strategy be abandoned in favor of inhibiting more systemic hallmarks, including angiogenesis (Ellis LM, Hicklin DJ (2008) VEGF-targeted therapy: Mechanisms of anti-tumor activity. Nat Rev Cancer 8:579-591; Stommel JM, et al. (2007) Coactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases affects the response of tumor cells to targeted therapies. Science 318:287-290; Kerbel R, Folkman J (2002) Clinical translation of angiogenesis inhibitors. Nat Rev Cancer 2:727-739; Kaiser J (2008) Cancer genetics: A detailed genetic portrait of the deadliest human cancers. Science 321:1280-1281]. Here, we report the unexpected observation that genetically diverse cancers converge at a common and obligatory growth axis instigated by HIF-2alpha, an element of the oxygen-sensing machinery. Inhibition of HIF-2alpha prevents the in vivo growth and tumorigenesis of highly aggressive glioblastoma, colorectal, and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and the in vitro autonomous proliferation of several others, regardless of their mutational status and tissue of origin. The concomitant deactivation of select receptor tyrosine kinases, including the EGFR and IGF1R, as well as downstream ERK/Akt signaling, suggests that HIF-2alpha exerts its proliferative effects by endorsing these major pathways. Consistently

  10. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate......, allowing the epitaxial growth of the superconducting layer. State-of-the-art coated conductor hetero structures are mainly based on CeO2 based buffer stacks that consist of a sequence of several different buffer layers. Buffer layers deposited by continuous chemical deposition techniques, which...... is expected to be very advantageous in reel-to-reel applications. The thickness of these SrTiO3 monolayers was large enough to stop the nickel and copper diffusion from the Cu/Ni substrate. Hence, the developed high quality buffer layers are expected to be acting as efficient diffusion barriers and also...

  11. Mining Views : database views for data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockeel, H.; Calders, T.; Fromont, É.; Goethals, B.; Prado, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a system towards the integration of data mining into relational databases. To this end, a relational database model is proposed, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets, association rules and decision

  12. Mining Views : database views for data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockeel, H.; Calders, T.; Fromont, É.; Goethals, B.; Prado, A.; Nijssen, S.; De Raedt, L.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a relational database model towards the integration of data mining into relational database systems, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets, association rules, decision trees and clusterings, can be

  13. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  14. A Free Wake Numerical Simulation for Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, Radian

    2010-11-01

    In the last four decades, several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus wind turbine performances and characteristics. We can identified two families: stream-tube and vortex. The paper presents a simplified numerical techniques for simulating vertical axis wind turbine flow, based on the lifting line theory and a free vortex wake model, including dynamic stall effects for predicting the performances of a 3-D vertical axis wind turbine. A vortex model is used in which the wake is composed of trailing stream-wise and shedding span-wise vortices, whose strengths are equal to the change in the bound vortex strength as required by the Helmholz and Kelvin theorems. Performance parameters are computed by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Jukowski theorem and a semi-empirical stall model. We tested the developed model with an adaptation of the earlier multiple stream-tube performance prediction model for the Darrieus turbines. Predictions by using our method are shown to compare favorably with existing experimental data and the outputs of other numerical models. The method can predict accurately the local and global performances of a vertical axis wind turbine, and can be used in the design and optimization of wind turbines for built environment applications.

  15. [Correlation between the lower first permanent molar axis and the premature loss of temporary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Ana; Maxim, A; Haba, Danisia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first permanent molar. The study sample was formed by 94 orthopanthomografies of child patients with premature loss of lower temporary molars (first or second) after clinical eruption of the first permanent molar. All panoramic radiographs have been realized with the same panoramic unit with 1.4% magnification coefficient and were analyzed using a standardized technique of tracing the images of teeth and bone on matte acetate paper. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first permanent lower molar and occlusal plane. It was observed that premature loss of lower second deciduous molar modifies greater the vertical axis of first permanent molar (between 61 degrees and 79 degrees) then premature loss of first lower primary molar. This is perhaps because the loss of space in the case of premature exfoliation of first primary molar is due more to distal drift of canine then mesial drift of molars. The drift to mesial of first permanent molar is more accentuated proportional with the age at which appeared premature loss and so it is loss of leeway space.

  16. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...... be an important asset in workforce work ability and job satisfaction....

  17. A comparison of force sensing techniques for planetary manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Daniel; Okon, Avi; DiCicco, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Five techniques for sensing forces with a manipulator are compared analytically and experimentally. The techniques compared are: a six-axis wrist force/torque sensor, joint torque sensors, link strain gauges, motor current sensors, and flexibility modeling. The accuracy and repeatability fo each technique is quantified and compared.

  18. Postnatal development of the atlas and axis: CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Sung Su; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sung Tae

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate normal postnatal development of the atlas and axis by means of CT scanning. We prospectively analyzed CT scans of the developing atlas and axis of 200 normal children aged less than 14, investigating the CT appearance of these regions with particular attenuation to two synchondroses related to the atlas and four synchondroses and one ossification center related to the axis. Fusion varying was categorized as either low (grade1-5) or high (grade4-5), according to the varying degrees of fusion at each synchondrosis of ossification center. Neurocentral synchondrosis of the atlas was low grade in all children less than five, and high grade in all aged nine or more, while posterior synchondrosis of the atlas was low grade in 97% of children less than three and high grade in 99% aged three or more. As for the axis, neurocentral synchondrosis was low grade in all children less than three, and high grade in 97% of children aged five or more. PS of the axis was low grade in both children less than 6 months, and high grade in all aged two years or more. Dentocentral synchondrosis of the axis was low grade in 93% of children less than three and high grade in 96% of those aged at least five. Intradental axial synchondrosis was high grade in all children. Fusion of the terminal ossicle with the remainder of the dens was low in all children less than five and high in 97% of those aged nine of more. CT can help determine the parameters of normal postnatal development of the atlas and axis. A knowledge of normal ossification patterns of these regions may help provide an understanding of developmental anomalies and also help prevent confusion with fractures

  19. Multi-Axis Heterodyne Interferometry (MAHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James

    The detection and measurement of gravitational waves represents humanity’s next, and final, opportunity to open an entirely new spectrum with which to view the universe. The first steps of this process will likely take place later this decade when the second-generation ground-based instruments such as Advanced LIGO approach design sensitivity. While these events will be historic, it will take a space-based detector to access the milliHertz gravitational wave frequency band, a band that is rich in both number and variety of sources. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept has been developed over the past two decades in the US and Europe to provide access to this band. The European Space Agency recently selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the 3rd Large-class mission in the Cosmic Visions Programme, with the assumption that a LISA-like instrument would be implemented for launch in 2034. NASA has expressed interest in partnering on this effort and the US community has made its own judgment on the scientific potential of a space-based gravitational wave observatory through the selection of LISA as the 3rd flagship mission in the 2010 Decadal Survey. Much of the effort has been in retiring risk for the unique technologies that comprise a gravitational wave detector. A prime focus of this effort is LISA Pathfinder (LPF), a dedicated technology demonstrator mission led by ESA with contributions from NASA and several member states. LPF’s primary objective is to validate drag-free flight as an approach to realizing an inertial reference mass. Along the way, several important technologies will be demonstrated, including picometer-level heterodyne interferometry. However, there are several important differences between the interferometry design for LISA and that for LPF. These mostly result from the fact that LISA interferometry involves multiple lasers on separate spacecraft whereas LPF can use a single laser on a single spacecraft

  20. Single-shot self-interference incoherent digital holography using off-axis configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Myung K

    2013-12-01

    We propose a single-shot incoherent holographic imaging technique that adopts self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) with slight tilt of the plane mirror in the optical configuration. The limited temporal coherence length of the illumination leads the guide-star hologram of the proposed system to have a Gaussian envelope of elliptical ring shape. The observation shows that the reconstruction by cross correlation with the guide-star hologram achieves better quality than the usual propagation methods. Experimentally, we verify that the hologram and 3D reconstruction can be implemented incoherently with the proposed single-shot off-axis SIDH.

  1. Mechanical impedance of the sitting human body in single-axis compared to multi-axis whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, P; Lundström, R

    2001-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the mechanical impedance of the sitting human body and to compare data obtained in laboratory single-axis investigations with multi-axis data from in vehicle measurements. The experiments were performed in a laboratory for single-axis measurements. The multi-axis exposure was generated with an eight-seat minibus where the rear seats had been replaced with a rigid one. The subjects in the multi-axis experiment all participated in the single-axis experiments. There are quite a few investigations in the literature describing the human response to single-axis exposure. The response from the human body can be expected to be affected by multi-axis input in a different way than from a single-axis exposure. The present knowledge of the effect of multiple axis exposure is very limited. The measurements were performed using a specially designed force and accelerometer plate. This plate was placed between the subject and the hard seat. Outcome shows a clear difference between mechanical impedance for multi-axis exposure compared to single-axis. This is especially clear in the x-direction where the difference is very large. The conclusion is that it seems unlikely that single-axis mechanical impedance data can be directly transferred to a multi-axis environment. This is due to the force cross-talk between different directions.

  2. A direct-view customer-oriented digital holographic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaga, Vira R.; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct-view digital holographic camera system consisting mostly of customer-oriented components. The camera system is based on standard photographic units such as camera sensor and objective and is adapted to operate under off-axis external white-light illumination. The common-path geometry of the holographic module of the system ensures direct-view operation. The system can operate in both self-reference and self-interference modes. As a proof of system operability, we present reconstructed amplitude and phase information of a test sample.

  3. Mastering QlikView

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a business application developer or a system analyst who has learned QlikView and Qlik Sense and now want to take your learning to a higher level, then this book is for you.It is assumed that you are aware of the fundamentals of QlikView and have working knowledge of development and in-memory analytics.

  4. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  5. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J Ayen

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook containing plenty of easy-to-follow practical recipes with screenshots that will help you in mastering the Drupal Views module. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook is for developers or technically proficient users who are fairly comfortable with the concepts behind websites and the Drupal environment.

  6. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  7. Measurement Axis Searching Model for Terrestrial Laser Scans Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, terrestrial Lidar scans can cover rather a large area; the point densities are strongly varied because of the line-of-sight measurement principle in potential overlaps with scans taken from different viewpoints. Most of the traditional methods focus on registration algorithm and ignore searching model. Sometimes the traditional methods are directly used to align two point clouds; a large critically unsolved problem of the large biases will be created in areas distant from the overlaps while the local overlaps are often aligned well. So a novel measurement axis searching model (MASM has been proposed in this paper. The method includes four steps: (1 the principal axis fitting, (2 the measurement axis generation, (3 low-high-precision search, and (4 result generation. The principal axis gives an orientation to the point cloud; the search scope is limited by the measurement axis. The point cloud orientation can be adjusted gradually until the achievement of the global optimum using low- and high-precision search. We perform some experiments with simulated point clouds and real terrestrial laser scans. The results of simulated point clouds have shown the processing steps of our method, and the results of real terrestrial laser scans have shown the sensitivity of the approach with respect to the indoor and outdoor scenes.

  8. Ankle-foot orthosis bending axis influences running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Ranz, Ellyn C; Schmidtbauer, Kelly A; Neptune, Richard R; Wilken, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to improve locomotion for people with lower limb musculoskeletal weakness. The clinical prescription and design process are typically qualitative and based on observational assessment and experience. Prior work examining the effect of AFO design characteristics generally excludes higher impact activities such as running, providing clinicians and researchers limited information to guide the development of objective prescription guidelines. The proximal location of the bending axis may directly influence energy storage and return and resulting running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the location of an AFO's bending axis influences running mechanics. Marker and force data were recorded as 12 participants with lower extremity weakness ran overground while wearing a passive-dynamic AFO with posterior struts manufactured with central (middle) and off-centered (high and low) bending axes. Lower extremity joint angles, moments, powers, and ground reaction forces were calculated and compared between limbs and across bending axis conditions. Bending axis produced relatively small but significant changes. Ankle range of motion increased as the bending axis shifted distally (pbenefits during running, although individual preference and physical ability should also be considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Automatic thermographic scanning with the creation of 3D panoramic views of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, G.; Cadelano, G.; Bortolin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared thermography is widely applied to the inspection of building, enabling the identification of thermal anomalies due to the presence of hidden structures, air leakages, and moisture. One of the main advantages of this technique is the possibility to acquire rapidly a temperature map of a surface. However, due to the actual low-resolution of thermal camera and the necessity of scanning surfaces with different orientation, during a building survey it is necessary to take multiple images. In this work a device based on quantitative infrared thermography, called aIRview, has been applied during building surveys to automatically acquire thermograms with a camera mounted on a robotized pan tilt unit. The goal is to perform a first rapid survey of the building that could give useful information for the successive quantitative thermal investigations. For each data acquisition, the instrument covers a rotational field of view of 360° around the vertical axis and up to 180° around the horizontal one. The obtained images have been processed in order to create a full equirectangular projection of the ambient. For this reason the images have been integrated into a web visualization tool, working with web panorama viewers such as Google Street View, creating a webpage where it is possible to have a three dimensional virtual visit of the building. The thermographic data are embedded with the visual imaging and with other sensor data, facilitating the understanding of the physical phenomena underlying the temperature distribution.

  10. Wide field of view common-path lateral-shearing digital holographic interference microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Priyanka; Trivedi, Vismay; Mahajan, Swapnil; Patel, Nimit; Joglekar, Mugdha; Chhaniwal, Vani; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of living cells provides important information about the cell morphology and its time variation. Off-axis, digital holographic interference microscopy is an ideal tool for 3-D imaging, parameter extraction, and classification of living cells. Two-beam digital holographic microscopes, which are usually employed, provide high-quality 3-D images of micro-objects, albeit with lower temporal stability. Common-path digital holographic geometries, in which the reference beam is derived from the object beam, provide higher temporal stability along with high-quality 3-D images. Self-referencing geometry is the simplest of the common-path techniques, in which a portion of the object beam itself acts as the reference, leading to compact setups using fewer optical elements. However, it has reduced field of view, and the reference may contain object information. Here, we describe the development of a common-path digital holographic microscope, employing a shearing plate and converting one of the beams into a separate reference by employing a pin-hole. The setup is as compact as self-referencing geometry, while providing field of view as wide as that of a two-beam microscope. The microscope is tested by imaging and quantifying the morphology and dynamics of human erythrocytes. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  11. Role of Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiru, E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu; Fisher, Gary J., E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. Despite advances in aggressive multidisciplinary treatments, the 5-year survival rate for this dreadful disease is only 50%, mostly due to high rate of recurrence and early involvement of regional lymph nodes and subsequent metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for invasion and metastasis is one of the most pressing goals in the field of head and neck cancer. Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) family. There is compelling evidence that Met axis is dysregulated and plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in head and neck cancer. We describe in this review current understanding of Met axis in head and neck cancer biology and development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting Met axis.

  12. Subquadratic medial-axis approximation in $\\mathbb{R}^3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm that approximates the medial axis of a smooth manifold in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ which is given by a sufficiently dense point sample. The resulting, non-discrete approximation is shown to converge to the medial axis as the sampling density approaches infinity. While all previous algorithms guaranteeing convergence have a running time quadratic in the size $n$ of the point sample, we achieve a running time of at most $\\mathcal{O}(n\\log^3 n$. While there is no subquadratic upper bound on the output complexity of previous algorithms for non-discrete medial axis approximation, the output of our algorithm is guaranteed to be of linear size.

  13. Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: aerodynamics and starting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas the wind is very turbulent and unstable with fast changes in direction andvelocity. In these environments, the use of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT becomesincreasingly attractive due to several advantages over horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT.However, such designs have received much less attention than the more common propeller-typedesigns and the understanding of same aspects of their operation remains, to this day, incomplete.This is particularly true of their starting characteristics. Indeed, same authors heuristically maintainthat they cannot start without external assistance. This paper reviews the cause of the inability of thelow solidity fixed pitch vertical axis wind turbines to self-start, and investigates the way ofovercoming this draw back.

  14. Vertical axis wind turbines: a survey and bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramovich, H

    1987-01-01

    The stimulus for the development of modern, big wind turbines has been the world-wide oil crisis during the seventies. Although the horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) was the most popular type of wind turbine the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been recognized as a machine with competitive economic potential. The state of the art of the VAWT is reviewed. The wind turbine carrying the name of Darrieus was first proposed by the French inventor in 1925. His original patent covered a range of vertical-axis configurations but the term 'Darrieus' is now generally associated with the curved-blade geometry. In 1966 two researchers at the Canadian NRC again raised the idea of both the straight and curved-blade versions of the Darrieus VAWT.

  15. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers

  16. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  17. Research on Parameter Design of Multi - axis Hydrostatic Transmission Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reasonable parameters in the design of driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission vehicle, the working principle of single-side drive of hydrostatic transmission vehicle is introduced. The matching and control of engine and hydraulic pump are analyzed. According to the driving equation of vehicle, The driving force required for driving system is determined, and the parameters of hydraulic motor, hydraulic pump, system working pressure and braking system are designed and calculated, which provides the parameter design for driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission Reliable theoretical basis.

  18. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  19. Interpretation and quality of the tilted axis cranking approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendorf, S.; Meng, J.

    1996-06-01

    Comparing with the exact solutions of the model system of one and two particles coupled to an axial rotor, the quality of the semi classical tilted axis cranking approximation is investigated. Extensive comparisons of the energies and M1 and E2 transition probabilities are carried out for the lowest bands. Very good agreement is found, except near band crossings. Various recipes to take into account finite K within the frame of the usual principal axis cranking are included into the comparison. A set of rules is suggested that permits to construct the excited bands from the cranking configurations, avoiding spurious states. (orig.)

  20. Optical Three-Axis Tactile Sensor for Robotic Fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Ohka, Masahiro; Takata, Jumpei; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Morisawa, Nobuyuki; Yussof, Hanafiah Bin

    2008-01-01

    A new three-axis tactile sensor to be mounted on multi-fingered hands is developed based on the principle of an optical waveguide-type tactile sensor comprised of an acrylic hemispherical dome, a light source, an array of rubber sensing elements, and a CCD camera. The sensing element of the present tactile sensor includes one columnar feeler and eight conical feelers. A three-axis force applied to the tip of the sensing element is detected by the contact areas of the conical feelers, which ma...

  1. Performance characteristics of a horizontal axis turbine with fusion winglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Ying; Huang, Diangui

    2017-01-01

    Any technique or method that can improve the efficiency in exploiting renewable wind or marine current energy has got a great significance today. It has been reported that adding a winglet at the tip of the rotor blades on a horizontal axis wind turbine can increase its power performance. The purpose of this paper is to adopt a numerical method to investigate the effects of different winglet configurations on turbine performance, especially focusing on the direction for the winglet tip to point towards (the suction side, pressure side or both sides of the main blade). The results show that the new design of an integrated fusion winglet proposed in this paper can generally improve the main blade's power producing ability, which is further enhanced with the increase of turbine's tip speed ratio with a maximum power augmentation of about 3.96%. No matter which direction the winglet tip faces, the installation angle of the winglet should match well with the real angle of incoming flow. As a whole, the turbine with winglet of two tips facing to both sides of the main blade can produce much more power than the one of winglet configuration whose tip faces only one side for different blade hub pitch angles and vast majority of tip speed ratios. The working principle behind the winglet in improving turbine performance may be that it can block the downwash fluid easily flowing around the tip section of the main blade from the pressure side to suction side, and hence diffuse and spread out the tip vortex. As a result, it finally decreases the energy loss. Besides, the relative projected rotor area in incoming flow direction will also be reduced due to the addition of the winglet, which is also helpful to turbine's power coefficient. - Highlights: • Added winglet generally increase the turbine energy extraction performance. • Winglet facing blade both sides is usually superior to that of facing one side. • Winglet can isolate downwash fluid easily flowing

  2. Effects of global warming on fish reproductive endocrine axis, with special emphasis in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro Andrés; Chalde, Tomás; Elisio, Mariano; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The ongoing of global warming trend has led to an increase in temperature of several water bodies. Reproduction in fish, compared with other physiological processes, only occurs in a bounded temperature range; therefore, small changes in water temperature could significantly affect this process. This review provides evidence that fish reproduction may be directly affected by further global warming and that abnormal high water temperature impairs the expression of important genes throughout the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. In all fishes studied, gonads seem to be the organ more readily damaged by heat treatments through the inhibition of the gene expression and subsequent synthesis of different gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. In view of the feedback role of sex steroids upon the synthesis and release of GnRH and GtHs in fish, it is possible that the inhibition observed at brain and pituitary levels in treated fish is consequence of the sharp decrease in plasma steroids levels. Results of in vitro studies on the inhibition of pejerrey gonad aromatase expression by high temperature corroborate that ovary functions are directly disrupted by high temperature independently of the brain-pituitary axis. For the reproductive responses obtained in laboratory fish studies, it is plausible to predict changes in the timing and magnitude of reproductive activity or even the total failure of spawning season may occur in warm years, reducing annual reproductive output and affecting future populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal characterization of indirectly heated axi-symmetric solid cathode electron beam gun for melting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, B.; Gupta, S.; Malik, P.; Mishra, K.K.; Jha, M.N.; Kandaswamy, E.; Martin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam melting gun with indirectly heated axi-symmetric solid cathode was designed, fabricated and characterized experimentally. The thermal simulation and optical analysis of the electron gun was carried out to estimate the power required to achieve the emission temperature of the solid cathode, to obtain the temperature distribution in the assembly and the beam transportation. On the basis of the thermal simulation and electron optics, the electron gun design was finalised. The electron gun assembly was fabricated and installed in the vacuum chamber for carrying out the experiment to find the actual temperature distribution. Thermocouple and two colour pyrometer were used to measure the temperature at various locations in the electron gun. The attenuation effect of the viewing port glass of the vacuum chamber was compensated in the final reading of the temperature measured by the pyrometer. The temperature of solid cathode obtained by the experiment was found to be 2800K which is the emission temperature of solid cathode. (author)

  4. A novel three-axis cylindrical hohlraum designed for inertial confinement fusion ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Longyu; Li, Hang; Jing, Longfei; Lin, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lu; Li, Liling; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Jian

    2016-10-01

    A novel ignition hohlraum for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion is proposed, which is named three-axis cylindrical hohlraum (TACH). TACH is a kind of 6 laser entrance holes (LEHs) hohlraum, which is orthogonally jointed of three cylindrical hohlraums. Laser beams are injected through every entrance hole with the same incident angle of 55°. A view-factor simulation result shows that the time-varying drive asymmetry of TACH is less than 1.0% in the whole drive pulse period without any supplementary technology. Coupling efficiency of TACH is close to that of 6 LEHs spherical hohlraum with corresponding size. Its plasma-filling time is close to that of typical cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Its laser plasma interaction has as low backscattering as the outer cone of the cylindrical ignition hohlraum. Therefore, TACH combines most advantages of various hohlraums and has little predictable risk, providing an important competitive candidate for ignition hohlraum.

  5. Model of the lines of sight for an off-axis optical instrument Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Dominique; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Tournier, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The future Earth observation missions aim at delivering images with a high resolution and a large field of view. These images have to be processed to get a very accurate localisation. In that goal, the individual lines of sight of each photosensitive element must be evaluated according to the localisation of the pixels in the focal plane. But, with off-axis Korsch telescope (like PLEIADES), the classical model has to be adapted. This is possible by using optical ground measurements made after the integration of the instrument. The processing of these results leads to several parameters, which are function of the offsets of the focal plane and the real focal length. All this study which has been proposed for the PLEIADES mission leads to a more elaborated model which provides the relation between the lines of sight and the location of the pixels, with a very good accuracy, close to the pixel size.

  6. Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-In; Kwon, Yong-Hoan; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2007-03-01

    The authors propose a method to control the viewing angle of a liquid crystal (LC) panel using dual-mode switching. To realize both wide viewing angle (WVA) characteristics and narrow viewing angle (NVA) characteristics with a single LC panel, the authors use two different dark states. The LC layer can be aligned homogeneously parallel to the transmission axis of the bottom polarizer for WVA dark state operation, while it can be aligned vertically for NVA dark state operation. The authors demonstrated that viewing angle control can be achieved with a single panel without any loss of contrast at the front.

  7. Detection of defects in formed sheet metal using medial axis transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Naresh C.; Velgan, Roman

    2003-05-01

    In the metal forming processes, the sheet metals are often prone to various defects such as thinning, dents, wrinkles etc. In the present manufacturing environments with ever increasing demand of higher quality, detecting the defects of formed sheet metal using an effective and objective inspection system is the foremost norm to remain competitive in market. The defect detection using optical techniques aspire to satisfy its needs to be non-contact and fast. However, the main difficulties to achieve this goal remain essentially on the development of efficient evaluation technique and accurate interpretation of extracted data. The defect like thinning is detected by evaluating the deviations of the thickness in the formed sheet metal against its nominal value. The present evaluation procedure for determination of thickness applied on the measurements data is not without deficiency. To improve this procedure, a new evaluation approach based on medial axis transformation is proposed here. The formed sheet metals are digitized using fringe projection systems in different orientations, and afterwards registered into one coordinate frame. The medial axis transformation (MAT) is applied on the point clouds, generating the point clouds of MAT. This data is further processed and medial surface is determined. The thinning defect is detected by evaluating local wall thickness and other defects like wrinkles are determined using the shape recognition on the medial surface. The applied algorithm is simple, fast and robust.

  8. Prospects for quantitative and time-resolved double and continuous exposure off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migunov, Vadim, E-mail: v.migunov@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dwyer, Christian [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Boothroyd, Chris B. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, Giulio [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale B. Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The technique of double exposure electron holography, which is based on the superposition of two off-axis electron holograms, was originally introduced before the availability of digital image processing to allow differences between electron-optical phases encoded in two electron holograms to be visualised directly without the need for holographic reconstruction. Here, we review the original method and show how it can now be extended to permit quantitative studies of phase shifts that oscillate in time. We begin with a description of the theory of off-axis electron hologram formation for a time-dependent electron wave that results from the excitation of a specimen using an external stimulus with a square, sinusoidal, triangular or other temporal dependence. We refer to the more general method as continuous exposure electron holography, present preliminary experimental measurements and discuss how the technique can be used to image electrostatic potentials and magnetic fields during high frequency switching experiments. - Highlights: • Double and continuous exposure electron holography are described in detail. • The ability to perform quantitative studies of phase shifts that are oscillating in time is illustrated. • Theoretical considerations related to noise are presented. • Future high frequency electromagnetic switching experiments are proposed.

  9. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  10. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  11. Japanese views on ASSET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, M [Department of Reactor Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities.

  12. BPMN process views construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yongchareon, S.; Liu, Chengfei; Zhao, X.; Kowalkiewicz, M.; Kitagawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Process view technology is catching more attentions in modern business process management, as it enables the customisation of business process representation. This capability helps improve the privacy protection, authority control, flexible display, etc., in business process modelling. One of

  13. Competing views on cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... 'system' (or 'network'); it is, rather, between views that are. 'cell-based' and ... In the spirit of the meeting that provided the motivation for bringing out ..... of applications usually reward applications that abide by the. 'consensus'.

  14. Japanese views on ASSET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities

  15. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which encompasses India, Australia, a major portion of the .... Nepal earthquake in which many buildings and structures went ... The 1970 version (same as Figure 3) of code ... The national Seismic Zone Map presents a large-scale view of.

  16. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  17. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  18. End-view of the DELPHI detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    End-view of the 10-m diameter DELPHI detector at CERN's LEP electron-positron collider from 1989 to 2000. Its concentric modules, including a pioneer large-scale application of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov technique to differentiate between all the various secondary particles, ensure high precision and 'granularity'.

  19. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  20. Experimental characterization of individual pitch controlled vertical axis wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leblanc, B.P.; Simao Ferreira, C.

    2017-01-01

    Research into the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has been progressing over the last few years due to
    the large shift in design constraints for large floating offshore wind turbines by leveraging tools and experience
    from research beginning in the 1970s and lasting until the HAWT

  1. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple...

  2. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.

    2016-01-01

    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine the to...

  3. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  4. An improved computer controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.; Hall, J.W.; Hutchings, M.T.

    1975-07-01

    A description is given of the computer-controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer installed at the PLUTO reactor at Harwell. The reasons for an nature of recent major improvements are discussed. Following a general description of the spectrometer, details are then given of the new computerised control system, including the functions of the various programs which are now available to the user. (author)

  5. The GH/IGF-1 axis in ageing and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Murrey, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of growth hormone (GH), and consequently that of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), declines over time until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged ≥60 years. This phenomenon, which is known as the ‘somatopause’, has led to recombinant human GH being widely promoted and abused as an antiageing drug, despite lack of evidence of efficacy. By contrast, several mutations that decrease the tone of the GH/IGF-1 axis are associated with extended longevity in mice. In humans, corresponding or similar mutations have been identified, but whether these mutations alter longevity has yet to be established. The powerful effect of reduced GH activity on lifespan extension in mice has generated the hypothesis that pharmaceutically inhibiting, rather than increasing, GH action might delay ageing. Moreover, mice as well as humans with reduced activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis are protected from cancer and diabetes mellitus, two major ageing-related morbidities. Here, we review data on mouse strains with alterations in the GH/IGF-1 axis and their effects on lifespan. The outcome of corresponding or similar mutations in humans is described, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying increased longevity and the therapeutic benefits and risks of medical disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis in humans. PMID:23591370

  6. Lake Malawi cichlid evolution along a benthic/limnetic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C D; Roberts, R J; Loh, Y-H E; Rupp, M F; Streelman, J T

    2013-07-01

    Divergence along a benthic to limnetic habitat axis is ubiquitous in aquatic systems. However, this type of habitat divergence has largely been examined in low diversity, high latitude lake systems. In this study, we examined the importance of benthic and limnetic divergence within the incredibly species-rich radiation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Using novel phylogenetic reconstructions, we provided a series of hypotheses regarding the evolutionary relationships among 24 benthic and limnetic species that suggests divergence along this axis has occurred multiple times within Lake Malawi cichlids. Because pectoral fin morphology is often associated with divergence along this habitat axis in other fish groups, we investigated divergence in pectoral fin muscles in these benthic and limnetic cichlid species. We showed that the eight pectoral fin muscles and fin area generally tended to evolve in a tightly correlated manner in the Lake Malawi cichlids. Additionally, we found that larger pectoral fin muscles are strongly associated with the independent evolution of the benthic feeding habit across this group of fish. Evolutionary specialization along a benthic/limnetic axis has occurred multiple times within this tropical lake radiation and has produced repeated convergent matching between exploitation of water column habitats and locomotory morphology.

  7. The somatotropic axis: Effects on brain and cognitive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Both hormones of the somatotropic axis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) can cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to their receptors in neurons and glia throughout the brain. Features of aging resemble those of GHD and aging is also associated with a decline in the

  8. Locating an axis-parallel rectangle on a Manhattan plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Körner, Mark-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of locating an axis-parallel rectangle in the plane such that the sum of distances between the rectangle and a finite point set is minimized, where the distance is measured by the Manhattan norm 1. In this way we solve an extension of the Weber problem...

  9. Serotonergic stimulation of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Kiss, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Acute stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is mediated by several postsynaptic 5-HT receptor subtypes. Activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors increases plasma corticosterone levels, and it is likely that these recept...

  10. Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Carignan, L. P.; Yelon, A.

    2014-01-01

    with respect to the axis of the wires. In thinner Cu/CoFeB ((multilayer, magnetic field vortices were detected, associated with opposing magnetization in neighbouring layers. The measured crystallinity, compositions, and layer thicknesses of individual NWs were found to be significantly different...

  11. Microbiota-Brain-Gut Axis and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2017-10-17

    The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges. Animal and translational models have incriminated a disturbed gut microbiota in a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson's disease; data from human studies is scanty. While a theoretical basis can be developed for the use of microbiota-directed therapies in neurodegenerative disorders, support is yet to come from high-quality clinical trials. In theory, a role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis is highly plausible; clinical confirmation is awaited.

  12. On the Turbulent Mixing in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The wake flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine is characterised by lower wind speed and higher turbulence than the free-stream conditions. When clustered in large wind farms, wind turbines regularly operate inside the wake of one or more upstream machines. This is a major cause of energy production

  13. Phytochemicals for taming agitated immune-endocrine-neural axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2017-07-01

    Homeostasis of immune-endocrine-neural axis is paramount for human health. If this axis gets agitated due to age, genetic variations, environmental exposures or lifestyle assaults, a cascade of adverse reactions occurs in human body. Cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters, the effector molecules of this axis behave erratically, leading to a gamut of neural, endocrine, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. Current panel of drugs can tackle some of them but not in a sustainable, benign way as a myriad of side effects, causal of them have been documented. In this context, phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants seem beneficial. These bioactive constituents encompassing polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, lignans, stilbenoids (resveratrol), saponins, polysaccharides, glycosides, and lectins etc. have been proven to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, dermatoprotective, and antimicrobial properties, among a litany of other biological effects. This review presents a holistic perspective of common afflictions resultant of immune-endocrine-neural axis disruption, and the phytochemicals capable of restoring their normalcy and mitigating the ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A four-axis hand controller for helicopter flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Joe

    1993-01-01

    A proof-of-concept hand controller for controlling lateral and longitudinal cyclic pitch, collective pitch and tail rotor thrust was developed. The purpose of the work was to address problems of operator fatigue, poor proprioceptive feedback and cross-coupling of axes associated with many four-axis controller designs. The present design is an attempt to reduce cross-coupling to a level that can be controlled with breakout force, rather than to eliminate it entirely. The cascaded design placed lateral and longitudinal cyclic in their normal configuration. Tail rotor thrust was placed atop the cyclic controller. A left/right twisting motion with the wrist made the control input. The axis of rotation was canted outboard (clockwise) to minimize cross-coupling with the cyclic pitch axis. The collective control was a twist grip, like a motorcycle throttle. Measurement of the amount of cross-coupling involved in pure, single-axis inputs showed cross coupling under 10 percent of full deflection for all axes. This small amount of cross-coupling could be further reduced with better damping and force gradient control. Fatigue was not found to be a problem, and proprioceptive feedback was adequate for all flight tasks executed.

  15. Exaggerated supine oblique view of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of the 60 degree supine oblique view is described together with anatomic skeletal studies of this projection. The view is convenient for emergency room radiography and useful in other clinical radiography. The view separates widely the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebrae in a side to side projection. This makes for an elongated but detailed view of the articular processes, pedicles, and intervertebral foramina. In the cadavar specimen and clinically the view is shown to be useful in delineating fracture deformities of the articular process and visualizing constriction of the intervertebral foramen superiorly. Encroachment of the foramen superiorly is likely to compromise the emerging nerve root in this area

  16. The manufacturing and metrology of off-axis mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, Karlheinz; Rascher, Rolf; Küpper, Lutz; Liebl, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Especially in the area of the large mirror manufacturing only a few manufacturers are capable to produce optical surfaces of high quality. Therefore a deterministic process should be developed in the project IFasO. In the field of telescope optics off-axis optical systems are becoming increasingly important. These systems try to avoid an obstructing of the incoming light by moving the secondary mirror out of the primary mirror's optical axis. This advantage leads to an increasing market for this type of optical surface. Until now off-axis mirrors were difficult or almost impossible to produce. With the processes developed in IFasO, high quality mirrors become possible. For this reason, this paper describes the manufacturing of off-axis surfaces and its problems. The mirror production used in the project IFasO is based on the specific design of the CNC center developed by the company Optotech. This center UPG2000 is capable of grinding, polishing, sagitta measurement and interferometric measurement in one mounting of the specimen. Usually a large optics has to be transported during their manufacturing after every individual process step. There is always a risk of damage of the specimen. The exact orientation of the surface relatively to the tool position is also required. This takes a huge amount of time and makes up most of the production time. In this presentation the use of UPG2000 and the next steps within the process development are described. In the current status the manufacturing of large off-axis elements with a PV < λ/10 rms is reproducible.

  17. GRB 170817A: a short GRB seen off-axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Bo; Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas; Shen, Rong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The angular distribution of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets is not yet clear. The observed luminosity of GRB 170817A is the lowest among all known short GRBs, which is best explained by the fact that our line of sight is outside of the jet opening angle, θ obs > θ j , where θ obs is the angle between our line of sight and the jet axis. As inferred by gravitational wave observations, as well as radio and X-ray afterglow modeling of GRB 170817A, it is likely that θ obs ∼ 20° – 28°. In this work, we quantitatively consider two scenarios of angular energy distribution of GRB ejecta: a top-hat jet and a structured jet with a power law index s. For the top-hat jet model, we get a large θ j (e.g., θ j > 10°), a rather high local (i.e., z 7.5 × 104, keV (∼500, keV for a typical short GRB). For the structured jet model, we use θ obs to give limits on s and θj for typical on-axis luminosity of a short GRB (e.g., 1049 erg s‑1 ∼ 1051 erg s‑1), and a low on-axis luminosity case (e.g., 1049 erg s‑1) gives more reasonable values of s. The structured jet model is more feasible for GRB 170817A than the top-hat jet model due to the rather high local short GRB rate, and the extremely high on-axis E peak,0 almost rules out the top-hat jet model. GRB 170817A is likely a low on-axis luminosity GRB (1049 erg s‑1) with a structured jet.

  18. Analytical Aerodynamic Simulation Tools for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deglaire, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Wind power is a renewable energy source that is today the fastest growing solution to reduce CO 2 emissions in the electric energy mix. Upwind horizontal axis wind turbine with three blades has been the preferred technical choice for more than two decades. This horizontal axis concept is today widely leading the market. The current PhD thesis will cover an alternative type of wind turbine with straight blades and rotating along the vertical axis. A brief overview of the main differences between the horizontal and vertical axis concept has been made. However the main focus of this thesis is the aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades. Making aerodynamically efficient turbines starts with efficient blades. Making efficient blades requires a good understanding of the physical phenomena and effective simulations tools to model them. The specific aerodynamics for straight bladed vertical axis turbine flow are reviewed together with the standard aerodynamic simulations tools that have been used in the past by blade and rotor designer. A reasonably fast (regarding computer power) and accurate (regarding comparison with experimental results) simulation method was still lacking in the field prior to the current work. This thesis aims at designing such a method. Analytical methods can be used to model complex flow if the geometry is simple. Therefore, a conformal mapping method is derived to transform any set of section into a set of standard circles. Then analytical procedures are generalized to simulate moving multibody sections in the complex vertical flows and forces experienced by the blades. Finally the fast semi analytical aerodynamic algorithm boosted by fast multipole methods to handle high number of vortices is coupled with a simple structural model of the rotor to investigate potential aeroelastic instabilities. Together with these advanced simulation tools, a standard double multiple streamtube model has been developed and used to design several straight bladed

  19. Velocity measurement of model vertical axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A.; McWilliam, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An increasingly popular solution to future energy demand is wind energy. Wind turbine designs can be grouped according to their axis of rotation, either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal axis wind turbines have higher power output in a good wind regime than vertical axis turbines and are used in most commercial class designs. Vertical axis Savonius-based wind turbine designs are still widely used in some applications because of their simplistic design and low wind speed performance. There are many design variables that must be considered in order to optimize the power output in a given wind regime in a typical wind turbine design. Using particle image velocimetry, a study of the air flow around five different model vertical axis wind turbines was conducted in a closed loop wind tunnel. A standard Savonius design with two semi-circular blades overlapping, and two variations of this design, a deep blade and a shallow blade design were among the turbine models included in this study. It also evaluated alternate designs that attempt to increase the performance of the standard design by allowing compound blade curvature. Measurements were collected at a constant phase angle and also at random rotor orientations. It was found that evaluation of the flow patterns and measured velocities revealed consistent and stable flow patterns at any given phase angle. Large scale flow structures are evident in all designs such as vortices shed from blade surfaces. An important performance parameter was considered to be the ability of the flow to remain attached to the forward blade and redirect and reorient the flow to the following blade. 6 refs., 18 figs.

  20. A computational procedure to define the incidence angle on airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method to calculate the incidence angle from a computed CFD flow field. • Applicable to each airfoil rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction. • Composed by four, easily automatable steps explained in details. • Robustness of the model assessed on two Darrieus turbine study cases. - Abstract: Numerical simulations provided in the last few years a significant contribution for a better understanding of many phenomena connected to the flow past rotating blades. In case of airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction, one of the most critical issues is represented by the definition of the incidence angle on the airfoil from the computed flow field. Incidence indeed changes continuously as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade and a distribution of peripheral speed is experienced along the airfoil’s thickness due to radius variation. The possibility of reducing the flow to lumped parameters (relative speed modulus and direction), however, would be of capital relevance to transpose accurate CFD numerical results into effective inputs to low-order models that are often exploited for preliminary design analyses. If several techniques are available for this scope in the case of blades rotating around an axis parallel to flow direction (e.g., horizontal-axis wind turbines), the definition of a robust procedure in case the revolution axis is orthogonal to the flow is still missing. In the study, a novel technique has been developed using data from Darrieus-like rotating airfoils. The method makes use of the virtual camber theory to define a virtual airfoil whose pressure coefficient distributions in straight flow are used to match those of the real airfoil in curved flow. Even if developed originally for vertical-axis wind turbines, the method is of general validity and is thought to represent in the near future a valuable tool for researchers to get a new insight on many complex phenomena connected to flow

  1. Optical performance of inclined south-north axis three-positions tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Hao; Li, Guihua; Tang, Runsheng; Dong, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the optical performance of solar panels with a new sun-tracking technique was theoretically investigated based on the proposed mathematical method and monthly horizontal radiation. The mechanism of the investigated sun-tracking is that the attitude angle of solar panels is daily adjusted three times at three fixed positions: eastward, southward, and westward in the morning, noon, and afternoon, respectively, by rotating solar panels about the inclined south-north axis (ISNA-3P sun-tracking). Calculation results showed that, for ISNA-3P tracked solar panels with a yearly fixed tilt-angle of the ISNA, the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISNA-3P tracked solar panels was about 93% of that on a solar panel with 2-axis sun-tracking; whereas for those with the ISNA being yearly adjusted four times at three fixed tilt-angles, it was about 96%. Results also indicated that the attempt to further increase the annual solar gain on ISNA-3P tracked solar panels by seasonally optimizing design of the sun-tracking system for maximizing solar gain in each of four seasons was not efficient, and thus not advisable in practical applications. Optimal parametric designs of such sun-tracking system for maximizing the annual solar gain on solar panels in different cases were also presented. -- Research highlights: → The paper presented a new sun-tracking technique (ISNA-3P) for possible applications in PV generating systems. → Algorithms to estimate daily collectible radiation on the fixed, 2-axis and ISNA-3P tracked solar panels were proposed based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. → A detailed theoretical study on the optical performance of such tracked solar panels in terms of R 3P-0 and R 3P-2 , the ratios of maximum annual solar gain to that on fixed and 2-axis tracked solar panels; optimal parameters affecting the optical performance of the systems were presented in the different cases. → Results showed that such sun-tracking system

  2. In-flight calibration of the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer with an electron drift instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Torkar, K.

    2012-10-01

    We show that the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer can be calibrated with an electron drift instrument (EDI) and that the required input time interval is relatively short. For missions such as Cluster or the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer could be determined on an orbital basis. An improvement of existing methods for finding spin axis offsets via comparison of accurate measurements of the field magnitude is presented, that additionally matches the gains of the two instruments that are being compared. The technique has been applied to EDI data from the Cluster Active Archive and fluxgate magnetometer data processed with calibration files also from the Cluster Active Archive. The method could prove to be valuable for the MMS mission because the four MMS spacecraft will only be inside the interplanetary field (where spin axis offsets can be calculated from Alfvénic fluctuations) for short periods of time and during unusual solar wind conditions.

  3. In-flight calibration of the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer with an electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, H K; Russell, C T; Torkar, K

    2012-01-01

    We show that the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer can be calibrated with an electron drift instrument (EDI) and that the required input time interval is relatively short. For missions such as Cluster or the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer could be determined on an orbital basis. An improvement of existing methods for finding spin axis offsets via comparison of accurate measurements of the field magnitude is presented, that additionally matches the gains of the two instruments that are being compared. The technique has been applied to EDI data from the Cluster Active Archive and fluxgate magnetometer data processed with calibration files also from the Cluster Active Archive. The method could prove to be valuable for the MMS mission because the four MMS spacecraft will only be inside the interplanetary field (where spin axis offsets can be calculated from Alfvénic fluctuations) for short periods of time and during unusual solar wind conditions. (paper)

  4. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  5. Experimental hyperthyroidism and central mediators of stress axis and thyroid axis activity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geven, Edwin J W; Verkaar, Folkert; Flik, Gert; Klaren, Peter H M

    2006-12-01

    The effect of experimental hyperthyroidism, realized by T(4) injection, on central mediators of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was studied. Our results show that hyperthyroidism evokes a marked 3.2-fold reduction in basal plasma cortisol levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, measured by real-time quantitative PCR, were significantly elevated by 40%, but CRH, urotensin-I, prepro-TRH, prohormone convertase-1 (PC1), and POMC mRNA levels were unchanged. In the pituitary pars distalis, PC1, CRH receptor-1, and POMC mRNA levels were unaffected, as was ACTH content. Plasma alpha-MSH concentrations were significantly elevated by 30% in hyperthyroid fish, and this was reflected in PC1 and POMC mRNA levels in pituitary pars intermedia that were increased 1.5- and 2.4-fold respectively. The alpha-MSH content of the pars intermedia was unchanged. Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the basal levels of a central mediator, i.e., CRH-BP, of HPI-axis function in unstressed carp in vivo, and we conclude that HPI- and hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid-axis functions are strongly interrelated. We suggest that the changes in plasma cortisol, thyroid hormone, and alpha-MSH levels reflect their concerted actions on energy metabolism.

  6. Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Jin; Jeong, Eun; Chin, Mi Hyung; Lee, Seung Hee; Ji, Seunghoon; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    Viewing angle control of a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) liquid crystal display using only one panel is investigated. In conventional PVA modes, a vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) director tilts down in four directions making 45 deg. with respect to crossed polarizers to exhibit a wide viewing angle. In the viewing angle control device, one pixel was divided into two sub-pixels such that the LC director in the main pixel is controlled to be tilted down in multiple directions making an angle with the polarizer, playing the role of main display with the wide viewing angle, while the LC director in the sub-pixel is controlled to be tilted down to the polarizer axis, playing the role of sub-pixel to the viewing angle control for the narrow viewing angle. Using sub-pixel control, light leakage or any type of information such as characters and image can be generated in oblique viewing directions without distorting the image quality in the normal direction, which will prevent others from peeping at the displayed image by overlapping the displayed image with the made image

  7. Soft tissue technique - lateral view of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyss, R.

    1980-02-01

    For exact anatomic analysis, radiographs are made of and correlated with anatomic sections of a cadaver foot. Three regions are being differentiated: The dorsal and the plantar and the calcaneal region. Normal findings are being presented as well as some pathologic soft tissue changes with special emphasis on the syndrome of 'high edge calcaneus'.

  8. Soft tissue technique - lateral view of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyss, R.

    1980-01-01

    For exact anatomic analysis, radiographs are made of and correlated with anatomic sections of a cadaver foot. Three regions are being differentiated: The dorsal and the plantar and the calcaneal region. Normal findings are being presented as well as some pathologic soft tissue changes with special emphasis on the syndrome of 'high edge calcaneus'. (orig.) [de

  9. Immersive viewing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  10. Design and construction of a triple-axis crystal neutron spectrometer and performance testing by means of measurements of dispersion relations in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Triple-Axis Crystal Neutron Spectrometer is the best instrument for the study of lattice dynamics, when the neutron inelastic scattering technique is used. Design, construction and operation of a triple-axis crystal neutron spectrometer, whose construction was recently finished at IEA are described. The design principles employed are directed to mechanical simplicity, facility of construction and flexibility in operation, with no adapted components to industrial applications were used in the construction. The operational characteristics of the spectrometer, such as the neutron wavelenght of the incoming beam and the resolution have been determined. With the purpose to check the performance of IEA Triple-Axis Crystal Neutron Spectrometer, dispersion relation curves for copper, at room temperature, have been measured. The frequency of phonons propagating along three major symmetry directions have been determined. The measurements were carried out operating the Triple-Axis Spectrometer in the 'sup(→)Q-constant' mode. An excelent agreement could be observed between the results obtained in the present experiment and the data for copper presented in the literature. This comparison indicates that the IEA Triple-Axis Crystal Neutron Spectrometer is in good operational conditions and is able to perform original experiments. Details on the experimental procedures for the case of a Triple-Axis Spectrometer operating in 'sup(→)Q-constant' mode are also presented. (Author) [pt

  11. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  12. Calibration for medium resolution off-axis electron holography using a flexible dual-lens imaging system in a JEOL ARM 200F microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Ponce, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In this work the calibration of a medium resolution off-axis electron holography using a dual-lens imaging system in a JEOL ARM 200F is shown. The objective dual-lens configuration allows adjusting the field of view from 35 nm to 2.5 μm. Subsequently, the parameters used in phase shift reconstruction were calibrated considering biprism voltage versus fringe spacing (σ) and versus fringe width (W). The reliability of the transmission electron microscope performance using these parameters was achieved using gold nanoparticles of known size and adjusting the excitation voltage of the lenses. - Highlights: • We presented the off-axis electron holography calibration in dual-lens mode of a JEOL ARM 200F. • We provide optimal conditions for a wide field of views varying the objective lens excitation. • The calibration was made using Au-nanoparticles controlling fringe width, spacing and contrast. • Application of electron holography to nanoparticles is also shown

  13. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  14. A compact and lightweight off-axis lightguide prism in near to eye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Qijia; Surman, Phil; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-06-01

    We propose a method to improve the design of an off-axis lightguide configuration for near to eye displays (NED) using freeform optics technology. The advantage of this modified optical system, which includes an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a doublet lens, an imaging lightguide prism and a compensation prism, is that it increases optical length path, offers a smaller size, as well as avoids the obstructed views, and matches the user's head shape. In this system, the light emitted from the OLED passes through the doublet lens and is refracted/reflected by the imaging lightguide prism, which is used to magnify the image from the microdisplay, while the compensation prism is utilized to correct the light ray shift so that a low-distortion image can be observed in a real-world setting. A NED with a 4 mm diameter exit pupil, 21.5° diagonal full field of view (FoV), 23 mm eye relief, and a size of 33 mm by 9.3 mm by 16 mm is designed. The developed system is compact, lightweight and suitable for entertainment and education application.

  15. Self-assembly of orthogonal three-axis sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. H.; Hu, S.; Gracias, D. H.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional planar microfabrication is widely utilized to construct sensors for the measurement of physical or chemical properties. However, in these devices, the information component measured is typically restricted to only one vectorial axis. Here, we describe a self-assembling strategy that can be utilized to construct three dimensional (3D) cubic devices that facilitate measurement along three axes. This 3D measurement is achieved by arranging sensing elements orthogonally; any sensing element that can be lithographically patterned can be utilized. The 3D arrangement of sensors allows for the measurement of angular and orientation parameters. As an example, we describe a three-axis cantilever based sensor and demonstrate measurement of an evaporated analyte using resonant frequency shifts of cantilevers in each of the x, y, and z axes

  16. Dynamic Compensation for Two-Axis Robot Wrist Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the dynamic characteristic of two-axis force sensors, a dynamic compensation method is proposed. The two-axis force sensor system is assumed to be a first-order system. The operation frequency of the system is expanded by a digital filter with backward difference network. To filter high-frequency noises, a low-pass filter is added after the dynamic compensation network. To avoid overcompensation, parameters of the proposed dynamic compensation method are defined by trial and error. Step response methods are utilized in dynamic calibration experiments. Compared to experiment data without compensation, the response time of the dynamic compensated data is reduced by 30%~40%. Experiments results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  17. Efficiency of the DOMUS 750 vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Kyle; Rasch, Tyler; Ju, Guoqiang; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some preliminary results on the efficiency of a wind turbine for an off-grid housing unit. To generate power, the unit uses a photovoltaic solar array and a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The existing VAWT was analysed to improve efficiency and increase power generation. There were found to be two main sources of inefficiency: 1. the 750W DC epicyclic generator performed poorly in low winds, and 2. the turbine blades wobbled, allowing for energy loss due to off-axis rotation. A 12V DC permanent magnet alternator was chosen that met the power requirements of the housing unit and would generate power at lower wind speeds. A support bracket was designed to prevent the turbine blades from wobbling.

  18. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  19. Ground Vibration Attenuation Measurement using Triaxial and Single Axis Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A. H.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Tajudin, S. A. A.; Zahari, M. N. H.; Chik, T. N. T.; Rahman, N. A.; Annuar, Y. M. N.

    2018-04-01

    Peak Particle Velocity is one of the important term to show the level of the vibration amplitude especially traveling wave by distance. Vibration measurement using triaxial accelerometer is needed to obtain accurate value of PPV however limited by the size and the available channel of the data acquisition module for detailed measurement. In this paper, an attempt to estimate accurate PPV has been made by using only a triaxial accelerometer together with multiple single axis accelerometer for the ground vibration measurement. A field test was conducted on soft ground using nine single axis accelerometers and a triaxial accelerometer installed at nine receiver location R1 to R9. Based from the obtained result, the method shows convincing similarity between actual PPV with the calculated PPV with error ratio 0.97. With the design method, vibration measurement equipment size can be reduced with fewer channel required.

  20. Vertical-axis turbine/propeller for ship propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkla, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are so many variables in the design and operating conditions of a vertical-axis turbine/propeller for the propulsion of a ship by wind that a preliminary study is offered, based on two simplified models. Study of a linear motion of blades in air and water shows optimum conditions for blade-speed and blade-incidence. Analysis of the second, cyclical model is simplified by the assumption of constant angles of incidence. While the logical superiority of the vertical-axis system, with its low transmission loss, may not alone give it the advantage over all other systems in upwind and downwind sailing, there are indications that in the beam wind it is in a class of its own; the Voith-Schneider-Type propeller then produces a thrust with a major component to windward, so that the combined unit leaves little or no athwartships force.

  1. APS-U LATTICE DESIGN FOR OFF-AXIS ACCUMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.; Sajaev, V.

    2017-06-25

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is being proposed for a future Advanced Photon Source (APS) multi-bend-achromat (MBA) upgrade project. This lattice design pushes for smaller emittance and requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme due to limited dynamic acceptance. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed for the APS upgrade to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow off-axis accumulation. Two such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which target a still-low emittance of 90 pm, are discussed in detail in this paper. Although the single-particle-dynamics performance is good, simulations of collective effects indicate that surprising difficulty would be expected accumulating high single-bunch charge in this lattice. The brightness of the 90-pm lattice is also a factor of two lower than the 67-pm H7BA lattice.

  2. Axis-switching of a micro-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro, Juan Martin; Aider, Jean-Luc

    2014-03-01

    In this study, it is shown that free microjets can undergo complex transitions similar to large-scale free jets despite relatively low Reynolds numbers. Using an original experimental method allowing for the 3D reconstruction of the instantaneous spatial organization of the microjet, the axis-switching of a micro-jet is observed for the first time. This is the first experimental evidence of such complex phenomena for free micro-jets. Combining these experimental results with Direct Numerical Simulations it is shown that the mechanism responsible for the axis-switching is the deformation of a micro-vortex ring due to induction by the corner vortices, as it occurs in large scale non-circular jets.

  3. Averaging scheme for atomic resolution off-axis electron holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, T; Lehmann, M

    2014-08-01

    All micrographs are limited by shot-noise, which is intrinsic to the detection process of electrons. For beam insensitive specimen this limitation can in principle easily be circumvented by prolonged exposure times. However, in the high-resolution regime several instrumental instabilities limit the applicable exposure time. Particularly in the case of off-axis holography the holograms are highly sensitive to the position and voltage of the electron-optical biprism. We present a novel reconstruction algorithm to average series of off-axis holograms while compensating for specimen drift, biprism drift, drift of biprism voltage, and drift of defocus, which all might cause problematic changes from exposure to exposure. We show an application of the algorithm utilizing also the possibilities of double biprism holography, which results in a high quality exit-wave reconstruction with 75 pm resolution at a very high signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a Single-Axis Edge Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A SIP (Societe Genevoise d'Instruments de Physique) Trioptic coordinate measuring machine was modified for calibration of high quality single-axis glass standards to an uncertainty of {+-}0.000020 inch. The modification was accomplished through the addition of a frame grabber board, vision software, a high-resolution camera, stepper motors, a two-axis motor controller, and an HP-IB interface card. An existing temperature system (hygrometer, barometer, laser interferometer system, and optics) was retained as part of the system. An existing Hewlett Packard computer was replaced with a personal computer to accommodate the frame grabber board. Each component was integrated into the existing system using Visual Basic. The system was automated for unattended measurements by creating a machine programming language, which is recognized within the main program.

  5. Targeting the gut-liver axis in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn S; Havelund, Troels; Krag, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The gut-liver axis in cirrhosis and portal hypertension is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for progression of liver failure and development of complications such as spontaneous infections and hepatocellular carcinoma. Antibiotics and non-selective β......-blockers (NSBB) intercept this axis and each drug has proven efficacy in clinical trials. A synergistic effect is a hitherto unproven possibility. There is an increasing body of evidence supporting improved outcome with expanded use of NSBB and antibiotic therapy beyond current indications. This review addresses...... the issue of pharmacological treatment of cirrhosis and portal hypertension with antibiotics and NSBB. We discuss their mechanism of action and suggest that combining the two treatment modalities could potentially reduce the risk of complications....

  6. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  7. Application of one-axis sun tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefa, Ibrahim; Demirtas, Mehmet; Colak, Ilhami [Gazi University, Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Electrical Education, GEMEC-Gazi Electric Machines and Control Group, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces design and application of a novel one-axis sun tracking system which follows the position of the sun and allows investigating effects of one-axis tracking system on the solar energy in Turkey. The tracking system includes a serial communication interface based on RS 485 to monitor whole processes on a computer screen and to plot data as graphic. In addition, system parameters such as the current, the voltage and the panel position have been observed by means of a microcontroller. The energy collected is measured and compared with a fixed solar system for the same solar panel. The results show that the solar energy collected on the tracking system is considerably much efficient than the fixed system. The tracking system developed in this study provides easy installation, simple mechanism and less maintenance. (author)

  8. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  9. Application of one-axis sun tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefa, Ibrahim; Demirtas, Mehmet; Colak, Ilhami

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces design and application of a novel one-axis sun tracking system which follows the position of the sun and allows investigating effects of one-axis tracking system on the solar energy in Turkey. The tracking system includes a serial communication interface based on RS 485 to monitor whole processes on a computer screen and to plot data as graphic. In addition, system parameters such as the current, the voltage and the panel position have been observed by means of a microcontroller. The energy collected is measured and compared with a fixed solar system for the same solar panel. The results show that the solar energy collected on the tracking system is considerably much efficient than the fixed system. The tracking system developed in this study provides easy installation, simple mechanism and less maintenance.

  10. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  11. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  12. Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşoiu, C. I.; Georgescu, A. M.; Degeratu, M.; Haşegan, L.; Hlevca, D.

    2012-11-01

    The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.

  13. Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coşoiu, C I; Georgescu, A M; Degeratu, M; Haşegan, L; Hlevca, D

    2012-01-01

    The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.

  14. Small-Scale vertical axis wind turbine design

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Tudela, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the design of a small vertical axis wind turbine rotor with solid wood as a construction material. The aerodynamic analysis is performed implementing a momentum based model on a mathematical computer program. A three bladed wind turbine is proposed as candidate for further prototype testing after evaluating the effect of several parameters in turbine efficiency, torque and acceleration. The results obtained indicate that wood is a suitable material for rotor cons...

  15. Gonadal Steroid Hormones and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Robert J.; Weiser, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, pr...

  16. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis

    OpenAIRE

    Willacker, James J.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Wilton, Peter R.; Walton, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have b...

  17. From Bench to Bedside: Translating the Prolactin/Vasoinhibin Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Triebel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prolactin/vasoinhibin axis defines an endocrine system, in which prolactin (PRL and vasoinhibins regulate blood vessel growth and function, the secretion of other hormones, inflammatory and immune processes, coagulation, and behavior. The core element of the PRL/vasoinhibin axis is the generation of vasoinhibins, which consists in the proteolytic cleavage of their precursor molecule PRL. Vasoinhibins can interact with multiple different partners to mediate their effects in various tissues and anatomical compartments, indicating their pleiotropic nature. Based on accumulating knowledge about the PRL/vasoinhibin axis, two clinical trials were initiated, in which vasoinhibin levels are the target of therapeutic interventions. One trial investigates the effect of levosulpiride, a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, on retinal alterations in patients with diabetic macular edema and retinopathy. The rationale of this trial is that the levosulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia resulting in increased retinal vasoinhibins could lead to beneficiary outcomes in terms of a vasoinhibin-mediated antagonization of diabetes-induced retinal alterations. Another trial investigated the effect of bromocriptine, a dopamine D2-receptor agonist, for the treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The rationale of treatment with bromocriptine is the inhibition of vasoinhibin generation by substrate depletion to prevent detrimental effects on the myocardial microvascularization. The trial demonstrated that bromocriptine treatment was associated with a high rate of left ventricular recovery and low morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic interventions into the PRL/vasoinhibin axis bear the risk of side effects in the areas of blood coagulation, blood pressure, and alterations of the mental state.

  18. Roll-Axis Hydrofluidic Stability Augmentation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    lifi .1035 SW 30 left for znro time delay - r Ight for other. 17 Preceding page Hank Recordings of the simulated aircraft performance to...DESIGN The analytical effort defined the gains and shaping networks required for the roll-axis damper system for the OH-58A helicopter, and the...Shaping Networks Usually a combination of resistors and capacitors (bellows) is designed to provide the following functions: a) b) 3.1.4 1 Lag

  19. Three-axis orthogonal transceiver coil for eddy current sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D.; Zavyalova, K.; Goncharik, M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose the new structure of three-axis transceiver magnetic-induction coil for eddy current probing. Due to the orientation of the coils, the direct signal from the transmitting coil to the receiving coil is minimized, which provided a high dynamic range. Sensitivity in all directions is provided by combining coils of different orientations. Numerical simulation and experimental studies of such a system have been carried out and confirmed the applicability of the proposed method and the mathematical model.

  20. Estimation of power in low velocity vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, S. S.; Shetty, Sawan; Chithirai Pon Selvan, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present work involves in the construction of a vertical axis wind turbine and the determination of power. Various different types of turbine blades are considered and the optimum blade is selected. Mechanical components of the entire setup are built to obtain maximum rotation per minute. The mechanical energy is converted into the electrical energy by coupling coaxially between the shaft and the generator. This setup produces sufficient power for consumption of household purposes which is economic and easily available.

  1. Study of Defect Sizing in Carbon Steel Butt Welds using Conventional Ultrasonic Technique and Phased Array Ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Noorhazleena Azaman; Mohd Yusnisyam Mohd Yusoff

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a proven reliable method which is able to detect and measure the size of defects in butt welds with acceptable tolerance. Recent advancement of technology has introduced a computerized technique which is phased array. Phased array employs focal law that enable focusing and steering of beam at the active aperture axis. This enables one line scanning but covering the whole weld volume as compared to conventional technique which employs aster scan and multiple probes to completely cover the whole weld volume. Phased array also gives multiple data view which assist the interpreter. This paper is about the study of these two techniques and technical analysis of comparison between the two. The conventional technique is performed using GE USM GO with 4 MHz 45 degrees shear wave probe. The phased array technique uses OLYMPUS OMNISCAN MX2 with 5L64 linear array probe with 16 elements aperture and 55 degrees wedge emitting shear wave into the specimen. Sensitivity of both techniques are based on 1.5 mm Side Drilled Hole. The results are compared and analysis such as defect sizing and defect type determination are performed. (author)

  2. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... in a short span of time in view of their safety and efficacy. However, it is ..... memory loss which is mainly caused due to reduced synthe- sis of the .... effects and 6–25 month follow-up did not reveal any long-term adverse ...

  3. Clashing world views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines how politics, economics, and an increasing awareness of environmental and societal impacts are affecting the market for new hydroelectric projects. The topics of the article include border conflicts, new opposition, resettlement issues, the problems and benefits of hydroelectric projects, taking action, and a clash of world views

  4. Taking a Long View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    a global perspective which leads to a more positive assessment. I will do this from a historical materialist perspective and therefore I begin with a discussion of the long view in Marx. This leads on to a discussion of Marx’s law of the long term declining rate of profit (LTFRP) and its counteracting...

  5. VMware view security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Langenhan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to secure your virtual environment.This book is a ""how-to"" for the novice, a ""reference guide"" for the advanced user, and a ""go to"" for the experienced user in all the aspects of VMware View desktop virtualization security.

  6. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    widely accepted model is the 'funnel view' of protein folding. (Bryngelson et al. ... The detailed characterization of the structure, dynamics and folding process of a protein is crucial for understanding ... molecular motor complexes that generate force towards the .... DLC8 phosphorylation by Pak1 prevents interaction with.

  7. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schwarzschild metric for data interpretation or we have to use more exotic ... lensing—the Galactic Center—large telescopes—VLBI interferometry. .... telescopes were used in a 16-year long study to obtain the most detailed view ever of .... 2005) in the K-band (see also perspectives for observations with GRAVITY facili-.

  8. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the rapidly developing field of study of the transient sky, fast radio transients are perhaps the most exciting objects of scrutiny at present. The SKA, with its wide field-of-view and significant improve- ment in sensitivity over existing facilities, is expected to detect a plethora of fast transients which, in addition to help ...

  9. Remote operations and viewing using the monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.; Baldwin, T.S.; Ekberg, E.L.; Hernandez, T.R.; Raybun, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past two years, major rebuilding operations were conducted at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). These operations involved replacement of complex experimental apparatus in high-radiation areas using servomanipulators and video viewing. All remote tasks were completed on or ahead of allotted schedules. This success is attributed to continuing improvement of manipulators, viewing systems, and operating techniques

  10. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  11. A procedure for denoising dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Chau, Tom; Steele, Catriona M

    2010-01-01

    Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry is an emerging tool for the assessment of dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). These signals however can be very noisy as a result of physiological and motion artifacts. In this note, we propose a novel scheme for denoising those signals, i.e. a computationally efficient search for the optimal denoising threshold within a reduced wavelet subspace. To determine a viable subspace, the algorithm relies on the minimum value of the estimated upper bound for the reconstruction error. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme using synthetic test signals demonstrated that the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient than minimum noiseless description length (MNDL)-based denoising. It also yields smaller reconstruction errors than MNDL, SURE and Donoho denoising methods. When applied to dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, the proposed scheme exhibits improved performance for dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallows. These results are important for the further development of medical devices based on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals. (note)

  12. l=1 helical axis heliotron device in Kyoto university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, K.; Sano, F.; Mizuuchi, T.; Hanatani, K.; Okada, H.; Obiki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Helical systems are an attractive candidate for magnetic fusion reactor. Recently, there has been great progress in theoretical research of three dimensional magnetic field structures, resulting in several kinds of confinement optimization being proposed for toroidal magnetic confinement system. For example, some sophisticated ideas have appeared on stage such as quasi-helical symmetry and quasi-isodynamic system. To find experimentally which way is the best Optimisation, a new helical axis heliotron device, so called 'Heliotron J', is under construction in the Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Japan. In this conference, the basic concept and the present status will be presented. In the conventional plane axis helical system, it was difficult to have both good particle confinement and good MHD stability simultaneously. The goal of Heliotron J project is to clarify their compatibility in the spatial axis toroidal device. The best way for Optimising the helical magnetic field configuration will be explored by investigating the plasma response to the change in the field components. The main subjects for plasma experiment are: demonstration of the existence of good magnetic flux surfaces, reduction of neoclassical transport in collisionless regime, MHD Stabilisation in high β plasma, controllability of bootstrap current, good confinement of high energy particles

  13. Three-Axis Attitude Estimation Using Rate-Integrating Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, attitude estimation has been performed using a combination of external attitude sensors and internal three-axis gyroscopes. There are many studies of three-axis attitude estimation using gyros that read angular rates. Rate-integrating gyros measure integrated rates or angular displacements, but three-axis attitude estimation using these types of gyros has not been as fully investigated. This paper derives a Kalman filtering framework for attitude estimation using attitude sensors coupled with rate- integrating gyroscopes. In order to account for correlations introduced by using these gyros, the state vector must be augmented, compared with filters using traditional gyros that read angular rates. Two filters are derived in this paper. The first uses an augmented state-vector form that estimates attitude, gyro biases, and gyro angular displacements. The second ignores correlations, leading to a filter that estimates attitude and gyro biases only. Simulation comparisons are shown for both filters. The work presented in this paper focuses only on attitude estimation using rate-integrating gyros, but it can easily be extended to other applications such as inertial navigation, which estimates attitude and position.

  14. Image tuning techniques for enhancing the performance of pure permanent magnet undulators with small gap/period ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The on-axis field of a small-gap undulator constricted out of pure permanent magnet (PM) blocks arranged in an alternating-dipole (i.e., 2 dipoles/period) array can be substantially varied by positioning monolithic permeable plates above and below the undulator jaws. This simple technique, which can be used to control the 1st harmonic energy in conventional synchrotron radiation (SR) or Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications requiring sub-octave tuning, can also be shown to suppress magnetic inhomogeneities that can contribute to the undulator`s on-axis field errors. If a standard 4 block/period Halbach undulator, composed of PM blocks with square cross sections, is rearranged into an alternating-dipole array with the same period, the peak field that can be generated with superimposed image plates can substantially exceed that of the pure-PM Halbach array. This design technique, which can be viewed as intermediate between the {open_quotes}pure-PM{close_quotes} and standard {open_quotes}hybrid/PM{close_quotes} configurations, provides a potentially cost-effective method of enhancing the performance of small-gap, pure-PM insertion devices. In this paper we report on the analysis and recent characterization of pure-PM undulator structures with superimposed image plates, and discuss possible applications to FEL research.

  15. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, K.; van de Vathorst, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view

  16. Optical properties of the c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sharma, Anjali [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented Lithium Niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) thin films have been deposited onto epitaxially matched (001) sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural and optical properties of the thin films have been studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the optical phonon modes and defects in the c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin films. XRD analysis indicates the presence of stress in the as-grown LiNbO{sub 3} thin films and is attributed to the small lattice mismatch between LiNbO{sub 3} and sapphire. Refractive index (n = 2.13 at 640 nm) of the (006) LiNbO{sub 3} thin films was found to be slightly lower from the corresponding bulk value (n = 2.28). Various factors responsible for the deviation in the refractive index of (006) LiNbO{sub 3} thin films from the corresponding bulk value are discussed and the deviation is mainly attributed to the lattice contraction due to the presence of stress in deposited film.

  17. Optical properties of the c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented Lithium Niobate (LiNbO 3 ) thin films have been deposited onto epitaxially matched (001) sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural and optical properties of the thin films have been studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–Visible spectroscopy respectively. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the optical phonon modes and defects in the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin films. XRD analysis indicates the presence of stress in the as-grown LiNbO 3 thin films and is attributed to the small lattice mismatch between LiNbO 3 and sapphire. Refractive index (n = 2.13 at 640 nm) of the (006) LiNbO 3 thin films was found to be slightly lower from the corresponding bulk value (n = 2.28). Various factors responsible for the deviation in the refractive index of (006) LiNbO 3 thin films from the corresponding bulk value are discussed and the deviation is mainly attributed to the lattice contraction due to the presence of stress in deposited film.

  18. Orientation mapping by transmission-SEM with an on-axis detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundenberger, J.J.; Bouzy, E.; Goran, D.; Guyon, J.; Yuan, H.; Morawiec, A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional orientation mapping in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a valuable technique for characterizing crystalline materials, but its application to ultrafine or nano-grain materials is limited by its spatial resolution. The resolution can be increased by collecting transmission diffraction patterns in SEM. In previous works, such patterns were collected using off-axis detectors in nearly vertical position. To avoid some drawbacks of such arrangement, a new configuration was devised in which the scintillator is located underneath the thin foil on the optical axis of the microscope, and the light is reflected towards the camera by a mirror. This simple configuration gives intense patterns even at very low probe currents, and can be potentially used for collecting maps of relatively high spatial resolution. Example maps reveal details with dimensions of about 5 nm. Because of its resolution and geometric simplicity, the proposed configuration will open new opportunities in SEM-based characterization of nanocrystalline materials. - Highlights: • New experimental configuration for SEM-based orientation mapping is presented. • The geometry of recording transmission Kikuchi patterns in SEM is simplified. • The new configuration allows for reaching relatively high spatial resolution.

  19. Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shery L.Y., E-mail: shery.chang@asu.edu [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Dwyer, Christian [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Barthel, Juri; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The performance of a direct detection camera (DDC) is evaluated in the context of off-axis electron holographic experiments in a transmission electron microscope. Its performance is also compared directly with that of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The DDC evaluated here can be operated either by the detection of individual electron events (counting mode) or by the effective integration of many such events during a given exposure time (linear mode). It is demonstrated that the improved modulation transfer functions and detective quantum efficiencies of both modes of the DDC give rise to significant benefits over the conventional CCD cameras, specifically, a significant improvement in the visibility of the holographic fringes and a reduction of the statistical error in the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. The DDC's linear mode, which can handle higher dose rates, allows optimisation of the dose rate to achieve the best phase resolution for a wide variety of experimental conditions. For suitable conditions, the counting mode can potentially utilise a significantly lower dose to achieve a phase resolution that is comparable to that achieved using the linear mode. The use of multiple holograms and correlation techniques to increase the total dose in counting mode is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography has been evaluated. • Better holographic fringe visibility and phase resolution are achieved using DDC. • Both counting and linear modes offered by DDC are advantageous for different dose regimes.

  20. Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shery L.Y.; Dwyer, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a direct detection camera (DDC) is evaluated in the context of off-axis electron holographic experiments in a transmission electron microscope. Its performance is also compared directly with that of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The DDC evaluated here can be operated either by the detection of individual electron events (counting mode) or by the effective integration of many such events during a given exposure time (linear mode). It is demonstrated that the improved modulation transfer functions and detective quantum efficiencies of both modes of the DDC give rise to significant benefits over the conventional CCD cameras, specifically, a significant improvement in the visibility of the holographic fringes and a reduction of the statistical error in the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. The DDC's linear mode, which can handle higher dose rates, allows optimisation of the dose rate to achieve the best phase resolution for a wide variety of experimental conditions. For suitable conditions, the counting mode can potentially utilise a significantly lower dose to achieve a phase resolution that is comparable to that achieved using the linear mode. The use of multiple holograms and correlation techniques to increase the total dose in counting mode is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography has been evaluated. • Better holographic fringe visibility and phase resolution are achieved using DDC. • Both counting and linear modes offered by DDC are advantageous for different dose regimes.

  1. Optical performance of vertical axis three azimuth angles tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yi; Li, Guihua; Tang, Runsheng

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a new sun-tracking concept was proposed, and the optical performance of solar panels with such sun-tracking system was theoretically investigated based on the developed mathematical method and monthly horizontal radiation. The mechanism of the proposed sun-tracking technique is that the azimuth angle of solar panels is daily adjusted three times at three fixed positions: eastward, southward and westward in the morning, noon, and afternoon, respectively, by rotating solar panels about the vertical axis (3A sun-tracking, in short). The analysis indicated that the tilt-angle of solar panels, β 3A , azimuth angle of solar panels in the morning and afternoon from due south, φ a , and solar hour angle when the azimuth angle adjustment was made in the morning and afternoon, ω a , were three key parameters affecting the optical performance of such tracked solar panels. Calculation results showed that, for 3A tracked solar panels with a yearly fixed tilt-angle, the maximum annual collectible radiation was above 92% of that on a solar panel with full 2-axis sun-tracking; whereas for those with the tilt-angle being seasonally adjusted, it was above 95%. Results also showed that yearly or seasonally optimal values of β 3A , φ a and ω a for maximizing annual solar gain were related to site latitudes, and empirical correlations for a quick estimation of optimal values of these parameters were proposed based on climatic data of 32 sites in China.

  2. Vergence-mediated changes in the axis of eye rotation during the human vestibulo-ocular reflex can occur independent of eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Cremer, Phillip D; Aw, Swee T; Halmagyi, G Michael; Curthoys, Ian S; Minor, Lloyd B; Todd, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether vergence-mediated changes in the axis of eye rotation in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) would obey Listing's Law (normally associated with saccadic eye movements) independent of the initial eye position. We devised a paradigm for disassociating the saccadic velocity axis from eye position by presenting near and far targets that were centered with respect to one eye. We measured binocular 3-dimensional eye movements using search coils in ten normal subjects and 3-dimensional linear head acceleration using Optotrak in seven normal subjects. The stimuli consisted of passive, unpredictable, pitch head rotations with peak acceleration of approximately 2000 degrees /s(2 )and amplitude of approximately 20 degrees. During the pitch head rotation, each subject fixated straight ahead with one eye, whereas the other eye was adducted 4 degrees during far viewing (94 cm) and 25 degrees during near viewing (15 cm). Our data showed expected compensatory pitch rotations in both eyes, and a vergence-mediated horizontal rotation only in the adducting eye. In addition, during near viewing we observed torsional eye rotations not only in the adducting eye but also in the eye looking straight ahead. In the straight-ahead eye, the change in torsional eye velocity between near and far viewing, which began approximately 40 ms after the start of head rotation, was 10+/-6 degrees /s (mean +/- SD). This change in torsional eye velocity resulted in a 2.4+/-1.5 degrees axis tilt toward Listing's plane in that eye. In the adducting eye, the change in torsional eye velocity between near and far viewing was 16+/-6 degrees /s (mean +/- SD) and resulted in a 4.1+/-1.4 degrees axis tilt. The torsional eye velocities were conjugate and both eyes partially obeyed Listing's Law. The axis of eye rotation tilted in the direction of the line of sight by approximately one-third of the angle between the line of sight and a line orthogonal to Listing

  3. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  4. Neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis in the brain: master regulation by nitric oxide and consequences in aging and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Cátia F; Ledo, Ana; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2017-07-01

    The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O 2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. This axis incorporates and links previously independent processes that need to be coordinated in the normal brain. We here review evidence supporting the role of neuronal-derived nitric oxide ( • NO) as the master regulator of this axis. Nitric oxide is produced in tight association with glutamatergic activation and, diffusing several cell diameters, may interact with different molecular targets within each cell type. Hemeproteins such as soluble guanylate cyclase, cytochrome c oxidase and hemoglobin, with which • NO reacts at relatively fast rates, are but a few of the key in determinants of the regulatory role of • NO in the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. Accordingly, critical literature supporting this concept is discussed. Moreover, in view of the controversy regarding the regulation of catabolism of different neural cells, we further discuss key aspects of the pathways through which • NO specifically up-regulates glycolysis in astrocytes, supporting lactate shuttling to neurons for oxidative breakdown. From a biomedical viewpoint, derailment of neurovascular-neuroenergetic axis is precociously linked to aberrant brain aging, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we summarize current knowledge of how both neurovascular and neuroenergetic coupling are compromised in

  5. Universal interface on Zynq"® SoC with CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO for instrumentation & control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Rajpal, Rachana; Pujara, Harshad; Mandaliya, Hitesh; Edappala, Praveenalal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have designed Universal Interface on Zynq"® SoC with CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO for Instrumentation & Control. This project is based on Zynq"®-7000 family xc7z020clg484-1 chip. • We explored the full design flow starting from the hardware development in Vivado to software development in SDK using APIs in C language and then interfacing the host application developed in LabVIEW. • We also explored how to make custom IP with AXI bus interface in Vivado. • Useful for those who wants to make custom hardware on Zynq"® SoC. - Abstract: This paper describes an application developed on the latest Zynq"®-7000 All Programmable SoC (AP SoC) [1] devices which integrate the software programmability of an ARM"®-based processor with the hardware programmability of an FPGA, on a single device. In this paper we have implemented application which uses various interfaces like CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO, so that our host application running on PC in LabVIEW can communicates with any hardware which has at least any one of the available interface. Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoCs (System On Chip) infuse customizable intelligence into today’s embedded systems to suit your unique application requirements. This family of FPGA is meant for high end application because it has huge resources on single chip. It offers you to make your own custom hardware IP, in fact we have made our custom IP called myIP in our design. The beauty of this chip is that it can write drivers for your custom IP which has AXI bus layer attached. After exporting the hardware information to the Software Development Kit (SDK), the tool is able to write drivers for your custom IP. This simplifies your development to a great extent. In a way this application provides the universal interfacing option to user. User can also write the digital data on the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) through LabVIEW Test application GUI. This project can be used for remote control and

  6. Numerical Analysis of a Small-Size Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance and Averaged Flow Parameters Around the Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines can be used as a source of electricity in rural and urban environments. According to the authors’ knowledge, there are no validated simplified aerodynamic models of these wind turbines, therefore the use of more advanced techniques, such as for example the computational methods for fluid dynamics is justified. The paper contains performance analysis of the small-scale vertical-axis wind turbine with a large solidity. The averaged velocity field and the averaged static pressure distribution around the rotor have been also analyzed. All numerical results presented in this paper are obtained using the SST k-ω turbulence model. Computed power coeffcients are in good agreement with the experimental results. A small change in the tip speed ratio significantly affects the velocity field. Obtained velocity fields can be further used as a base for simplified aerodynamic methods.

  7. A new on-axis multimode spectrometer for the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Robin L.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Meents, Alke; Boehler, Pirmin; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Complementary techniques greatly aid the interpretation of macromolecule structures to yield functional information, and can also help to track radiation-induced changes. A new on-axis spectrometer being integrated into the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the Swiss Light Source is presented. X-ray crystallography at third-generation synchrotron sources permits tremendous insight into the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules. Additional information is, however, often required to aid the transition from structure to function. In situ spectroscopic methods such as UV–Vis absorption and (resonance) Raman can provide this, and can also provide a means of detecting X-ray-induced changes. Here, preliminary results are introduced from an on-axis UV–Vis absorption and Raman multimode spectrometer currently being integrated into the beamline environment at X10SA of the Swiss Light Source. The continuing development of the spectrometer is also outlined

  8. Observation of hole accumulation in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires using off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luying; Smith, David J; Dailey, Eric; Madras, Prashanth; Drucker, Jeff; McCartney, Martha R

    2011-02-09

    Hole accumulation in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires (NWs) has been observed and quantified using off-axis electron holography and other electron microscopy techniques. The epitaxial [110]-oriented Ge/Si core/shell NWs were grown on Si (111) substrates by chemical vapor deposition through the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. High-angle annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images and off-axis electron holograms were obtained from specific NWs. The excess phase shifts measured by electron holography across the NWs indicated the presence of holes inside the Ge cores. Calculations based on a simplified coaxial cylindrical model gave hole densities of (0.4 ± 0.2) /nm(3) in the core regions.

  9. Analytical Calculation of D- and Q-axis Inductance for Interior Permanent Magnet Motors Based on Winding Function Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interior permanent magnet (IPM motors are widely used in electric vehicles (EVs, benefiting from the excellent advantages of a more rational use of energy. For further improvement of energy utilization, this paper presents an analytical method of d- and q-axis inductance calculation for IPM motors with V-shaped rotor in no-load condition. A lumped parameter magnetic circuit model (LPMCM is adopted to investigate the saturation and nonlinearity of the bridge. Taking into account the influence of magnetic field distribution on inductance, the winding function theory (WFT is employed to accurately calculate the armature reaction airgap magnetic field and d- and q-axis inductances. The validity of the analytical technique is verified by the finite element method (FEM.

  10. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Obesity, and Chronic Stress Exposure: Sleep and the HPA Axis in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, Eliane A.; Cizza, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, exposure to stress and inadequate sleep are prevalent phenomena in modern society. In this review we focus on their relationships and critically evaluate causality. In obese individuals, one of the main stress systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is altered, and concentrations of cortisol are elevated in adipose tissue due to elevated local activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1. Short sleep and decreased sleep quality are also associated with obesity....

  11. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  12. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  13. Concert Viewing Headphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Atsuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An audiovisual interface equipped with a projector, an inclina-tion sensor, and a distance sensor for zoom control has been developed that enables a user to selectively view and listen to specific performers in a video-taped group performance. Dubbed Concert Viewing Headphones, it has both image and sound processing functions. The image processing extracts the portion of the image indicated by the user and projects it free of distortion on the front and side walls. The sound processing creates imaginary microphones for those performers without one so that the user can hear the sound from any performer. Testing using images and sounds captured using a fisheye-lens camera and 37 lavalier microphones showed that sound locali-zation was fastest when an inverse square function was used for the sound mixing and that the zoom function was useful for locating the desired sound performance.

  14. Homoeroticism in Men and Women in the Colombian Coffee Axis: an Interpretation Using the Biographical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gallego Montes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As background to the study, the article highlights the use of biographical surveys as a recent application in the field of sexuality; for this reason it has been an approach little used to understand socio-sexual events and transitions in men or women engaging in homoerotic practices. In this study, a retrospective survey (biographical of 408 men and 301 women between 18 and 55 years of age engaging in homoerotic practices was applied in the Colombian Coffee Axis in 2012. The information was analyzed using birth and pairing variables, a key strategy for interpreting biographical information. A review was also done of the press and literature for 1921-1985 with regards to homoeroticism. The findings show that until the 1960s, the written press in the Coffee Axis had few references to homosexuality, and any that were made were associated with loss of moral and good customs, with a call to the authorities to exercise control. In the Seventies the transvestite body emerges, associated with transgression of gender and criminality. Subsequently, the 1985-2011 period is marked by a strong institutionalization of erotic and affective life, expressed in the growing preponderance of gay bars and the internet as a setting that configures socio-sexual interactions. Similarly, there is a trend to a shorter duration of relationships between people of the same sex. In terms of pairing, 63% of women have sexual biographies permeated by heterosexuality; in men this proportion reaches 40%; men are more monogamous when they establish a same sex relationship than women (86.5% vs. 74.5 %. In it’s conclusions the study highlights the complex network of homoeroticism in a particular region, where diverse sexual practices, simultaneous and sometimes non-exclusive, interweave; this implies the overcoming of the dichotomous view of homoeroticism and heterosexuality as isolated camps.

  15. Mineralogical and physico-chemical study of slags from municipal wastes incineration with a view to a use in road making technique; Etude mineralogique et physico-chimique des machefers d'incineration des ordures menageres (M.I.O.M.) en vue d'une utilisation en technique routiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delville, N.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of waste management regulations now urges to valorize the slags resulting from municipal wastes incineration. However, their long-term environmental and mechanical behaviour is not always well-controlled and some reserve still exist about their use in roadway techniques. A mineralogical and physico-chemical characterization of the slags from Rosiers d'Egletons has been carried out in order to determine the way of formation of their constituents and to understand their nature and evolution. These slags, assimilated to a D{sub 22} soil-type, can be used as backfilling or foundation layer material but their hydric characteristics make their comparison with natural soils delicate. It is a siliceous material (50%) containing calcium (15%), aluminium (10%), iron (7%) and sodium (6%) and characterized by a significant enrichment in lead, copper and zinc (x 100) but showing a satisfactory behaviour with respect to leaching. Its chemical behaviour does not change much with seasons and remains close to other French and European slags coming from grid furnaces. It is made of 35% of relict phases, 40% of primary phases and 25% of secondary phases. The heavy metals are distributed in these three families and with various shapes. An experimental study of the primary phases has permitted to establish a model of crystallisation at the equilibrium to which any slag can be compared in order to know its conditions of making inside the furnace. The high temperature blending present in the Rosiers d'Egletons slags come from the partial fusion of the wastes but are equivalent to experimental blending and seems to crystallize in reductive conditions. An experimental roadway has been made with the Rosiers d'Egletons slag as foundation bed and followed up during two years in order to study the mineralogical, chemical and geo-technical evolution of the material. No deformation of the roadway has been noticed and a hardening seems to develop with time. No noxious

  16. High-speed off-axis holographic cinematography with a copper-vapor-pumped dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterborn, W; Judt, A; Schmitz, E

    1993-01-01

    A series of coherent light pulses is generated by pumping a dye laser with the pulsed output of a copper-vapor laser at rates of as much as 20 kHz. Holograms are recorded at this pulse rate on a rotating holographic plate. This technique of high-speed holographic cinematography is demonstrated by viewing the bubble filaments that appear in water under the action of a sound field of high intensity.

  17. Structural design of the Sandia 34-M Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. E.

    Sandia National Laboratories, as the lead DOE laboratory for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) development, is currently designing a 34-meter diameter Darrieus-type VAWT. This turbine will be a research test bed which provides a focus for advancing technology and validating design and fabrication techniques in a size range suitable for utility use. Structural data from this machine will allow structural modeling to be refined and verified for a turbine on which the gravity effects and stochastic wind loading are significant. Performance data from it will allow aerodynamic modeling to be refined and verified. The design effort incorporates Sandia's state-of-the-art analysis tools in the design of a complete machine. The analytic tools used in this design are discussed and the conceptual design procedure is described.

  18. The Department of Energy (DOE) research program in structural analysis of vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W. N.

    The Darrieus-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) presents a variety of unusual structural problems to designers. The level of understanding of these structural problems governs, to a large degree, the success or failure of today's rotor designs. A survey is presented of the technology available for rotor structural design with emphasis on the DOE research program now underway. Itemizations are included of the major structural issues unique to the VAWT along with discussion of available analysis techniques for each problem area. It is concluded that tools are available to at least approximately address the most important problems. However, experimental data for confirmation is rather limited in terms of volume and the range of rotor configurations tested.

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on the hypocotyl-root axis of three species of gossypium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The hypocotyl-root axis of cotton seedlings grown from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds was investigated using light microscopy and histological techniques. Special emphasis was placed on the pattern of vascular transition. Two patterns of vascular transition in non-irradiated seedlings were found. In Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense there are prominent metaxylem bands between the vascular bundles in the hypocotyl. In G. gossypioides there are no bands. The presence or absence of the bands was easily detected using polarized light. The most outstanding effects of radiation were inhibition of lateral root development and alteration of the pattern of vascular transition in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. The findings suggest that the root apical meristem determines the vascular pattern

  20. Wavefront reconstruction in digital off-axis holography via sparse coding of amplitude and absolute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkovnik, V; Shevkunov, I A; Petrov, N V; Egiazarian, K

    2015-05-15

    This work presents the new method for wavefront reconstruction from a digital hologram recorded in off-axis configuration. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is a good ability for noise filtration due to the original formulation of the problem taking into account the presence of noise in the recorded intensity distribution and the sparse phase and amplitude reconstruction approach with the data-adaptive block-matching 3D technique. Basically, the sparsity assumes that low dimensional models can be used for phase and amplitude approximations. This low dimensionality enables strong suppression of noisy components and accurate revealing of the main features of the signals of interest. The principal point is that dictionaries of these sparse models are not known in advance and reconstructed from given noisy observations in a multiobjective optimization procedure. We show experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach.

  1. Automated Slicing for a Multi-Axis Metal Deposition System (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    experimented with different materials like H13 tool steel to build the part. Following the same slicing and scanning toolpath result, there is a geometric...and analysis tool -centroidal axis. Similar to medial axis, it contains geometry and topological information but is significantly computationally...geometry reasoning and analysis tool -centroidal axis. Similar to medial axis, it contains geometry and topological information but is significantly

  2. FAMILY HISTORY STUDY OF THE FAMILIAL COAGGREGATION OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER WITH AXIS I AND NON-BORDERLINE DRAMATIC CLUSTER AXIS II DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Barison, Leah K.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Hudson, James I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revi...

  3. Automated CBED processing: Sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, M., E-mail: klinger@post.cz; Němec, M.; Polívka, L.; Gärtnerová, V.; Jäger, A.

    2015-03-15

    An automated processing of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is presented. The proposed methods are used in an automated tool for estimating the thickness of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples by matching an experimental zone-axis CBED pattern with a series of patterns simulated for known thicknesses. The proposed tool detects CBED disks, localizes a pattern in detected disks and unifies the coordinate system of the experimental pattern with the simulated one. The experimental pattern is then compared disk-by-disk with a series of simulated patterns each corresponding to different known thicknesses. The thickness of the most similar simulated pattern is then taken as the thickness estimate. The tool was tested on [0 1 1] Si, [0 1 0] α-Ti and [0 1 1] α-Ti samples prepared using different techniques. Results of the presented approach were compared with thickness estimates based on analysis of CBED patterns in two beam conditions. The mean difference between these two methods was 4.1% for the FIB-prepared silicon samples, 5.2% for the electro-chemically polished titanium and 7.9% for Ar{sup +} ion-polished titanium. The proposed techniques can also be employed in other established CBED analyses. Apart from the thickness estimation, it can potentially be used to quantify lattice deformation, structure factors, symmetry, defects or extinction distance. - Highlights: • Automated TEM sample thickness estimation using zone-axis CBED is presented. • Computer vision and artificial intelligence are employed in CBED processing. • This approach reduces operator effort, analysis time and increases repeatability. • Individual parts can be employed in other analyses of CBED/diffraction pattern.

  4. Crisis - Weisskopf's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    'We are facing a crisis, not only in particle physics but in the whole of fundamental science', said Victor Weisskopf, doyen of quantum physics, during his traditional summer CERN stopover. 'Basic science - science for its own sake - and especially high energy physics, is really in danger.' As well as explaining how this has come about, the former CERN Director General (1961-5) proposed action to reverse the trend. Rather than dividing science into the conventional 'big' and 'small' camps, he slices across another axis. On one hand there is obviously applicable 'terrestrial science' - biology, medicine, solid state, much of the nuclear sector, nonlinear behaviour, chaos,....all directly connected with processes that happen on Earth. On the other there is 'cosmic science' - astronomy, astrophysics, particle physics and some of the nuclear sector - addressing deeper issues, not attainable naturally on this planet at all, and where applications are less immediately obvious. (This classification is not completely watertight - even cosmic science can, and does, foster immediate spinoff, Weisskopf points out, citing Georges Charpak's detector work.) Tracing the evolution of science in this century, Weisskopf sees the rapid evolution of American influence in the 1930s as a turning point. Before then, the United States had not been in the front line, and it had been important for US researchers to spend some time in Europe.

  5. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline S. Graf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location.

  6. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Eveline S.; Wright, Ian C.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location. PMID:22666303

  7. Adversity-driven changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, M.A.G.; Ormel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed to be a key mechanism underlying the link between adversity and mental health, but longitudinal studies on adversity and HPA-axis functioning are scarce. Here, we studied adversity-driven changes in HPA-axis functioning during

  8. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  9. Experimentally challenged reactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in patients with recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J. C.; Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L.; Glaudemans, K. A.; Lafeber, F. P.; van Doornen, L. J.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    There is evidence that the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is subresponsive in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed HPA axis responses to experimental stressors mimicking daily life challenges in patients with RA to determine whether HPA axis activity is associated with Th1

  10. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  11. Gaussian tunneling model of c-axis twist Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, A.; Klemm, R.A.; Scharnberg, K.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the critical current density J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) for Josephson tunneling between identical high-temperature superconductors twisted an angle (var p hi) 0 about the c axis. Regardless of the shape of the two-dimensional Fermi surface and for very general tunneling matrix elements, an order parameter (OP) with general d-wave symmetry leads to J c J (π/4)=0. This general result is inconsistent with the data of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)] on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212), which showed J c J to be independent of (var p hi) 0 . If the momentum parallel to the barrier is conserved in the tunneling process, J c J should vary substantially with the twist angle (var p hi) 0 when the tight-binding Fermi surface appropriate for Bi2212 is taken into account, even if the OP is completely isotropic. We quantify the degree of momentum nonconservation necessary to render J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) constant within experimental error for a variety of pair states by interpolating between the coherent and incoherent limits using five specific models to describe the momentum dependence of the tunneling matrix element squared. From the data of Li et al., we conclude that the c-axis tunneling in Bi2212 must be very nearly incoherent, and that the OP must have a nonvanishing Fermi-surface average for T c . We further show that the apparent conventional sum-rule violation observed by Basov et al. [Science 283, 49 (1999)] can be consistent with such strongly incoherent c-axis tunneling.

  12. H I Kinematics along the Minor Axis of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Leroy, Adam K.; Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Bolatto, Alberto; Keating, Katie M.; Sandstrom, Karin; Walter, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    M82 is one of the best-studied starburst galaxies in the local universe, and is consequently a benchmark for studying star formation feedback at both low and high redshift. We present new VLA H I observations that reveal the cold gas kinematics along the minor axis in unprecedented detail. This includes the detection of H I up to 10 kpc along the minor axis toward the south and beyond 5 kpc to the north. A surprising aspect of these observations is that the line-of-sight H I velocity decreases substantially from about 120 to 50 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from 1.5 to 10 kpc off the midplane. The velocity profile is not consistent with the H I gas cooling from the hot wind. We demonstrate that the velocity decrease is substantially greater than the deceleration expected from gravitational forces alone. If the H I consists of a continuous population of cold clouds, some additional drag force must be present, and the magnitude of the drag force places a joint constraint on the ratio of the ambient medium to the typical cloud size and density. We also show that the H I kinematics are inconsistent with a simple conical outflow centered on the nucleus, but instead require the more widespread launch of the H I over the ∼1 kpc extent of the starburst region. Regardless of the launch mechanism for the H I gas, the observed velocity decrease along the minor axis is sufficiently great that the H I may not escape the halo of M82. The inferred H I outflow rate at 10 kpc off the midplane is much less than 1 {M}ȯ yr‑1.

  13. Electric power from vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touryan, K. J.; Strickland, J. H.; Berg, D. E.

    1987-12-01

    Significant advancements have occurred in vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology for electrical power generation over the last decade; in particular, well-proven aerodynamic and structural analysis codes have been developed for Darrieus-principle wind turbines. Machines of this type have been built by at least three companies, and about 550 units of various designs are currently in service in California wind farms. Attention is presently given to the aerodynamic characteristics, structural dynamics, systems engineering, and energy market-penetration aspects of VAWTs.

  14. A 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) point design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwill, T. D.; Berg, D. E.; Dodd, H. M.; Rumsey, M. A.; Sutherland, H. J.; Veers, P. S.

    The Wind Energy Division at Sandia National Laboratories recently completed a point design based on the 34-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Test Bed. The 34-m Test Bed research machine incorporates several innovations that improve Darrieus technology, including increased energy production, over previous machines. The point design differs minimally from the Test Bed; but by removing research-related items, its estimated cost is substantially reduced. The point design is a first step towards a Test-Bed-based commercial machine that would be competitive with conventional sources of power in the mid-1990s.

  15. Spatial structure of extensive air showers near the axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, E N; Gal' perin, M D; Glemba, P Ya [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1978-07-01

    The spatial structure of the extensive air showers has been investigated. The tests have been staged on the 400 scintillation counter installation. It has been shown, that spatial distribution of the extensive air showers in the vicinity of the axis does not vary in case of the Nsub(e) electron number showers in the 10/sup 5/-10/sup 6/ range. The share of the showers having a clear-cut multicore structure is approximately 3% with Nsub(e) >= 2x10/sup 5/.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine drive train transient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, D. B.; Carne, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Start up of a vertical axis wind turbine causes transient torque oscillations in the drive train with peak torques which may be over two and one half times the rated torque of the turbine. A computer code, based on a lumped parameter model of the drive train, was developed and tested for the low cost 17 meter turbine; the results show excellent agreement with field data. The code was used to predict the effect of a slip clutch on transient torque oscillations. It was demonstrated that a slip clutch located between the motor and brake can reduce peak torques by thirty eight percent.

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic response characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor are important factors governing the safety and fatigue life of VAWT systems. The principal problems are the determination of critical rotor speeds (resonances) and the assessment of forced vibration response amplitudes. The solution to these problems is complicated by centrifugal and Coriolis effects which can have substantial influence on rotor resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The primary tools now in use for rotor analysis are described and discussed. These tools include a lumped spring mass model (VAWTDYN) and also finite-element based approaches. The accuracy and completeness of current capabilities are also discussed.

  18. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization.

  19. Endothelial Activation: The Ang/Tie Axis in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Leligdowicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a dysregulated host response to infection that causes life-threatening organ dysfunction, is a highly heterogeneous syndrome with no specific treatment. Although sepsis can be caused by a wide variety of pathogenic organisms, endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is a common mechanism of injury that contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with the syndrome. Perturbations to the angiopoietin (Ang/Tie2 axis cause endothelial cell activation and contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis. In this review, we summarize how the Ang/Tie2 pathway is implicated in sepsis and describe its prognostic as well as therapeutic utility in life-threatening infections.

  20. Brake lock mechanism for the two axis pointing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Alan; Clark, Mike; Mignosa, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Six months prior to shipment of the Broadband X-ray Telescope to the Kennedy Space Center for flight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, a major system failure occurred. During modal survey testing of the telescope's gimbal pointing system, the roll axis brake unexpectedly released. Low level vibration and static preloads present during the modal survey were within the expected flight environment. Brake release during shuttle liftoff or ascent was an unacceptable risk to mission success; thus, a Brake Lock Mechanism (BLM) was developed.

  1. Instability of nuclear wobbling motion and tilted axis rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichi

    2004-01-01

    We study a possible correspondence between the softening of the wobbling mode and the 'phase transition' of the one-dimensionally rotating mean field to a three-dimensionally rotating one by comparing the properties of the wobbling mode obtained by the one-dimensional cranking model + random phase approximation with the total Routhian surface obtained by the three-dimensional tilted-axis cranking model. The potential surface for the observed wobbling mode excited on the triaxial superdeformed states in 163 Lu is also analyzed

  2. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  3. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction using triple-axis spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als-Nielsen, J.

    1980-12-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction studies of (i) monolayers of the noble gases Kr and Ar physiosorbed on graphite (ii) smectic A fluctuations in the nematic and the smectic A phases of liquid crystals are described. The apparatus used is a triple axis spectrometer situated at the storage ring DORIS at Hasylab, DESY, Hamburg. A monochromatic, well collimated beam is extracted from the synchrotron radiation spectrum by Bragg reflection from perfect Si or Ge crystals. The direction of the beam scattered from the sample is determined by Bragg reflection from a perfect Si or Ge crystal. High intensities even with resolution extending beyond the wavelength of visible light can be obtained. (Auth.)

  4. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  5. Viewing Age: Lifespan Identity and Television Viewing Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jake

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices, grounded in social identity theory. Content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers show a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults' preference for viewing young adult characters exists…

  6. On the spin-axis dynamics of a Moonless Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gongjie; Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: gli@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    The variation of a planet's obliquity is influenced by the existence of satellites with a high mass ratio. For instance, Earth's obliquity is stabilized by the Moon and would undergo chaotic variations in the Moon's absence. In turn, such variations can lead to large-scale changes in the atmospheric circulation, rendering spin-axis dynamics a central issue for understanding climate. The relevant quantity for dynamically forced climate change is the rate of chaotic diffusion. Accordingly, here we re-examine the spin-axis evolution of a Moonless Earth within the context of a simplified perturbative framework. We present analytical estimates of the characteristic Lyapunov coefficient as well as the chaotic diffusion rate and demonstrate that even in absence of the Moon, the stochastic change in Earth's obliquity is sufficiently slow to not preclude long-term habitability. Our calculations are consistent with published numerical experiments and illustrate the putative system's underlying dynamical structure in a simple and intuitive manner.

  7. Wake structure of a single vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posa, Antonio; Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.; Balaras, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The wake structure of an isolated Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is studied by both Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Large Eddy Simulation. • The wake structure is investigated for two values of tip speed ratio, TSR_1=1.35 and TSR_2=2.21. • A displacement of the momentum deficit towards the windward side is verified in the wake. • Higher turbulence and coherence is observed on the leeward side of the wake, due to the upwind stall of the blades. • Coherence in the wake core, associated to the downwind stall, decays quickly downstream. - Abstract: The wake structure behind a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is both measured in a wind tunnel using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and computed with large-eddy simulation (LES). Geometric and dynamic conditions are closely matched to typical applications of VAWTs (Re_D ∼ 1.8 × 10"5). The experiments and computations were highly coordinated with continuous two-way feedback to produce the most insightful results. Good qualitative agreement is seen between the computational and experimental results. The dependence of the wake structure on the tip speed ratio, TSR, is investigated, showing higher asymmetry and larger vortices at the lower rotational speed, due to stronger dynamic stall phenomena. Instantaneous, ensemble-averaged and phase-averaged fields are discussed, as well as the dynamics of coherent structures in the rotor region and downstream wake.

  8. Computational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremseth, J.; Duraisamy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Canonical problems involving single, pairs, and arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated numerically with the objective of understanding the underlying flow structures and their implications on energy production. Experimental studies by Dabiri (J Renew Sustain Energy 3, 2011) suggest that VAWTs demand less stringent spacing requirements than their horizontal axis counterparts and additional benefits may be obtained by optimizing the placement and rotational direction of VAWTs. The flowfield of pairs of co-/counter-rotating VAWTs shows some similarities with pairs of cylinders in terms of wake structure and vortex shedding. When multiple VAWTs are placed in a column, the extent of the wake is seen to spread further downstream, irrespective of the direction of rotation of individual turbines. However, the aerodynamic interference between turbines gives rise to regions of excess momentum between the turbines which lead to significant power augmentations. Studies of VAWTs arranged in multiple columns show that the downstream columns can actually be more efficient than the leading column, a proposition that could lead to radical improvements in wind farm productivity.

  9. Application of Circulation Controlled Blades for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velissarios Kourkoulis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The blades of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT rotor see an inconsistent angle of attack through its rotation. Consequently, VAWT blades generally use symmetrical aerofoils with a lower lift-to-drag ratio than cambered aerofoils tailored to maximise horizontal axis wind turbine rotor performance. This paper considers the feasibility of circulation controlled (CC VAWT blades, using a tangential air jet to provide lift and therefore power augmentation. However CC blade sections require a higher trailing-edge thickness than conventional sections giving rise to additional base drag. The choice of design parameters is a compromise between lift augmentation, additional base drag as well as the power required to pump the air jet. Although CC technology has been investigated for many years, particularly for aerospace applications, few researchers have considered VAWT applications. This paper considers the feasibility of the technology, using Computational Fluid Dynamics to evaluate a baseline CC aerofoil with different trailing-edge ellipse shapes. Lift and drag increments due to CC are considered within a momentum based turbine model to determine net power production. The study found that for modest momentum coefficients significant net power augmentation can be achieved with a relatively simple aerofoil geometry if blowing is controlled through the blades rotation.

  10. RF generation in the DARHT Axis-II beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-03

    We have occasionally observed radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic signals in the downstream transport (DST) of the second axis linear induction accelerator (LIA) at the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility. We have identified and eliminated some of the sources by eliminating the offending cavities. However, we still observe strong RF in the range 1 GHz t0 2 GHz occurring late in the {approx}2-{micro}s pulse that can be excited or prevented by varying the downstream tune. The narrow frequency width (<0.5%) and near exponential growth at the dominant frequency is indicative of a beam-cavity interaction, and electro-magnetic simulations of cavity structure show a spectrum rich in resonances in the observed frequency range. However, the source of beam produced RF in the cavity resonance frequency range has not been identified, and it has been the subject of much speculation, ranging from beam-plasma or beam-ion instabilities to unstable cavity coupling.

  11. The methods of the LHC magnets' magnetic axis location measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottura, L.; Buzio, M.; Deferne, G.; Sievers, P.; Smirnov, N.; Villar, F.P.; Walckiers, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 8 thousands LHC magnets of various types will be extensively measured during series magnetic test at both room and superfluid helium temperature. The precise knowledge of the magnetic axis positioning is vital for the alignment of those magnets in the tunnel. The most efficient and cost effective method with rotating pick up coil is chosen currently as a baseline for series measurement. The position of the measuring coil axis herewith is measured with a dedicated optical system. The deflection of the light beam in the air due to temperature gradient either passing through the cold bore when the magnet excited for warm measurement or through the anti-cryostat during cold measurement can reach magnitudes significantly exceeding tolerance and therefore is a critical issue. We present studies of the light deflection in 10 m long dipole at warm and cold and propose means to reduce it. The result of the dipole centring powered in Quadrupole Configured Dipole (QCD) or 'ugly quad' configuration and correlation with centring based on high order harmonics are presented as well. (authors)

  12. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Wen; Huang, Qing-Guo; Santos, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  13. Reframing the Teenage Wasteland: Adolescent Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Luczynski, Pauline; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-04-01

    Human adolescence is arguably one of the most challenging periods of development. The young adult is exposed to a variety of stressors and environmental stimuli on a backdrop of significant physiological change and development, which is especially apparent in the brain. It is therefore unsurprising that many psychiatric disorders are first observable during this time. The human intestine is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms, and evidence from both preclinical and clinical research focusing on the established microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders may be influenced by intestinal dysbiosis. Provocatively, many if not all of the challenges faced by the developing teen have a documented impact on these intestinal commensal microbiota. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the developing adolescent brain and intestinal microbiota, discuss recent research investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis during puberty, and propose that pre- and probiotics may prove useful in both the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders specifically benefitting the young adult. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. A cytokine axis regulates elastin formation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Erin P.; Argraves, W. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the dynamic regulation of tropoelastin expression and elastin formation in development and disease are transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that have been the focus of much research. Of particular importance is the cytokine–governed elastin regulatory axis in which the pro-elastogenic activities of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ1) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are opposed by anti-elastogenic activities of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), EGF, PDGF-BB, TGFα, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and noncanonical TGFβ1 signaling. A key mechanistic feature of the regulatory axis is that cytokines influence elastin formation through effects on the cell cycle involving control of cyclin–cyclin dependent kinase complexes and activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. In this article we provide an overview of the major cytokines/growth factors that modulate elastogenesis and describe the underlying molecular mechanisms for their action on elastin production. PMID:23160093

  15. PRIGo: a new multi-axis goniometer for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltersperger, Sandro; Olieric, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.olieric@psi.ch; Pradervand, Claude [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Glettig, Wayne [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et Microtechnique SA, Neuchâtel 2002 (Switzerland); Salathe, Marco; Fuchs, Martin R.; Curtin, Adrian; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Ebner, Simon; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Weinert, Tobias [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schulze-Briese, Clemens [Dectris Ltd, Baden 5400 (Switzerland); Wang, Meitian, E-mail: vincent.olieric@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-05-09

    The design and performance of the new multi-axis goniometer PRIGo developed at the Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute is described. The Parallel Robotics Inspired Goniometer (PRIGo) is a novel compact and high-precision goniometer providing an alternative to (mini-)kappa, traditional three-circle goniometers and Eulerian cradles used for sample reorientation in macromolecular crystallography. Based on a combination of serial and parallel kinematics, PRIGo emulates an arc. It is mounted on an air-bearing stage for rotation around ω and consists of four linear positioners working synchronously to achieve x, y, z translations and χ rotation (0–90°), followed by a ϕ stage (0–360°) for rotation around the sample holder axis. Owing to the use of piezo linear positioners and active correction, PRIGo features spheres of confusion of <1 µm, <7 µm and <10 µm for ω, χ and ϕ, respectively, and is therefore very well suited for micro-crystallography. PRIGo enables optimal strategies for both native and experimental phasing crystallographic data collection. Herein, PRIGo hardware and software, its calibration, as well as applications in macromolecular crystallography are described.

  16. Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Prader Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia S. Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prader Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic condition that has concurrent endocrinological insufficiencies. The presence of growth hormone deficiency has been well documented, but adrenal insufficiency (AI is not widely reported. A review was conducted to investigate its prevalence and relevance in PWS in both adults and children. Methodology: A literature review was performed with the search terms “Prader-Willi syndrome” and “adrenal insufficiency”. Results: The review found studies disagree on the prevalence and method of investigation of AI in PWS. Case studies demonstrate that patients with PWS are at risk of premature death, often secondary to respiratory infections. The possibility that this may be the result of the inability to mount an effective cortisol response has been studied, with some evidence confirming AI in PWS patients. Most reports agreed AI is present in PWS, however, Farholt et al. showed no HPA axis dysfunction in adults, suggesting that perhaps it is rare in adults, and children should be the focus of further studies. Conclusion: AI is present in some patients with PWS. Further research is required to ensure optimal treatment can be implemented and to prevent premature deaths related to adrenal insufficiency. Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing the adrenal axis and considering treatment for adrenal insufficiency in PWS patients.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: A microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  18. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wzhao7@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  19. Microcontroller based two axis microtron beam extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoka, H.; Jathar, M.; Meshram, V.; Rao, Nageswara

    2009-01-01

    Microtron is an electron accelerator which is used to accelerate the electron beam. The Microtron consists of electro magnet with two poles separated by yoke for completion of path for magnetic flux lines. A compact Microtron capable of accelerating electrons up to 12 MeV has been developed in RRCAT. The beam from the Microtron has to be extracted from various orbits depending upon the user requirement (X-Y stage is built with an accuracy of 100 μm). This paper describes the design and development of microcontroller based two axis beam extraction system for Microtron, with a resolution of 50 μm to position the extraction tube with respect to selected orbit. Two axis motion controller is developed using current controlled micro-stepping driver mechanism, which uses Bipolar Chopper Drive for driving stepper motors. Each phase has 2A continuous driving capability. The system is provided with user selectable controls like speed, steps, direction, and mode. This system is provided with RS-232 interface, to accept commands from PC. This system also has local keyboard and LCD interface to use in Stand-alone mode (local Mode). (author)

  20. A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  2. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  3. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Optical performance of inclined south-north single-axis tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Runsheng

    2010-01-01

    To investigate optical performance of the inclined south-north single-axis (ISN-axis, in short) tracked solar panels, a mathematical procedure to estimate the annual collectible radiation on fixed and tracked panels was suggested based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. For solar panels tracking about ISN-axis, the yearly optimal tilt-angle of ISN-axis for maximizing annual solar gain was about 3 o deviating from the site latitude in most of China except in areas with poor solar resources, and the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISN-axis tracked panels was about 97-98% of that on dual-axis tracked panels; whereas for ISN-axis tracked panels with the tilt-angle of ISN-axis being adjusted four times in a year at three fixed tilt-angles, the annual collectible radiation was almost close to that on dual-axis tracked panels, the optimum date of tilt-angle adjustment of ISN-axis was 23 days from the equinoxes, and the optimum tilt-angle adjustment value for each adjustment was about 22 o . Compared to fixed south-facing solar panels inclined at an optimal tilt-angle, the increase in the annual solar gain due to using ISN-axis sun tracking was above 30% in the areas with abundant solar resources and less than 20% in the areas with poor solar resources.

  5. The Mechanical Axis of the First Ray: A Radiographic Assessment in Hallux Abducto Valgus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorta, Guido A; Nasser, Ellianne M; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Malay, D Scot

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a new method of hallux abducto valgus deformity correction planning using the mechanical axis of the medial column (mechanical axis planning). This method of radiographic evaluation identifies an ideal position for the first metatarsal after correction and is useful regardless of the surgical procedure chosen. We retrospectively reviewed 200 radiographs to identify a "normal" value for the mechanical axis angle. We reviewed 100 radiographs of patients with hallux abducto valgus deformity (deformity group) and 100 radiographs of patients without hallux abducto valgus deformity (control group). The deformity group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 13.5° ± 2.83° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.58° ± 1°. The control group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 7.5° ± 1.76° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.19° ± 0.9°. The differences in the M1-M2 anatomic axis angle and M1-M2 mechanical axis angle were statistically significant between the control and deformity groups. We sought to provide a reliable method for planning hallux abducto valgus deformity correction by aligning the mechanical axis of the medial column and the mechanical axis of the first ray to the "normal" value of 11° to reduce the deformity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  7. Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Sankar, A; Lahiri, S K; Das, S

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass is presented in this paper. The fabricated accelerometer device consists of a heavy proof mass supported by four thin flexures. Boron-diffused piezoresistors located near the fixed ends of the flexures are used for sensing the developed stress and hence acceleration. Performance enhancement is achieved by electroplating a gold mass of 20 µm thickness on top of the proof mass. A commercially available sulfite-based solution TSG-250(TM) was used for the electroplating process. Aluminum metal lines were used to form a Wheatstone bridge for signal pick-up. To avoid galvanic corrosion between two dissimilar metals having contact in an electrolyte, a shadow mask technique was used to selectively deposit a Cr/Au seed layer on an insulator atop the proof mass for subsequent electrodeposition. Bulk micromachining was performed using a 5% dual-doped TMAH solution. Fabricated devices with different electroplated gold areas were tested up to ±13 g acceleration. For electroplated gold dimensions of 2500 µm × 2500 µm × 20 µm on a proof mass, sensitivity along the Z-axis is increased by 21.8% as compared to the structure without gold. Off-axis sensitivities along the X- and Y-axes are reduced by 7.6% and 6.9%, respectively

  8. Determining the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy and CP Violation in NOvA with a Second Off-Axis Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, O; Pascoli, S; Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We consider a Super-NOvA-like experimental configuration based on the use of two detectors in a long-baseline experiment as NOvA. We take the far detector as in the present NOvA proposal and add a second detector at a shorter baseline. The location of the second off-axis detector is chosen such that the ratio L/E is the same for both detectors, being L the baseline and E the neutrino energy. We consider liquid argon and water-Cherenkov techniques for the second off-axis detector and study, for different experimental setups, the detector mass required for the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy, for different values of theta13. We also study the capabilities of such an experimental setup for determining CP violation in the neutrino sector. Our results show that by adding a second off-axis detector a remarkable enhancement on the capabilities of the current NOvA experiment could be achieved.

  9. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes. An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis. The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis.

  10. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    none of the existing systems adequately achieves all the necessary components of a .... sessment techniques in terms of the risk conclusions which .... Adoption is a private decision, based on the adopter's assessment of ...... tensive washing with distilled water. Bound ... support the growth of a mixed microbial culture from.

  11. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... 4.7 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA technique has been used for determining aflatoxin in a large number of foods. .... mycotoxins, ammonia is the most efficient and it has been accepted for use by the ...

  12. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  13. A multi-axis MEMS sensor with integrated carbon nanotube-based piezoresistors for nanonewton level force metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, Michael A; Panas, Robert M; Culpepper, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a multi-axis microelectromechanical system (MEMS) force sensor with integrated carbon nanotube (CNT)-based piezoresistive sensors. Through the use of proper CNT selection and sensor fabrication techniques, the performance of the CNT-based MEMS force sensor was increased by approximately two orders of magnitude as compared to current CNT-based sensor systems. The range and resolution of the force sensor were determined as 84 μN and 5.6 nN, respectively. The accuracy of the force sensor was measured to be better than 1% over the device’s full range. (paper)

  14. Cardiac chamber volumes by echocardiography using a new mathematical method: A promising technique for zero-G use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, J. C.; Beattie, J. M.; Gaffney, F. A.; Nixon, J. V.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, reproducible, and non-invasive means for ventricular volume determination are needed for evaluating cardiovascular function zero-gravity. Current echocardiographic methods, particularly for the right ventricle, suffer from a large standard error. A new mathematical approach, recently described by Watanabe et al., was tested on 1 normal formalin-fixed human hearts suspended in a mineral oil bath. Volumes are estimated from multiple two-dimensional echocardiographic views recorded from a single point at sequential angles. The product of sectional cavity area and center of mass for each view summed over the range of angles (using a trapezoidal rule) gives volume. Multiple (8-14) short axis right ventricle and left ventricle views at 5.0 deg intervals were videotaped. The images were digitized by two independent observers (leading-edge to leading-edge technique) and analyzed using a graphics tablet and microcomputer. Actual volumes were determined by filling the chambers with water. These data were compared to the mean of the two echo measurements.

  15. AFOCAL SYSTEMS FORMED BY MIRROR OFF-AXIS PARABOLOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror systems make it possible to reduce device dimensions and its weight while preserving high input aperture and these systems are characterized by a number of other advantages. Their significant disadvantage is a central screening of an entrance pupil that leads to lower image quality. The paper contains description of the investigations on afocal systems formed by eccentrically cut-out mirror paraboloids (off-axis mirrors where aperture diaphragm is displaced in the meridian plane for a defined value and a central field point is located on the optical axis. The canonic Mersenne systems are accepted as base schemas (modules for these compositions. The paper considers two types of such systems: visible increases – Г > 0 and Г < 0. Algorithms for calculation of centered afocal systems with two and four reflections have been written in the paper and the systems are free from spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism when an input pupil is located in superimposed focal planes of all parabolic mirrors. An aberration in curvature image has been additionally corrected in three-mirror quart-parabolic scheme which is a combination of two classical telescopic Mersenne systems. The paper presents schemes and calculation results. Two-mirror schemes with non-screened input pupil have been studied in the paper and in this case all the system remains centered and an aperture diaphragm is decentered for the distance Cm which is commensurable with the diaphragm size. The paper contains description of the investigated afocal schemes with four reflections from off-axis mirror paraboloids, a prepared algorithm for calculation, the obtained formulas for making combination of canonic afocal systems formed by two mirrors. Computer simulation in software environment Opal and Zemax has been carried out in the paper. Basic description has been prepared while using two alternative methods for the class of decentered systems and aberration characteristics and

  16. The view from Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyov, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the observations of correspondents for the Bulletin (two Russian journalists, one based in Moscow, the other in Kiev) who investigated the status of the Soviet Union's Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. After two years of wrangling and two earlier failed settlements, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk at Massandra in Crimea. On September 3, the leaders announced that Russia would buy out Ukraine's interest in the fleet and lease the port at Sevastopol. The Massandra summit was also supposed to settle Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. Described here are the Kiev-based correspondent's views on the Massandra summit (and its major topics), which was to have been called off by the Russian foreign ministry when Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma resigned

  17. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  18. Future view of electric power information processing techniques. Architecture techniques for power supply communication network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Keisuke

    1988-06-20

    Present situations of a power supply communication are described, and the future trend of a power supply information network is reviewed. For the improvement of a transmission efficiency and quality and a cost benefit for the power supply communication, the introduction of digital networks has been promoted. As for a protection information network, since there is the difference between a required communication quality of system protection information and that of power supply operation information, the individual digital network configuration is expected, in addition, the increasing of image information transmission for monitoring is also estimated. As for a business information network, the construction of a broad-band switched network is expected with increasing of image transmission needs such as a television meeting. Furthermore, the expansion to a power supply ISDN which is possible to connect between a telephone, facsimile and data terminal, to exchange various media and to connect between networks is expected with higher communication services in the protection and business network. However, for its practical use, the standardization of various interfaces will become essential. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  19. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  20. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  1. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  2. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  3. Differences among doses for neuro-axis radiotherapy planning in the gonadal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.F de; Vilela, E.C.; Oliveira, F.L.; Filho, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy can disrupt the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, directly causing ovarian deficiencies, such as the decrease in fertility or damage that renders the uterus incapable of accommodating the growth of a fetus. However, these issues have become increasingly important to a growing number of pediatric and adolescent cancer survivors. The whole-body, cranial-spinal axis, as well as abdomen and pelvic region irradiations may expose the ovaries to radiation and may cause premature ovarian failure, whereas doses above 35 Gy cranial can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary functions. This study performed a comparison of four doses of radiotherapy planning techniques for the neural axis. For this analysis, technical simulations were performed for the treatment of medulloblastoma in four different planning, applied in a RANDO anthropomorphic phantom and dosimeters (TLD-100). The radiation fields in the 1”st and 2”nd planning were 40 x 5 cm”2 and 17 x 5 cm”2 with 4.0 cm depth, in which doses were 0.03 and 0.05 Gy / day and 0.11 and 0.09 Gy / days, on the right and left sides, respectively. The 3”rd and 4”th measured planning 32 x 7 cm”2 and 18 x 7 cm”2, with a 2 cm gap and a 4.0 and 5.0 cm depth, in which doses were 1.08 and 0.2 Gy/day and 1.14 and 0.14 Gy/day, on the left and right sides, respectively. It could be observed that the doses in the ovaries in the 3”rd and 4”th schedules proved to be larger than the doses in the 1 s t and 2 n d planning. This is caused by the spinal field width and the depth of the second spinal field, which is 1.0 cm more than the field of the 1”st and 2”nd planning. These differences should be observed in image planning, as incorrect measures can cause damage in the treatment finish. (authors)

  4. Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Energy Harvester in A Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E. M.; Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.

    2017-07-01

    The wind speed in the southern beach of West Java Indonesia is quite promising for wind energy harvesting. A field survey reported that the wind speed reached 10 m/s, while the average recorded in a year is about 4.7 m/s. In this study, two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) were compared to be used in that area through calculation as well as experiments. The experiments measured that the turbines can produce about 7.82W and 2.33W of electricity respectively. These experiments are compared with theoretical calculation to obtain the performance of both turbines used. The coefficient of performance (cp) experimentally is 0.09 for Turbine 1 (hybrid Savonius-Darrieus rotor) and 0.14 for Turbine 2 (Savonius rotor). While, rotor’s mechanical performance Cpr, obtained theoritically through calculation, is 0.36 for Turbine 1 and 0.12 for Turbine 2. These results are analysed from mechanical and electrical view.

  5. Ultrastructural and biochemical investigations of protein mobilization of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccifora, Simonetta; Guerranti, Roberto; Muzzi, Chiara; Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozies S; Pagani, Roberto; Leoncini, Roberto; Bellani, Lorenza M

    2010-03-01

    The mobilization of storage reserves, with particular emphasis on storage proteins of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., cotyledons, and embryo was investigated from the ultrastructural and biochemical points of view. Proteins and starch were the two main storage substances in cotyledons, and proteins and lipids were the main ones in the embryo. Embryo protein bodies were smaller and fewer in number than those of cotyledons. Structural and ultrastructural data determined between 24 and 48 h after imbibition and between 48 and 72 h after imbibition, the end of significant embryo and cotyledon protein mobilization, respectively, indicating more precocious storage protein mobilization in the axis than cotyledons. Moreover, storage protein mobilization in embryo and cotyledons occurred before the end of germination. Water soluble proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, producing 29 bands with molecular weights from 14 to 90 KDa. Embryo extract contained more proteins than cotyledon extract, contained seven characteristic bands, and showed a higher variability of the optical density trend than cotyledon.

  6. An Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor–Ceramide Signaling Axis Modulates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cen; Shi, Jingmin; Gao, Xiaoxia; Sun, Dongxue; Sun, Lulu; Wang, Ting; Takahashi, Shogo; Anitha, Mallappa; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Patterson, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the view that intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in glucose tolerance and that FXR signaling can be profoundly impacted by the gut microbiota. Selective manipulation of the gut microbiota–FXR signaling axis was reported to significantly impact glucose intolerance, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an over-the-counter dietary supplement and an inhibitor of bacterial bile salt hydrolase, increased levels of intestinal tauro-β-muricholic acid, which selectively suppresses intestinal FXR signaling. Intestinal FXR inhibition decreased ceramide levels by suppressing expression of genes involved in ceramide synthesis specifically in the intestinal ileum epithelial cells. The lower serum ceramides mediated decreased hepatic mitochondrial acetyl-CoA levels and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activities and attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis, independent of body weight change and hepatic insulin signaling in vivo; this was reversed by treatment of mice with ceramides or the FXR agonist GW4064. Ceramides substantially attenuated mitochondrial citrate synthase activities primarily through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which triggers increased hepatic mitochondrial acetyl-CoA levels and PC activities. These results reveal a mechanism by which the dietary supplement CAPE and intestinal FXR regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and suggest that inhibiting intestinal FXR is a strategy for treating hyperglycemia. PMID:28223344

  7. Off-axis holographic laser speckle contrast imaging of blood vessels in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurashitov, Arkady; Bragina, Olga; Sindeeva, Olga; Sergey, Sindeev; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-09-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has become one of the most common tools for functional imaging in tissues. Incomplete theoretical description and sophisticated interpretation of measurement results are completely sidelined by a low-cost and simple hardware, fastness, consistent results, and repeatability. In addition to the relatively low measuring volume with around 700 μm of the probing depth for the visible spectral range of illumination, there is no depth selectivity in conventional LSCI configuration; furthermore, in a case of high NA objective, the actual penetration depth of light in tissues is greater than depth of field (DOF) of an imaging system. Thus, the information about these out-of-focus regions persists in the recorded frames but cannot be retrieved due to intensity-based registration method. We propose a simple modification of LSCI system based on the off-axis holography to introduce after-registration refocusing ability to overcome both depth-selectivity and DOF problems as well as to get the potential possibility of producing a cross-section view of the specimen.

  8. Omics for Understanding the Gut-Liver-Microbiome Axis and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Jag; Duffy, Linda C; Riscuta, Gabriela; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Hubbard, Van S

    2017-03-01

    Human metabolic disease opens a new view to understanding the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to drug metabolism and drug-induced toxicity in gut-liver function. The gut microbiome, a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, also plays a direct role in chronic inflammation and liver disease. Gut bacterial communities directly metabolize certain drugs, reducing their bioavailability and influencing individual variation in drug response. In addition, some microbiome-produced compounds may affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics via altered expression of metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters or genes coding for drug target proteins, drug response phenotypes, and disease states. Molecular-based high-throughput technologies are providing novel insight about host-gut microbiome interactions, homeostasis, and xenobiotic effects associated with wide variation in efficacy or toxicity in humans. It is envisioned that future approaches to treating and preventing liver disease will benefit from in-depth studies of the liver-microbiome axis. Thus, the microbiome shares a fundamental role in human physiology with various organ systems, and its importance must be considered in the rapid evolution of precision medicine. A new emerging perspective of understanding the effect of the gut microbiome on human response to drugs would be indispensable for developing efficacious, safe, and cost-effective precision therapies. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Physiological Motion Axis for the Seat of a Dynamic Office Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530

  10. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  11. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-06-19

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  12. An additional reference axis improves femoral rotation alignment in image-free computer navigation assisted total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae; Nakagawa, Takumi

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have demonstrated improvement in accuracy of rotational alignment using image-free navigation systems mainly due to the inconsistent registration of anatomical landmarks. We have used an image-free navigation for total knee arthroplasty, which adopts the average algorithm between two reference axes (transepicondylar axis and axis perpendicular to the Whiteside axis) for femoral component rotation control. We hypothesized that addition of another axis (condylar twisting axis measured on a preoperative radiograph) would improve the accuracy. One group using the average algorithm (double-axis group) was compared with the other group using another axis to confirm the accuracy of the average algorithm (triple-axis group). Femoral components were more accurately implanted for rotational alignment in the triple-axis group (ideal: triple-axis group 100%, double-axis group 82%, P<0.05). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fielding of the on-axis diagnostic package at Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.J.; Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.; Kellogg, J.W.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Seaman, J.; Jobe, D.; Lazier, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed a comprehensive diagnostic package for observing z-pinch radiation along the pinch axis on the Z accelerator. The instrumentation, which was fielded on the axial package, are x-ray diagnostics requiring direct lines of sight to the target. The diagnostics require vacuum access to the center of the accelerator. The environment is a hostile one, where one must deal with an intense, energetic photon flux (>100 keV), EMP, debris (e.g. bullets or shrapnel), and mechanical shock in order for the diagnostics to survive. In addition, practical constraints require the package be refurbished and utilized on a once a day shot schedule. In spite of this harsh environment, the authors have successfully fielded the diagnostic package with a high survivability of the data and the instruments. In this paper, they describe the environment and issues related to the re-entrant diagnostic package's implementation and maintenance

  14. Parametric study of single-axis acoustic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2001-08-06

    Remarkable enhancement of the single-axis acoustic levitation force is achieved by properly curving the surface and enlarging the section of the reflector so as to levitate high density material like tungsten ({rho}{sub s}=18.92g/cm{sup 3}). A two-cylinder model incorporating the boundary element method simulations is presented for systematic study of the relationship between levitation capabilities and geometric parameters. The model proves to be successful in predicting resonant modes and explaining deviation of the levitated samples near the reflector and driver. The dependence of levitation force on resonant mode, reflector section radius R{sub b} and curvature radius R is revealed and summarized, which agrees with the experiment in principle and suggests that a reflector with large R{sub b} and small R (when R{sub b}/{lambda}{>=}0.982) working under mode 1 assures better levitation capabilities. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Parametric study of single-axis acoustic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2001-01-01

    Remarkable enhancement of the single-axis acoustic levitation force is achieved by properly curving the surface and enlarging the section of the reflector so as to levitate high density material like tungsten (ρ s =18.92g/cm 3 ). A two-cylinder model incorporating the boundary element method simulations is presented for systematic study of the relationship between levitation capabilities and geometric parameters. The model proves to be successful in predicting resonant modes and explaining deviation of the levitated samples near the reflector and driver. The dependence of levitation force on resonant mode, reflector section radius R b and curvature radius R is revealed and summarized, which agrees with the experiment in principle and suggests that a reflector with large R b and small R (when R b /λ≥0.982) working under mode 1 assures better levitation capabilities. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Orthogonal Analysis Based Performance Optimization for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT is composed of multiple structural parameters. Since there are interactions among the structural parameters, traditional research approaches, which usually focus on one parameter at a time, cannot obtain performance of the wind turbine accurately. In order to exploit overall effect of a novel VAWT, we firstly use a single parameter optimization method to obtain optimal values of the structural parameters, respectively, by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD method; based on the results, we then use an orthogonal analysis method to investigate the influence of interactions of the structural parameters on performance of the wind turbine and to obtain optimization combination of the structural parameters considering the interactions. Results of analysis of variance indicate that interactions among the structural parameters have influence on performance of the wind turbine, and optimization results based on orthogonal analysis have higher wind energy utilization than that of traditional research approaches.

  17. Variable speed control for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.

    A robust variable speed control for vertical axis wind turbine applications is implemented. It is a PI rotor speed controller based on an induction generator model operated at variable frequency. The generator dynamics are approximated by a first order differential equation with a prescribed slip....... In order to allow variability in the rotor speed an inverter is assumed which changes the nominal generator speed. Below rated power the optimum tip speed ratio is tracked, while above the power is constrained to rated. The wind speed which is needed in the control it is considered as a known signal...... the Inflow project. The investigation of the VAWT performance under different control parameters such as the PI gains has been performed by Christos Galinos. Deterministic and turbulent wind speed steps of 2 m/s from 6 m/s to 24 m/s and back to 12 m/s are applied. The controller gives smooth transient...

  18. Aerodynamic Interactions between Pairs of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John

    2017-11-01

    Increased power production has been observed in downstream vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) when positioned offset from the wake of upstream turbines. This effect was found to exist in both laboratory and field environments with pairs of co- and counter-rotating turbines. It is hypothesized that the observed power production enhancement is due to flow acceleration adjacent to the upstream turbine caused by bluff body blockage, which increases the incident freestream velocity on appropriately positioned downstream turbines. This type of flow acceleration has been observed in computational and laboratory studies of VAWTs and will be further investigated here using 3D-PTV measurements around pairs of laboratory-scale VAWTs. These measurements will be used to understand the mechanisms behind the performance enhancement effect and seek to determine optimal separation distances and angles between turbines based on turbine design parameters. These results will lead to recommendations for optimizing the power production of VAWT wind farms which utilize this effect.

  19. Confinement studies of helical-axis Heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, F.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kondo, K.

    2005-01-01

    The L-H transition in the helical-axis heliotron, Heliotron J, was investigated. For ECH-only, NBI-only and ECH+NBI combination heating plasmas, the confinement quality of the H-mode was examined with special regard to the magnetic configuration, the vacuum edge iota value of which was chosen as a label of the configuration. The experimental iota dependence of the H ISS95 -factor (τ E exp /τ E ISS95 ) has revealed that there exist the specific configurations for which the high-quality H-modes (1.3 ISS95 p , was calculated and compared with the experiment. Edge plasma characteristics are also measured and discussed with regard to the E r -shear formation at the transition. (author)

  20. New airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In a continuing effort to enhance the performance of small energy systems, one root airfoil and three primary airfoils were specifically designed for small horizontal axis wind turbines. These airfoils are intended primarily for 1-10 kW variable-speed wind turbines for both conventional (tapered/twisted) or pultruded blades. The four airfoils were wind-tunnel tested at Reynolds numbers between 100,000 and 500,000. Tests with simulated leading-edge roughness were also conducted. The results indicate that small variable-speed wind turbines should benefit from the use of the new airfoils which provide enhanced lift-to-drag ratio performance as compared with previously existing airfoils.