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Sample records for axillary region positron

  1. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and

  2. Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium clusters in the human axillary region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Callewaert

    Full Text Available The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n = 17, whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n = 36. The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome.

  3. Effects of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during dynamic hand contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Payne, G

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at orbitomeatal (OM) plane +5.0 and +9.0 cm in 10 subjects at rest and during dynamic hand contractions before and after axillary blockade. Handgrip strength was significantly reduced, and rating of perceived exertion increased after blockade. During...

  4. Positron annihilation radiation from the Galactic center region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Observations show that there are two components of positron annihilation radiation from the region of the Galactic center: a variable component resulting from one or just a few compact sources at or near the Galactic center and a steady, diffuse component resulting from positron annihilation in the Galactic disk. The diffuse component is modeled using the observed longitude distributions of 70-150 MeV gamma rays, CO, and hot plasma revealed by Fe line emission. Recent results on positron annihilation in the interstellar medium are reviewed and the implications of the annihilation processes on the fraction of positrons annihilating via positronium and on the shape of the 511 keV annihilation line are discussed. The sources of diffuse Galactic positrons are also reviewed and the nature of the compact source of annihilation radiation near the Galactic center is discussed.

  5. Axillary nerve palsy following blunt trauma to the shoulder region: a clinical and electrophysiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, H; Bril, V

    1982-01-01

    Although the commonest type of axillary nerve palsy occurs following shoulder dislocation on humeral fracture, another form is seen after blunt trauma to the shoulder region without associated fracture or dislocation. The former usually goes on to a full recovery whereas a failure to recover is common in the latter group. In our review of 13 patients with palsy after blunt shoulder trauma, seven patients showed minimal or no recovery of deltoid muscle function and six patients went on to complete or near complete recovery. Serial electromyographic examinations usually revealed the lesion to be in continuity although eventual clinical recovery was not satisfactory in a number of these patients. The mechanism of the palsy appeared to involve a stretch injury and this was confirmed at operation in two patients. Glenohumeral fixation was a troublesome complication which limited recovery of function in four patients. Further details of the type of trauma, clinical and electromyographic examination, assessment and management are discussed. Images PMID:7175526

  6. Regional radiotherapy versus an axillary lymph node dissection after lumpectomy: a safe alternative for an axillary lymph node dissection in a clinically uninvolved axilla in breast cancer. A case control study with 10 years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elferink Marloes AG

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard treatment of the axilla in breast cancer used to be an axillary lymph node dissection. An axillary lymph node dissection is known to give substantial risks of morbidity. In recent years the sentinel node biopsy has become common practice. Future randomized study results will determine whether the expected decrease in morbidity can be proven. Methods Before the introduction of the sentinel node biopsy, we conducted a study in which 180 women of 50 years and older with T1/T2 cN0 breast cancer were treated with breast conserving therapy. Instead of an axillary lymph node dissection regional radiotherapy was given in combination with tamoxifen (RT-group. The study group was compared with 341 patients, with the same patient and tumour characteristics, treated with an axillary lymph node dissection (S-group. Results The treatment groups were comparable, except for age. The RT-group was significantly older than the S-group. The median follow up was 7.2 years. The regional relapse rates were low and equal in both treatment groups, 1.1% in RT-group versus 1.5% in S-group at 5 years. The overall survival was similar; the disease free survival was significant better in the RT-group. Conclusion Regional recurrence rates after regional radiotherapy are very low and equal to an axillary lymphnode dissection.

  7. Supine MRI for regional breast radiotherapy: imaging axillary lymph nodes before and after sentinel-node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijst, Tristan C F; Eschbach-Zandbergen, Debora; Hoekstra, Nienke; van Asselen, Bram; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Verkooijen, Helena M; Pijnappel, Ruud M; de Waard, Stephanie N; Witkamp, Arjen J; van Dalen, Thijs; van den Bongard, H J G Desirée; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2017-08-01

    Regional radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly used in breast cancer treatment. Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) is performed for RT planning. Lymph node (LN) target levels are delineated according to anatomical boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable individual LN delineation. The purpose was to evaluate the applicability of MRI for LN detection in supine treatment position, before and after sentinel-node biopsy (SNB). Twenty-three female breast cancer patients (cTis-3N0M0) underwent 1.5 T MRI, before and after SNB, in addition to CT. Endurance for MRI was monitored. Axillary levels were delineated. LNs were identified and delineated on MRI from before and after SNB, and on CT, and compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. LN locations and LN-based volumes were related to axillary delineations and associated volumes. Although postoperative effects were visible, LN numbers on postoperative MRI (median 26 LNs) were highly reproducible compared to preoperative MRI when adding excised sentinel nodes, and higher than on CT (median 11, p  <  0.001). LN-based volumes were considerably smaller than respective axillary levels. Supine MRI of LNs is feasible and reproducible before and after SNB. This may lead to more accurate RT target definition compared to CT, with potentially lower toxicity. With the MRI techniques described here, initiation of novel MRI-guided RT strategies aiming at individual LNs could be possible.

  8. Supine MRI for regional breast radiotherapy: imaging axillary lymph nodes before and after sentinel-node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijst, Tristan C. F.; Eschbach-Zandbergen, Debora; Hoekstra, Nienke; van Asselen, Bram; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Waard, Stephanie N.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Desirée van den Bongard, H. J. G.; Philippens, Marielle E. P.

    2017-08-01

    Regional radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly used in breast cancer treatment. Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) is performed for RT planning. Lymph node (LN) target levels are delineated according to anatomical boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable individual LN delineation. The purpose was to evaluate the applicability of MRI for LN detection in supine treatment position, before and after sentinel-node biopsy (SNB). Twenty-three female breast cancer patients (cTis-3N0M0) underwent 1.5 T MRI, before and after SNB, in addition to CT. Endurance for MRI was monitored. Axillary levels were delineated. LNs were identified and delineated on MRI from before and after SNB, and on CT, and compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. LN locations and LN-based volumes were related to axillary delineations and associated volumes. Although postoperative effects were visible, LN numbers on postoperative MRI (median 26 LNs) were highly reproducible compared to preoperative MRI when adding excised sentinel nodes, and higher than on CT (median 11, p  <  0.001). LN-based volumes were considerably smaller than respective axillary levels. Supine MRI of LNs is feasible and reproducible before and after SNB. This may lead to more accurate RT target definition compared to CT, with potentially lower toxicity. With the MRI techniques described here, initiation of novel MRI-guided RT strategies aiming at individual LNs could be possible.

  9. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovitch, P.; Powers, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The principal advantage of positron emission tomography over other methods for measuring cerebral blood flow stems from the accurate, quantitative three-dimensional measurements of regional brain radioactivity that are possible with this technique. As a result, accurate quantitative measurements of regional cerebral blood flow can be obtained for both superficial and deep cerebral structures. The value of PET for investigating central nervous system physiology and pathology extends far beyond this, however. Through the use of different radiotracers and appropriate mathematical models, PET can be applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physiologic variables. Measurements of rCBF tell only part of the story. Experience with PET and with a variety of other techniques has taught us that rCBF is at times a poor indicator of the metabolic, functional, and biochemical status of cerebral tissue. It is only by understanding the interaction of all of these factors that our understanding of neurologic disease can advance. It is in the investigation of these complex relationships that the real value of PET resides

  10. Variability of opiates concentrations in human hair according to their anatomical origin: head, axillary and pubic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, P; Kintz, P

    1993-12-01

    The concentrations of morphine and codeine were investigated in hair from the head, axillary and pubic regions obtained from 20 fatal heroin cases. Hair preparation involves decontamination procedure in dichloromethane at 37 degrees C for 15 min, solubilization in sodium hydroxide at 100 degrees C for 5 min, neutralization with hydrochloric acid and centrifugation. After extraction in chloroform/isopropanol/n-heptane (50:17:33; v/v) at pH 9.2, drugs were derivatized with BSTFA + 1% TMCS and separated on a 12-m BP-5 capillary column. Quantification was done by GC/MS using selected ion monitoring. The highest morphine concentrations were found in public hair (0.80-41.34 ng/mg), followed by hair of the head (0.62-27.10 ng/mg), and axillary hair (0.40-24.20 ng/mg). Codeine was also detected in all samples, and the codeine/morphine ratios ranged from 0.54 to 0.273. The differences observed in drug concentration in the three kinds of hair are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  11. Measurement of regional cerebral glucose utilization in man by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The various methods available for the study of regional cerebral glucose consumption in man by positron emission tomography are described and their applications, limitations and principal physiopathological results are presented [fr

  12. Plexus brachialis strain and compression deformation in the costo-axillary-brachial region: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskis, Edgars; Skuja, Sandra; Evansa, Irina; Steina, Eva; Pīlipa, Anna Sondore; Vābels, Grigorijs; Teibe, Uldis; Jansons, Haralds; Groma, Valērija; Vanags, Indulis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of different mechanisms in nerve injury during arm abduction positions. The tasks were to determine the strain deformation of the plexus brachialis during arm abduction, to measure the pressures in the neurovascular bundle in the cervico-costoclavicular-axillary area, and evaluate the histological changes of nerve after the stretch test. During the cadaveric study on 7 specimens 7-20 h after death, strain deformation of plexus brachialis as well as compression deformation caused by the surrounding structures of the neurovascular bundle were investigated in the arm abduction position of 0°, 90°, 12°, 150°, and 180°. One nerve sample was studied histologically after 15% stretch on the bench. The relative strain deformation of 3%-23% was documented during 0° to 180° abduction tests. The strain deformation from 0° to 90° was significant (P<0.001). The mean pressure change in the bundle was 13.6 mm Hg at 90°, 53.7 mm Hg at 120°, 73.4 mm Hg at 150°, and 89.0 mm Hg at 180° arm abduction. An increase in pressure was significant in the intervals: 0°-90° (P<0.001), 91°-120° (P<0.001), 121°-150° (P<0.001) and 151°-180° (P<0.05). Nerve traction and tissue compression arising during the arm abduction above 90° were found to be sufficient to induce lesions in neural bundles of the plexus brachialis.

  13. [Population genetic differentiation of Phrynocephalus axillaris in east of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region based on sequence variation of mitochondrial ND4-tRNALeu gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Xian-Guang; Wang, Yue-Zhao

    2010-08-01

    A 838 bp fragment of mtDNA ND4-tRNALeu gene was sequenced for 66 individuals from five populations (DB: Dabancheng, TU: Turpan, SS: Shanshan, HL: Liushuquan, HD: East district of Hami) of Phrynocephalus axillaris distributed in east of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Seventeen haplotypes were identified from 29 nucleotide polymorphic sites in the aligned 838 bp sequence. Excluding DB, there were relatively high haplotype diversity [(0.600+/-0.113)oscillation since Pleistocene and genetic drift.

  14. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... volunteers underwent two dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans. One scan assessed conscious-baseline metabolism and the other scan assessed metabolism during 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane anaesthesia. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pmetabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...

  15. Effect of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during static handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Mitchell, J H

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined at rest and during static handgrip before and after regional blockade with lidocaine. A fast rotating single photon emission computer tomograph system with 133Xe inhalation was used at orbitomeatal plane (OM) +2.5 and +6.5 cm in eight subjects. M...... static handgrip, there was no increase in rCBF after partial sensory and motor blockade. Thus bilateral activation occurs in the premotor and motor sensory cortex during static handgrip, and this activation requires neural feedback from the contracting muscles....

  16. Impact on regional recurrence and survival of axillary surgery in women with node-negative primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, C K; Düring, M; Christiansen, P M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined whether axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with removal of many normal lymph nodes resulted in a reduced rate of axillary recurrence and better survival, as reported in recent studies. METHODS: The follow-up analyses were based on 8657 patients with node...... metastases (from 15.0 to 10.3 per cent; P treatment has decreased significantly during the past decade. The findings...... leave the concept of the sentinel node biopsy intact, as a highly specific procedure compared to ALND....

  17. Positron annihilation in disordered regions in neutron-irradiated Ge and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovoit, A.K.; Konopleva, R.F.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Mukashev, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    The method of angular distribution of annihilation photons was used to investigate the formation and annealing of radiation defects in Ge and Si irradiated with reactor neutrons. These effects were studied as a function of the type of conduction of the dopant concentration. The nature of annealing demonstrated positron annihilation at multivacancy complexes located within disordered regions

  18. Role of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography, sonography, and sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer: comparison of diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Yu-Mee; Hong, Il Ki; Han, Kyunghwa

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with that of sonography and sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for determining the preoperative axillary lymph node (ALN) status and to evaluate the factors related to false-negative PET-CT, sonographic, and FNA results in ALN staging of invasive ductal carcinoma. From March 2009 to July 2012, 226 patients had a diagnosis of primary breast cancer. Among these patients, 107 constituted the study population after exclusion of transferred patients and patients with breast cancer other than invasive ductal carcinoma. The diagnostic performance of the modalities was compared with pathologic reports. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between clinicopathologic factors (symptoms, T stage, hormone receptors, and histologic grade), false-negative results, and true-negative results on PET-CT, sonography, and FNA. Of the 107 patients, 45 (42.1%) had positive results on final pathologic analysis of ALNs. Sonographically guided FNA had a significantly higher specificity, positive predictive value, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than sonography and PET-CT (P < .01). When sonography and PET-CT were combined, the sensitivity was significantly improved (P = .019) compared with sonography alone. When FNA and PET-CT were combined, the sensitivity and negative predictive value were significantly increased compared with each modality (P < .01). Sonographically guided FNA was found to be an excellent diagnostic tool for preoperative evaluation of the ALN status. To obviate the step of sentinel lymph node biopsy for determining the ALN status, combined evaluation of ALNs by these modalities may be more complementary than the use of a single modality. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (/sup 13/N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique.

  20. The course of the intercostobrachial nerve in the axillary region and as it is related to transaxillary breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Sang Hyun; Han, Seung Ho

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to precisely determine the course of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) in the axillary region and as it is related to bony landmarks, and all of this might be of use for transaxillary breast augmentation. Thirty hemithoraxes of 15 fresh cadavers of Korean adults were dissected. After removal of the skin, the ICBN from its origin was identified. The point of emergence (EP) and the branching point (BP) were marked on translucent paper. The ICBN appeared at the second intercostal space approximately (mean ± SD; 33.4 ± 12.7) mm lateral to the midclavicular line and 9.8 ± 6.4 mm medial to the lateral border of the pectoralis minor (P minor) muscle. The mean (SD) distance from the lower border of the second rib to the EP was 5.2 ± 2.0 mm. The mean ± SD distance from the upper border of the third rib to the EP was 12.7 ± 3.3 mm. It traveled inferolaterally (mean ± SD) 15.1 ± 10.4 degrees from the horizontal plane) 39.4 ± 19.2 mm to reach to the BP. The BP was located at the second intercostal space approximately (mean ± SD) 59.4 ± 21.2 mm lateral to the midclavicular line and 28.5 ± 18.2 mm lateral to the lateral border of the P minor muscle. The mean ± SD distance from the lower border of the second rib to the BP was 11.3 ± 5.4 mm. The mean ± SD distance from the upper border of the third rib to the BP was 6.3 ± 7.1 mm. At the BP, the ICBN gave off a medial brachial cutaneous nerve, and this coursed superolaterally [mean (mean ± SD, 50.7 ± 15.1 degrees from the horizontal plane) toward the medial surface of the upper arm. The mean ± SD depth of the ICBN from the superficial surface of the pectoralis major and P minor was 22.7 ± 5.7 mm and 15.0 ± 5.2 mm, respectively. When performing mammary augmentation, care should be taken not to dissect the undersurface of the P minor at the second intercostal space to avoid injury to the ICBN.

  1. Regional myocardial blood flow, metabolism and function assessed noninvasively by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.; Huang, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography is a new technique for the noninvasive measure of myocardial blood flow, mechanical function and, in particular, metabolism. The capability of this new study means is due to the technological innovations of the imaging device and the availability of radioactive tracers that are specific for blood flow and metabolism. The device permits recording of cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium that reflect quantitatively regional tracer tissue concentrations. By employing tracer kinetic models this new technique permits the measurement of regional glucose and fatty acid metabolism of the heart. While already an important new tool for investigative studies into cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, the clinical utility of positron emission tomography remains to be defined

  2. Regional myocardial blood flow, metabolism and function assessed noninvasively by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.; Huang, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography is a new technique for the noninvasive measure of myocardial blood flow, mechanical function and, in particular, metabolism. The capability of this new study means is due to the technological innovations of the imaging device and the availability of radioactive tracers that are specific for blood flow and metabolism. The device permits recording of cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium that reflect quantitatively regional tracer tissue concentrations. By employing tracer kinetic models this new technique permits the measurement of regional glucose and fatty acid metabolism of the heart. While already an important new tool for investigative studies into cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, the clinical utility of positron emission tomography remains to be defined.

  3. Detection of regional derangements in myocardial metabolism by positron computed tomography in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Perloff, J.K.; Schwaiger, M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy is unique in genetically targeting for disease a specific region of myocardium: the postero-basal left ventricular wall. Postmortem examinations revealed focal fibrous degenerations in the postero-basal segment, while the coronary arteries were usually not affected. A predystrophic metabolic fault has been postulated for this region. This hypothesis was tested with positron computed tomography as a new means for the noninvasive study of regional myocadial perfusion and metabolism and to determine the incidence of regional and global left ventricular dysfunction and perfusion abnormalities using Thallium-201 and gated blood pool imaging. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated with N-13 ammonia while regional myocardial glucose uptake was studied with the glucose analog F-18 DG. The sensitivity of each diagnostic test for detecting cardiac involvement in Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy was evaluated. It was highest for ammonia and glucose imaging and it was low for Thallium and radionuclide blood pool imaging

  4. Axillary lymph node treatment in breast cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick A; Suggs, Jeanann; Mangana, Sophy H

    2014-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) is the standard of care for staging of breast cancer. Patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) do not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI). However, if a patient has a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx), then axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) is the standard treatment. Recent studies, notably the Z-0011 and MA-20 trials, have demonstrated that omission of axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did not decrease overall survival. MA-20 demonstrated that inclusion of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in addition to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did increase survival when compared to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) without regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Ongoing studies are randomizing patients to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx).

  5. Loco-regional morbidity after breast conservation and axillary lymph node dissection for early breast cancer with or without regional nodes radiotherapy, perspectives in modern breast cancer treatment: the Skagen Trial 1 is active

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Friis, Rasmus Blechingberg; Linnet, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in early breast cancer are associated with a risk of morbidity, including lymphedema and impaired shoulder mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate loco-regional morbidity after breast conserving surgery (BCS...... of ipsilateral upper and lower arm or mobility and sensory disturbances. CONCLUSION: The risk of lymphedema was low in patients after ALND and not related to use of regional nodes RT. Impairment of shoulder function was rare, and no differences in PROM were detected regarding use or not of regional nodes RT...

  6. Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Lucy, E-mail: lucy.yates@gstt.nhs.uk [Guy' s, King' s, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna [Guy' s, King' s, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Department of Statistics, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Gillett, Cheryl [Breast Pathology, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Cane, Paul [Department of Histopathology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor [Guy' s, King' s, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant

  7. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M; Takeda, K; Nagata, K; Shimosegawa, E; Kuzuhara, S

    2006-05-01

    We can easily recognize familiar music by listening to only one or 2 of its opening bars, but the brain regions that participate in this cognitive processing remain undetermined. We used positron-emission tomography (PET) to study changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) that occur during listening to familiar music. We used a PET subtraction technique to elucidate the brain regions associated with the recognition of familiar melodies such as well-known nursery tunes. Nonmusicians performed 2 kinds of musical tasks: judging the familiarity of musical pieces (familiarity task) and detecting deliberately altered notes in the pieces (alteration-detecting task). During the familiarity task, bilateral anterior portions of bilateral temporal lobes, superior temporal regions, and parahippocampal gyri were activated. The alteration-detecting task bilaterally activated regions in the precunei, superior/inferior parietal lobules, and lateral surface of frontal lobes, which seemed to show a correlation with the analysis of music. We hypothesize that during the familiarity task, activated brain regions participate in retrieval from long-term memory and verbal and emotional processing of familiar melodies. Our results reinforced the hypothesis reported in the literature as a result of group and case studies, that temporal lobe regions participate in the recognition of familiar melodies.

  8. Regional coupling between chest wall and lung expansion during HFV: A positron imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, J.G.; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Fox, B.J.; Simon, B.A.; Hales, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Apparently conflicting differences between the regional chest wall motion and gas transport have been observed during high-frequency ventilation (HFV). To elucidate the mechanism responsible for such differences, a positron imaging technique capable of assessing dynamic chest wall volumetric expansion, regional lung volume, and regional gas transport was developed. Anesthetized supine dogs were studied at ventilatory frequencies (f) ranging from 1 to 15 Hz and eucapnic tidal volumes. The regional distribution of mean lung volume was found to be independent of f, but the apex-to-base ratio of regional chest wall expansion favored the lung bases at low f and become more homogeneous at higher f. Regional gas transport per unit of lung volume, assessed from washout maneuvers, was homogeneous at 1 Hz, favored the bases progressively as f increased to 9 Hz, and returned to homogeneity at 15 Hz. Interregional asynchrony (pendelluft) and right-to-left differences were small at this large regional scale. Analysis of the data at a higher spatial resolution showed that the motion of the diaphragm relative to the excursions of the rib cage decreased as f increased. These differences from apex to base in regional chest wall expansion and gas transport were consistent with a simple model including lung, rib cage, and diaphragm regional impedances and a viscous coupling between lungs and chest wall caused by the relative sliding between pleural surfaces. To further test this model, the authors studied five additional animals under open chest conditions. These studies resulted in a homogeneous and f-independent regional gas transport. They conclude that the apex-to-base distribution of gas transport observed during HFV is not caused by intrinsic lung heterogeneity but rather is a result of chest wall expansion dynamics and its coupling to the lung. 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Regional cerebral glucose consumption measured by positron emission tomography in patients with Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwert, T.; Scholz, D.; Milz, M.; Herzog, H.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Hefter, H.; Weiss, P.; Arendt, G.; Loken, M.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN; Hennerici, M.

    1992-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption (rCMRGlc) was measured in 14 patients with Wilson's disease (WD) and 23 normal subjects. In WD patients, cerebellar, striatal and - to a lesser extent - cortical and thalamic rCMRGlc were significantly decreased compared with controls. Striatal rCMRGlc was significantly reduced in those 4 patients who had recently started decoppering therapy as compared with striatal rCMRGlc measured in those 10 patients with longer duration of medication. Caudate rCMRGlc correlated significantly with various signs of extrapyramidal dysfunction. Cerebellar, thalamic and cortical rCMRGlc correlated significantly with the severity of pyramidal signs. These data indicate that the PET measurement of rCMRGlc may be a useful tool to evaluate cerebral involvement in WD and to monitor the response to treatment. (orig.)

  10. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S

    2011-01-01

    Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acu...... myocardial ischemia. To evaluate this hypothesis myocardial 11C-acetate PET imaging was performed before and after acute repetitive myocardial ischemia....

  11. Measurement of regional extravascular lung density and of pulmonary blood volume with positron emitting isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larock, M.P.; Quaglia, L.; Lamotte, D.; De Landsheere, C.; Del Fiore, G.; Chevigne, M.; Peters, J.M.; Rigo, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgium))

    1982-01-01

    Studies of pulmonary blood volume changes with exercise can be performed after labelling of the blood pool by /sup 11/CO inhalation. Positron transaxial tomography permits the quantitative study of density distribution of the chest and of the pulmonary blood volume. This paper represents our preliminary experience with these techniques on models and control patients. We have first verified the linearity of transmission for density distribution below one. The tomographic examination first records a transmission image, then an emission image on the same section. We next normalize emission and transmission values on a region of unit density corresponding to blood: then we substract the emission from the transmission values to measure the extravascular pulmonary density. With crystal probes we record pulmonary blood volume variations before, during and after exercise. Peripheral hemodynamic variations explain the change recorded at the begining and at the end of exercise. Combination of these two techniques should help us to better study the importance of the acute changes in the ''formation'' of pulmonary oedema and its influence on regional pulmonary blood volume.

  12. Axillary bud development in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de H.A.

    1996-01-01


    Each chrysanthemum cutting originates from an axillary bud. For an improvement of the cultivation of cuttings or more specific their quality, it is necessary that the development of an axillary bud can be controlled as good as possible. Axillary bud development can be distinguished into

  13. Evaluation of regional cerebral circulation and metabolism in moyamoya disease using positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo

    1986-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, metabolic rate of oxygen, blood volume and transit time were evaluated in 11 patients with moyamoya disease and 3 with suspected moyamoya disease using positron emission computed tomography. Eight of them were examined before and after EC-IC bypass surgery. Moyamoya patients were classified into four groups, namely, pediatric bilateral chronic type (over 5 years from onset), pediatric bilateral early type (within 5 years from onset), pediatric unilateral early type and adult type, according to age, duration of disease from onset and angiographic findings. These four groups showed different patterns on PET images; diffusely decreased CBF and CMRO2 in pediatric bilateral chronic type, decreased CBF and increased OEF in the frontal or temporoparietal region in pediatric bilateral early type, diffusely decreased CBF and increased OEF in the unilateral cerebral hemisphere in pediatric unilateral cerebral hemisphere in pediatric unilateral early type, and decreased CBF and CMRO2 in adult type. An increase of rCBV was demonstrated in frontal regions or basal ganglia in all groups, more prominently in pediatric patients. This was thought to be a common finding in moyamoya disease, corresponding to moyamoya vessels. Staging of moyamoya disease by PET was presented and compared to the angiographic staging. They were significantly correlated, and the stage 3 on PET image with decreased CMRO2 corresponded to the stage 3 or 4 on angiography, the most active stage of moyamoya disease. PET revealed increased CBF in the cortical area around EC-IC bypass but no remarkable changes in mean values of rCBF, OEF, CMRO2 and CBV in cerebral hemisphere. Some patients showed decreased rCBV in the basal ganglia. (J.P.N.)

  14. Positron emission tomography assessment of effects of benzodiazepines on regional glucose metabolic rate in patients with anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Haier, R.; Hazlett, E.; Ball, R.; Katz, M.; Sokolski, K.; Lagunas-Solar, M.; Langer, D.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 18) entered a 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled random assignment trial of clorazepate. Positron emission tomography with 18 F-deoxyglucose was carried out before and after treatment. Decreases in glucose metabolic rate in visual cortex and relative increases in the basal ganglia and thalamus were found. A correlation between regional changes in metabolic rate and regional benzodiazepine receptor binding density from other human autopsy studies was observed; brain regions highest in receptor density showed the greatest decrease in rate

  15. Positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional mycardial blood flow and substrate metabolism can be non-invasively evaluated and quantified with positron emission computed tomography (Positron-CT). Tracers of exogenous glucose utilization and fatty acid metabolism are available and have been extensively tested. Specific tracer kinetic models have been developed or are being tested so that glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be measured quantitatively by Positron-CT. Tracers of amino acid and oxygen metabolism are utilized in Positron-CT studies of the brain and development of such tracers for cardiac studies are in progress. Methods to quantify regional myocardial blood flow are also being developed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of Positron-/CT to document myocardial infarction. Experimental and clinical studies have begun to identify metabolic markers of reversibly ischemic myocardium. The potential of Positron-CT to reliably detect potentially salvageable myocardium and, hence, to identify appropriate therapeutic interventions is one of the most exciting applications of the technique

  16. Axillary bud development in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis - van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Axillary buds form the basis of flower production of a rose crop. Within a rose crop there exists an undesired large variation in shoot number and size, which affects flower yield. Part of this variation may be traced back to early variation in axillary buds. The aim of the research

  17. Positron annihilation near fractal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.; Deng, K.M.; Xiong, L.Y.

    1991-07-01

    A model for positron annihilation in the sub-surface region near a fractal surface is proposed. It is found that the power law relationship between the mean positron implantation depth and incident positron energy can be used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractal surface in materials. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  18. Topical glycopyrrolate reduces axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D M

    2016-12-01

    Oral anti-cholinergic medications reduce generalized hyperhidrosis, but the effectiveness of topical anticholinergic solutions on axillary hyperhidrosis is unclear. This study determines the initial effectiveness of 1% and 2% topical glycopyrrolate spray and compares this with Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. In a non-randomized, consecutive patient, prospective questionnaire, treatment comparison study, 40 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were allocated to one of four study groups (10 patients to each group): (a) 1% glycopyrrolate spray, (b) 2% glycopyrrolate spray, (c) subcutaneous Botulinum toxin type A injections, (d) no treatment. Clinical outcomes were measured by comparing a prospectively administered questionnaire, completed both pre-treatment and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Forty healthy volunteers without axillary hyperhidrosis completed the same questionnaire. The three treatment groups showed a significant (P hyperhidrosis scores following treatment. The degree of improvement was less for the 1% glycopyrrolate group when compared with the Botulinum toxin type A group (P hyperhidrosis to a level similar to those without hyperhidrosis. Patients in both, the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups reported a significant improvement in axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms. These included reduction in psychologically precipitating factors (e.g. public speaking) and axillary hyperhidrosis-specific physical effects (e.g. limitation of clothing choice). Topical glycopyrrolate spray could provide a further treatment modality to manage axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Quantitation of the regional blood flow in the interventricular septum using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Jens D; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of spillover of activity from the right ventricle (RV) on quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. Thirty-one healthy volunteers, 31 patients with ischemic heart disease, 7 patients with severe congestive heart...... failure, and 6 heart transplant patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with nitrogen-13 ammonia. Quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum was performed using both a conventional two-compartment model and a previously validated two-compartment model taking RV....... In healthy volunteers, the flow error was small but significant: on average 6% (range 5%-29%, Pheart failure, who had the most considerable amount of RV spillover. In the group of patients with ischemic heart...

  20. Radial to axillary nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Martínez-Gómez, Deborah; Vanaclocha, Leyre

    2018-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is common after brachial plexus injuries, particularly with shoulder luxation. Nerve grafting is the traditional procedure for postganglionic injuries. Nerve transfer is emerging as a viable option particularly in late referrals. At the proximal arm the radial and axillary nerves lie close by. Sacrificing one of the triceps muscle nerve branches induces little negative consequences. Transferring the long head of the triceps nerve branch is a good option to recover axillary nerve function. The surgical technique is presented in a video, stressing the steps to achieve a successful result. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WbVbpMuPxIE .

  1. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H 2 O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, 15 O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

  2. The neurobiology of glucocerebrosidase-associated parkinsonism: a positron emission tomography study of dopamine synthesis and regional cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Masdeu, Joseph C.; Kohn, Philip D.; Ianni, Angela; Lopez, Grisel; Groden, Catherine; Chapman, Molly C.; Cropp, Brett; Eisenberg, Daniel P.; Maniwang, Emerson D.; Davis, Joie; Wiggs, Edythe; Berman, Karen F.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in GBA, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease, are common risk factors for Parkinson disease, as patients with Parkinson disease are over five times more likely to carry GBA mutations than healthy controls. Patients with GBA mutations generally have an earlier onset of Parkinson disease and more cognitive impairment than those without GBA mutations. We investigated whether GBA mutations alter the neurobiology of Parkinson disease, studying brain dopamine synthesis and resting regional cerebral blood flow in 107 subjects (38 women, 69 men). We measured dopamine synthesis with 18F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography, and resting regional cerebral blood flow with H215O positron emission tomography in the wakeful, resting state in four study groups: (i) patients with Parkinson disease and Gaucher disease (n = 7, average age = 56.6 ± 9.2 years); (ii) patients with Parkinson disease without GBA mutations (n = 11, 62.1 ± 7.1 years); (iii) patients with Gaucher disease without parkinsonism, but with a family history of Parkinson disease (n = 14, 52.6 ± 12.4 years); and (iv) healthy GBA-mutation carriers with a family history of Parkinson disease (n = 7, 50.1 ± 18 years). We compared each study group with a matched control group. Data were analysed with region of interest and voxel-based methods. Disease duration and Parkinson disease functional and staging scores were similar in the two groups with parkinsonism, as was striatal dopamine synthesis: both had greatest loss in the caudal striatum (putamen Ki loss: 44 and 42%, respectively), with less reduction in the caudate (20 and 18% loss). However, the group with both Parkinson and Gaucher diseases showed decreased resting regional cerebral blood flow in the lateral parieto-occipital association cortex and precuneus bilaterally. Furthermore, two subjects with Gaucher disease without parkinsonian manifestations showed diminished striatal dopamine. In conclusion, the

  3. Noninvasive estimation of regional myocardial oxygen consumption by positron emission tomography with carbon-11 acetate in patients with myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.N.; Geltman, E.M.; Brown, M.A.; Henes, C.G.; Weinheimer, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    We previously demonstrated in experimental studies that myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) can be estimated noninvasively with positron emission tomography (PET) from analysis of the myocardial turnover rate constant (k) after administration of carbon-11 (11C) acetate. To determine regional k in healthy human subjects and to estimate alterations in MVO2 accompanying myocardial ischemia, we administered [11C]acetate to five healthy human volunteers and to six patients with myocardial infarction. Extraction of [11C]acetate by the myocardium was avid and clearance from the blood-pool rapid yielding myocardial images of excellent quality. Regional k was homogeneous in myocardium of healthy volunteers (coefficient variation = 11%). In patients, k in regions remote from the area of infarction was not different from values in myocardium of healthy human volunteers (0.061 +/- 0.025 compared with 0.057 +/- 0.008 min-1). In contrast, MVO2 in the center of the infarct region was only 6% of that in remote regions (p less than 0.01). In four patients studied within 48 hr of infarction and again more than seven days after the acute event, regional k and MVO2 did not change. The approach developed should facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of interventions designed to enhance recovery of jeopardized myocardium and permit estimation of regional MVO2 and metabolic reserve underlying cardiac disease of diverse etiologies

  4. Regional cerebral metabolic alterations in dementia of the Alzheimer type: positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Ganz, E.; Yano, Y.; Mathis, C.A.; Koss, B.; Ober, B.A.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia in adults. Despite recent advances in our understanding of its anatomy and chemistry, we remain largely ignorant of its pathogenesis, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Dynamic positron emission tomography using [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was performed on the Donner 280-crystal ring in 10 subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type and six healthy age-matched controls. Ratios comparing mean counts per resolution element in frontal, temporoparietal, and entire cortex regions in brain sections 10 mm thick obtained 40-70 min following FDG injection showed relatively less FDG uptake in the temporoparietal cortex bilaterally in all the Alzheimer subjects (p less than 0.01). Left-right alterations were less prominent than the anteroposterior changes. This diminished uptake was due to lowered rates of FDG use and suggests that the metabolic effects of Alzheimer disease are most concentrated in the temporoparietal cortex. Positron emission tomography is a most powerful tool for the noninvasive in vivo assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia

  5. The role of axillary dissection in mammographically detected carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandelidis, S M; Peters, K L; Walusimbi, M S; Casady, R L; Laux, S V; Cavanaugh, S H; Bauer, T L

    1997-04-01

    Axillary dissection remains a standard component of the treatment of invasive carcinoma of the breast. The presence of metastases to the regional lymph nodes guides adjuvant therapy and aids in determining prognosis. Mammography results in the discovery of small and often node-negative carcinomas of the breast. This 15-year, retrospective analysis investigated whether certain patients with small tumors could be spared the morbidity of axillary dissection. Medical records showed that from January 1980 to May 1995, 4,543 needle localization biopsies were done at York Hospital because of abnormalities detected on mammograms. Of these, 703 (15.5 percent) proved to be carcinoma. Of the carcinomas, 68 percent were infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 26 percent were ductal carcinoma in situ, and 5.4 percent were infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Axillary dissection was done on 588 patients, and 88.1 percent of the patients had no metastases to axillary lymph nodes. No axillary metastases were present in 109 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent axillary lymph node dissection or in 21 patients with microscopic invasive tumors. Only two of 54 patients with a T1a tumor (tumor [T], 0.5 to 1 to 2 cm) were given adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ and microscopic invasive tumors do not require node dissections. Possibly patients with T1a tumors and patients with well-differentiated, estrogen-receptor positive, progesterone-receptor positive, T1b tumors can also be spared axillary node dissection. By following this approach on occasion, patients with positive nodes might not undergo axillary lymph node dissection, but they may still be offered adjuvant therapy.

  6. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr.; Gillin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

  7. Axillary hyperhidrosis: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Jason E; Khachemoune, Amor

    2017-11-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis is characterized by an increased amount of sweat production, localized to the armpits, to compensate for environmental conditions and to control thermoregulation. It affects about 3.12% of the US population. It has a significant effect on one's psychological and physical health, as well as one's occupational life. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, genetics, and management and treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  8. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma

  9. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Ontogeny of axillary buds and shoots in roses: Leaf initiation and pith development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven

  11. 11C-Iodoantipyrine for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by positron emission tomography. Validation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Lockwood, A.H.; Busto, R.; Finn, R.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Boothe, T.E.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) makes it possible to employ an in vivo autoradiographic paradigm to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in man. In this study, we synthesized the positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical 11C-iodoantipyrine (11C-IAP) and validated its suitability as a CBF tracer. 11C ( T and one-half 20.4 min) was produced by the (p,alpha) nuclear reaction on 14N. 11C-methyl iodide was used to methylate 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one to form 11C-antipyrine, which was iodinated. Radiochemical purity of the 11C-IAP product was 93-98% except as described below. rCBF was measured with 11C-IAP in nitrous oxide-anesthetized Wistar rats by the method of indicator fractionation, and values were compared with rCBF values measured with simultaneously administered commercially produced 14C-IAP. rCBF was studied over a range of arterial Pco2 values (31-58 mm Hg, mean 43.0 +/- 3.5). Mean rCBF data for the 2 tracers agreed to within 4.8% for cerebral hemispheral samples, 3.8% for cerebellum, and 5.3% for brainstem. Mean values (+/- SEM) for rCBF using 11C-IAP were 1.67 +/- 0.20 ml gm-1 min-1 for cerebral hemispheres; 1.32 +/- 0.17 for cerebellum; and 1.50 +/- 0.21 for brainstem. When chromatographic analysis revealed tracer impurity, rCBF, as measured with 11C-IAP, fell consistently below values obtained with 14C-IAP. The data indicate that 11C-IAP, when properly synthesized and submitted to batch-by-batch quality control, may be suitable for measuring rCBF in man by emission tomography.

  12. Altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in internet game overusers: a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Hee; Bang, Seong Ae; Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2010-03-01

    Internet game overuse is an emerging disorder and features diminished impulse control and poor reward-processing. In an attempt to understand the neurobiological bases of Internet game overuse, we investigated the differences in regional cerebral glucose metabolism at resting state between young individuals with Internet game overuse and those with normal use using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study. Twenty right-handed male participants (9 normal users: 24.7+/-2.4 years of age, 11 overusers: 23.5+/-2.9 years of age) participated. A trait measure of impulsivity was also completed after scanning. Internet game overusers showed greater impulsiveness than the normal users and there was a positive correlation between the severity of Internet game overuse and impulsiveness. Imaging data showed that the overusers had increased glucose metabolism in the right middle orbitofrontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, and right insula, and decreased metabolism in the bilateral postcentral gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and bilateral occipital regions compared to normal users. Internet game overuse may be associated with abnormal neurobiological mechanisms in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, and sensory regions, which are implicated in impulse control, reward processing, and somatic representation of previous experiences. Our results support the idea that Internet game overuse shares psychological and neural mechanisms with other types of impulse control disorders and substance/non-substance-related addiction.

  13. Basal and hyperaemic myocardial blood flow in regionally denervated canine hearts: an in vivo study with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, Ornella E.; Camici, Paolo G.; Drake-Holland, Angela J.; Noble, Mark I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) have demonstrated the impact of this disease on cardiac sympathetic innervation and myocardial blood flow (MBF). To investigate the effects of selective partial sympathetic denervation of the left ventricle (LV) on baseline and hyperaemic MBF, we measured myocardial presynaptic catecholamine re-uptake (uptake-1), β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) density and MBF non-invasively by means of PET in a canine model of regional sympathetic denervation. In 11 anaesthetised dogs, the sympathetic nerves of the free wall and septum of the LV were removed by means of dissection and phenol painting. Three weeks later, the animals were studied with PET. MBF was measured at baseline and following i.v. adenosine (140 μg kg -1 min -1 ) and dobutamine (20 μg kg -1 min -1 ) using 15 O-labelled water. Sympathetic denervation was confirmed by an 80±12% decrease in the volume of distribution (V d ) of [ 11 C]hydroxyephedrine (HED) compared with innervated regions. Myocardial β-AR density was measured using [ 11 C]CGP12177. Innervated and denervated regions showed no differences in MBF at baseline and during adenosine or dobutamine. [ 11 C]HED V d was inversely correlated with MBF in both regions at baseline, and the correlation was lost during hyperaemia in denervated regions. However, for any given value of MBF, [ 11 C]HED V d was significantly lower in the denervated regions. β-AR density was comparable in denervated and innervated regions (17.9±4.2 vs 18.4±3.3 pmol g -1 ;p=NS). In this experimental model, selective, regional sympathetic denervation of the LV, which results in a profound reduction in [ 11 C]HED V d , did not affect baseline or hyperaemic MBF. In addition, we demonstrated that, under baseline conditions, there was a significant inverse correlation between [ 11 C]HED V d and MBF in both denervated and innervated regions. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  15. Stability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal brain measured by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, J.L.; Strother, S.C.; Zatorre, R.J.; Alivisatos, B.; Worsley, K.J.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRGI) was measured using the [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose method with PET in two groups of ten healthy young volunteers, each scanned in a resting state under different methodological conditions. In addition, five subjects had a second scan within 48 hr. Mean hemispheric values averaged 45.8 +/- 3.3 mumol/100 g/min in the right cerebral hemisphere and 47.0 +/- 3.7 mumol/100 g/min in the left hemisphere. A four-way analysis of variance (group, sex, region, hemisphere) was carried out on the results using three different methods of data manipulation: (a) the raw values of glucose utilization, (b) LCMRGI values normalized by the mean hemispheric gray matter LCMRGI value, and (c) log transformed LCMRGI values. For all analysis techniques, significantly higher LCMRGI values were consistently seen in the left mid and posterior temporal area and caudate nucleus relative to the right, and in the right occipital region relative to the left. The coefficient of variation of intrasubject regional differences (9.9%) was significantly smaller than the coefficient of variation for regions between subjects (16.5%). No differences were noted between the sexes and no effect of repeat procedures was seen in subjects having multiple scans. In addition, inter-regional LCMRGI correlations were examined both in values from the 20 normal subjects, as well as in a set of hypothetical abnormal values. Results were compared with those reported from other PET centers; despite certain methodological differences, the intersubject and inter-regional variation of LCMRGI is fairly constant

  16. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  17. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, S.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack. (orig.) [de

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patient with cerebral stroke studied by positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    After the CT-era, tomographic measurement has been required for regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism. This paper descrives results on the quontitative studies of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with cerebral stroke, studied using the 0 - 15 labelled gas steady-stete method and HEAD-TOME III by the PET-group of Akita. The results were summarized as follows. 1) Cerebral infarct with acute onset: 33 PET studies were carried out on the 16 subjects. Most of the lesions revealed considerable flow-metabolism mismatch: misery perfusion within the initial day, and then luxury perfusion up to 2 months. Threthold CBF causing tissue necrosis estimated at 17 ml/100 ml/min by PET. 2) Thrombosis of carotid artery with or without small infarct: Isodense tissues of the 31 patients were examined, Most of the subjects showed coupled decrease of flow/metabolism. Only 4 revealed critical reduction of flow and maintained metabolism with increased oxygen extraction. That would indicates that only a few of the patients could be indicated to EC/IC bypass surgery. 3) Hypertensive intracerbral hemorrhage: The 26 subjects were studied. A markedly ischemic zone was limitted just around a hematoma and luxury perfusion appeared only in 3 cases. Increased intracranial pressure seemes to affect flow and metabolism of the patients with a hematoma lager than 4.5 - 5 cm in max, diameter. That should be considered for indication of surgical evacuation of a hematoma. (author)

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patient with cerebral stroke studied by positron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Kazuo

    1987-12-01

    After the CT-era, tomographic measurement has been required for regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism. This paper descrives results on the quontitative studies of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with cerebral stroke, studied using the 0 - 15 labelled gas steady-stete method and HEAD-TOME III by the PET-group of Akita. The results were summarized as follows. 1) Cerebral infarct with acute onset: 33 PET studies were carried out on the 16 subjects. Most of the lesions revealed considerable flow-metabolism mismatch: misery perfusion within the initial day, and then luxury perfusion up to 2 months. Threthold CBF causing tissue necrosis estimated at 17 ml/100 ml/min by PET. 2) Thrombosis of carotid artery with or without small infarct: Isodense tissues of the 31 patients were examined, Most of the subjects showed coupled decrease of flow/metabolism. Only 4 revealed critical reduction of flow and maintained metabolism with increased oxygen extraction. That would indicates that only a few of the patients could be indicated to EC/IC bypass surgery. 3) Hypertensive intracerbral hemorrhage: The 26 subjects were studied. A markedly ischemic zone was limitted just around a hematoma and luxury perfusion appeared only in 3 cases. Increased intracranial pressure seemes to affect flow and metabolism of the patients with a hematoma lager than 4.5 - 5 cm in max, diameter. That should be considered for indication of surgical evacuation of a hematoma.

  20. [Axillary local anesthetic spread after the thoracic interfacial ultrasound block - a cadaveric and radiological evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Patricia Alfaro de la; Jones, Jerry Wayne; Álvarez, Servando López; Garcia, Paula Diéguez; Miguel, Francisco Javier Garcia de; Rubio, Eva Maria Monzon; Boeris, Federico Carol; Sacramento, Monir Kabiri; Duany, Osmany; Pérez, Mario Fajardo; Gordon, Borja de la Quintana

    Oral opioid analgesics have been used for management of peri- and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing axillary dissection. The axillary region is a difficult zone to block and does not have a specific regional anesthesia technique published that offers its adequate blockade. After institutional review board approval, anatomic and radiological studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue and local anesthetic injected respectively into the axilla via the thoracic inter-fascial plane. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies were then conducted in 15 of 34 patients scheduled for unilateral breast surgery that entailed any of the following: axillary clearance, sentinel node biopsy, axillary node biopsy, or supernumerary breasts, to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the thoracic interfascial plane in vivo. Radiological and cadaveric studies showed that the injection of local anesthetic and methylene blue via the thoracic inter-fascial plane, using ultrasound guide technique, results in reliable deposition into the axilla. In patients, the injection of the local anesthetic produced a reliable axillary sensory block. This finding was supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies that showed hyper-intense signals in the axillary region. These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the thoracic interfascial plane nerve block in the axillary region, and underline the clinical potential of this novel nerve block. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Axillary local anesthetic spread after the thoracic interfacial ultrasound block - a cadaveric and radiological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alfaro de la Torre

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral opioid analgesics have been used for management of peri- and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing axillary dissection. The axillary region is a difficult zone to block and does not have a specific regional anesthesia technique published that offers its adequate blockade. Methods After institutional review board approval, anatomic and radiological studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue and local anesthetic injected respectively into the axilla via the thoracic inter-fascial plane. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies were then conducted in 15 of 34 patients scheduled for unilateral breast surgery that entailed any of the following: axillary clearance, sentinel node biopsy, axillary node biopsy, or supernumerary breasts, to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the thoracic interfascial plane in vivo. Results Radiological and cadaveric studies showed that the injection of local anesthetic and methylene blue via the thoracic inter-fascial plane, using ultrasound guide technique, results in reliable deposition into the axilla. In patients, the injection of the local anesthetic produced a reliable axillary sensory block. This finding was supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies that showed hyper-intense signals in the axillary region. Conclusions These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the thoracic interfascial plane nerve block in the axillary region, and underline the clinical potential of this novel nerve block.

  2. Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial perfusion with rubidium-82 and positron emission tomography. Exploration of a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, P.; Markham, J.; Shelton, M.E.; Weinheimer, C.J.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) centers without cyclotrons use generator-produced rubidium-82 (82Rb) for assessment of myocardial perfusion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether myocardial blood flow could be assessed quantitatively with 82Rb and PET. Because the myocardial extraction fraction of 82Rb varies inversely and nonlinearly with flow and cannot be measured conveniently with PET, we used an experimentally derived mathematical function defining the relation between single-pass extraction fraction of 82Rb and flow to obviate the necessity of measuring the extraction fraction directly. Myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/g/min) was estimated from dynamic PET scans after intravenous administration of 82Rb in intact dogs and compared with flows measured with radiolabeled microspheres. In 36 comparisons in 13 dogs studied at rest, or after coronary occlusion, reperfusion, or after coronary hyperemia induced with intravenous dipyridamole, over the flow range from 0.2 to 2.0 ml/g/min, estimates of perfusion with rubidium correlated well with flows measured concomitantly with microspheres, although there was a slight underestimation of flow with rubidium (flow by 82Rb = 0.92 x flow by microspheres-0.021, r = 0.83). In general, estimates of flow in ischemic regions were less reliable than estimates for regions with normal flow. Thus, although the relation between myocardial extraction and retention of 82Rb and flow can vary under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, this study demonstrates the ability to obtain quantitative estimates of myocardial blood flow with 82Rb and PET under carefully defined conditions without measuring the extraction fraction directly

  3. Axillary Silicone Granulomas in Patients With Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Canedo, M I; Blázquez Sánchez, N; Valdés Solís, P; de Troya Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Subcutaneous lesions may be detected during follow-up of patients with melanoma. The main entities that should be contemplated in the differential diagnosis in such cases are in-transit and regional lymph node metastases. We describe 2 cases of women with breast implants who developed palpable subcutaneous lesions in the axillary region during follow-up of melanoma. In both cases, the ultrasound study showed diffuse hyperechoic signals forming the characteristic snowstorm sign in the subcutaneous tissue. Ultrasound proved to be a key diagnostic tool for ruling out melanoma-related disease, such as in-transit metastases and regional lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow during the auditory oddball task measured by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, Masahiko

    1997-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by employing PET in nine healthy right-handed male subjects, while they simultaneously performed the auditory oddball task using tone bursts. Results showed that the rCBF value was highest in the transverse gyrus of Heschl in both right and left hemispheres. When comparing the rCBF values between right and left hemispheres, four areas had higher rCBF values in the left hemisphere and eight areas had higher rCBF values in the right hemisphere. Of these, the anterior and posterior parts of the superior temporal gyrus, especially, showed significant differences. The hemispheric differences in the rCBF values of the auditory areas can be attributed to the performance of the oddball task which requires higher processing of non verbal auditory input. The P300 amplitude which reflects the amount of the allocated information processing resources correlated positively with rCBF in the following areas: left piriform cortex, the transverse gyrus of Heschl in both left and right hemispheres. Mean-while, P300 amplitude correlated negatively with rCBF in the nucleus accumbens septi in both right and left hemispheres. The N100 amplitude evoked by frequent stimulus did not correlate with rCBF in almost all ROIs. (K.H.)

  5. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H 2 ( 15 )O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H 2 ( 15 )O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2( 15 )O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. The region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. Stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex. Investigators of brain responses to selective activation procedures should be aware of the potential effects of stimulus rate on rCBF and other measurements of cerebral metabolism

  6. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption determined noninvasively in humans with [1-11C]acetate and dynamic positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbrecht, J.J.; Buxton, D.B.; Brunken, R.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies of animals have previously demonstrated the validity of [1-11C]acetate as a tracer of oxidative metabolism for use with positron emission tomography. The present study was undertaken to define in normal human volunteers the relation between myocardial clearance kinetics of [1-11C]acetate, and the rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption. Twenty-two studies were performed of 12 volunteers. The rate-pressure product was increased with continuous supine bicycle exercise in six studies. Of the 16 resting studies, seven were performed in the fasted state and nine following an oral glucose load, to define possible effects of substrate availability on the tracer-tissue kinetics. Myocardial tissue time-activity curves were biexponential. Clearance of activity was homogeneous throughout the myocardium. The rate constants k1, obtained from biexponential fitting, and kmono, obtained by monoexponential fitting of the initial linear portion of the time-activity curves, correlated well with the rate-pressure product. Although the correlation coefficient was higher for k1 than for kmono (0.95 vs. 0.91), analysis on a sectorial basis showed less regional variability in kmono. This suggests that kmono, which is more practical than k1 because it requires shorter acquisition times, may be more clinically and experimentally useful for detection of myocardial segments with abnormal oxygen consumption. Overall, changes in myocardial substrate supply were without significant effect on the relation between the rate constants (k1 and kmono) and the rate-pressure product, although a small decrease in kmono/rate-pressure product was observed following oral glucose by paired analysis in four subjects

  7. Clinical applications of positron emission tomography in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemer, W.; Avril, N.; Schwaiger, M.

    1997-01-01

    Increased glucose metabolism by malignant tissue can be visualized with positron emission tomography (PET), using the radiolabeled glucose analogue F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Depending on the criteria of image interpretation FDG-PET allows detection of breast cancer with a sensitivity of 68% to 94 % and a specificity of 84 % to 97 %. However, sensitivity to visualize small tumors (< 1 cm) is limited. Positron emission tomography demonstrates tumor involvement of regional lymph nodes with high accuracy, predominantly in patients with advanced breast cancer. The sensitivity for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases was 79% with a corresponding specificity of 96 %. Lymph node metastases could not be identified in four of six patients with small primary breast cancer (stage pT1), resulting in a sensitivity of only 33% in these patients. By visualizing primary tumors and metastases in one imaging procedure, PET imaging may allow the effective staging of breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to define the role of scintigraphic techniques for the diagnostic work-up in patients. (author)

  8. Axillary breast: Navigating uncharted terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha A Bhave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Axillary breast is a common condition that leads to discomfort and cosmetic problems. Liposuction alone and open excision are two techniques used for treatment. Materials and Methods: This study assesses the results of treatment in 24 consecutive patients, operated between 2005 and 2015.All patients had Kajava class IV masses. Three were treated by liposuction alone, while 21 were treated by open axillaplasty with limited liposuction. Results: One patient treated by liposuction alone had to be re-operated for a residual lump, while with axillaplasty, no major complications were observed and the results were uniformly good. Discussion: Certain points of technique emerged as major determinants in obtaining the best results. In brief, these are: a limited skin excision; b placing elliptical incisions within the most lax, apical axillary skin, irrespective of the location of the lump; c raising skin flaps at the level of superficial fascia; dmeticulous dissection and preservation of the nerves, especially the second intercostobrachial; f judicious liposuction for eliminating dog ears and axillary sculpting only; g avoiding drains. Conclusion: Open axillaplasty with limited liposuction is the best way to minimise complications and produce good results.

  9. Study of the electron-positron annihilation in the galactic center region with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; Etude de l'annihilation electron-positon dans la region du centre galactique avec le spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizun, P

    2007-04-15

    A spectral feature was detected in 1970 in the gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Milky Way, during balloon flight observations. Located near 511 keV, this feature was soon attributed to the gamma-ray line tracing the annihilation of electrons with their anti-particles, positrons. However, none of the multiple astrophysical scenarios contemplated to explain the production of positrons in the Galactic bulge has been able to reproduce the high injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line, close to 10{sup 43} positrons per second. Launched in 2002, the European gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL was provided with a spectrometer, SPI, whose unprecedented imaging and spectral capabilities in this energy range enable us to further study the source of the 511 keV line detected in the Galactic centre region. Indeed, a better determination of the spatial extent of the source, the intrinsic width of the line and the fraction of positrons annihilating in-flight, directly or via the formation of ortho-Positronium atoms would improve our knowledge of both the annihilation medium and the initial source of positrons, and could allow us to discriminate between the various explanatory scenarios. The first part of this thesis deals with a key ingredient in the extraction of the annihilation spectrum: the optimization of the instrumental background model. New data screening and tracer selection procedures are presented. Classical multi-linear models are compared to neural and Bayesian networks. Finally, three years of observation are used to constrain the width of the source and derive its spectrum. The second part of the thesis focuses on one of the possible scenarios explaining the high positron injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line: the annihilation of light dark matter particles into electron-positron pairs. The various radiation mechanisms involved are modeled and confronted to observations in order to set an upper limit on the injection

  10. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Angela; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields

  11. Initial axillary surgery: results from the BreastSurgANZ Quality Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chilton; Walters, David; de Silva, Primali; Taylor, Corey; Spillane, Andrew; Kollias, James; Pyke, Chris; Campbell, Ian; Maddern, Guy

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the preference and reasons for initial axillary surgery performed on women with invasive breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand using data from the Breast Surgeon's Society of Australia and New Zealand Quality Audit (BQA) according to whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or no axillary surgery was used. Patient data from 1999 to 2011 were categorized according to primary tumour size (≤3 cm or >3 cm) and analysed by year of diagnosis, type of initial axillary surgery and frequency of second axillary surgery following SLN biopsy. Patient age at diagnosis, health insurance status, surgeon caseload and hospital location were also examined as factors affecting the likelihood of performing different types of axillary surgery. Seventy thousand six hundred and eighty-eight episodes of early breast cancer with axillary surgery data were reported to the BQA in the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing SLN biopsy as the first operation increased over this period in both tumour size groups with a concomitant decline in the use of ALND as the first operation over the same interval. Elderly women (>70 years old) were four times less likely to undergo axillary surgery for their initial management when compared with women aged 41-70 years old (P < 0.001). Factors favouring ALND as the initial surgery over SLN biopsy included larger tumour size, elderly age, uninsured status and having surgery in a regional centre. From 1999 to 2011, SLN biopsy as the initial axillary surgery has been widely adopted by surgeons reporting to the BQA. Future evaluation of the BQA data in the following 3-5 years will be performed to monitor this progression. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Noninvasive quantitation of regional myocardial oxygen consumption in vivo with [1-11C]acetate and dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, D.B.; Nienaber, C.A.; Luxen, A.; Ratib, O.; Hansen, H.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of [1-11C]acetate as a tracer of overall myocardial oxidative metabolism for use with positron emission tomography has been investigated in 12 closed-chest dogs. Myocardial 11C activity clearance kinetics after intravenous administration of [1-11C]acetate in dogs have been determined noninvasively by positron emission tomography. Biexponential fitting of regional myocardial 11C time-activity curves was performed to give clearance half-times and fractional distribution. The rate constant k1 for the early rapid phase of 11C activity clearance was found to correlate linearly with myocardial oxygen consumption (y = 0.0156x + 0.039; SEE = 0.023; r = 0.95). k1 was approximately 7% lower in septal sectors compared with the left ventricular free wall, suggesting that regional oxygen consumption in the septum was lower; a concomitant regional attenuation of blood flow in the septum relative to the left ventricular free wall was also observed. In dogs using carbohydrates as the predominant fuel, k1 oxygen consumption was somewhat more than in dogs using predominantly free fatty acids (0.021 +/- 0.002 compared with 0.018 +/- 0.002, p less than 0.01), indicating that increased carbohydrate consumption is associated with a small increase in k1 at constant oxygen consumption. It is concluded that measurement of myocardial [1-11C]acetate kinetics allows noninvasive determination of cardiac oxygen consumption by positron emission tomography and that the technique is relatively insensitive to myocardial fuel selection

  13. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer. Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi *. Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Received 16 October 2012; accepted 7 January 2013. Available online 7 March 2013. KEYWORDS. Breast cancer;. Axillary lymph nodes.

  14. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  15. AXILLARY ARTERY- A STUDY ON BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswary Thampi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery is of considerable importance. There may be variations in the origin of branches, additional branches or 2 or more from common trunk or the artery may arise separately. The anomalous branching pattern can be correlated to the developmental defects of vasculature during embryonic life. The axillary artery is a part of axis artery of upper limb. Morphological variations of axillary artery of upper limb is very important for vascular surgeons, cardiologists, anaesthetists, radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. Present study is aimed at finding out the branching pattern of axillary artery, clinical significance and to correlate its embryological basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 20 formalin fixed cadavers (40 limbs, which were allotted to the undergraduate, postgraduate students and BDS students of Government Medical College, Kottayam. Cadavers were numbered 1-20 and the axillary artery and its branches were dissected on both sides following the classical incision and dissection procedure taking care to preserve all branches. The artery was studied under the following headings- 1. Origin of all branches; 2. Course and variation. RESULTS In the present study, it was observed that the branching pattern of axillary artery showed variations in 80% of cases. 8 upper limbs showed normal pattern of distribution (20%. The branches revealed different levels of origin and distribution from the normal pattern. The most common variations observed in the origin of subscapular artery and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries together constitute 40%. The remaining 40% of variations were observed in superior thoracic (17.5%, thoracoacromial (12.5% and lateral thoracic (10%. These observations in the arterial variations highlights the awareness during regional surgeries and other interventional procedures. CONCLUSION Variations observed in this

  16. Solitary axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian Cancer: Case report and brief literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji In; Kim, Soo Jin; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Hee Sung

    2014-01-01

    Axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer is rare. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman proven as ovarian serous papillary carcinoma and metastatic papillary carcinoma of the omentum on surgical diagnostic laparoscopy. In addition, a hypermetabolic lymph node was detected in left axilla and was considered a reactive benign lesion. Mammography and ultrasonography showed no focal lesion in both breasts, but ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the lymph node revealed metastatic serous papillary carcinoma from ovarian origin. Even with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer and only marginally elevated standardized uptake value in positron emission tomography, the possibility of metastasis at axillary lymph node in patients with known primary ovarian cancer must be considered.

  17. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT Findings in a Breast Cancer Patient with Concomitant Tuberculous Axillary Lymphadenitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won [Jeju National Univ. Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Mi [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hyuck [Jeju National Univ. School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Although {sup 18F} fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18F} FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive modality for detecting a malignant lesion, increased {sup 18F} FDG uptake is also seen in infected or inflammatory processes. Here, we report the case of a a breast cancer patient with concomitant tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis that showed increased {sup 18F} FDG uptake. A 39 year old woman underwent preoperative {sup 18F} FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) as a part of the work up for right breast cancer. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT images showed a malignant lesion in the right breast with moderate {sup 18F} FDG uptake, and multiple enlarged right axillary lymph nodes with intense {sup 18F} FDG uptake. Subsequently, the patient underwent right mastectomy and right axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination confirmed breast cancer and tuberculous lymphadenitis, and the patient was treated concomitantly with anti tuberculous therapy.

  18. Solitary axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian Cancer: Case report and brief literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji In; Kim, Soo Jin; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Hee Sung [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer is rare. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman proven as ovarian serous papillary carcinoma and metastatic papillary carcinoma of the omentum on surgical diagnostic laparoscopy. In addition, a hypermetabolic lymph node was detected in left axilla and was considered a reactive benign lesion. Mammography and ultrasonography showed no focal lesion in both breasts, but ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the lymph node revealed metastatic serous papillary carcinoma from ovarian origin. Even with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer and only marginally elevated standardized uptake value in positron emission tomography, the possibility of metastasis at axillary lymph node in patients with known primary ovarian cancer must be considered.

  19. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolwig, T.G.; Haunsoe, S.; Dahlgaard Hove, J.; Hesse, B.; Hoejgard, L.; Jensen, M.; Paulson, O.B.; Hastrup Svendsen, J.; Soelvsten Soerensen, S.

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method for quantitative imaging of regional physiological and biochemical parameters. Positron emitting radioactive isotopes can be produced by a cyclotron, eg. the biologically important carbon ( 11 C), oxygen ( 15 O), and nitrogen ( 13 N) elements. With the tomographic principles of the PET scanner the quantitative distribution of the administered isotopes can be determined and images can be provided as well as dynamic information on blood flow, metabolism and receptor function. In neurology PET has been used for investigations on numerous physiological processes in the brain: circulation, metabolism and receptor studies. In Parkinson's disease PET studies have been able to localize the pathology specifically, and in early stroke PET technique can outline focal areas with living but non-functioning cells, and this could make it possible to intervene in this early state. With positron emission tomography a quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow, glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be made as well as combined assessments of blood flow and metabolism. Combined studies of blood flow and metabolism can determine whether myocardial segments with abnormal motility consist of necrotic or viable tissue, thereby delineating effects of revascularisation. In the future it will probably be possible to characterize the myocardial receptor status in different cardiac diseases. The PET technique is used in oncology for clinical as well as more basic research on tumor perfusion and metabolism. Further, tumor uptake of positron labelled cytotoxic drugs might predict the clinical benefit of treatment. (au) (19 refs.)

  20. Positron emission tomography. Positronemisionstomografi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, T.G.; Haunsoe, S.; Dahlgaard Hove, J.; Hesse, B.; Hoejgard, L.; Jensen, M.; Paulson, O.B.; Hastrup Svendsen, J.; Soelvsten Soerensen, S.

    1994-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method for quantitative imaging of regional physiological and biochemical parameters. Positron emitting radioactive isotopes can be produced by a cyclotron, eg. the biologically important carbon ([sup 11]C), oxygen ([sup 15]O), and nitrogen ([sup 13]N) elements. With the tomographic principles of the PET scanner the quantitative distribution of the administered isotopes can be determined and images can be provided as well as dynamic information on blood flow, metabolism and receptor function. In neurology PET has been used for investigations on numerous physiological processes in the brain: circulation, metabolism and receptor studies. In Parkinson's disease PET studies have been able to localize the pathology specifically, and in early stroke PET technique can outline focal areas with living but non-functioning cells, and this could make it possible to intervene in this early state. With positron emission tomography a quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow, glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be made as well as combined assessments of blood flow and metabolism. Combined studies of blood flow and metabolism can determine whether myocardial segments with abnormal motility consist of necrotic or viable tissue, thereby delineating effects of revascularisation. In the future it will probably be possible to characterize the myocardial receptor status in different cardiac diseases. The PET technique is used in oncology for clinical as well as more basic research on tumor perfusion and metabolism. Further, tumor uptake of positron labelled cytotoxic drugs might predict the clinical benefit of treatment. (au) (19 refs.).

  1. A quantitative index of regional blood flow in canine myocardium derived noninvasively with N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Ratib, O.; Gambhir, S.S.; Krivokapich, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine (USA))

    1991-01-01

    To derive a quantitative index of regional myocardial blood flow, the arterial input function of the flow tracer N-13 ammonia and the regional myocardial N-13 activity concentrations were noninvasively determined in 29 experiments in eight dogs. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and cross-sectional images were acquired dynamically using an ECAT III positron emission tomograph with an effective in-plane resolution of 13.46 mm full-width half-maximum. Time-activity curves were derived from the serial images by assigning regions of interest to the left ventricular myocardium and left ventricular blood pool. Tracer net extractions were estimated from the myocardial time-activity concentrations at various times after tracer injection and the integral of the arterial input function. Myocardial blood flow was altered by intravenous dipyridamole, morphine, propranolol and partial or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and ranged from 9 to 860 ml/min per 100 g. Estimates of tracer net extractions were most accurate when determined from the myocardial N-13 activity concentrations at 60 s divided by the integral of the arterial input function to that time. These estimates correlated with regional myocardial blood flows determined independently by the microsphere technique by y = x (1 - 0.64(e-114/x); SEE = 22.9; r = 0.94). First pass extraction fractions of N-13 ammonia determined noninvasively with this approach declined with higher flows in a nonlinear fashion and were similar to those determined invasively by direct intracoronary N-13 ammonia injections. The findings indicate that an accurate index of regional myocardial blood flow can be obtained noninvasively by high temporal sampling of arterial and myocardial tracer activity concentrations with positron emission tomography.

  2. A two-compartment description and kinetic procedure for measuring regional cerebral [11C]nomifensine uptake using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, E.; Brooks, D.J.; Leenders, K.L.; Turton, D.R.; Hume, S.P.; Cremer, J.E.; Jones, T.; Frackowiak, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    S-[11C]Nomifensine (S-[11C]NMF) is a positron-emitting tracer suitable for positron emission tomography, which binds to both dopaminergic and noradrenergic reuptake sites in the striatum and the thalamus. Modelling of the cerebral distribution of this drug has been hampered by the rapid appearance of glucuronide metabolites in the plasma, which do not cross the blood--brain barrier. To date, [11C]NMF uptake has simply been expressed as regional versus nonspecific cerebellar activity ratios. We have calculated a free NMF input curve from red cell activity curves, using the fact that the free drug rapidly equilibrates between red cells and plasma, while glucuronides do not enter red cells. With this free [11C]NMF input function, all regional cerebral uptake curves could be fitted to a conventional two-compartment model, defining tracer distribution in terms of [11C]NMF regional volume of distribution. Assuming that the cerebellar volume of distribution of [11C]NMF represents the nonspecific volume of distribution of the tracer in striatum and thalamus, we have calculated an equilibrium partition coefficient for [11C]NMF between freely exchanging specific and nonspecific compartments in these regions, representing its binding potential to dopaminergic or noradrenergic uptake sites (or complexes). This partition coefficient was lower in the striatum when the racemate rather than the active S-enantiomer of [11C]NMF was administered. In the striatum of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and multiple-system atrophy, the specific compartmentation of S-[11C]NMF was significantly decreased compared with that of age-matched volunteers

  3. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  4. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  5. Fibroadenoma in the bilateral accessory axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, P; Izzo, V; Cervelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The authors treated a case of bilateral accessory axillary breast tissue. Excision with histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of fibroadenoma. Treatment left the woman with incision scars (3.5 cm) in the axillary pyramid, a location often not seen during a patient's normal movements. Thus, despite a minor aesthetic incision, gives the advantage of complete histologic analysis was gained. Liposuction treatment was used in this case. The scar results were good.

  6. The responsible region and the symptomatic threshold of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism for Broca's aphasia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kitamura, Shin; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the responsible region and the symptomatic flow and metabolism threshold for Broca's aphasia. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were measured by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15 O steady state method in eight patients with Broca's aphasia due to cerebral infarction and thirty patients without aphasia. During scanning, patients closed their eyes and were kept free from any stimuration. X-CT scan revealed abnormal low density in Broca's area which includes cortex and subcortex in the anterior region to Sylvian fissure in three patients with aphasia. In the other five patients with aphasia X-CT scan showed no abnormal low density in Broca's area, showed it in basal ganglionic region and subcortex. PET study revealed reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in Broca's area in all cases with Broca's aphasia. CBF and CMRO 2 of Broca's area of aphasic patients were compared to those of non aphasic patients to obtain the symptomatic threshold in CBF and CMRO 2 . The values of symptomatic threshold were 20 - 27 ml/100 g/min in CBF and 2.0 ml/100 g/min in CMRO 2 . The symptomatic threshold differed from the threshold for development of abnormal low density on X-CT, therefore the measurement of CBF and CMRO 2 were useful in studying the responsible region for aphasia. (author)

  7. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  8. Axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch: comparison between axillary and posterior arm approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Daniel Tôrres; Alencar, Fernando Henrique Uchôa de; Lemos, Marcos Vinícius Vieira de; Kobig, Rudolf Nunes; Rocha, João Francisco Recalde

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the functional outcome of axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch through the axillary approach and posterior arm approach. The study included 27 patients with post-traumatic brachial plexus injury treated with axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch for functional recovery of shoulder abduction and external rotation. The patients were retrospectively evaluated and two groups were identified, one with 13 patients undergoing axillary nerve neurotization by an axillary approach and the second with 14 patients using the posterior arm approach. Patients underwent assessment of muscle strength using the scale recommended by the British Medical Research Council, preoperatively and 18 months postoperatively, with useful function recovery considered as grade M3 or greater. In the axillary approach group, 76.9% of patients achieved useful abduction function recovery and 69.2% achieved useful external rotation function recovery. In the group with posterior arm approach, 71.4% of patients achieved useful abduction function recovery and 50% achieved useful external rotation function recovery. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant ( p  = 1.000 for the British Medical Research Council abduction scale and p  = 0.440 for external rotation). According to the British Medical Research Council grading, axillary nerve neurotization with a triceps motor branch using axillary approach or posterior arm approach shows no statistical differences.

  9. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis [General Hospital, PET/CT Unit, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  10. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  11. Regional assessment of myocardial metabolic integrity in vivo by positron-emission tomography with 11C-labeled palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Klein, M.S.; Markham, J.; Roberts, R.; Sobel, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    To determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) after the combined administration of 11 C-palmitate intravenously to image myocardium and 11 CO by inhalation to image the cardiac blood pool with 11 CO-hemoglobin provides quantitative delineation of the locus and extent of myocardial infarction, 28 patients with suspected myocardial infarction were studied. Twenty-one patients had electrocardiographically documented transmural infarction and in seven, the diagnosis of infarction was ultimately excluded based on enzymatic and electrocardiographic criteria. To assess reproducibility, four patients were studied on two occasions 1 month apart. Inferior and apical infarcts were readily localized with sagittal and coronal as opposed to transaxial reconstructions. Complete electrocardiographic and tomographic concordance was observed for the locus of all transmural infarcts. Reproducibility of tomographic estimates was within 10%. Tomographic estimation of the extent of infarction with 11 C-palmitate in a subset of patients in whom right ventricular contributions to overall enzyme release could be excluded was facilitated by delineation of the endocardial border with the 11 CO-hemoglobin cardiac blood pool image in the same plane. The correlaion between enzymatic (serial plasma MB-CK method) and tomographic estimates of infarct size was close (r = 0.92). Thus, as has been shown in experimental animals, PET with 11 C-palmitate permits quantification and localization of myocardial infarcts in patients

  12. New computer-aided diagnosis of dementia using positron emission tomography: brain regional sensitivity-mapping method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Kakimoto

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We devised a new computer-aided diagnosis method to segregate dementia using one estimated index (Total Z score derived from the Brodmann area (BA sensitivity map on the stereotaxic brain atlas. The purpose of this study is to investigate its accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI from normal adults (NL. METHODS: We studied 101 adults (NL: 40, AD: 37, MCI: 24 who underwent (18FDG positron emission tomography (PET measurement. We divided NL and AD groups into two categories: a training group with (Category A and a test group without (Category B clinical information. In Category A, we estimated sensitivity by comparing the standard uptake value per BA (SUVR between NL and AD groups. Then, we calculated a summated index (Total Z score by utilizing the sensitivity-distribution maps and each BA z-score to segregate AD patterns. To confirm the validity of this method, we examined the accuracy in Category B. Finally, we applied this method to MCI patients. RESULTS: In Category A, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of differentiation between NL and AD were all 100%. In Category B, those were 100% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, we found this method attained 88% to differentiate AD-converters from non-converters in MCI group. CONCLUSIONS: The present automated computer-aided evaluation method based on a single estimated index provided good accuracy for differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. This good differentiation power suggests its usefulness not only for dementia diagnosis but also in a longitudinal study.

  13. New Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Dementia Using Positron Emission Tomography: Brain Regional Sensitivity-Mapping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Akihiro; Kamekawa, Yuichi; Ito, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We devised a new computer-aided diagnosis method to segregate dementia using one estimated index (Total Z score) derived from the Brodmann area (BA) sensitivity map on the stereotaxic brain atlas. The purpose of this study is to investigate its accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal adults (NL). Methods We studied 101 adults (NL: 40, AD: 37, MCI: 24) who underwent 18FDG positron emission tomography (PET) measurement. We divided NL and AD groups into two categories: a training group with (Category A) and a test group without (Category B) clinical information. In Category A, we estimated sensitivity by comparing the standard uptake value per BA (SUVR) between NL and AD groups. Then, we calculated a summated index (Total Z score) by utilizing the sensitivity-distribution maps and each BA z-score to segregate AD patterns. To confirm the validity of this method, we examined the accuracy in Category B. Finally, we applied this method to MCI patients. Results In Category A, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of differentiation between NL and AD were all 100%. In Category B, those were 100% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, we found this method attained 88% to differentiate AD-converters from non-converters in MCI group. Conclusions The present automated computer-aided evaluation method based on a single estimated index provided good accuracy for differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. This good differentiation power suggests its usefulness not only for dementia diagnosis but also in a longitudinal study. PMID:21966405

  14. Kikuchi Disease with Generalized Lymph Node, Spleen and Subcutaneous Involvement Detected by Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaima Alshammari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, known as Kikuchi disease, is a rare benign and self-limiting disorder that typically affects the regional cervical lymph nodes. Generalized lymphadenopathy and extranodal involvement are rare. We report a rare case of a 19-yearold female with a history of persistent fever, nausea, and debilitating malaise. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic generalized lymph nodes in the cervical, mediastinum, axillary, abdomen and pelvic regions with diffuse spleen, diffuse thyroid gland, and focal parotid involvement, bilaterally. In addition, subcutaneous lesions were noted in the left upper paraspinal and occipital regions. An excisional lymph node biopsy guided by 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed the patient’s diagnosis as Kikuchi syndrome.

  15. Midterm Experience of Ipsilateral Axillary-Axillary Arteriovenous Loop Graft as Tertiary Access for Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To present a series of ipsilateral axillary artery to axillary vein loop arm grafts as an alternative vascular access procedure for haemodialysis in patients with difficult access. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Patients who underwent an axillary loop arteriovenous graft from September 2009 to September 2012 were included. Preoperative venous imaging to exclude central venous stenosis and to image arm/axillary veins was performed. A cuffed PTFE graft was anastomosed to the distal axillary artery and axillary vein and looped on the arm. Results. 25 procedures were performed on 22 patients. Median age was 51 years, with 9 males and 13 females. Median number of previous access procedures was 3 (range 0–7. Median followup was 16.4 months (range 1–35. At 3 months and 1 year, the primary and secondary patency rates were 70% and 72% and 36% and 37%, respectively. There were 11 radiological interventions in 6 grafts including 5 angioplasties and 6 thrombectomies. There were 19 surgical procedures in 10 grafts, including thrombectomy, revision, repair for bleeding, and excision. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that the axillary loop arm graft yields acceptable early patency rates in a complex group of patients but to maintain graft patency required high rates of surgical and radiological intervention, in particular graft thrombectomy.

  16. Results of surgery without axillary dissection for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Kenji; Okamura, Shinsuke; Morita Katsuyuki

    2000-01-01

    We believe that routine axillary dissection for relatively early breast cancer should be reconsidered in view of the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and its effects on postoperative quality of life. We have performed bioptic lumpectomy to examine histological type, invasive tumor size, histological infiltration, and lymphatic invasion and have avoided axillary dissection in cases with a low risk of lymph node metastasis. In 126 cases of T0, T1a, or T2a breast cancers less than 3 cm in diameter in which axillary dissection was not performed, axillary recurrence was observed in 2 cases. Both patients underwent salvage procedures and are alive without disease. Furthermore, axillary recurrence was not observed in 23 cases treated with tangent irradiation and breast-preserving surgery. These findings suggest that axillary recurrence is possible in cases with previous indications for avoiding axillary dissection and that breast irradiation may prevent axillary recurrence. (author)

  17. Axillary arthrotomography of the glenoid labrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Kanzaria, P.K.; Goss, T.P.; Pappas, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    In a study of 67 shoulders evaluated by axillary arthrotomography, tears of the glenoid labrum were accurately detected in all 26 surgically confirmed cases. One false-positive case was identified in the five patients without labral tears; there were no false-negative cases. Only 40% of the patients had clinical evidence of subluxation or dislocation. Axillary arthrotomography provides important information about the integrity of the labrum that may be helpful in planning surgery for patients without clinical subluxation or dislocation but with pain, clicking, or vague shoulder discomfort secondary to labral pathology (functional instability)

  18. Muscular Variations During Axillary Dissection: A Clinical Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle and the coracoid process, without interruption by any type of tendinous fibres. The axillary arch muscle crossed anteriorly over the axillary vein [Figure 1]. The mastectomy along with axillary dissection was completed uneventfully. There was left sided absence of pectoralis major and minor muscles in a 45 years old ...

  19. Analysis of changes in sagging type ST-T segment induced by exercise. Assessment of regional myocardial blood flow using quantitative 13NH3 positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takuya; Akutsu, Yasushi; Okazaki, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    Regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) associated with exercise-induced ST depression was assessed using 13 NH 3 positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the significance of horizontal and sagging type ST segments. The subjects were 25 patients with angina pectoris, 25 patients with myocardial infarction, and 5 healthy male volunteers. Eleven regions of interests (ROI) were prepared to calculate RMBF. ST segments were unchanged in 27 patients (Group A) and were depressed in 23 patients (Group B). A 10% increase in RMBF was significantly observed in Group A (74.1%) than Group B (34.8%). In Group B, ST depression was divided into horizontal type (8 patients) and sagging type (15 patients). According to the type of ST depression, RMBF was increased by 10% or more in 50% (4/8) for horizontal type and in 26.7% (4/15) for sagging type. These findings suggested that unfavorable increase in RMBF in stenosiss-related coronary vessels may contribute to the development of ST depression induced by exercise. A constant increase in RMBF in all ROIs, including those with unfavorable RMBF increase, may be involved in the occurrence of horizontal type ST depression; sagging type ST depression may, however, occur by an increased difference in blood flow between unfavorable and favorable RMBF. (N.K.)

  20. Studies on regional cerebral pH in patients with cerebral tumors using continuous inhalation of 11CO2 and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Beaney, R.P.; Thomas, D.G.; Marshall, J.; Jones, T.

    1986-01-01

    Regional cerebral pH (rpH) was measured in 12 patients with cerebral tumours and in 5 normal subjects using continuous inhalation of 11 CO 2 and positron emission tomography (PET). Cerebral tumours with a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) on computed tomography scanning had a similar rpH to that of equivalent regions of contralateral brain tissue (mean tumour rpH, 6.98; mean contralateral brain pH, 6.99). Cerebral tumours with an intact BBB were consistently found to be more alkaline than contralateral brain tissue (mean tumour rpH, 7.09). There was no significant difference between the mean rpH values obtained for peripheral cortical gray and central white matter in normal subjects (7.02 and 6.98, respectively). It is concluded that in spite of reports of raised levels of aerobic glycolysis in neoplastic tissue, there is no evidence that cerebral tumour rpH values are depressed

  1. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  2. Durability of the Viabahn stent graft after axillary artery pseudoaneurysm exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Y. Chen, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm formation caused by iatrogenic arterial injury during a regional anesthetic block is a rare complication. We report a case of a 56-year-old male patient who developed an axillary artery pseudoaneurysm caused by brachial plexus block performed for an upper extremity dialysis access operation. Successful repair of this pseudoaneurysm was achieved with endovascular stent graft exclusion. The repaired axillary artery with the stent graft remained patent after 10 years of follow-up. The successful long-term patency of this treatment and a strategy to potentially avoid this complication are discussed.

  3. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Valencia CA

    2013-10-01

    axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method also allow relatively easy successful implant of catheters in the axillary veins.Keywords: hemodialysis, catheter, axillary venous, ultrasound guidance

  4. Review of the surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve and the anatomic basis of its iatrogenic and traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Nihal; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Duparc, Fabrice

    2010-03-01

    The axillary nerve is invariably reported to be one of the most commonly injured nerves during surgical procedures of the shoulder, and the importance of protecting it cannot be overemphasized. Many researchers have tried to identify safe regions, but the results vary among published studies. The axillary nerve may also be injured during acute trauma to the shoulder or by chronic repeated trauma as has been described in the quadrilateral space syndrome. The nerve injury may occur together with shoulder dislocation and rotator cuff tear, thus comprising the so-called "unhappy triad" of the shoulder joint. Simple attention to potential variations in the origin and course of the axillary nerve and its relationship to the shoulder capsule and having a precise knowledge of "safe zones" during operations can enhance clinical outcomes. The objective of this review, therefore, is to discuss the surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve and further emphasize the clinical importance of the its injury following shoulder trauma.

  5. Brachial plexus injury with emphasis on axillary nerve paralysis after thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Soon-Ho; Suk Choi, Matthew Seung

    2006-12-01

    Thoracic sympathicotomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with the use of 2 mm thoracoscope and instruments is a simple and safe procedure. Nerve paralysis of any type after thoracic sympathicotomy is an extremely rare event. We report a 44-year-old woman who developed brachial plexus injury of her left arm after thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. The lesion involved the whole arm. All nerves of the brachial plexus except the axillary nerve recovered quickly. An axillary nerve type lesion was observed for 7 weeks, until the patient fully recovered all functions of her arm. The mechanism is believed not to be caused by the procedure itself, but by dorsal overextension of the abducted arm during the operation.

  6. [Axillary pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer with axillary involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Román-Santamaría, J M; Pelayo Alarcón, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    2015-01-01

    To compare axillary involvement (N+) at initial staging in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) with axillary lymphadenectomy histologic results after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NeoChemo). Retrospective study between November 2011 and September 2013 of LABC cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on docetaxel (associated with trastuzumab in HER2 positive cases and carboplatin/adriamycin in HER2 negative cases). Those clinically or radiologically suspected cases of axillary involvement were histologically confirmed. When there was no suspicion of axillary involvement, sentinel lymph node radioguided biopsy (SLNRB) was performed using intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid albumin prior to neoadjuvant treatment. Axillary lymphadenectomy after NeoChemo was undertaken in all cases with positive axilla. Final pathologic response was classified as complete (pCR) when there was no evidence of tumoral disease and as non-pathologic complete response (no pCR) in the opposite case. A total of 346 patients treated with docetaxel were reviewed, identifying 105 LABC. Axillary involvement at initial staging was detected in 70 (67%) before starting NeoChemo. From these 70, 73% (n=51) were N+ (fine needle biopsy and/or biopsy) and the remaining 19 (27%) were occult N+ detected by SLNRB. Axillary lymphadenectomy detected pCR in 56% (39/70), increasing up to 84% pCR when initial N+ status was reached using SNLB. On the other hand, when N+ was detected using fine needle biopsy/lymph biopsy, pCR was only 45%. More than 50% of women affected by locally advanced breast cancer with tumoral axillary involvement at initial diagnosis present free metastatic axilla after therapeutic neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. This increases up to almost 90% in case of occult metastatic axilla detected with sentinel node biopsy prior starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the hemodynamics of the femoral head compared with the ilium, femoral neck and femoral intertrochanteric region in healthy adults. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Fuminori; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Takahashi, Kenji A.; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Arai, Yuji; Imahori, Yoshio; Itani, Kenji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONF) is considered to be a disease that occurs primarily due to ischemia of the femoral head, while its etiology and pathology are not fully understood. It is therefore necessary to identify the characteristics of the hemodynamics of the femoral head. In this study, the hemodynamics in the ilium and proximal regions of the femur, including the femoral head, was investigated using positron emission tomography (PET). The subjects of this study consisted of 8 hip joints of four healthy male adults and 3 hip joints on the contralateral side of a femoral neck fracture, avulsion fracture of the greater trochanter and coxarthrosis (1 case each, all females) for a total of 11 hip joints of 7 subjects. The ages of the subjects ranged from 25 to 87 years (average age: 54 years). Blood flow was measured by means of the H 2 15 O dynamic study method and blood volume was measured by means of the 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was determined to be 9.1±4.8 ml/min/100 g in the ilium and among proximal regions of the femur (femoral head, neck and intertrochanteric region), 1.8±0.7 ml/min/100 g in the femoral head, 2.1±0.6 ml/min/100 g in the femoral neck, and 2.6±0.7 ml/min/100 g in the intertrochanteric region. In addition, blood volume was 4.7±1.3 ml/100 g in the ilium, and among proximal regions of the femur, 1.1±0.5 ml/100 g in the femoral head, 2.1±0.7 ml/100 g in the femoral neck, and 2.6±0.9 ml/100 g in the intertrochanteric region. The results showed that both blood flow and volume were lowest in the femoral head. Blood flow and volume were significantly lower in the proximal regions of the femur (femoral head, neck and intertrochanteric region) than in the ilium (p<0.01). The present study demonstrated that the femoral head is in a hypoemic state as compared with other osseous tissue, indicating that even the slightest exacerbation of hemodynamics in the femoral head can trigger an

  8. CASE REPORT Unilateral axillary adenopathy with unremarkable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bursitis. As a local inflammatory cause for the unilateral axillary adenopathy was presumed, no biopsy was performed. Follow-up ultrasound was arranged for 4 weeks later. Diagnosis. After discussion with the patient's family physician, she attended for consultation the same day. A clinical diagnosis of elbow bursitis was.

  9. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  10. Radiofrequency Thermotherapy for Treating Axillary Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Christoph H; Grallath, Tanja; Schick, Kerstin S; Hashmonai, Moshe

    2016-05-01

    Thermotherapy has been established between conservative and surgical options as a minimally invasive method for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. The objective of this study was to present radiofrequency thermotherapy (RFTT) as a safe and effective new treatment method. Thirty adult patients with pronounced axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with RFTT with noninsulated microneedles 3 times at intervals of 6 weeks. Subjective improvement was rated using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Satisfaction and estimated reduction of sweating were monitored. Objective measurements were made using gravimetry. Adverse effects were recorded in follow-up. At the 6-month follow-up, improvement in sweating was seen in 27 patients. The HDSS dropped from 3.4 to 2.1, the DLQI improved significantly from 16 to 7. The gravimetric measurements of sweat were reduced from 221 to 33 mg/min. The average reduction of sweating was reported to be 72%. Adverse effects were generally mild and improved rapidly. Radiofrequency thermotherapy was shown to be an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for axillary hyperhidrosis. Patients described their sweating as normal. The method clearly has the potential to normalize axillary sweating.

  11. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  12. What do you think of an unusual axillary mass? | Benzzi | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin apocrine carcinoma is a rare malgnancy of epidermal adnexa, most frequent in axillary seat, where apocrine sweat gland are abundant, the neoplasm can arise ... Standard treatment is surgical excision with margins of 2 to 3cm for local tumor, for apocrine adenocarcinoma regional lymph node dissection if nodes were ...

  13. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of positron emission tomography was reviewed in relation to construction and planned construction of small-size medical cyclotrons, planned construction of positron cameras and utilization of short-lived radionuclides. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Anterior deltopectoral approach for axillary nerve neurotisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose

    2012-04-01

    To report outcome of axillary nerve neurotisation for brachial plexus injury through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Nine men aged 20 to 52 (mean, 27.8) years with brachial plexus injury underwent axillary nerve neurotisation through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Three of the patients had complete avulsion of C5-T1 nerve roots. The remaining 6 patients had brachial plexus injury of C5-C6 nerve roots, with associated subluxation of the glenohumeral joint, atrophy of the supraspinatus, deltoid and elbow flexors. They had no active shoulder abduction, external rotation, and elbow flexion. The pectoralis major and minor were cut and/or retracted to expose the underlying infraclavicular plexus. The axillary nerve was identified with respect to the available donor nerves (long head of triceps branch, thoracodorsal nerve, and medial pectoral nerve). In addition to the axillary nerve neurotisation, each patient had a spinal accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve for better shoulder animation. Patients were followed up for 24 to 30 (mean, 26) months. In the 3 patients with C5-T1 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 63 and 20 degrees, respectively, whereas the mean abduction strength was M3 (motion against gravity). In the 6 patients with C5-C6 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 133 and 65 degrees, respectively, whereas the strength of the deltoids and triceps was M5 (normal) in all. In 4 patients with the pectoralis major cut and repaired, the muscle regained normal strength. The anterior deltopectoral approach enabled easy access to all available donor nerves for axillary nerve neurotisation and achieved good outcomes.

  15. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 24 selections. Some of the titles are: Positron Emission Tomography Instrumentation, Generator Systems for Positron Emitters, Reconstruction Algorithms, Cerebral Glucose Consumption: Methodology and Validation, Cerebral Blood Flow Tomography Using Xenon-133 Inhalation: Methods and Clinical Applications, PET Studies of Stroke, Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography, and Use of PET in Oncology

  16. Central representation of muscle pain and mechanical hyperesthesia in the orofacial region: a positron emission tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Rron; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehlin

    2004-01-01

    -muscle pain was associated with significant increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the dorsal-posterior insula (bilaterally), anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, right posterior parietal cortex, brainstem, cavernous sinus and cerebellum. No rCBF changes occurred in primary or secondary...... somatosensory cortices. In contrast, von Frey stimulation produced a significant rCBF increase in the contralateral SI face representation. Mechanical hyperesthesia was associated with significant rCBF increases in the subgenual cingulate and the ventroposteromedial and dorsomedial thalamus. These results...

  17. Positron-atom dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.; Martinis, M.

    1983-01-01

    The singularity structure of the forward positron-atom scattering amplitude is studied within the framework of perturbation theory with the use of the Landau rules. The unphysical and anomalous regions in the positron-atom forward dispersion relations are discussed. It is shown that the unphysical region starts at E 0 = -Vertical BarE(Ps)Vertical Bar+Vertical BarE 1 Vertical Bar and the anomalous region at E/sub a/ = -(√2Vertical BarE(Ps)Vertical Bar - √Vertical BarE 1 Vertical Bar ) 2 , where E(Ps) and E 1 are correspondingly the positronium and the atomic-electron binding energies. The anomalous region is on the physical sheet if Vertical BarE(Ps)Vertical Bar/2>Vertical BarE 1 Vertical Bar

  18. Sensory experience of food and obesity: a positron emission tomography study of the brain regions affected by tasting a liquid meal after a prolonged fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelParigi, Angelo; Chen, Kewei; Salbe, Arline D; Reiman, Eric M; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2005-01-15

    The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion of food play a role in the regulation of energy intake and contribute to the development of obesity remains largely unresolved. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and 15O-water to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and to assess the brain's response to the oral administration of 2 ml of a liquid meal (Ensure Plus, 1.5 kcal/ml) after a 36-h fast and shortly before consuming the same meal. Twenty-one obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2, 10M/11F, age 28 +/- 6 years, body fat 40 +/- 6%) and 20 lean individuals (BMI obese individuals had higher fasting plasma glucose (83.3 +/- 6.2 vs. 75.5 +/- 9.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0003) and insulin concentrations (6.1 +/- 3.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.7 microU/ml; P food, differences in rCBF were observed in several regions of the brain, including greater increases in the middle-dorsal insula and midbrain, and greater decreases in the posterior cingulate, temporal, and orbitofrontal cortices in obese compared to lean individuals (P obesity is associated with an abnormal brain response to the sensory aspects of a liquid meal after a prolonged fast especially in areas of the primary gustatory cortex. This is only partially explained by the elevated glycemia and high level of disinhibition which characterize individuals with increased adiposity. These results provide a new perspective on the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal eating behavior and their relationship with obesity in humans.

  19. Constant infusion of 15O-labeled water and inhalation of 11C-labeled carbon monoxide for the regional determination of pulmonary water by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.J.; Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for the continuous infusion of 15 O-labeled water which allows the tomographic reconstruction of the total lung water (TLW). Subsequent inhalation of 11 C-labeled carbon-monoxide permits the reconstruction of the blood volume (BV). After normalization of intravascular activities the difference of TLW minus BV yields a quantitative value of regional extravascular lung water (rELW). 15 O-O 2 is converted on-line to 15 O-H 2 O and trapped in a 2 ml buffer reservoir which is fed by a pump with 0.9% NaCl. A precision pump is used to withdraw the labeled H 2 O and infuse it at a rate of 6 ml/min. The radioactivity level of the indusate (ca. 3.7 MBq/sec) is controlled and can be kept constant with a deviation of less than 5% over 40 min. The sterility and apyrogenicity of the system effluent is assured by frequent bacteriological, rabbit and limulus tests. A constant radioactivity level in the lung area is reached after 8-10 min. The infusion is continued for the tomographic reconstruction (Positron Camera System 4200, Cyclotron Corp.) which takes 15 min. A fast change of cyclotron parameters (MC-36, Scanditronix) and automated chemistry procedures allow a single breath administration of 11 C-CO (ca. 40 MBq) 15 min after the end of the 15 O-H 2 O infusion. Blood pool equilibrium is reached after 3-4 min, and the blood volume is reconstructed within 15 min also. Intravascular activites as determined from reconstructed slices in the region of the aortic arch correlate linearly with blood sample activities up to 100 kBq/ml. (orig.) [de

  20. Imaging regional variation of cellular proliferation in gliomas using 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine positron-emission tomography: an image-guided biopsy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.J.; Fryer, T.D.; Cleij, M.C.; Dean, A.F.; Joseph, J.; Salvador, R.; Wang, D.D.; Hutchinson, P.J.; Clark, J.C.; Burnet, N.G.; Pickard, J.D.; Aigbirhio, F.I.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare regional variations in uptake of 3'-deoxy-3'- [ 18 F]-fluorothymidine (FLT) images using positron-emission tomography (PET) with measures of cellular proliferation from biopsy specimens obtained by image-guided brain biopsies. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with a supratentorial glioma that required an image-guided brain biopsy were imaged preoperatively with dynamic PET after the administration of FLT. Maps of FLT irreversible uptake rate (K i ) and standardized uptake value (SUV) were calculated. These maps were co-registered to a gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence that was used for biopsy guidance, and the mean and maximum K i and SUV determined for each biopsy site. These values were correlated with the MIB-1 labelling index (a tissue marker of proliferation) from these biopsy sites. Results: A total of 57 biopsy sites were studied. Although all measures correlated with MIB-1 labelling index, K i max provided the best correlation (Pearson coefficient, r = 0.68; p i mean (±SD) was significantly higher than in normal tissue (3.3 ± 1.7 x 10 -3 ml plasma /min/ml tissue versus 1.2 ± 0.7 x 10 -3 ml plasma /min/ml tissue ; p = 0.001). High-grade gliomas showed heterogeneous uptake with a mean K i of 7.7 ± 4 x 10 -3 ml plasma /min/ml tissue . A threshold K i mean of 1.8 x 10 -3 differentiates between normal tissue and tumour (sensitivity 84%, specificity 88%); however, the latter threshold underestimated the extent of tumour in half the cases. SUV closely agreed with K i measurements. Conclusion: FLT PET is a useful marker of cellular proliferation that correlates with regional variation in cellular proliferation; however, it is unable to identify the margin of gliomas

  1. Positron emission tomography studies of brain receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Maziere, M.

    1991-01-01

    Probing the regional distribution and affinity of receptors in the brain, in vivo, in human and non human primates has become possible with the use of selective ligands labelled with positron emitting radionuclides and positron emission tomography (PET). After describing the techniques used in positron emission tomography to characterize a ligand receptor binding and discussing the choice of the label and the limitations and complexities of the in vivo approach, the results obtained in the PET studies of various neurotransmission systems: dopaminergic, opiate, benzodiazepine, serotonin and cholinergic systems are reviewed

  2. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Haim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Methods Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 ± 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Results Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p Mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude was 2.83, SD 2.50 mV in the paralyzed shoulder and was 7.44, SD 5.47 mV in the sound shoulder (p p p = 0.003, 1-sided for amplitude, and patients with left paralyzed shoulder compared to patients with left sound shoulder (p = 0.011, 1-sided for latency, p = 0.001, 1-sided for amplitude, support the same outcomes. The electro-physiological changes in the axillary nerve may appear during the first six weeks after stroke breakout. Conclusion Continuous traction of the axillary nerve, as in hypotonic shoulder, may affect the electro-physiological properties of the nerve. It most probably results from subluxation of the head of the humerus, causing demyelinization and even axonopathy. Slowing of the conduction velocities of

  3. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-03-27

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  4. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Ejmalian, G.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is an intrinsically tool that provide a unique and unparalleled approach for clinicians and researchers to interrogate the heart noninvasively. The ability to label substances of physiological interest with positron-emitting radioisotopes has permitted insight into normal blood flow and metabolism and the alterations that occur with disease states. Positron emission tomography of the heart has evolved as a unique, noninvasive approach for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and function. Because of the intrinsic quantitative nature of positron emission tomography measurements as well as the diverse compounds that can be labeled with positron- emitting radioisotopes, studies with positron emission tomography have provided rich insight into the physiology of the heart under diverse conditions

  5. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  6. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-To-Ring Positron beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Valentyn; Ushakov, Andriy [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with vertical stroke Pe{sup +} vertical stroke {>=} 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented. (orig.)

  7. Positron annihilation in germanium in thermal equilibrium at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Komuro, Naoyuki; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Ikari, Atsushi

    1996-09-01

    Annihilation characteristics of positrons in Ge in thermal equilibrium at high temperature were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Precise measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of annihilation radiation were performed in the temperature range between 300 K and 1211 K. The line shape parameters of Doppler broadening profiles were found to be almost constant at 300-600 K. The changes in these parameters were observed to start above 600 K. This was attributed to both the decrease in the fraction of positrons annihilating with core electrons and the lowering of the crystal symmetry around the region detected by positron-electron pairs. This suggests that behaviors of positrons are dominated by some form of positron-lattice coupling in Ge at high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the diffusion length of positrons was also discussed. (author)

  8. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paans, A.M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals have special applications in in-vivo studies of biochemical processes. The combination of a cyclotron for the production of radionuclides and a positron emission tomograph for the registration of the distribution of radioactivity in the body enables the measurement of local radioactivity concentration in tissues, and opens up new possibilities in the diagnosis and examination of abnormalities in the metabolism. The principles and procedures of positron emission tomography are described and the necessary apparatus considered, with emphasis on the positron camera. The first clinical applications using 55 Co bloemycine for tumor detection are presented. (C.F.)

  9. Positrons and positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography includes articles, proceedings, abstracts, reports and patents published between 1930 and 1984 on the subject of positrons, positron annihilation and positronium. The subject covers experimental and theoretical results in the areas of physics and chemistry of low and intermediate energy (< 0.6 MeV) positrons and positronium. The topics of interest are: fundamental properties, interactions with matter, nuclear technology, the history and philosophy of antimatter, the theory of the universe, and the applications of positrons in the chemical, physical, and biomedical sciences

  10. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    The most common neurological defect in traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation is isolated axillary nerve palsy. Most recover spontaneously; however, some have persistent axillary neuropathy. An intact rotator cuff may compensate for an isolated axillary nerve injury; however, given the high rate of rotator cuff pathology with advancing age, patients with an axillary nerve injury are at risk for complete shoulder disability. To review reconstruction of the axillary nerve to alleviate shoulder pain, augment shoulder stability, abduction and external rotation to alleviate sole reliance on the rotator cuff to move and stabilize the shoulder. A retrospective review of 10 patients with an isolated axillary nerve injury and an intact rotator cuff who underwent a triceps nerve branch to axillary nerve transfer was performed. Patient demographics, surgical technique, deltoid strength, donor-site morbidity, complications and time to surgery were evaluated. Ten male patients, mean age 38.3 years (range 18 to 66 years), underwent a triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury 7.4 months (range five to 12 months) post-traumatic shoulder dislocation. Deltoid function was British Medical Research Council grade 0/5 in all patients preoperatively and ≥3/5 deltoid strength in eight patients at final follow-up (14.8 months [range 12 to 25 months]). There were no complications and no donor-site morbidity. A triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary neuropathy following traumatic shoulder dislocation improved shoulder pain, stability and deltoid strength, and potentially preserves shoulder function with advancing age by alleviating sole reliance on the rotator cuff for shoulder abduction and external rotation.

  11. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  12. Estimation of kidneys and urinary bladder doses based on the region of interest in 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Farida Aimi; Bashah, Farahnaz Ahmad Anwar; Yassin, Ihsan M; Fathinul Fikri, Ahmad Saad; Nordin, Abdul Jalil; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal

    2017-06-01

    Kidneys and urinary bladder are common physiologic uptake sites of 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) causing increased exposure of low energy ionizing radiation to these organs. Accurate measurement of organ dose is vital as 18 F-FDG is directly exposed to the organs. Organ dose from 18 F-FDG PET is calculated according to the injected 18 F-FDG activity with the application of dose coefficients established by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). But this dose calculation technique is not directly measured from these organs; rather it is calculated based on total injected activity of radiotracer prior to scanning. This study estimated the 18 F-FDG dose to the kidneys and urinary bladder in whole body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination by comparing dose from total injected activity of 18 F-FDG (calculated dose) and dose from organs activity based on the region of interest (ROI) (measured dose). Nine subjects were injected intravenously with the mean 18 F-FDG dose of 292.42 MBq prior to whole body PET/CT scanning. Kidneys and urinary bladder doses were estimated by using two approaches which are the total injected activity of 18 F-FDG and organs activity concentration of 18 F-FDG based on drawn ROI with the application of recommended dose coefficients for 18 F-FDG described in the ICRP 80 and ICRP 106. The mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose ranged from 98.95% to 99.29% for the kidneys based on ICRP 80 and 98.96% to 99.32% based on ICRP 106. Whilst, the mean percentage difference between calculated dose and measured dose was 97.08% and 97.27% for urinary bladder based on ICRP 80 while 96.99% and 97.28% based on ICRP 106. Whereas, the range of mean percentage difference between calculated and measured organ doses derived from ICRP 106 and ICRP 80 for kidney doses were from 17.00% to 40.00% and for urinary bladder dose was 18.46% to 18.75%. There is a significant

  13. [Acute axillary eczema caused by mercury compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippen, H

    1979-01-01

    Not every axillary dermatitis is caused by an allergy against corresponding cosmetics (deodorants or anti-perspirants). This is shown in a 24-year-old man with an acute contact dermatitis in the left axilla. Sensitization probably developed against mercury salts due to the regular use of thermometers which were kept in a disinfecting solution containing phenylmercuric borate. The patient was in two hospitals for a check up before heart surgery and temperature was regularly measured in the left axilla. In both clincis phenylmercuric borate was used for desinfection of the thermometers. The sensitivity was proofed by positive patch tests.

  14. Positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, AMJ

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method for determining biochemical and physiological processes in vivo in a quantitative way by using radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron emitting radionuclides as C-11, N-13, O-15 and F-18 and by measuring the annihilation radiation using a

  15. Positron annihilation microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, K.F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Advances in positron annihilation microprobe development are reviewed. The present resolution achievable is 3 {mu}m. The ultimate resolution is expected to be 0.1 {mu}m which will enable the positron microprobe to be a valuable tool in the development of 0.1 {mu}m scale electronic devices in the future. (author)

  16. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  17. Positrons in ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, R.

    1988-01-01

    Positron annihilation experiments in ionic crystals are reviewed and their results are arranged. A discussion about the positron states in these materials is made in the light of these results and the different proposed models. The positronium in alkali halides is specially considered. (Author)

  18. Characterization of lacunar defects by positrons annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, M F; Blondiaux, G

    2003-01-01

    Among the nondestructive methods for the study of matter, the positrons annihilation method allows to sound the electronic structure of materials by measuring the annihilation characteristics. These characteristics depend on the electronic density as seen by the positon, and on the electron momentums distribution which annihilate with the positon. The positon is sensible to the coulombian potential variations inside a material and sounds preferentially the regions away from nuclei which represent potential wells. The lacunar-type defects (lack of nuclei) represent deep potential wells which can trap the positon up to temperatures close to the melting. This article describes the principles of this method and its application to the characterization of lacunar defects: 1 - positrons: matter probes (annihilation of electron-positon pairs, annihilation characteristics, positrons sources); 2 - positrons interactions in solids (implantation profiles, annihilation states, diffusion and trapping, positon lifetime spec...

  19. Positron astronomy with SPI/INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenspointner, G.; Diehl, R.; Strong, A.; Weidenspointner, G.; Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K.; Jean, P.; Knoedlseder, J.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Cordier, B.; Schanne, S.; Winkler, C.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of positron astronomy results that have been obtained using the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI, and discuss their implications for the still mysterious origin of positrons in our Galaxy. It has long been known that the 511 keV positron annihilation emission is strongest from the central region of our Galaxy. Recently, it has been discovered with the SPI spectrometer that the weaker 511 keV line emission from the inner Galactic disk appears to be asymmetric, with the emission to the west of the Galactic center being about twice as strong than that to the east. This distribution of positron annihilation resembles that of low mass X-ray binaries as observed with the INTEGRAL imager IBIS at hard X-ray energies, suggesting that these systems could provide a significant portion of the positrons in our Galaxy. In addition, the spectrometer SPI has permitted unprecedented spectroscopy of annihilation radiation from the bulge and disk regions of the Galaxy, which commences to yield important insights into the conditions of the medium in which the positrons annihilate. (authors)

  20. Axillary apocrine carcinoma skin: report of a case | Issara | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and axillary MRI had objectified mass axillary measuring 171mm. Pathological examination with immunostaining was in favor of apocrine carcinoma. The cutaneous apocrine carcinomas are well-known in the mammary glands, but it is difficult to morphologically distinguish between breast cancer and apocrine carcinoma.

  1. In vitro PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF AXILLARY BUDS IN Musa spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    As axillary buds have shown mass propagation abilities in Big Ebanga, this explant is tested ... tested. To verify the efficiency of this protocol and then assure its wide adoption, axillary buds have been excised from suckers of various cultivars belonging to other genomic ... various data were processed with the software.

  2. Defects in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals investigated by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikari, Atsushi; Kawakami, Kazuto; Haga, Hiroyo [Nippon Steel Corp., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). Electronics Research Labs.; Uedono, Akira; Wei, Long; Kawano, Takao; Tanigawa, Shoichiro

    1994-10-01

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening experiments were performed on Czochralski-grown silicon crystals. A monoenergetic positron beam was also used to measure the diffusion length of positrons in the wafer. From the measurements, it was observed that the value of diffusion length of positrons decreased at the region where microdefects were formed during the crystal growth process. It was also found that the line shape parameter S decreased and the lifetime of positrons increased at the region. These results can be attributed to the annihilation of positrons trapped by vacancy oxygen complexes which are formed in association with the microdefects. (author).

  3. False-positive axillary lymph node on F-18 FDG PET/CT due to moxibustion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent total thyroidectomy and high-dose radioiodine ablation. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for recurrence detection of thyroid carcinoma was performed at 3 years after total thyroidectomy. Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy using moxa or the mugwort herb. Moxibustion is the burning of a small, thimble-sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves such as moxa or mugwort on the skin at an acupuncture point. Acupuncture and moxibustion induce hyperemia and a local inflammatory reaction. Complications associated with moxibustion such as skin bums or infection of the site have been reported previously. False-positive FDG uptake in PET may result from inflammation, infection, and variations in physiological uptake. In the present case, the hypermetabolic axillary lymph node disappeared without any treatment. Well-known of false-positive FDG uptake in axillary lymph noes such as arthritis of the upper extremity, extravasation of injected FDG, and vaccination were not found. Thus, left axillary lymph node uptake was

  4. False-positive axillary lymph node on F-18 FDG PET/CT due to moxibustion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent total thyroidectomy and high-dose radioiodine ablation. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for recurrence detection of thyroid carcinoma was performed at 3 years after total thyroidectomy. Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy using moxa or the mugwort herb. Moxibustion is the burning of a small, thimble-sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves such as moxa or mugwort on the skin at an acupuncture point. Acupuncture and moxibustion induce hyperemia and a local inflammatory reaction. Complications associated with moxibustion such as skin bums or infection of the site have been reported previously. False-positive FDG uptake in PET may result from inflammation, infection, and variations in physiological uptake. In the present case, the hypermetabolic axillary lymph node disappeared without any treatment. Well-known of false-positive FDG uptake in axillary lymph noes such as arthritis of the upper extremity, extravasation of injected FDG, and vaccination were not found. Thus, left axillary lymph node uptake was

  5. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Atzmon; Ring, Haim

    2008-12-17

    To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 +/- 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p atrophy in the same limb. The usefulness of routine screening nerve conduction studies in the shoulder of hemiplegic patients seems to be advocated.

  6. Axillary artery injury combined with delayed brachial plexus palsy due to compressive hematoma in a young patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajima Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Axillary artery injury in the shoulder region following blunt trauma without association with either shoulder dislocation or fracture of the humeral neck has been previously reported. Axillary artery injury might also be accompanied with brachial plexus injury. However, delayed onset of brachial plexus palsy caused by a compressive hematoma associated with axillary injury after blunt trauma in the shoulder region has been rarely reported. In previous reports, this condition only occurred in old patients with sclerotic vessels. We present a case of a young patient who suffered axillary artery injury associated with brachial plexus palsy that occurred tardily due to compressive hematoma after blunt trauma in the shoulder region without association of either shoulder dislocation or humeral neck fracture. Case presentation A 16-year-old male injured his right shoulder in a motorbike accident. On initial physical evaluation, the pulses on the radial and ulnar arteries in the affected arm were palpable. Paralysis developed later from 2 days after the injury. Functions in the right arm became significantly impaired. Angiography showed complete occlusion of the axillary artery. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass measuring 4 × 5 cm that was suspected to be a hematoma compressing the brachial plexus in a space between the subscapular muscle and the pectoralis minor muscle. Surgery was performed on the third day after injury. In intraoperative observations, the axillary artery was occluded with thrombus along 5 cm; a subscapular artery was ruptured; the brachial plexus was compressed by the hematoma. After evacuation of the hematoma, neurolysis of the brachial plexus, and revascularization of the axillary artery, the patient had an excellent functional recovery of the affected upper limb, postoperatively. Conclusion Surgeons should be aware that axillary artery injuries may even occur in young people after severe blunt

  7. Theory of the temperature dependence of positron bulk lifetimes-implications for vacancy formation enthalpy measurements via positron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, S.W.; Sinha, S.K.; Siegel, R.W.

    1977-02-01

    Temperature dependent effects, which may have a bearing on determinations of vacancy formation enthalpies in metals by positron annihilation, have been observed in certain metals. These effects have been observed to occur both at temperatures below those at which positron annihilation is most sensitive to equilibrium vacancies and at temperatures well within the vacancy-sensitive region. The effect of thermal lattice displacements on positron lifetimes in metals was investigated to help understand these phenomena

  8. Intense positron beam and its application to surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Hirose, M.; Kanazawa, I.; Sueoka, O.; Takamura, S.; Okada, S.

    1992-01-01

    Intense pulsed slow positron beam has been produced using the 100 MeV electron LINAC of JAERI · Tokai. In order to use the beam for surface studies such as positron diffraction and positron microscopy, it was transferred from the solenoid magnetic field to field free region and then was brightness-enhanced. The beam size was reduced from 10 mmφ (in the magnetic field) to 0.5 mmφ after two stages of re-moderation. Using the intense brightness-enhanced positron beam we have observed for the first time RHEPD (Reflection High-Energy Positron Diffraction) patterns. A design of re-emission positron microscopy is also described. (author)

  9. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during...... pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: We identified...... were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during...

  10. Proximal humerus fracture associated with delayed axillary nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary nerve injury is the most common complication in humerus fracture. The symptoms that are caused by affecting axillary nerve vary according to the structures involved such as sensory disturbance and weakness of muscles, e.g., three parts of deltoid and teres muscles in an affected limb. The severity of injury is classified in demyelinating and axonal lesions, which usually occurs at the onset of fracture. The author reports a case of humerus fracture with delayed axonal lesion of axillary nerve result from inadvertent traction.

  11. A predictive tool to estimate the risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative axillary ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, T J; Heikkilä, P S; Mansfield, A S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose of this ......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose...... of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative preoperative axillary ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 1,395 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and SNB formed the original patient series. A univariate analysis was conducted to assess...... four other centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 426 of the 1,395 (30.5 %) patients in the original patient series had axillary lymph node metastases. Histological size (P

  12. Axillary web syndrome following secondary breast-conserving surgery: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Panmei; Zhu, Liling; Chen, Kai; Jia, Weijuan; Hu, Yue; Su, Fengxi

    2013-01-01

    Background Axillary web syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery. Case presentation A patient developed axillary web syndrome after secondary breast surgery and recovered in 3 weeks through physical therapy and using Aescuven Forte. Discussion The pathogenesis of axillary web syndrome is not clear. It is reported that axillary surgery is the main cause. The presented case indicates that tissue injury might be an important cause of a...

  13. Theory, development, and applications of the scanning positron microbeam and positron reemission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The theory, design, development, and applications of two new imaging instruments, the scanning positron microbeam (SPM) and positron reemission microscope (PRM), are discussed. The SPM consists of a sectored lens which focuses and rasters the positrons from the beam across the sample. The results of rastering the 10μm x 50μm beam across a test grid demonstrate the SPM's ability to scan a 500μm diameter region and to resolve features with ∼ 5μm resolution. The SPM was used to examine the location of defects in a Si-on-SiO 2 sample. Possible applications to three dimensional defect spectroscopy and the observation of small samples are considered. In the PRM, the positrons from the brightness-enhanced beam are focused at 5keV to an 8/Am diameter spot (FWHM) onto a thin metal single crystal. An image of the opposing side of the film is formed by accelerating and focusing the reemitted thermalized positrons with a cathode lens objective and a projector lens. The final image (real) is a record of the thermal positron emission intensity versus position. Images of surface and subsurface defect structures, taken at magnifications up to 4400x and with a resolution up to 80nm, are presented and discussed. The ultimate resolution capabilities and possible applications of the PRM are examined. The implantation and diffusion process of positrons was studied with the PRM by examining the positron emission profile of 3-9keV positrons implanted into a 2200 angstrom thick Ni single crystal

  14. Positron emission tomography of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography enables the distribution of positron emitting isotopes to be imaged in a transverse plane through the body and the regional concentration of the isotope to be measured quantitatively. This thesis reports some applications of positron emission tomography to studies of pulmonary pathophysiology. Measurements in lung phantoms showed that regional lung density could be measured from a transmission tomogram obtained with an external source of positron emitting isotope. The regional, fractional blood volume was measured after labelling the blood with carbon-11-monoxide. Regional extravascular lung density (lung tissue and interstitial water per unit thoracic volume) was obtained by subtracting fractional blood volume from lung density. Measurements in normal subjects revealed large regional variations in lung density and fractional blood volume in the supine posture. Extravascular lung density showed a more uniform distribution. The technique has been used to study patients with chronic interstitial pulmonary oedema, pulmonary sarcoidosis and fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension and patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunt. Tomographic measurements of pulmonary tissue concentration of radionuclides are difficult, since corrections for the blood content and the inflation of the lung must be applied. A simultaneous measurement of lung density and fractional blood volume allows such corrections to be made and the extravascular tracer concentration to be calculated. This has been applied to measurements of the tissue penetration of carbon-11-labelled erythromycin in patients with lobar pneumonia. (author)

  15. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Lund, J; Jenstrup, M T

    2012-01-01

    performed using a newly developed in-plane ultrasound-guided technique. In one patient undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery, we used the axillary nerve block as the only analgesic combined with propofol sedation and spontaneous breathing. Chronic shoulder pain was eliminated after the axillary nerve...... block in two patients. The pain score after arthroscopic shoulder surgery in these two patients remained low until termination of the nerve block. In a fourth patient, severe post-operative pain after osteosynthesis of a displaced proximal humerus fracture was almost eliminated after performing...... an axillary nerve block. These findings warrant larger clinical trials that investigate the pain-mediating role of the axillary nerve in the perioperative setting....

  16. Energy expenditure during ambulation with ortho crutches and axillary crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, C A; Cullen, K E

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen normal male college students were studied during unassisted ambulation and nonweight-bearing ambulation with Ortho crutches and axillary crutches to determine energy expenditure. Subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Energy expenditure was determined by analyzing expired air collected by a calorimeter. Heart rate was monitored by telemetry. During the first 2.5 minutes of walking, heart rate and energy expenditure were significantly greater for ambulation with axillary crutches than with Ortho crutches. After 11.5 minutes of walking, no difference in energy cost was found between crutch types; however, heart rate increased significantly (p less than .01) during ambulation with axillary crutches. Differences in energy cost and heart rate were attributed to increased upper extremity work performed when using axillary crutches. We concluded that during nonweight-bearing ambulation for short periods of time or over a short distance, the Ortho crutch is less taxing in terms of energy cost and heart rate demands.

  17. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Almost one-half of all dislocations involve the shoulder and may also involve the axillary nerves, which may influence functional recovery and result in persistent shoulder neuropathy. Although individuals with intact rotator cuffs may be able to compensate for axillary nerve dysfunction, the injury may become problematic in later years, especially given the increasing incidence of rotator cuff tears in aging populations, thus placing increased importance on the immediate success of acute man...

  19. Surgical Algorithm and Results of Isolated Traumatic Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wayne A; Schippert, David W; Daws, Snow B; Koman, L Andrew; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-03-01

    Axillary nerve injuries are common and typically occur during high-energy, traumatic events. The purpose of this study is to propose a treatment algorithm for acute isolated axillary nerve injuries and report the outcomes of surgically treated patients. A retrospective review identified 14 patients surgically treated for an isolated axillary nerve injury. Axillary nerve neurolysis was performed for all patients, and a triceps branch of the radial nerve was transferred to the axillary nerve in patients without evidence of deltoid function following intraoperative axillary nerve stimulation. Four patients were treated with neurolysis alone and 10 patients received a transfer. Pre- and postoperative deltoid strength, shoulder abduction, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) outcome score were evaluated. At most recent follow-up, both the neurolysis and nerve transfer groups had significant improvement in deltoid strength, with 86% achieving M4 or greater. Shoulder abduction improved from a mean of 63 to 127 degrees. This difference was significant in the nerve transfer group and when all patients were analyzed together. DASH scores significantly improved from a mean of 47 to 34 when all patients were analyzed together. No patients experienced a decrease in elbow extension strength following nerve transfer. In patients with preserved triceps strength, a triceps branch of the radial nerve can be coapted directly to the axillary nerve in the absence of deltoid contraction following electrical stimulation. Functional improvements were seen in patients treated with neurolysis alone and in combination with nerve transfer, supporting the use of intraoperative axillary nerve stimulation to guide treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Proximal humerus fracture associated with delayed axillary nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2016-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is the most common complication in humerus fracture. The symptoms that are caused by affecting axillary nerve vary according to the structures involved such as sensory disturbance and weakness of muscles, e.g., three parts of deltoid and teres muscles in an affected limb. The severity of injury is classified in demyelinating and axonal lesions, which usually occurs at the onset of fracture. The author reports a case of humerus fracture with delayed axonal lesion of axill...

  1. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization for brachial plexus injury in children: a combined case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Eli, Ilyas M; Shah, Manish N; Bradley, Nadine; Stutz, Christopher M; Park, Tae Sung; Wellons, John C

    2014-11-01

    Axillary nerve palsy, isolated or as part of a more complex brachial plexus injury, can have profound effects on upper-extremity function. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization is a useful technique for regaining shoulder abduction with little compromise of other neurological function. A combined experience of this procedure used in children is reviewed. A retrospective review of the authors' experience across 3 tertiary care centers with brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury in children (younger than 18 years) revealed 7 cases involving patients with axillary nerve injury as part of an overall brachial plexus injury with persistent shoulder abduction deficits. Two surgical approaches to the region were used. Four infants (ages 0.6, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.6 years) and 3 older children (ages 8, 15, and 17 years) underwent surgical intervention. No patient had significant shoulder abduction past 15° preoperatively. In 3 cases, additional neurotization was performed in conjunction with the procedure of interest. Two surgical approaches were used: posterior and transaxillary. All patients displayed improvement in shoulder abduction. All were able to activate their deltoid muscle to raise their arm against gravity and 4 of 7 were able to abduct against resistance. The median duration of follow-up was 15 months (range 8 months to 5.9 years). Radial to axillary nerve neurotization improved shoulder abduction in this series of patients treated at 3 institutions. While rarely used in children, this neurotization procedure is an excellent option to restore deltoid function in children with brachial plexus injury due to birth or accidental trauma.

  2. [Proximal interlocking of humeral intramedullary nails and risk of axillary nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Rommens, P M

    2002-01-01

    Possible injuries to the axillary nerve are criticised in antegrade and retrograde endomedullary nailing of the humeral shaft during proximal interlocking. Clinical experience seems not to support the theory of a high risk of nerve injury. The real risk although remains unknown under anatomical-morphological aspects. Eight complete human cadaveric shoulder-arm regions with original soft-tissue coverage had been used. Four times the unreamed humeral nail (UHN) had been inserted retrograde, and four times antegrade, distributed in each pair. Antegrade interlocking was performed after skin incision and spreading of soft tissues through the aiming devices. This involved one oblique bolt from lateral to medial. Retrograde proximal interlocking was performed under image intensifier. This involved triple interlocking, once dorso-ventrally and twice latero-medially. The incision paths have been marked. After preparation of the nerve stem in the lateral axillary portal the different branches have been searched and exposed. The spatial relations of bolts and nerve branches have been measured and the insertion path of the bolts has been revised, finally lesions of nerve structures have been documented. We found the latero-medially inserted bolt heads of the retrograde approach and the oblique bolt head of the antegrade approach being placed in a safe distance from the medio-dorsally positioned stem of the axillary nerve. On the other hand the dorsoventrally inserted bolt head (retrograde approach) showed in most cases a very tight relation to the nerve stem. Exploring the axillary nerve and its branches showed in no case a direct nerve lesion. We suggest to perform only a sharp cutaneous incision and then to prepare the muscle only by careful spreading until touching bone, with tissue retraction during drilling. In retrograde nailing the dorso-ventral bolt should only be used in extreme proximal fractures.

  3. Features and applications of positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu

    1997-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, the so-called world's smartest camera, is based on a NaI or BGO detector and imaging of positron-emitting radioisotopes which are introduced as a tracer into the regional tissue or organ of interest. With the aid of a computer visual images of a series of these distributions can be built into a picture of the functional status of the tissue or organ being imaged. This highly accurate imaging technique is already widely used for clinical diagnostics heart disease, brain disorder, tumors and so on

  4. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.; Diksic, M.; Meyer, E.; Feindel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most exciting new technologies introduced in the last 10 yr is positron emission tomography (PET). PET provides quantitative, three-dimensional images for the study of specific biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. This approach is analogous to quantitative in-vivo autoradiography but has the added advantage of permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. PET scanning requires a small cyclotron to produce short-lived positron emitting isotopes such as oxygen-15, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine-18. Proper radiochemical facilities and advanced computer equipment are also needed. Most important, PET requires a multidisciplinary scientific team of physicists, radiochemists, mathematicians, biochemists and physicians. The most recent trends are reviewed in the imaging technology, radiochemistry, methodology and clinical applications of positron emission tomography. (author)

  5. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  6. On LCAO positron wavefunctions in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermayr, W; Sznajder, M

    2006-01-01

    In this work we deal with the construction of delocalized positron wavefunctions in crystalline solids within the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) scheme. The present method leads to an accurate wavefunction of a positron, both in the core and in the interstitial region of a crystal. Furthermore, its representation by a superposition of atomic orbitals is simple enough for the application to calculations of expectation values, like e.g. of accurate electron-positron annihilation rates (high momentum components). The representation of the positron wavefunction can be optimized with respect to the two points of view: firstly, the number of orbitals in the LCAO representation can be minimized (e.g. within the localized spherical orbitals (LSO) method) or, secondly, the orbitals can be chosen to be well-localized around their atoms and vanishing near all others: this leads to the computational advantage, that three- or multicenter integrals arising during numerical calculations can be replaced by oneand two-center integrals which are treated using standard numerical techniques in spherical polar or elliptic coordinates. The transformation from the first into the second representation can be performed via a 'fuzzy' cellular partitioning of the crystal volume via an analytically continuous shape-function. Finally we demonstrate our method in the case of a positron in lithium

  7. Radiation during deep inspiration allows loco-regional treatment of left breast and axillary-, supraclavicular- and internal mammary lymph nodes without compromising target coverage or dose restrictions to organs at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelstuen, Mari H B; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Vikström, Johan; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar

    2012-03-01

    Loco-regional radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer represents a treatment planning challenge when the internal mammary chain (IMC) lymph nodes are included in the target volume. This treatment planning study evaluates the reduction in cardiopulmonary doses when radiation is given during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). This was achieved without compromising dose coverage to the planning target volume (PTV). Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two computed tomography (CT)-scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio-visual guidance was used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed focusing on good coverage (V95% > 98%) of the PTV. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, lungs and contralateral breast were assessed. With equal PTV coverage, average mean heart dose was reduced from 6.2 Gy to 3.1 Gy in DIBH plans as compared to FB. Average volume receiving 25 Gy or more (V25Gy) was reduced from 6.7% to 1.2%, and the number of patients with V25Gy > 5% was reduced from 8 to 1 utilizing DIBH. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 25.0 Gy to 10.9 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving 20 Gy or more (V20Gy) was reduced from 44.5% to 32.7% with DIBH. In 11 of the DIBH plans V20Gy was lower than 35%, in accordance with national guidelines, while none of the FB plans fulfilled this recommendation. Respiratory gated radiotherapy during DIBH is a suitable technique for loco-regional breast irradiation even when IMC lymph nodes are included in the PTV. Cardiopulmonary doses are considerably decreased for all dose levels without compromising the dose coverage to PTV.

  8. Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Toyoda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the risk of axillary osmidrosis is governed by a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 538G>A in human ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11 gene. However, little data are available for the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands that produce apocrine sweat—a source of odor from the armpits. To determine the effect of the non-synonymous SNP ABCC11 538G>A (G180R on the ABCC11 in vivo, we generated transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice with adenovirus vector, and examined the protein levels of each ABCC11 in the mice with immunoblotting using an anti-ABCC11 antibody we have generated in the present study. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands extracted from axillary osmidrosis patients carrying each ABCC11 genotype: 538GG, GA, and AA. Analyses of transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice showed that ABCC11 538G>A diminishes the ABCC11 protein levels in vivo. Consistently, ABCC11 protein was detected in the human axillary apocrine glands of the 538GG homozygote or 538GA heterozygote, not in the 538AA homozygote. These findings would contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of axillary osmidrosis.

  9. 50 years of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of one of the major landmarks of modern physics - the discovery of the positron, the antimatter counterpart of the electron. This provided the first evidence for antimatter, and it was also unprecedented for the existence of a new particle to have been predicted by theory. The positron and the concepts behind it were to radically change our picture of Nature. It led to the rapid advancement or our understanding, culminating some fifteen years later with the formulation of quantum electrodynamics as we now know it. (orig./HSI).

  10. Positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Paans, A M J

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method for measuring biochemical and physiological processes in vivo in a quantitative way by using radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron emitting radionuclides such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F and by measuring the annihilation radiation using a coincidence technique. This includes also the measurement of the pharmacokinetics of labelled drugs and the measurement of the effects of drugs on metabolism. Also deviations of normal metabolism can be measured and insight into biological processes responsible for diseases can be obtained. At present the combined PET/CT scanner is the most frequently used scanner for whole-body scanning in the field of oncology.

  11. Five-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes treated with no lymph node dissection or axillary clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Daigo Yamamoto,1 Kanji Tanaka,2 Yu T subota,1 Noriko Sueoka,1 Tetsuji Shoji,3 Kayoko Kuwana,1 A-Hon Kwon11Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, 2Ribon-Rose Tanaka Kanji Breast Clinic, 3Shoji Clinic, Osaka, JapanBackground: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has steadily replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for staging clinically node-negative breast cancer. However, ALND remains standard management of the axilla when a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node is identified.Methods: We identified 460 patients with breast cancer (clinically T1/T2N0M0 from the database for 1999–2004. Patient age ranged from 26 to 81 (median 50 years. Patients who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with or without ALND were compared for regional recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival.Results: Patients with ALND (n = 308 were compared with the no ALND group (n = 152. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were not significantly different between the two groups, while there was a significant difference between them for regional recurrence. Of the 152 patients who did not undergo axillary dissection, four developed ipsilateral axillary disease, most of whom were rescued by delayed axillary dissection. Further, the criterion for identifying lymphedema was used, ie, a 2 cm circumferential change at any measured location. As a result, the incidence of lymphedema in the ALND group was 12.7%, while it was not seen in the non ALND group.Conclusion: There is a possibility that ALND may be omitted for cT1/T2N0M0 breast cancer through a combination of hormone therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy.Keywords: breast cancer, axillary lymph node dissection

  12. Curva de aprendizado da sonoanatomia do plexo braquial na região axilar Curva de aprendizaje de la sonoanatomía del plexo braquial en la región axilar Learning curve for the ultrasound anatomy of the brachial plexus in the axillary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2009-04-01

    : Proficiency in ultrasound-guided blocks demands four skills: recognition of the ultrasound anatomy, capacity to generate images, aligning the needle with the ultrasound beam, and recognizing the dispersion of the local anesthetic. The objective of this study was to construct and evaluate learning curves for image generation and ultrasound identification of the neurovascular structures in the axilla. METHODS: Seven Anesthesiology residents received theoretical and practical notions on the basic principles of ultrasound and the ultrasound anatomy of the axillary region with the objective to identify the terminal branches of the brachial plexus and axillary vessels. Each resident performed six exams. The accuracy and the time to identify the structures were evaluated. The success rate of each exam was calculated. Simple linear regression evaluated the time necessary to identify each structure in relation to the number of the exam. RESULTS: The axillary vessels were identified in 100% of the exams. The median nerve was identified in 83% of the cases from the first to the fifth exams. The radial nerve was identified in 100% of the exams. The ulnar nerve was identified in 67% of the cases in the first exam, and in 83% of the cases from the second to the fifth exams. The musculocutaneous nerve was identified in 50% of the cases in the first exam and in 83% of the cases in the fourth and fifth exams. All structures were identified correctly on the sixth exam. The mean time for the correct identification of the structures decreased considerably from the first to the sixth exam (r = - 0.37. CONCLUSIONS: Learning progression required the memorization of the ultrasound anatomy of the axillary region and acquisition of manual ability, and increasing success rates were associated with a significant reduction in the time to identify the structures.

  13. Near-Threshold Ionization of Argon by Positron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, T. J.; Machacek, J. R.; Murtagh, D. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    The direct single-ionization cross section for Ar by positron impact has been measured in the region above the first ionization threshold. These measurements are compared to semiclassical calculations which give rise to a power law variation of the cross section in the threshold region. The experimental results appear to be in disagreement with extensions to the Wannier theory applied to positron impact ionization, with a smaller exponent than that calculated by most previous works. In fact, in this work, we see no difference in threshold behavior between the positron and electron cases. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  14. Coexistence of metastatic breast carcinoma and primary tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes: a report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujani, Mukta; Khan, Sabina; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Jetley, Sujata; Raina, Prabhat Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant breast cancer metastasis and tubercular lymphadenitis in axillary lymph node is an extremely rare occurrence. Axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important factor in the staging of breast carcinoma and the number of axillary nodes showing metastases alters the stage. As tuberculosis also produces nodal enlargement, this can mimic or complicate the staging of malignant disease. Dual pathology in an organ can lead to difficulties in interpretation and inappropriate treatment of tuberculosis as well as carcinoma breast. Moreover, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from such cases may be misleading if only one of the diseases is picked up. Therefore, the need for multiple attempts at FNAC should be stressed upon for all palpable lumps. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma breast in a 45-year-old female where tuberculosis was discovered in axillary lymph nodes in addition to metastases. As the present case led to incidental discovery of tuberculosis with tumor metastasis, it reinforces the possibility of a coexistent lesion in the pathologists' mind, especially in regions endemic for tuberculosis.

  15. Solvated Positron Chemistry. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction of the hydrated positron, eaq+ with Cl−, Br−, and I− ions in aqueous solutions was studied by means of positron The measured angular correlation curves for [Cl−, e+], [Br−, e+, and [I−, e+] bound states were in good agreement with th Because of this agreement and the fact that the ca......The reaction of the hydrated positron, eaq+ with Cl−, Br−, and I− ions in aqueous solutions was studied by means of positron The measured angular correlation curves for [Cl−, e+], [Br−, e+, and [I−, e+] bound states were in good agreement with th Because of this agreement and the fact...... reactive. The rate constants were 3.9 × 1010 M−1 s−1, 4.4 × 1010 M−1 s−1, and 6.3 × 1010 M−1 s−1 for Cl−, Br−, and I−, respectively, at low (less, approximate 0.03 M) X− concentrations. A 25% decrease in the rate constant caused by the addition of 1 M ethanol to the I− solutions was i The influence...

  16. The Theory of Positrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. The Theory of Positrons. Richard P Feynman. Classics Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 107-107. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0107-0107. Author Affiliations.

  17. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindback, Stig

    1995-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced nuclear medicine technique used for research at major centres. Unique diagnostic information is obtained from tomographic measurements of the biochemistry and physiology of tissues and organs. In theory, diseases are related to biochemical changes and these can be observed with PET long before any anatomical changes are detectable. In PET the radioactive component is a positron-emitting isotope or 'tracer'. The positrons annihilate with electrons in the body to produce two gamma rays 180° apart; coincidence detection of these gammas provides a very efficient method of determining the spatial distribution of the radioisotope tracer. Because physiological measurements are usually required in a single imaging session, very short-lived isotopes are used to label the tracer molecules; isotope production and labelling is usually carried out in situ. The most commonly used radionuclides are carbon- 11 (half-life 20 minutes), nitrogen-13 (10 minutes), oxygen-15 (2 minutes), and fluorine-18 (110 minutes). A PET system has three major components: - a particle accelerator with targets for production of the positron-emitting isotopes; - chemistry modules for synthesis and labelling of the desired tracers; - and a PET camera for in-vivo measurements of the distribution of the tracer in the body

  18. Positron annihilation processes update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Skibo, Jeffrey G.; Ramaty, Reuven

    1997-01-01

    The present knowledge concerning the positron annihilation processes is reviewed, with emphasis on the data of the cross sections of the various processes of interest in astrophysical applications. Recent results are presented including results on reaction rates and line widths, the validity of which is verified.

  19. The interaction of positrons and positronium with small atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drachman, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    This is a report on recent progress in the theory of small atomic systems including a positron. The author first considers the two-channel region in e + -H scattering which lies between 6.8 and 10.2 eV, and reports the results of positronium-formation and resonant-scattering calculations. Second, he introduces the concept of 'iso-leptonic families' with fixed electron and positron numbers and discusses in detail the two-electron, one-positron family. This family includes several interesting bound and resonant states. Next, he derives a new method of calculating positron annihilation rates and cross-sections from approximate wave functions. Although more difficult to apply than the direct method, this technique is more accurate. Finally, he shows the applicability of many positron calculations to currently interesting astrophysical problems, especially the recent observations of annihilation radiation coming from the direction of the galactic center

  20. High current pulsed positron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.; Kumar, A.; Sterne, P.A.; Cowan, T.E.; Hartley, J.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing a low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam for defect analysis by positron lifetime spectroscopy to provide a new defect analysis capability at the 10 10 e + s -l beam at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron linac. When completed, the pulsed positron microprobe will enable defect specific, 3-dimensional maps of defect concentrations with sub-micron resolution of defect location. By coupling these data with first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes and positron implantation profiles we will both map the identity and concentration of defect distributions

  1. Positron annihilation in boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Amrane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron and positron charge densities are calculated as a function of position in the unit cell for boron nitride. Wave functions are derived from pseudopotential band structure calculations and the independent particle approximation (IPM, respectively, for electrons and positrons. It is observed that the positron density is maximum in the open interstices and is excluded not only from ion cores but also to a considerable degree from valence bonds. Electron-positron momentum densities are calculated for (001,110 planes. The results are used in order to analyse the positron effects in BN.

  2. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  3. Iatrogenic axillary neuropathy after intramuscular injection of the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Loren T; Carter, Gregory T; Kilmer, David D; Han, Jay J

    2007-06-01

    A previously healthy 26-yr-old male presented for an electrodiagnostic evaluation with complaints of significant right deltoid muscle atrophy and shoulder abduction weakness after receiving an intramuscular (IM) deltoid injection of an antiemetic 4 wk earlier. Electrodiagnostic evaluation confirmed an acute axillary neuropathy. We hypothesize that direct mechanical trauma to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve resulted in axillary mononeuropathy with axonal loss, although chemically induced nerve injury cannot be excluded. Injections in and about the shoulder complex are performed routinely for the purposes of vaccination, IM medication administration, deltoid trigger-point injections, and intra-articular and bursal steroid injections. Although such injections are considered routine office procedures, there is increased risk of neurovascular injury if they are performed incorrectly. The purpose of this brief report is to make practitioners aware of the potential for axillary neuropathy with such procedures, to review the salient anatomy, and to propose a potential guideline for clinical practice to minimize iatrogenic axillary neuropathy.

  4. The Effect of Ethnicity on Human Axillary Odorant Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Greene, Kathryn; Varallo, Lauren; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory highlighted marked ethnic differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cerumen among individuals of Caucasian, East Asian, and African-American descent, based, in part, on genetic differences in a gene that codes for a transport protein, which is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family C, member 11 (ABCC11). In the current work, we hypothesized that axillary odorants produced by East Asians would differ markedly from those obtained from individuals of European or African descent based on the pattern of ethnic diversity that exists in ABCC11. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we examined differences in axillary odorant VOCs among 30 individuals of African-American, Caucasian, and East Asian descent with respect to their ABCC11 genotype. While no qualitative differences in the type of axillary odorants were observed across ethnic groups, we found that characteristic axillary odorants varied quantitatively with respect to ethnic origin. We propose that ABCC11 is not solely responsible for predicting the relative amounts of volatiles found in axillary secretions and that other biochemical pathways must be involved.

  5. Regional Amyloid Deposition in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Evaluated by [18F]AV-45 Positron Emission Tomography in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chuang, Wen-Li; Kung, Mei-Ping; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wai, Yau-Yau; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background To compare the neocortical amyloid loads among cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects with [18F]AV-45 positron emission tomography (PET). Materials and Methods [18F]AV-45 PET was performed in 11 CN, 13 aMCI, and 12 AD subjects to compare the cerebral cortex-to-whole cerebellum standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) of global and individual volumes of interest (VOIs) cerebral cortex. The correlation between global cortical [18F]AV-45 SUVRs and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was analyzed. Results The global cortical [18F]AV-45 SUVRs were significantly different among the CN (1.08±0.08), aMCI (1.27±0.06), and AD groups (1.34±0.13) (p = 0.0003) with amyloidosis positivity rates of 9%, 62%, and 92% in the three groups respectively. Compared to CN subjects, AD subjects had higher SUVRs in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and posterior cingulate areas; while aMCI subjects had higher values in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, occipital and posterior cingulate areas. There were negative correlations of MMSE scores with SUVRs in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, posterior cingulate and anterior cingulate areas on a combined subject pool of the three groups after age and education attainment adjustment. Conclusions Amyloid deposition occurs relatively early in precuneus, frontal and posterior cingulate in aMCI subjects. Higher [18F]AV-45 accumulation is present in parietal, occipital and temporal gyri in AD subjects compared to the aMCI group. Significant correlation between MMSE scores and [18F]AV-45 SUVRs can be observed among CN, aMCI and AD subjects. PMID:23516589

  6. Influence of arm position on ultrasound visibility of the axillary brachial plexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frkovic, Vedran; Ward, Catherine; Preckel, Benedikt; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Wegener, Jessica T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Contemporary axillary brachial plexus block is performed by separate injections targeting radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerve. These nerves are arranged around the axillary artery, making ultrasound visualisation sometimes challenging. In particular, the radial nerve can be

  7. Surgical management of BCG vaccine-induced regional axillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age of the patient and mode of presentation, imaging findings, and results of tuberculin skin testing (Mantoux test) ... Primary surgical treatment (incisional drainage or biopsy) is therefore not considered an ideal form of management in BCG lymphadenitis because of the high fistulisation and poor wound healing, ...

  8. Production of slow positron beam with small diameter using electron linac in Osaka University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshihide; Sawada, Junichi; Yamada, Masaki; Maekawa, Masaki; Okuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Yoichi; Isoyama, Goro; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    1997-03-01

    A slow positron facility using an electron linac was designed and constructed. The specifications were mainly decided by numerical calculations. The slow positrons are transported along magnetic field line. The cross sectional size of slow positron beam is 1-2cm and the maximum conversion rate from electron to positron is about 1.5 x 10{sup -6}. This value is about 1/4 of ideal case in our system. Extraction of slow positron beam from magnetic field region was made and preliminary brightness enhancement experiment was also performed. (author)

  9. Treatment results of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with positive axillary nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Soo [College of Medicine, Pochon CHA Univ, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Between January 1983 and December 1988, 218 female patients with known breast cancer and positive axillary nodes were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy following radical mastectomy. Treatment results were retrospectively analysed at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University of College of Medicine. The patients were classified into 3 groups; group 1 included 80 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy alone; in group 2, 52 patients treated with radiotherapy alone; and in group 3, 86 patients treated with combined chemo-radiotherapy. The mean age was 44 years and ranged from 27 to 70. The median follow-up time was 51 months. Seven-year relapse free and overall survival rates were 56% and 67%; in group 1, 50% and 56%; in group 2, 51% and 65%; and in group 3, 62% and 75% respectively. This difference was not statistically significant(p<0.05). The loco-regional failure rates were 13% and distant failure rates were 33%. There was less risk of loco-regional failure in group 2 and 3 which included radiotherapy (.0<0.05). But there was no significant y difference in the rates of distant failure(p>0.05). By univariate analysis, the only significant prognostic factor affecting relapse-free survival was the percentage of positive axillary nodes; and the overall survival significantly correlated with the primary tumor size, the number or percentage of positive axillary nodes, and stage. But in multivariate analysis, the only significant prognostic factor was treatment modality. By univariate analysis of prognostic factors affecting the rates of overall failure and distant failure, the significant prognostic factors was the percentage of positive axillary nodes; and the risk of the loco-regional failure significantly correlated with the treatment modality. In conclusion, these results suggest a potential for decreasing the risk of loco-regional failure with the addition of postoperative radiotherapy to chemotherapy in the

  10. Para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach in torticollis: tips and tricks in the surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Baran; Karacay, Safak; Arda, Surhan; Alici, Umut

    2015-04-01

    An obvious scar on the neck may appear following the open surgery for congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). The cosmetic result may displease the patient and the family. In this study, we describe a minimally invasive technique, para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach (PASEA) in CMT. A total of 11 children (seven girls and four boys with the age range between 1 and 15 years) were operated for torticollis by PASEA. All patients had facial asymmetry and head and neck postural abnormality. Following an incision at the ipsilateral para-axillary region, a subcutaneous cavernous working space is formed toward sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. The muscle and fascia are cut by cautery under endoscopic vision. The patients had postoperative 2nd-week and 3rd-month visits. The incision scar, inspection, and palpation findings of the region, head posture, and shoulder position of the affected side were considered in evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion of the head and neck were compared for functional outcome. We preferred single incision surgery in our last two patients; the rest had double para-axillary incision for port insertion. Incomplete transection of the muscle was not observed. There was no serious complication. Postoperatively, head posture and shoulder elevation were corrected significantly. Range of motion of the head was improved. Postoperatively, all the patients had rotation capacity with more than 30 degrees. The range of postoperative flexion and extension movements was between 45 and 60 degrees. The open surgery techniques of CMT causes visible lifelong incision scar on the neck. PASEA leaves a cosmetically hidden scar in the axillary region. A single incision surgery is also possible. A well-formed cavernous working space is needed. External manual palpation, delicate dissection, and cutting of SCM muscle with cautery are the important components of the procedure. Surgeons having experience in pediatric

  11. Radial to Axillary Nerve Transfers: A Combined Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir J; Daly, Charles A; Seiler, John G; Wray, Walter H; Ruch, David S; Leversedge, Fraser J

    2016-12-01

    Loss of active shoulder abduction after brachial plexus or isolated axillary nerve injury is associated with a severe functional deficit. The purpose of this 2-center study was to retrospectively evaluate restoration of shoulder abduction after transfer of a radial nerve branch to the axillary nerve for patients after brachial plexus or axillary nerve injury. Patients who underwent transfer of a radial nerve branch to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed. A total of 27 patients with an average follow-up of 22 months were included. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative shoulder abduction and triceps strength and active and passive shoulder range of motion. Shoulder abduction strength increased after surgery in 89% of patients. Average preoperative shoulder abduction was 12° compared with 114° after surgery. Twenty-two of 27 patients (81.5%) achieved at least M3 strength, with 17 of 27 patients (62.9%) achieving M4 strength. No differences were observed when subgroup analysis was performed for isolated nerve transfer versus multiple nerve transfer, mechanism of injury, injury level, branch of radial nerve transferred, or time from injury to surgery. A negative correlation was found comparing increasing age and both shoulder abduction strength and active shoulder abduction. No patients lost triceps strength after surgery. There were 4 patients who achieved no significant gain in shoulder abduction or deltoid strength and were deemed failures. No postoperative complications occurred. Transfer of a branch of the radial nerve to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was successful in improving shoulder abduction strength and active shoulder motion in the majority of the patients with brachial plexus or isolated axillary nerve injury. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping the axillary nerve within the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Grabska, Joanna; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Jordan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Reports place the frequency of axillary nerve injury at 6% for all brachial plexus injuries, emphasizing the importance of an accurate anatomic description of this nerve within the deltoid in order to reduce iatrogenic injury. The aim of the present study was to explore the anatomic variations of the axillary nerve within the deltoid muscle. Fifty human cadavers were dissected, resulting in 100 nerve specimens. The anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve were identified and their length measured from their point of origin (split from the axillary nerve) to their termination in the deltoid muscle. In 65% of cases, the axillary nerve split into two branches (anterior and posterior) within the quadrangular space, and in the remaining 35% split within the deltoid muscle. The posterior branch of the deltoid muscle irrespectively of origin gave off a branch to the teres minor and the superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve in 100% of cases. The branch to the posterior part of the deltoid muscle was present in 90% of cases, and the branch to the middle part of the deltoid was present in 38% of cases. The anterior branch of the deltoid muscle provided a branch to the joint capsule, a branch to the anterior part of the deltoid muscle and the middle part of the deltoid in 100% of cases. In 18% of the cases, the anterior branch of the axillary nerve provided a branch to the posterior part of the deltoid muscle. The middle part of the deltoid muscle received dual innervation in 38% of cases and the posterior part of the deltoid muscle in 8% of the cases.

  13. Potential axillary nerve stretching during RSA implantation: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Blandine; Leclère, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent; Paganini, Federico; Unglaub, Frank; Spies, Christian; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1 cm (position 2) and 2 cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV.

  14. Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/CT and axillary ultrasonography (AUS for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and to assess the clinical management of axillary 18F-FDG PET/CT for therapeutic indication of sentinel node biopsy (SNB and preoperative systemic chemotherapy (PSC. Methods One hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer were recruited. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS followed by SNB and/or ALN dissection (ALND. Using 18F-FDG PET/CT, we studied both a visual assessment of 18F-FDG uptake and standardized uptake value (SUV for axillary staging. Results In a visual assessment of 18F-FDG PET/CT, the diagnostic accuracy of ALN metastasis was 83% with 58% in sensitivity and 95% in specificity, and when cut-off point of SUV was set at 1.8, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 36, 100, and 79%, respectively. On the other hand, the diagnostic accuracy of AUS was 85% with 54% in sensitivity and 99% in specificity. By the combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS to the axilla, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64, 94, and 85%, respectively. If either 18F-FDG PET uptake or AUS was positive in allixa, the probability of axillary metastasis was high; 50% (6 of 12 in 18F-FDG PET uptake only, 80% (4 of 5 in AUS positive only, and 100% (28 of 28 in dual positive. By the combination of AUS and 18F-FDG PET/CT, candidates of SNB were more appropriately selected. The axillary 18F-FDG uptake was correlated with the maximum size and nuclear grade of metastatic foci (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT was shown to be nearly equal to ultrasound, and considering their

  15. Tomography by positrons emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Sergio L.

    1999-01-01

    The tomography by positrons emission is a technology that allows to measure the concentration of positrons emission in a tri dimensional body through external measurements. Among the isotope emissions have carbon isotopes are ( 11 C), of the oxygen ( 15 O), of the nitrogen ( 13 N) that are three the element that constitute the base of the organic chemistry. Theses have on of the PET's most important advantages, since many biological interesting organic molecules can be tracer with these isotopes for the metabolism studies 'in vivo' through PET, without using organic tracers that modify the metabolism. The mentioned isotopes, also possess the characteristic of having short lifetime, that constitute on of PET's advantages from the dosimetric point of view. Among 11 C, 15 O, and 13 N, other isotopes that can be obtained of a generator as the 68 Ga and 82 Rb

  16. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  17. Bilateral axillary artery aneurysms after Bentall procedure in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Yurio

    2015-11-01

    A man with Marfan syndrome underwent a Bentall procedure for annuloaortic ectasia and severe aortic regurgitation at 43 years of age. Twenty-eight years after the Bentall procedure, he developed bilateral axillary artery aneurysms (length × diameter: right: 80 × 39 mm; left: 103 × 45 mm). Aneurysmectomy and reconstruction of the axillary artery were performed using an artificial vascular graft. Histological examination revealed cystic medial necrosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, but long-term follow-up is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Axillary hyperhidrosis treated with alcoholic solution of aluminium chloride hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, K T; Crow, K D; Ellis, J P; Harman, R R; Saihan, E M

    1978-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with axillary hyperhidrosis took part in a trial of treatment with a solution of 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol, applied topically each night for a week and then whenever the patient thought it necessary. Excellent control of sweating was achieved in 64 patients, and occlusion of the area was found to be unnecessary. No troublesome side effects were reported. The results of this study indicate that 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol is the treatment of first choice for patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:667571

  19. Efficient Cryosolid Positron Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A.P. Mills Jr., K.G. Lynn, C.M. Surko, and D.M. Schrader for their patient explanations and helpful conversations. Any remaining misconceptions are... Chemistry and Physics, (Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2001). 3. Y.C. Jean, P.E. Mallon, and D.M. Schrader, eds., Principles and Applications of...Positron & Positronium Chemistry , (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2003). 4. R.L. Forward and J. Davis, Mirror Matter, (iUniverse.com, Inc

  20. Positron emission mammography imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, William W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammogra...

  1. Generation of monoenergetic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Dale, J.M.; Miller, P.D. Jr.; Moak, C.D.; Pendyala, S.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many experiments have been performed in the generation and application of monoenergetic positron beams using annealed tungsten moderators and fast sources of 58 Co, 22 Na, 11 C, and LINAC bremstrahlung. This paper will compare the degrees of success from our various approaches. Moderators made from both single crystal and polycrystal tungsten have been tried. Efforts to grow thin films of tungsten to be used as transmission moderators and brightness enhancement devices are in progress

  2. A case of recurrent metastasis in the supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes and vertebrae following irradiation and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Ohsako, Tomofumi; Tashima, Rumiko; Nakano, Masahiro; Fujisue, Mamiko

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection; 19 months after surgery, she developed local recurrence. Subsequently, she underwent mastectomy and received endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. At 47 years of age, she developed pleural metastasis, which directly invaded the vertebrae as well as the right supraclavicular and right axillary lymph nodes. In addition, liver metastasis was observed. To avoid acute transverse myelopathy, the patient received radiation therapy to the vertebrae and the right supraclavicular and right axillary lymph nodes followed by paclitaxel plus bevacizumab administration. After 2 courses of paclitaxel plus bevacizumab, we observed a remarkable shrinkage of the vertebral tumor, and skin necrosis was observed in the right supraclavicular and right axillary region; in contrast, the liver metastasis had increased in size. After discontinuation of the combination therapy, the patient died of blood loss from the axillary skin defect. This wound healing complication might have arisen because of the synergistic effects of paclitaxel plus bevacizumab and irradiation. (author)

  3. Topical niacinamide 4% and desonide 0.05% for treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanedo-Cazares, Juan Pablo; Lárraga-Piñones, Gabryela; Ehnis-Pérez, Adriana; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtemoc; Smoller, Bruce R; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha

    2013-01-01

    Axillary hyperpigmentation is a frequent cause of cosmetic consultations in dark-skinned women from tropical areas, including Latin America. Currently, there is no widely accepted treatment for the disorder, but it is usually treated with bleaching agents because it is considered a variant of inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of niacinamide 4% and desonide 0.05% emulsions compared with placebo in the treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation. Twenty-four women aged 19-27 years with hyperpigmented axillae (phototype III-V) were randomly assigned to receive the study treatments in the axillary region. Improvement was assessed at baseline, then clinically and by colorimetry 9 weeks later. Quantitative evaluation including melanin, inflammatory infiltrates, NKI/Beteb, CD1a, CD68, and collagen type IV content was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, assisted by computerized morphometric analysis. Both niacinamide and desonide induced significant colorimetric improvement compared with placebo; however, desonide showed a better depigmenting effect than niacinamide. A good to excellent response was achieved in 24% of cases for niacinamide, 30% for desonide, and 6% for placebo. We observed a marked disruption of the basal membrane in axillary hyperpigmentation and an inflammatory infiltrate that improved after treatment. Decreased pigmentation in the desonide-treated axillae was associated with recovery of disruption at the basal membrane. Niacinamide and desonide showed depigmenting properties in women with axillary hyperpigmentation. These findings may be explained by their antimelanogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, respectively.

  4. Effect of temperature on development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of temperature during axillary bud formation on axillary bud development and subsequent shoot growth was investigated. Growth potential of the axillary buds was studied either in situ, by pruning the parent shoot above the bud, or in isolation, by grafting the bud or by culturing the bud

  5. Ion-irradiated polymer studied by a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Kojima, Isao; Hishita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Takenori.

    1995-01-01

    Poly (aryl-ether-ether ketone) (PEEK) films were irradiated with 1MeV and 2MeV 0 + ions and the positron annihilation Doppler broadening was measured as a function of the positron energy. The annihilation lines recorded at relatively low positron energies were found to become broader with increasing the irradiation dose, suggesting that positronium (Ps) formation may be inhibited in the damaged regions. A correlation was observed between the Doppler broadening and spin densities determined by electron spin resonance (ESR). (author)

  6. [Axillary hyperhidrosis--efficacy and tolerability of an aluminium chloride antiperspirant. Prospective evaluation on 20 patients with idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streker, M; Reuther, T; Verst, S; Kerscher, M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aluminium chloride gel for treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. A total of 20 patients aged 22-38 (mean age: 26.9+/-4.3) with idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis were included and treated with an antiperspirant (Sweat-off, Sweat-off GmbH, Hügelsheim). Study duration was 42 days. Treatment efficacy was evaluated clinically, as well as by starch-iodine test, gravimetric analysis and evaluation of the skin surface pH. After treatment there was a significant clinical improvement accompanied by significant qualitative and quantitative reduction of sweat as well as a significant reduction of skin surface pH. Except for slight skin irritation in 6 patients, there were no other side effects. Patient satisfaction improved markedly during the study. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with aluminium chloride is an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment modality.

  7. Axillary treatment for patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis: systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Amit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis, axillary treatment is widely recommended. This is either surgical removal of the axillary lymph nodes, or axillary radiotherapy. The rationale for axillary treatment is that it will reduce the risk of recurrence in the axilla, and may improve survival. However, both treatments are associated with adverse effects, such as lymphedema, pain and sensory loss, and are costly to the health services and to patients. With improvements in adjuvant therapy, routine axillary treatment may no longer offer any overall advantage. Objectives To assess the short and long term benefits and adverse effects of routine axillary treatment (axillary lymph node clearance or axillary radiotherapy for patients with lymph node positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods/Design Criteria for potentially eligibility for the study will be that the participants are men and women with early breast cancer and lymph nodes with metastasis. The study compares either axillary treatment with no axillary treatment, or axillary node clearance with axillary radiotherapy, and the study is a randomized trial. Primary outcomes are axillary recurrence, disease-free and overall survival. Secondary outcomes include breast or chest wall recurrence, distant metastasis, time to axillary recurrence, axillary recurrence-free survival, arm morbidity, quality of life and health economic costs. The search strategy will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP search portal. Two independent reviewers will assess studies for inclusion in the review, assess study quality and extract data. Characteristics of included studies will be described. Meta-analysis will be conducted using ReVman software. Comment This review addresses an important clinical question, and results will inform clinical practice and health care policy.

  8. Applications of positron depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakvoort, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis some contributions of the positron-depth profiling technique to materials science have been described. Following studies are carried out: Positron-annihilation measurements on neon-implanted steel; Void creation in silicon by helium implantation; Density of vacancy-type defects present in amorphous silicon prepared by ion implantation; Measurements of other types of amorphous silicon; Epitaxial cobalt disilicide prepared by cobalt outdiffusion. Positron-annihilation experiments on low-pressure CVD silicon-nitride films. (orig./MM)

  9. Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia

    2009-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.

  10. Applications of positron depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakvoort, R.A.

    1993-12-23

    In this thesis some contributions of the positron-depth profiling technique to materials science have been described. Following studies are carried out: Positron-annihilation measurements on neon-implanted steel; Void creation in silicon by helium implantation; Density of vacancy-type defects present in amorphous silicon prepared by ion implantation; Measurements of other types of amorphous silicon; Epitaxial cobalt disilicide prepared by cobalt outdiffusion. Positron-annihilation experiments on low-pressure CVD silicon-nitride films. (orig./MM).

  11. Comparison of ultrasound and ultrasound plus nerve stimulator guidance axillary plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirelli, G.; Baskan, S.; Karabeyoglu, I.; Aytac, I.; Omek, D.H.; Erdogmus, A.; Baydar, M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of axillary plexus blockade applied using ultrasound only and using ultrasound together with nerve stimulator in patients undergoing planned forearm, wrist or hand surgery. Methods: This randomised, prospective, double-blinded, single-centre study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from November 2014 to August 2015, and comprised patients undergoing forearm, wrist or hand surgery. Participants were separated into 2 groups. In Group 1, the nerve roots required for the surgical site were located one by one and local anaesthetic was applied separately to each nerve for the block. In Group 2, the vascular nerve bundle was located under ultrasound guidance and a total block was achieved by administering all the local anaesthetic within the nerve sheath. In the operating room, standard monitorisation was applied. Following preparation of the skin, the axillary region nerve roots and branches and vascular structures were observed by examination with a high-frequency ultrasound probe. In both groups, a 22-gauge, 5cm block needle was entered to the axillary region with visualisation of the whole needle on ultrasound and 20ml local anaesthetic of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 60 participants, there were 30(50%) in each group. The mean age was 39.1+-15 years in the group 1 which was the ultrasound nerve stimulation group, and 41.5+-14.3 years in group 2. The duration of the procedure was longer in group I than in group 2 (p<0.05). Patient satisfaction values during the procedure were higher in group 2(p<0.05). In the ulnar sensory examination, the values of the patients in group 1 were higher at 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes (p<0.05). In the median, radial and ulnar motor examination, the values of the patients in group 1were higher at 15 and 20 minutes (p<0.05). Conclusion: Brachial plexus blockade via axillary approach guided by ultrasound offered

  12. High Ki67 predicts unfavourable outcomes in early breast cancer patients with a clinically clear axilla who do not receive axillary dissection or axillary radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurrida, S; Bagnardi, V; Curigliano, G; Mastropasqua, M G; Orecchia, R; Disalvatore, D; Greco, M; Cataliotti, L; D'Aiuto, G; Talakhadze, N; Goldhirsch, A; Viale, G

    2013-10-01

    Axillary dissection is increasingly forgone in early breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axilla. The GRISO 053 randomised trial recruited 435 patients of age over 45 years, tumour ≤1.4 cm and clinically negative axilla, to assess the importance of axillary radiotherapy versus no axillary radiotherapy in patients not given axillary dissection. In the present study on a subgroup GRISO cases our aim was to assess the prognostic importance of tumour biological factors after more than 10 years of follow-up. We retrospectively assessed biological factors in a subgroup of 285 GRISO cases (145 given axillary radiotherapy; 140 not given axillary radiotherapy) with complete biologic, therapeutic and follow-up information, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Only 10-year cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was lower in the axillary radiotherapy (1%) than no axillary radiotherapy arm (7%) (p=0.037). Irrespective of study arm, hormone receptor positivity had significantly favourable effects on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative subtypes were associated with lower 10-year DFS (60% and 76%, respectively) than luminal A (96%) and B (91%) (p=0.001). Ten-year DFS for high (≥14%) Ki67 cancers was lower than for low Ki67 cancers (p=0.027); however, this effect was mainly confined to the no axillary radiotherapy arm. For patients with clinically node-negative small breast cancer not given axillary dissection, 10-year DFS is worsened by HER2 positivity, triple-negative phenotype and high Ki67. Axillary radiotherapy counteracts the negative prognostic effect of high Ki67 in patients not receiving axillary dissection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positron lifetimes in deformed copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinode, Kenji; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Doyama, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were performed for Cu samples with different densities of lattice defects. The lifetime spectra were successfully resolved into two components with the help of the well established analysis program. Obtained results were quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positron trapping mechanism from free to trapped states and the initial condition of the model were especially checked. Deduced values obtained for tau sub(c) (lifetime of free positrons) and tau sub(t) (lifetime of trapped positrons) were 122+-5 psec and 176+-5 psec, respectively. (auth.)

  14. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer | El-Fayoumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of later clinical involvement of the axilla and at establishing a sound basis for adjuvant treatment planning axillary dissection is an important operative procedure. ... Methods: Eighteen patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, while the other two patients who were fulfilling the criteria for conservative breast surgery ...

  15. Traumatiske laesioner af a. axillaris og a. brachialis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M; Hensler, M K; Schroeder, T V

    1994-01-01

    During af six year period 16 patients were treated for an axillary or brachial artery trauma. The vascular injury was caused by fracture in nine cases, contusion in four and penetrating injury in three. Concomitant nerve or tendon lesion occurred in five cases. Five of the 16 events were industri...

  16. Use Of Continuous Axillary Brachial Plexus Block Facilitates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report the successful use of continuous axillary brachial plexus block in the assessment of muscle functions during tendon repair. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife between November 2006 and December 2007. The study included ...

  17. Endovascular treatment of a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Sang Dong

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery is extremely rare. The standard treatment for axillary artery aneurysm has been surgical repair, but endovascular management of select aneurysms using stent grafts has become more prevalent with the development of endoluminal technology. We report the case of a 36-year old man with a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. He experienced a tingling sensation and intermittent pain in the left upper extremity and had no history of trauma to the axilla. We performed endovascular treatment [placement of a Viabahn stent graft (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ, USA)] for a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. Following the procedure, his symptoms disappeared completely. After 6, 12 and 24 months, we carried out computed tomography angiography; all scans showed no complications. Now, the patient has no symptoms related to aneurysm in the axilla. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of a Microwave Device for Treating Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H Chih-Ho; Lupin, Mark; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F

    2012-01-01

    Background A third-generation microwave-based device has been developed to treat axillary hyperhidrosis by selectively heating the interface between the skin and underlying fat where the sweat glands reside. Materials and Methods Thirty-one (31) adults with primary axillary hyperhidrosis were enrolled. All subjects had one to three procedure sessions over a 6-month period to treat both axillae fully. Efficacy was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS), gravimetric weight of sweat, and the Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI), a dermatology-specific quality-of-life scale. Subject safety was assessed at each visit. Subjects were followed for 12 months after all procedure sessions were complete. Results At the 12-month follow-up visit, 90.3% had HDSS scores of 1 or 2, 90.3% had at least a 50% reduction in axillary sweat from baseline, and 85.2% had a reduction of at least 5 points on the DLQI. All subjects experienced transient effects in the treatment area such as swelling, discomfort, and numbness. The most common adverse event (12 subjects) was the presence of altered sensation in the skin of the arm that resolved in all subjects. Conclusion The device tested provided efficacious and durable treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:22452511

  19. Positron emission tomography in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography provides a method for the quantitation of regional function within the living human brain. Studies of cerebral metabolism and blood flow in patients with Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and focal dystonia have revealed functional abnormalities within substructures of the basal ganglia. Recent developments permit assessment of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic function ion dopaminergic pathways. These techniques are now being applied to studies of movement disorders in human subjects

  20. Effective axillary malodour reduction by polyquaternium-16-containing deodorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traupe, B; Fölster, H; Max, H; Schulz, J

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, individuals apply deodorants to combat malodour formation originating from the axillary vault. Considering the globally increasing demand for efficacious, safe deodorants, we investigated the antimicrobial effectiveness of a polymeric quaternary ammonium compound (PQ-16) as a new active in a roll-on formulation against microbial growth and axillary malodour. We utilized an in vivo microbiological assessment to determine antimicrobial effects of the PQ-16-containing deodorant formulation (DEO1) (i) in comparison with a commercially available deodorant roll-on claiming a 24-h protection against body odour (DEO2) and (ii) in comparison with a roll-on containing the same formulation as DEO1 but comprising aluminium chlorohydrate instead of PQ-16 (DEO3) 1, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Also, the axillary malodour intensity 24 and 48 h after application of deodorants was investigated in a controlled in vivo study performed by a trained sniffer panel using direct sniffing. Treatment with DEO1 in comparison with application of DEO2 significantly reduced the log 10 bacterial count at all points in time. After 24 and 48 h, sniffers rated malodour production in the DEO1-treated axillae significantly lower than in the DEO2-treated armpits. Application of DEO1 in comparison with DEO3 decreased the log 10 bacterial count after 1, 4, 8 and 24 h (significant for 4 and 8 h). After 48 h, the log 10 bacterial count showed similar values for both DEO1 and DEO3. The sniffer panel reported no significant differences between axillary malodour in DEO1-treated compared to DEO3-treated armpits after 24 and 48 h. We identified polyquaternium-16 (PQ-16, copolymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) as a highly effective deodorant active. Results showed that a newly developed PQ-16-containing deodorant roll-on formulation (i) significantly reduced axillary malodour 24 and 48 h after treatment, (ii) significantly decreased the amount of axillary

  1. Relationship between axillary nerve and percutaneously inserted proximal humeral locking plate: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Dedeoğlu, Semih; Imren, Yunus; Kahraman, Sinan; Çakar, Murat; Öztürk, Kahraman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the axillary nerve and the percutaneously inserted proximal humeral locking plate and to evaluate the risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous plate insertion. The study included 50 shoulders of 25 fresh frozen cadavers. A 5 cm incision was made from the anterolateral border of the acromion to the arm and a 5-hole 3.5-mm proximal humeral plate was inserted. The axillary nerve was then dissected. Plate holes which crossed the axillary nerve were noted. The distance between the axillary nerve and the lateral edge of the acromion and the length of the arm were measured and their relations evaluated with a correlation test. The average arm length was 319 mm. The average distance between the axillary nerve and the lateral edge of the acromion was 60 mm. There was a significant correlation between the arm length and acromion-axillary nerve distance (paxillary nerve lesions. In 1 case, the distal end of the plate was inserted in the deltoid muscle. No constant relationship between the plate holes and the axillary nerve was detected. There is a risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous plate insertion. It must be ensured that the plate is inserted under the deltoid fascia during the surgery. The axillary nerve must be visible during application of the screws due to the impossibility of knowing which holes cross the axillary nerve.

  2. Avulsive axillary artery injury in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Nathaniel C; Beck, John D; Harter, G Dean

    2014-01-01

    In addition to neurologic injuries such as peripheral nerve palsy, axillary vessel injury should be recognized as a possible complication of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Limb lengthening associated with Grammont-type reverse total shoulder arthroplasty places tension across the brachial plexus and axillary vessels and may contribute to observed injuries. The Grammont-type reverse total shoulder arthroplasty prosthesis reverses the shoulder ball and socket, shifts the shoulder center of rotation distal and medial, and lengthens the arm. This alteration of native anatomy converts shearing to compressive glenohumeral joint forces while augmenting and tensioning the deltoid lever arm. Joint stability is enhanced; shoulder elevation is enabled in the rotator cuff–deficient shoulder. Arm lengthening associated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty places a longitudinal strain on the brachial plexus and axillary vessels. Peripheral nerve palsies and other neurologic complications of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty have been documented. The authors describe a patient with rotator cuff tear arthropathy and a history of radioulnar synostosis who underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty complicated by intraoperative injury to the axillary artery and postoperative radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerve palsies. Following a seemingly unremarkable placement of reverse shoulder components, brisk arterial bleeding was encountered while approximating the incised subscapularis tendon in preparation for wound closure. Further exploration revealed an avulsive-type injury of the axillary artery. After an unsuccessful attempt at primary repair, a synthetic arterial bypass graft was placed. Reperfusion of the right upper extremity was achieved and has been maintained to date. Postoperative clinical examination and electromyographic studies confirmed ongoing radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous neuropathies.

  3. Identification of brain regions predicting epileptogenesis by serial [18F]GE-180 positron emission tomography imaging of neuroinflammation in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Russmann

    2017-01-01

    In conclusion, the data provide evidence that [18F]GE-180 PET brain imaging can serve as a biomarker of epileptogenesis. The identification of brain regions with predictive value might facilitate the development of preventive concepts as well as the early assessment of the interventional success. Future studies are necessary to further confirm the predictivity of the approach.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  6. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  7. Bilateral axillary skin fold flaps used for dorsal thoracic skin wound closure in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Nevill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old greyhound-cross dog was presented with a large, chronic skin wound extending over the interscapular region. The substantial skin defect was closed by making use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps. It was possible to elevate the 2 skin flaps sufficiently to allow them to meet at the dorsal midline and thus facilitate complete closure of a large and awkwardly positioned wound. Small dorsal areas of the skin flaps underwent necrosis, but the resulting defects were closed without difficulty in a subsequent procedure. To the author's knowledge, this is the 1st clinical report of the use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps in this fashion and describes an additional use of a versatile skin flap procedure.

  8. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  9. Novel surgical approach for axillary hidradenitis suppurativa using a bilayer dermal regeneration template: a retrospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Teresa A; Endorf, Frederick W; Mohr, William J; Ahrenholz, David H

    2013-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic debilitating disease of apocrine gland-bearing skin characterized by recurrent abscesses with subsequent rupture, scarring, and draining sinus tracts, most frequently affecting the axillary, inguinal, and anogenital regions. Conservative and temporizing treatment methods have been used to treat mild to moderate disease, but wide local excision of affected tissue is necessary for advanced disease. This creates a large soft tissue defect for which there is no consensus for reconstruction. Recovery is hampered by disease recurrence, tissue necrosis, and reoperation. The authors have described in this case study an alternative surgical approach to treat severe HS. All surgical procedures were performed by dedicated burn surgeons at a regional burn center using a two-stage surgical approach. The first stage is a wide local excision of all affected axillary tissue with immediate placement of a bilayer dermal regeneration template to cover the defect. This is secured with a negative pressure wound therapy dressing. The second stage uses a thin split thickness skin graft to close the wound. Results of four patients are presented. There were no recurrences of HS. Two patients required reoperations to address granulation tissue overgrowth and small areas of autograft loss. One patient experienced skin substitute loss as a result of infection. Inadequate excision of HS is the leading cause of disease recurrence. Using a bilayer dermal regeneration template with subsequent skin graft, surgeons can be aggressive in their excision of HS, achieving satisfactory functional and cosmetic results and minimizing axillary recurrence.

  10. Molecular Heterogeneity in Primary Breast Carcinomas and Axillary Lymph Node Metastases Assessed by Genomic Fingerprinting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Toro, Allyson L; Blackburn, Heather L; Decewicz, Alisha; Deyarmin, Brenda; Mamula, Kimberly A; Costantino, Nicholas S; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2015-01-01

    Molecular heterogeneity within primary breast carcinomas and among axillary lymph node (LN) metastases may impact diagnosis and confound treatment. In this study, we used short tandem repeated sequences to assess genomic heterogeneity and to determine hereditary relationships among primary tumor areas and regional metastases from 30 breast cancer patients. We found that primary carcinomas were genetically heterogeneous and sampling multiple areas was necessary to adequately assess genomic variability. LN metastases appeared to originate at different time periods during disease progression from different sites of the primary tumor and the extent of genomic divergence among regional metastases was associated with a less favorable patient outcome (P = 0.009). In conclusion, metastasis is a complex process influenced by primary tumor heterogeneity and variability in the timing of dissemination. Genomic variation in primary breast tumors and regional metastases may negatively impact clinical diagnostics and contribute to therapeutic resistance. PMID:26279627

  11. Molecular Heterogeneity in Primary Breast Carcinomas and Axillary Lymph Node Metastases Assessed by Genomic Fingerprinting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Ellsworth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular heterogeneity within primary breast carcinomas and among axillary lymph node (LN metastases may impact diagnosis and confound treatment. In this study, we used short tandem repeated sequences to assess genomic heterogeneity and to determine hereditary relationships among primary tumor areas and regional metastases from 30 breast cancer patients. We found that primary carcinomas were genetically heterogeneous and sampling multiple areas was necessary to adequately assess genomic variability. LN metastases appeared to originate at different time periods during disease progression from different sites of the primary tumor and the extent of genomic divergence among regional metastases was associated with a less favorable patient outcome ( P = 0.009. In conclusion, metastasis is a complex process influenced by primary tumor heterogeneity and variability in the timing of dissemination. Genomic variation in primary breast tumors and regional metastases may negatively impact clinical diagnostics and contribute to therapeutic resistance.

  12. Topographic pattern of the brachial plexus at the axillary fossa through real-time ultrasonography in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Hye; Kim, Youn Jin; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Dong Yeon; Lee, Guie Yong; Kim, Chi Hyo

    2014-11-01

    The ability to explore the anatomy has improved our appreciation of the brachial anatomy and the quality of regional anesthesia. Using real-time ultrasonography, we investigated the cross-sectional anatomy of the brachial plexus and of vessels at the axillary fossa in Koreans. One hundred and thirty-one patients scheduled to undergo surgery in the region below the elbow were enrolled after giving their informed written consent. Using the 5-12 MHz linear probe of an ultrasound system, we examined cross-sectional images of the brachial plexus in the supine position with the arm abducted by 90°, the shoulder externally rotated, and the forearm flexed by 90° at the axillary fossa. The results of the nerve positions were expressed on a 12-section pie chart and the numbers of arteries and veins were reported. Applying gentle pressure to prevent vein collapse, the positions of the nerves changed easily and showed a clockwise order around the axillary artery (AA). The most frequent positions were observed in the 10-11 section (79.2%) for the median, 1-2 section (79.3%) for the ulnar, 3-5 section (78.4%) for the radial, and 8-9 section (86.9%) for the musculocutaneous nerve. We also noted anatomical variations consisting of double arteries (9.2%) and multiple axillary veins (87%). Using real-time ultrasonography, we found that the anatomical pattern of the major nerves in Koreans was about 80% of the frequent position of individual nerves, 90.8% of the single AA, and 87% of multiple veins around the AA.

  13. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs

  14. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  15. Positron emission tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of viable myocardium or ischemically injured myocardium with a reversible impairment of contractile function remains clinically important but challenging. Detection of reversible dysfunction and distinction from irreversible tissue injury by positron emission tomography is based on identification of preserved or even enhanced glucose metabolism with F-18 2-fluoro 2-deoxyglucose. Regional patterns of myocardial glucose utilization and blood flow, defined as perfusion-metabolism mismatches or matches, on positron emission tomography in patients with chronic or even acute ischemic heart disease are highly accurate in predicting the functional outcome after interventional revascularization. Compared with thallium-201 redistribution scintigraphy, positron emission tomography appears to be diagnostically more accurate, especially in patients with severely impaired left ventricular function. While larger clinical trials are needed for further confirmation, positron emission tomography has already proved clinically useful for stratifying patients with poor left ventricular function to the most appropriate therapeutic approach

  16. Clinical applications with the HIDAC positron camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, P.; Schaller, G.; Christin, A.; Townsend, D.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Wensveen, M.; Donath, A.

    1988-06-01

    A high density avalanche chamber (HIDAC) positron camera has been used for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging in three different human studies, including patients presenting with: (I) thyroid diseases (124 cases); (II) clinically suspected malignant tumours of the pharynx or larynx (ENT) region (23 cases); and (III) clinically suspected primary malignant and metastatic tumours of the liver (9 cases, 19 PET scans). The positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals used for the three studies were Na 124I (4.2 d half-life) for the thyroid, 55Co-bleomycin (17.5 h half-life) for the ENT-region and 68Ga-colloid (68 min half-life) for the liver. Tomographic imaging was performed: (I) 24 h after oral Na 124I administration to the thyroid patients, (II) 18 h after intraveneous administration of 55Co-bleomycin to the ENT patients and (III) 20 min following the intraveneous injection of 68Ga-colloid to the liver tumour patients. Three different imaging protocols were used with the HIDAC positron camera to perform appropriate tomographic imaging in each patient study. Promising results were obtained in all three studies, particularly in tomographic thyroid imaging, where a significant clinical contribution is made possible for diagnosis and therapy planning by the PET technique. In the other two PET studies encouraging results were obtained for the detection and precise localisation of malignant tumour disease including an estimate of the functional liver volume based on the reticulo-endothelial-system (RES) of the liver, obtained in vivo, and the three-dimensional display of liver PET data using shaded graphics techniques. The clinical significance of the overall results obtained in both the ENT and the liver PET study, however, is still uncertain and the respective role of PET as a new imaging modality in these applications is not yet clearly established. To appreciate the clinical impact made by PET in liver and ENT malignant tumour staging needs further investigation

  17. A Southern African positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.; Teemane, M.R.B.; Mills, S.; Nortier, F.M.; Van der Walt, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    The first stage of a state of the art positron beam, being constructed at the University of Cape Town, is currently being brought into operation. This is the first positron beam on the African continent, as well as being the first positron beam dedicated to solid and surface studies in the southern hemisphere. The project also contains a high proportion of local development, including the encapsulated 22 Na positron source developed by our collaboration. Novel features in the design include a purely magnetic in-line deflector, working in the solenoidal guiding field, to eliminate unmoderated positrons and block the direct line of sight to the source. A combined magnetic projector and single pole probe forming lens is being implemented in the second phase of construction to achieve a spot size of 10 μm without remoderation

  18. (/sup 11/C )-DMO for evaluation of regional tissue pH in patients with hemispheric infarction using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaing, M.; Syrota, A.; Rougemont, D.; Berridge, M.; Chretien, L.; Baron, J.C.; Bousser, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    Changes in brain intracellular pH resulting from cerebral infarction were evaluated using the /sup 11/C-DMO (dimethyloxazolidine-dione) method, in 9 patients. A /sup 15/O/sub 2/-C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ study was performed the day following the DMO examination in order to obtain the values of cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen metabolic rate in the same regions-of-interest. The results emphasized the relationship between tissue alkalosis and luxury perfusion during recent infarction.

  19. Axillary silicone lymphadenopathy presenting with a lump and altered sensation in the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Simon T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Silicone lymphadenopathy is a rare but recognised complication of procedures involving the use of silicone. It has a poorly understood mechanism but is thought to occur following the transportation of silicone particles from silicone-containing prostheses to lymph nodes by macrophages. Case presentation We report of a case involving a 35-year-old woman who presented to the breast clinic with a breast lump and altered sensation below her left nipple 5 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentations. A small lump was detected inferior to the nipple but clinical examination and initial ultrasound investigation showed both implants to be intact. However, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging of both breasts revealed both intracapsular and extracapsular rupture of the left breast prosthesis. The patient went on to develop a flu-like illness and tender lumps in the left axilla and right mastoid regions. An excision biopsy of the left axillary lesion and replacement of the ruptured implant was performed. Subsequent histological analysis showed that the axillary lump was a lymph node containing large amounts of silicone. Conclusion The exclusion of malignancy remains the priority when dealing with lumps in the breast or axilla. Silicone lymphadenopathy should however be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients in whom silicone prostheses are present.

  20. Long-term follow-up of axillary node-positive breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant systemic therapy alone: patterns of recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Barbara J.; Perera, Francisco E.; Cooke, Andrew L.; Opeitum, Abiola; Venkatesan, Varagur; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Prognostic factors for locoregional failure have been poorly documented. The purpose of this retrospective review is to examine the patterns of failure of 320 patients with Stage II or III axillary node-positive breast cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy without locoregional radiation. Methods and Materials: The records of 735 patients who were referred to the London Regional Cancer Centre between 1980 and 1989 with a diagnosis of Stage II or III breast cancer were reviewed. Three hundred and twenty patients were identified who underwent segmental mastectomy with axillary dissection or modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy without adjuvant locoregional radiation. Seventy-one percent of these patients had undergone a modified radical mastectomy, 40% had T1 tumors, 49% T2, and 11% T3. Resection margins were positive in 13 patients. The median number of axillary nodes removed was 11. Fifty-four percent had one to three positive axillary nodes, 27% had four to seven positive nodes, and 19% had in excess of seven positive nodes. Results: Median follow-up for the 320 patients was 77 months. One hundred and fourteen patients developed a locoregional recurrence as the site of first relapse (31 in the intact breast, 29 on the chest wall, 21 in the axilla, 22 in the supraclavicular fossa, 1 in the internal mammary chain, and 10 in multiple sites). Thirty-three percent of segmental mastectomy patients and 13% of modified radical mastectomy patients developed local recurrence. Seven percent of patients recurred in axillary or supraclavicular nodes each. Factors with regard to locoregional recurrence which on univariate analysis were significant included type of mastectomy (i.e., segmental vs. modified radical), size of primary tumor, positive resection margins, and percentage of ideal chemotherapy dose intensity ( 5 cm in diameter). Breast or chest wall radiation is recommended for these groups. Supraclavicular radiation is recommended for

  1. Positron emission tomography of FDG in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T. III; Kusubov, N.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Donner dynamic positron emission tomograph to study fluorodeoxyglucose labelled 18 F uptake in the brain of six patients with schizophrenia is reported. The glucose metabolic rate and the local cerebral metabolic rate were calculated. The dynamic brain uptake data and the blood input function were used to calculate rate constants by an iterative least squares fitting program for all regions of interest chosen in the brain. Although the number of patients was small, differences in k3 were statistically significant in several brain regions compared with normal controls

  2. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector planes positioned side-by-side around a patient area to detect radiation. Each plane includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and at least two rows of scintillation crystals on each photomultiplier tube extend across to adjacent photomultiplier tubes for detecting radiation from the patient area. Each row of crystals on each photomultiplier tube is offset from the other rows of crystals, and the area of each crystal on each tube in each row is different than the area of the crystals on the tube in other rows for detecting which crystal is actuated and allowing the detector to detect more inter-plane slides. The crystals are offset by an amount equal to the length of the crystal divided by the number of rows. The rows of crystals on opposite sides of the patient may be rotated 90 degrees relative to each other

  3. Positron Emission Mammography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, W.W. E-mail: wwmoses@lbl.gov

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and X-ray mammography, as well as PEM and X-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Positron emission mammography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, M; Al-Shawi, A; Gschwind, C R; Warwick, D J; Tonkin, M A

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafting. Thirty-six patients were retrospectively reviewed after a mean of 53 months (minimum 12 months). The mean interval from injury to surgery was 6.5 months. Recovery of deltoid function was assessed by the power of both abduction and retropulsion, the deltoid bulk and extension lag. The deltoid bulk was almost symmetrical in nine of 34 cases, good in 22 and wasted in three. Grade M4 or M5* was achieved in 30 of 35 for abduction and in 32 of 35 for retropulsion. There was an extension lag in four patients. Deltoid bulk continued to improve with a longer follow-up following surgery. Nerve grafting to the axillary nerve is a reliable method of regaining deltoid function when the lesion is distal to its origin from the posterior cord.

  6. Case Report and Dosimetric Analysis of an Axillary Recurrence After Partial Breast Irradiation with Mammosite Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Anand P.; Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael C.; Chen, Sea S.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Coon, Alan B.; Turian, Julius V.; Siziopikou, Kalliopi; Dowlat, Kambiz; Griem, Katherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) was designed in part to decrease overall treatment times associated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). WBRT treats the entire breast and usually portions of the axilla. The goal of PBI is to treat a smaller volume of breast tissue in less time, focusing the dose around the lumpectomy cavity. The following is a case of a 64-year-old woman with early-stage breast cancer treated with PBI who failed regionally in the ipsilateral axilla. With our dosimetric analysis, we found that the entire area of this axillary failure would have likely received at least 45 Gy if WBRT had been used, enough to sterilize microscopic disease. With PBI, this area received a mean dose of only 2.8 Gy, which raises the possibility that this regional failure may have been prevented had WBRT been used instead of PBI

  7. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Kim, Hayeon; Choi, Serah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  8. Simulation of tail distributions in electron-positron circular colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.

    1992-02-01

    In addition to the Gaussian shaped core region, particle bunches in electron-positron circular colliders have a rarefied halo region of importance in determining beam lifetimes and backgrounds in particle detectors. A method is described which allows simulation of halo particle distributions.

  9. Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A Gordon; Austin, Corrine J; Cox, Diana S; Taylor, David; Calvert, Ralph

    2013-03-01

    The generation of malodour on various sites of the human body is caused by the microbial biotransformation of odourless natural secretions into volatile odorous molecules. On the skin surface, distinctive odours emanate, in particular, from the underarm (axilla), where a large and permanent population of microorganisms thrives on secretions from the eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous glands. Traditional culture-based microbiological studies inform us that this resident microbiota consists mainly of Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. Among the molecular classes that have been implicated in axillary malodour are short- and medium-chain volatile fatty acids, 16-androstene steroids and, most recently, thioalcohols. Most of the available evidence suggests that members of the Corynebacterium genus are the primary causal agents of axillary odour, with the key malodour substrates believed to originate from the apocrine gland. In this article, we examine, in detail, the microbiology and biochemistry of malodour formation on axillary skin, focussing on precursor-product relationships, odour-forming enzymes and metabolic pathways and causal organisms. As well as reviewing the literature, some relevant new data are presented and considered alongside that already available in the public domain to reach an informed view on the current state-of-the-art, as well as future perspectives. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathological axillary lymph nodes detected at mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, E. T.; O' Doherty, A.; Hill, A. D.; Quinn, C. M. E-mail: c.quinn@st-vincents.ie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of abnormal axillary lymph nodes detected at mammographic screening in the absence of a concomitant breast lesion. METHODS: Twenty-three thousand, seven hundred and seven women were screened at the Merrion Unit as part of the Irish National Breast Screening Programme ('BreastCheck') in the period June 2000 to July 2002. Nine women (0.4 per 1000 women screened) were found to have an abnormal axillary lymph node(s) in the absence of a mammographic breast lesion and were recalled for assessment. The radiological criteria for recall included: size greater than or equal to 15 mm, round or irregular shape, increased node density and absence of hilar lucency. Each woman underwent further mammographic views, ultrasound examination of axilla and breast, clinical examination and lymph node biopsy either by 14 G needle core biopsy (NCB) or open excision. RESULTS: The final pathological diagnoses in the nine patients were oestrogen receptor (OR) positive metastatic breast carcinoma (two patients), metastatic malignant melanoma (one patient), malignant lymphoma (two patients), caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis (one patient), and other benign conditions (three patients). CONCLUSION: Abnormal axillary lymph nodes, in the absence of an accompanying breast lesion, are rarely identified on screening mammogram, but may harbour significant pathology and their presence on screening mammogram merits further investigation including biopsy.

  11. Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifiro, Giuseppe; Travaini, Laura Lavinia; Paganelli, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe; Gentilini, Oreste

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy would represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. Subdermal or peritumoural injection of small aliquots (and very low activity) of radiotracer is preferred to intratumoural administration, and 99m Tc-labelled colloids with most of the particles in the 100-200 nm size range would be ideal for radioguided sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The success rate of radioguidance in localising the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery is about 97% in institutions where a high number of procedures are performed, and the success rate of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel node detection is about 100%. The sentinel lymph node should be processed for intraoperative frozen section examination in its entirety, based on conventional histopathology and, when necessary, immune staining with anti-cytokeratin antibody. Nowadays, lymphoscintigraphy is a useful procedure in patients with different clinical evidence of breast cancer. (orig.)

  12. Fundamentals of positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is a modern radionuclide method of measuring physiological quantities or metabolic parameters in vivo. The methods is based on: (1) Radioactive labelling with positron emitters; (2) the coincidence technique for the measurement of the annihilation radiation following positron decay; (3) analysis of the data measured using biological models. The basic aspects and problems of the method are discussed. The main fields of future research are the synthesis of new labelled compounds and the development of mathematical models of the biological processes to be investigated. (orig.) [de

  13. Atomic collisions involving pulsed positrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bluhme, H.; Field, D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional slow positron beams have been widely and profitably used to study atomic collisions and have been instrumental in understanding the dynamics of ionization. The next generation of positron atomic collision studies are possible with the use of charged particle traps. Not only can large...... instantaneous intensities be achieved with in-beam accumulation, but more importantly many orders of magnitude improvement in energy and spatial resolution can be achieved using positron cooling. Atomic collisions can be studied on a new energy scale with unprecedented precion and control. The use...

  14. Study on low-energy positron polarimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polarised positron source has been proposed for the design of the international linear collider (ILC). In order to optimise the positron beam, a measurement of its degree of polarisation close to the positron creation point is desired. In this contribution, methods for determining the positron polarisation at low energies are ...

  15. Development of Electron-positron Screened Pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the jellium model, for electron-positron annihilation to take place, the positron must overcome the screened potential of the valence electrons. In this paper, we develop electron-positron screened pseudopotential to explain positron annihilation rate in metals. The results obtained show that there is a trend in the variation ...

  16. Basic principles of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography uses photons to receive regional information about dynamic, physiologic, and biochemical processes in the living body. A positron decay is measured indirectly by the simultaneous registration of both gamma rays created by the annihilation. The event is counted, if two directly opposite located detectors register gamma rays in coincidence. Unfortunately the detectors of a positron emission tomography system do not register only true coincident events. There are also scattered and random coincidences. Different types of positron tomographs are presented and scintillation crystals, which are in use for positron emission tomography are discussed. The 2D- and 3D-acquisition methods are described as well as preprocessing methods, such as correction for attenuation, scatter and dead time. For quantification the relative parameter standard uptake value (SUV) is explained. Finally hybrid systems, such as combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanners and the use of computed tomography data for attenuation correction are introduced. (author)

  17. How I do it: Simple and effortless approach to identify thoracodorsal nerve on axillary clearance procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Zin, T; Maw, M; Oo, SM; Pai, DR; Paijan, RB; Kyi, M

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer surgery frequently involves an axillary clearance procedure for nodal metastases. Injury to the thoracodorsal nerve is one of the complications related to the axillary dissection. The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle which facilitates in certain movements of the arm. Moreover, it can be used as a nerve graft in long thoracic nerve injury whether in trauma or surgery. Understanding the anatomy structures and good surgical technique in the axillary cleara...

  18. Positron annihilation in superconductive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekhtjar, I.J.

    1969-03-10

    A correlation is shown between the parameters of superconductive metals and those of positron annihilation. Particular attention is paid to the density states obtained from the electron specific heat.

  19. Parkinson disease and positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.

    1984-10-01

    Physiopathologic investigations of Parkinson disease and parkinsonian syndrome using positron tomography are briefly reviewed: study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism; effects of L-DOPA; study of dopaminergic receptors and of 18 F-Fluoro-L-DOPA incorporation [fr

  20. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  1. Origin and annihilation physics of positrons in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexis, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A gamma radiation at 511 keV is observed since the early 1970's toward the Galactic bulge region. This emission is the signature of a large number of electron-positron annihilations, the positron being the electron's antiparticle. Unfortunately, the origin of the positrons responsible for this emission is still a mystery. Many positron-source candidates have been suggested but none of them can account for the galactic annihilation emission. The spatial distribution of this emission is indeed very atypical. Since 2002, the SPI spectrometer onboard the INTEGRAL space laboratory revealed an emission strongly concentrated toward the galactic bulge and a weaker emission from the galactic disk. This morphology is unusual because it does not correspond to any of the known galactic astrophysical-object or interstellar-matter distributions. The assumption that positrons annihilate close to their sources (i.e. the spatial distribution of the annihilation emission reflects the spatial distribution of the sources) has consequently been called into question. Recent studies suggest that positrons could propagate far away from their sources before annihilating. This physical aspect could be the key point to solve the riddle of the galactic positron origin. This thesis is devoted to the modelling of the propagation and annihilation of positrons in the Galaxy, in order to compare simulated spatial models of the annihilation emission with recent measurements provided by SPI/INTEGRAL. This method allows to put constraints on the origin of galactic positrons. We therefore developed a propagation Monte-Carlo code of positrons within the Galaxy in which we implemented all the theoretical and observational knowledge about positron physics (sources, transport modes, energy losses, annihilation modes) and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy (interstellar gas distributions, galactic magnetic fields, structures of the gaseous phases). Due to uncertainties in several physical parameters

  2. Positron diffusion in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Lee, Y.K.

    1975-01-01

    Positron diffusion in helium, neon, and argon has been observed and the lifetimes of free positrons in these gases have been calculated on the basis of assumed theoretical behavior. The results are summarized for various gas pressures at room temperature. Reported lifetimes are comparable to the extrapolated values of 1.4 μsec in He and 0.2 μsec in Ar obtained at one atmosphere by Falk. (7 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  3. How I do it: Simple and effortless approach to identify thoracodorsal nerve on axillary clearance procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, T; Maw, M; Oo, Sm; Pai, Dr; Paijan, Rb; Kyi, M

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer surgery frequently involves an axillary clearance procedure for nodal metastases. Injury to the thoracodorsal nerve is one of the complications related to the axillary dissection. The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle which facilitates in certain movements of the arm. Moreover, it can be used as a nerve graft in long thoracic nerve injury whether in trauma or surgery. Understanding the anatomy structures and good surgical technique in the axillary clearance procedure can identify and prevent such an injury to the thoracodorsal nerve. Here, we demonstrate a simple and effortless technique for identification of the thoracodorsal nerve during axillary surgery.

  4. Scattering of thermal photons by a 46 GeV positron beam at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini-Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1991-01-01

    The scattering of thermal photons present in the vacuum pipe of LEP against the high energy positron beam has been detected. The spectrum of the back-scattered photons is presented for a positron beam energy of 46.1 GeV. Measurements have been performed in the interaction region 1 with the LEP-5 experiment calorimeter. (orig.)

  5. Local vacancies in optical modulation polymers studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a slow positron beam to prove vacancies at the surface and in bulk regions of optical modulation polymers was demonstrated. A slow positron beam system was found to be a powerful tool to study the change in the microstructure driven by photopolymerization of novel optical modulation polymers. (author)

  6. Imagens ultra-sonográficas do plexo braquial na região axilar Imágenes ultra-sonográficas del plexo braquial en la región axilar Ultrasound images of the brachial plexus in the axillary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição

    2007-12-01

    permite la identificación de las estructuras del plexo braquial ¹. Ese estudio buscó describir el posicionamiento de los nervios del plexo braquial con relación a la arteria axilar. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 30 voluntarios de los dos sexos, en posición supina con abducción a 90° y rotación externa del hombro y flexión del codo a 90°. Utilizando transductor digital de 5 cm y 5-10 MHz, fueron identificados los nervios mediano, ulnar y radial, y las respectivas posiciones en relación a la arteria fueron marcadas en una carta gráfica seccional de 8 sectores, enumerados en orden creciente a partir de la hora 12 (medial, cuyo centro representaba la arteria axilar. RESULTADOS: El nervio mediano se ubicó predominante en el sector 8 (55% y en el sector 1 (28% (mediales; el nervio radial se ubicó predominantemente en los sectores 4 (59% y 5 (34% (laterales y el nervio ulnar en los sectores 2 y 3 (inferiores en un 69% y un 24% de los casos, respectivamente. Hubo una considerable variación de la localización de los nervios con relación a los aspectos superior e inferior de la arteria. CONCLUSIÓN: La inspección en tiempo real, por ultrasonido, de las estructuras neuro vasculares del plexo braquial en la axila mostró que los nervios mediano, ulnar y radial pueden presentar diferentes relaciones con la arteria axilar.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The axillary artery is the anatomical reference, in the surface, for axillary brachial plexus block. Anatomic studies suggest variability in the location of the structures in the brachial plexus in relation to the axillary artery. These variations can hinder blocks by neurostimulation. The ultrasound allows the identification of the structures within the brachial plexus¹. The objective of this report was to describe the position of the nerves in the brachial plexus in relation to the axillary artery. METHODS: Thirty volunteers of both genders were studied. They were in the supine position with 90° abduction and external

  7. Positron CT findings of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Junzo; Miyazaki, Chihiro; Sugai, Yuichi; Iio, Masaaki.

    1983-01-01

    Positron CT images of 15 chronic schizophrenics (2 females and 13 males) were examined in contrast to 5 male controls. Average age of controls was 36 years and that of schizophrenics was 42 years. Schizophrenic cases were ill over 6 years, averaging 17 years. All were under antipsychotic drug therapy. Tracer compounds were 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose photosynthesised, the former being inhalated once just before and the latter being administered orally 10-15 minutes before examinations. On positron CT images of all normal controls, hyper-radioactivities in frontal regions were observed. Some asymmetries of activities were observed but not remarkable. There wes no difference between the images with 11 C-CO2 and those with 11 C-glucose. In schizophrenic cases, (1) 7 out of 15 cases showed hypo-activities in the frontal regions both with 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose. (2) With 11 C-glucose, relative activities in the brain were lower than those in the soft tissues around the scalp, suggesting the lowered selective uptake of 11 C-glucose by the brain. (3) With 11 C-CO 2, 4 cases showed higher activities in the right temporal regions and their subcortex than the left. By consideration of relationships between these positron CT findings and clinical data such as present age, age of onset of illness, duration of illness, psychiatric symptoms, present drug amount, summed drug amount from administration, EEG and X-ray CT findings, significant correlation was recognized only between low frontal radioactivities and apathy-abulia as main symptom. Limitation on the explanation of the findings with the image alone was discussed. (author)

  8. Positron research in neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namura, Ikuro; Inoue, Osamu; Yamasaki, Toshiro.

    1984-01-01

    The principal findings revealed by our 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and 15 O-oxygen study were reviewed in the former part of this paper. (1) The effect of surgical severing of fiber connections on the terminal gray matter was clearly demonstrated in the following examples. A patient with the injured left optic radiation showed a markedly decreased 18 FDG uptake in the ipsilateral primary visual cortex. The extent of the decrease was larger in the secondary visual cortex (--60%). The patient with bilateral frontal leukotomy (lobotomy) showed about 30% decrease of oxygen accumulation not only in the frontal cortex but in the anterior half of the temporal cortex. (2) The effect of electrical stimulation of the left median nerve can be detected as an increased 18 FDG accumulation in the corresponding sensory and motor areas in the right precentral and postcentral cortices. The slight to moderate increase in the right striatal region was though to be related to the muscle movement caused by the stimulation. (3) The neuro-degenerative disorders such as Huntington's chorea and Parkinsonism could be diagnosed by demonstrating the decrease of 18 FDG in the degenerating focus or the increase in the secondarily affected area. An example was provided by a case of Huntington's chorea patient who showed a markedly decreased 18 FDG uptake in the striatal region in spite that 13 N-ammonia visualized this area. (4) Dementia gives another field where the 18 FDG and 15 O 2 studies are demonstrated to be quite useful. (5) The 18 FDG studies on the intrinsic psychoses are also reviewed. But consistent results seemed to be very difficult in this area by using labeled sugars and oxygens which are nonspecific gray matter imagers. Therefore, new tracers and new techniques in positron emission tomography are briefly described in the latter part of this paper. (author)

  9. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  10. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons; Modelisation de l'emission d'annihilation des positrons Galactiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, W

    2008-01-15

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  11. Axillary artery thrombus and infective endocarditis in lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease, often associated with severe infection. A female patient was referred for surgical treatment of infective endocarditis after being treated for systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. She developed symptoms of left axillary artery occlusion before heart operation. Bulky fungal hyphae were noted on pathological examination of the surgically removed thrombi. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery after receiving high doses of antibiotics and subsequent mitral valve replacement. Either infective endocarditis or fungal thrombi may be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus and impaired renal function.

  12. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  13. Exploring spatial overlap of high-uptake regions derived from dual tracer positron emission tomography-computer tomography imaging using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-fluorodeoxythymidine in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Li, Chengqiang; Hu, Man; Lu, Jie; Shi, Xiaorong; Xing, Ligang; Sun, Xindong; Fu, Zheng; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2015-05-01

    Interest is growing in radiotherapy to nonuniformly boost radioresistant regions within nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using molecular imaging techniques. The complexity of tumor behavior is beyond the ability of any single radiotracer to reveal. We hold dual tracer positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorodeoxythymidine (FLT) for NSCLC patients to offer an integrated overlook of tumor biological behaviors quantitatively and localizationally, which may help biological target volume delineation and subvolume boost.Pathological confirmed that NSCLC patients were eligible. FDG and FLT PET/CT were performed for each patient before anticancer treatment and coregistrated for analysis. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were calculated automatically. Metabolic volumes (MVs) were delineated by a fixed 50% of SUVmax in FDG PET/CT and proliferative volumes (PVs) were delineated by 50% to 90% of SUVmax with 10% interval in FLT PET/CT. Overlap ratio (OR) were determined as overlapped volume between MV and PV divided PV. Conventional contrast-enhanced CT-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with and without additional PET/CT-guided subtarget boost were made for each of the 5 typical NSCLC patients. Dosimetric parameters derived from dose-volume histogram, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of lung, esophagus, heart, and spinal cord were calculated and compared.Thirty-one patients were prospectively included and 23 were selected for analysis. Totally, 23 primary diseases, 41 metastatic lymph nodes, and 15 metastatic lesions were positive in dual PET/CTs and included for analysis. Median ORs increased from 58.61% to 93.12% under thresholds of 50% of SUVmax in FDG PET/CT and increased thresholds from 50% to 90% of SUVmax in FLT PET/CT. Based on conventional IMRT, additional boost to union of high FDG (determined by 50

  14. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  15. Development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses as affected by bud age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of axillary bud age on the development and potential for growth of the bud into a shoot was studied in roses. Age of the buds occupying a similar position on the plant varied from 'subtending leaf just unfolded' up to 1 year later. With increasing age of the axillary bud its dry mass,

  16. Breast-axillary complex in HIV/AIDS patients | Eni | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient on HAART had a hard breast-axillary mass complex. Biopsy (FNAB) revealed inflammatory cells and no malignancy in all three cases. HIV screening was positive in all cases. One of the patients had excision of breast-axillary mass complex, and the histology showed features of chronic inflammation, with no ...

  17. Acute traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation complicated by axillary nerve damage: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    An elite soccer player presented with a classic acute anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint complicated by axillary nerve damage. The incidence, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, conservative treatment and rehabilitation of the anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation and associated axillary nerve damage are discussed in this paper.

  18. Surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve branches to the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Teerawutthichaikit, Tanawit; Witoonchart, Kiat; Uerpairojkit, Chairoj; Malungpaishrope, Kanchai; Suppauksorn, Sunikom; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the innervation of the posterior deltoid muscle by the anterior branch of the axillary nerve have been reported. The objective of this study is to clarify the anatomy of the axillary nerve branches to the deltoid muscle. One hundred and twenty-nine arms (68 right and 61 left) from 88 embalmed cadavers (83 male and 46 female) were included in the study. The anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve were identified and their lengths were measured from the point of emergence from the axillary nerve to their terminations in the deltoid muscle. In all cases, the axillary nerves split into two branches (anterior and posterior) within the quadrangular space and none split within the deltoid muscle. In all specimens, the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid muscle received their nerve supplies from the anterior branch of the axillary nerve. The posterior part of the deltoid muscle was supplied only by the anterior branch of the axillary nerve in 2.3% of the specimens, from the posterior branch in 8.5%, and from both branches in 89.1%. There were two sub-branches of the anterior branch in 4.7% of the specimens. The anterior branch of the axillary nerve supplied not only the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid muscle but also the posterior part in most cases (91.5%). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Axillary Nerve Reconstruction: Anterior-Posterior Exposure With Sural Nerve Cable Graft Pull-Through Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Heather L; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-12-01

    Deltoid paralysis after axillary nerve injury results in limitations in shoulder function and stability. In the setting of an isolated axillary nerve injury with no clinical or electromyographic evidence of recovery that is within 6 to 9 months postinjury, the authors' preferred technique to reinnervate the deltoid is to reconstruct the axillary nerve with sural nerve grafting. Intraoperative neuromuscular electrophysiology is critical to determine the continuity of the axillary nerve before proceeding with reconstruction. The majority of the time, both an anterior and posterior incision and dissection of the axillary nerve is required to adequately delineate the zone of injury. This also ensures that both proximally and distally, uninjured axillary nerve is present before graft inset and also facilitates the ability to perform a meticulous microsurgical inset of the nerve graft posteriorly. The nerve graft must be pulled through from posterior to anterior to span the zone of injury and reconstruct the axillary nerve. Careful infraclavicular brachial plexus dissection is necessary to prevent further injury to components of the brachial plexus in the setting of a scarred bed. Patients will require postoperative therapy to prevent limitations in shoulder range of motion secondary to postoperative stiffness. This paper presents a detailed surgical technique for axillary nerve reconstruction by an anterior-posterior approach with a pull-through technique of a sural nerve cable graft.

  20. Sentence comprehension and word repetition : A positron emission tomography investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Zwarts, F.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography, visual presentation of sentences was shown to cause increased regional cerebral blood flow relative to word Lists in the left lateral anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, attributable to cognitive processes that occur during sentence comprehension in

  1. Positron Annihilation in a Rubber Modified Epoxy Resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Jacobsen, F. M.; Pethrick, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Positron annihilation data is reported on a rubber-modified epoxy resin. Studies of the temperature dependence of the o-positronium lifetime indicated the existence of three distinct regions; the associated transition temperatures by comparison with dilatometric data can be ascribed respectively...

  2. Is positron annihilation in polyamide 6 affected by morphology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Debowska, M.; Piglowski, J.; Slusarczyk, C.; Schmidt, Pavel; Rudzinska-Girulska, J.; Suzuki, T.; Yu, R.; Binias, W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 132, SI (2005), s. 64-68 ISSN 1230-3666. [International Conference on X-Ray Investigation of Polymer Structure /6./. Bielsko-Biala, 08.12.2004-11.12.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyamide 6 * crystalline regions * positron annihilation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.397, year: 2005

  3. Mammographic characterization of breast cancer associated with axillary lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharee Hongsmatip

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe mammographic characterization of breast cancer associated with axillary lymph node metastasis at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Methods: The data were collected retrospectively from female patients with breast cancers who underwent breast surgery and axillary node dissection at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011. One hundred and ninety histopathologically proven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC were randomly recruited; consisted of ninety-five patients with axillary lymph node metastasis and the rest of patients without axillary lymph node metastasis. All patients were reviewed their mammograms with additional ultrasounds and correlation between each mammographic characteristic and ipsilateral node involvement was analyzed, using P-value (P, Odd ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: Mammographic characterization associated with the highest risk of axillary node metastasis was malignant pattern of ipsilateral axillary node (P < 0.001; OR = 44.53; 95% CI = 13.10 - 151.37 with following by intermediate pattern of ipsilateral axillary node (P = 0.002; OR=5.18; 95% CI = 1.79 - 15.04. The other characteristics in descending orders for associated with axillary node involvement are upper outer quadrant tumors associated risk of ipsilateral axillary node involvement (P = 0.02; OR = 3.36; 95% CI = 1.23 - 9.14 and size of breast cancer by additional ultrasound (P = 0.04; OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.02-2.17. There was no association between risk of axillary node involvement and the rest of mammographic findings, including microcalcification of the tumor, vascularity of the tumor and size of axillary node. Conclusions: The highest predictive risk of axillary node metastasis in breast cancer was malignant axillary node pattern. The moderate risk was intermediate axillary node pattern and the lower risks were the tumor located in upper outer quadrant and increased tumor

  4. Images to visualize the brain. PET: Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis instrument and research tool, Positron Emission Tomography permits advanced technological developments on positron camera, on molecule labelling and principally on very complex 3D image processing. Cyceron Centre in Caen-France works on brain diseases and try to understand the mechanism of observed troubles and to assess the treatment efficiency with PET. Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot of CEA-France establishes a mapping of cognitive functions in PET as vision areas, anxiety regions, brain organization of language, different attention forms, voluntary actions and motor functions

  5. Positron annihilation study on defects in ion-implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, T.; Fujinami, M.; Sawada, T.

    2003-01-01

    Two-detector coincidence measurements of the Doppler broadened annihilation spectra with a variable energy positron beam are carried out for the study of the annealing behavior of Si implanted with As, P, Cu and H ions. In P-implanted Si, growth of the defect complexes are observed in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra up to 400degC. In Cu-implanted Si, the formation of defect-Cu complexes is indicated. In H-implanted Si, the passivation effect of hydrogen on positron traps are observed in the low temperature region up to 400degC. (author)

  6. Axillary Artery Injury Associated with Proximal Humerus Fracture: A Report of 6 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne M. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common, but associated injury of the axillary artery is uncommon. The majority of published blunt traumatic axillary artery injuries are associated with anterior glenohumeral dislocation; a few are associated with isolated proximal humerus fractures or fracture-dislocation. Experience within our institution demonstrates that axillary artery injury is often unrecognized on initial presentation owing to palpable peripheral pulses and the absence of ischemia and places the hand at risk of necrosis and amputation if there is prolonged ischemia and the forearm at risk of compartment syndrome after revascularization. Accurate physical examination in combination with a low threshold for Doppler examination or angiography can establish the diagnosis of axillary artery injury. We present 6 cases of axillary artery injury associated with proximal humerus fractures in order to highlight the potential for this vascular injury in the setting of a proximal humerus fracture.

  7. Study of a positron generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazuo; Enomoto, A.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kamitani, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Takei, H.; Emoto, T.; Tani, S.

    1998-03-01

    In the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the following are examined as part of an application technology using a high power electron linac: monochromatic gamma ray sources, free electron lasers, and intense positron sources. This report presents the study of an intense positron source, which has been developed jointly by High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and PNC. In this report, we describe following items for an adaptive estimate of a superconducting magnet in order to efficiently converge a positron beam. (1) The cryostat which included the superconducting magnet is manufactured. (2) An excitement test of the superconducting magnet is carried out with a magnetic substance such as the electromagnet yoke. (author)

  8. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  9. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  10. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Alexandre; Ferraro, Leonardo Henrique Cunha; Rezende, André Hosoi; Sadatsune, Eduardo Jun; Falcão, Luiz Fernando dos Reis; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90) of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous). The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability) or the same concentration (0.9 probability). Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤ 2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4h after the blockade. MEC90 was 0.241% [R(2): 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4h. This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of two bupivacaine concentrations on axillary brachial plexus block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Leonardo H C; Takeda, Alexandre; Barreto, Cleber N; Faria, Bernadete; Assunção, Nilson A

    The risk of systemic bupivacaine toxicity is a persistent problem, which makes its pharmacokinetic study fundamental for regional anesthesia safety. There is little evidence of its influence on plasma peak at different concentrations. The present study compares two bupivacaine concentrations to establish how the concentration affects this drug plasma peak in axillary brachial plexus block. Postoperative latency and analgesia were also compared. 30 patients were randomized. In the 0.25% Group, 0.25% bupivacaine (10mL) was injected per nerve. In the 0.5% Group, 0.5% bupivacaine (5mL) was injected per nerve. Peripheral blood samples were collected during the first 2hours after the blockade. For sample analyses, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used. Plasma peak occurred 45minutes after the blockade, with no difference between groups at the assessed time-points. Plasma peak was 933.97 ± 328.03 ng.mL -1 (mean ± SD) in 0.25% Group and 1022.79 ± 253.81 ng.mL -1 in 0.5% Group (p = 0.414). Latency was lower in 0.5% Group than in 0.25% Group (10.67 ± 3.71 × 17.33min ± 5.30, respectively, p = 0.004). No patient had pain within the first 4hours after the blockade. For axillary brachial plexus block, there was no difference in bupivacaine plasma peak despite the use of different concentrations with the same local anesthetic mass. The concentration inversely influenced latency. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

  13. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years. After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus.

  14. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria.

  15. Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Peros, George; Cataliotti, Luigi; Vlastos, George

    2006-11-01

    Lymphedema is a relatively common, potentially serious and unpleased complication after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer. It may be associated with functional, esthetic, and psychological problems, thereby affecting the quality-of-life (QOL) of breast cancer survivors. Objective measurements (preferentially by measuring arm volumes or arm circumferences at predetermined sites) are required to identify lymphedema, but also subjective assessment can help to determine the clinical significance of any volume/circumference differences. Lymphedema per se predisposes to the development of other secondary complications, such as infections of the upper limb, psychological sequelae, development of malignant tumors, alterations of the QOL, etc. The risk of lymphedema is associated with the extent of ALND and the addition of axillary radiation therapy. Treatment involves the application of therapeutic measures of the so-called decongestive lymphatic therapy. Prevention is of key importance to avoid lymphedema formation. The application of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of breast cancer has been associated with a reduced incidence of lymphedema formation.

  16. Effects of shoulder position on axillary nerve positions during the split lateral deltoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sunny; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Lee, Thay Q

    2009-01-01

    The axillary nerve may be injured during percutaneous fixation of proximal humerus fractures. This study investigated the kinematic behavior of the superior and inferior borders of the axillary nerve under varying shoulder positions. This information may reduce iatrogenic neurologic injury during fracture reduction and hardware placement. The lateral deltoid approach was performed on 7 fresh frozen shoulders. The inferior and superior borders of the axillary nerve were tagged. Screws were placed in the anterior, middle, and posterior acromion as landmarks. Three-dimensional distances of the inferior and superior border of the nerve were measured to the mid-acromion while the shoulder was placed in combinations of forward flexion, vertical abduction, and humeral rotation. The distances were compared by repeated measures ANOVA statistical analysis. The distance from the mid-acromion to the superior border of the axillary nerve was 66.6 mm (+/-5.7), and to the inferior axillary nerve was 75.7 mm (+/-5.8) with the shoulder in neutral position. Vertical abduction to 60 degrees significantly moved the superior and inferior borders of the axillary nerve to a distance of 53.9 (+/-7.7) and 61.6 mm (+/-8.1), respectively (P axillary nerve (P > 0.5). The longest distance from the mid-acromion to the inferior border of the axillary nerve was 86 mm with the arm forward flexed. The main determinant of axillary nerve position with respect to the acromion is vertical abduction. Axillary nerve position is essentially unaffected by varying degrees of humeral rotation and forward flexion. Vertical glenohumeral abduction to 60 degrees is required to move the nerve significantly closer to the acromion.

  17. Positron emission tomography in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current and potential uses of positron emission tomography in clinical medicine and research related to oncology. Assessment will be possible of metabolism and physiology of tumors and their effects on adjacent tissues. Specific probes are likely to be developed for target sites on tumors, including monoclonal antibodies and specific growth factors that recognize tumors. To date, most oncological applications of positron emission tomography tracers have been qualitative; in the future, quantitative metabolic measurements should aid in the evaluation of tumor biology and response to treatment

  18. Micrometer positron beam characterization at the Scanning Positron Microscope Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteneder, J.; Dickmann, M.; Kögel, G.; Egger, W.; Sperr, P.; Dollinger, G.

    2017-01-01

    For the investigation of inhomogeneous defect distributions the Scanning Positron Microscope (SPM) of the Universität der Bundeswehr München provides a pulsed positron beam with a diameter of about 1 µm and a time resolution of 250 ps (FWHM). To increase the count-rate the SPM is currently transferred to the intense positron source NEPOMUC. To connect the SPM to the NEPOMUC source a special interface was build, which transforms the NEPOMUC beam to the requirements of the SPM. In this contribution we will give an overview of the SPM interface, and its performance. The beam is characterized at the finale stage of the interface, the positron elevator, where the potential energy of the beam is increased, without altering other beam parameters. From our measurements we are able to predict the performance of the SPM at NEPOMUC. In future position resolved measurements will be possible with an improved spatial resolution of about 0.3 µm and an event rate of about 3.7 kHz.

  19. Dynamic positron emission tomography for study of cerebral hemodynamics in a cross section of the head using positron-emitting 68Ga-EDTA and 77Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.; Meyer, E.; Robertson, J.S.; Feindel, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomographic studies were performed on over 120 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, arteriovenous malformations, and brain tumors, using the positron section scanner, consisting of a ring of 32 scintillation detectors. The radiopharmaceuticals were nondiffusible 68 Ga-EDTA for transit time and uptake studies and the diffusible tracer, 77 Kr, for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow studies in every square centimeter of the cross section of the head. The results of dynamic positron emission tomography in correlation with the results from the gamma scintillation camera dynamic studies and computed tomography (CT) scans are discussed

  20. Studies of positron induced luminescence from polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.; Tolk, N.H.

    1994-01-01

    Light emission from polymers (anthracene dissolved in polystryrene) induced by low-energy positrons and electrons has been studied. Results indicate a clear difference between optical emissions under positron and electron bombardment. The positron-induced luminescence spectrum is believed to be generated by both collisional and annihilation processes

  1. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES THESIS Edward C. Schneider...United States Government. AFIT-ENP-14-M-33 POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES THESIS...33 POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES Edward C. Schneider, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  2. Study on low-energy positron polarimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    degree of polarisation close to the positron creation point is desired. In this contribution, methods for ... The spin is transferred to the pair-produced electrons and positrons. The positrons are captured right behind .... to be separated from Mott scattering and annihilation in flight processes. Analysing only final-state electrons ...

  3. WORKSHOP: Electron-positron mystery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokemeyer, H.; Mueller, B.

    1989-01-01

    The tightly correlated electron-positron pairs seen in experiments at the GSI Darmstadt heavy ion Laboratory and elsewhere have yet to be explained. New particle or new effect? The question was highlighted at a recent Moriond workshop held at Les Arcs in the French Alps in January

  4. Axillary Ultrasound and Laser Combined With Postisometric Facilitation in Treatment of Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhafez, Haytham M; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare axillary ultrasound, laser, and postisometric facilitation technique with standard care in the management of shoulder adhesive capsulitis. This is a randomized clinical trial study. Fifty-nine participants with shoulder adhesive capsulitis were selected and randomly assigned for eligibility. Forty-five participants were assigned into 3 equal groups of 15, and 14 participants were excluded from the study. The participants were blinded to their group allocation. Standard care group (A) received traditional physical therapy treatment in the form of pulsed ultrasound, scanning laser, supervised exercise program, and home exercise program; group B received the same physical therapy program as group A, except that the ultrasound and scanning laser were applied to the axillary region of the painful shoulder; and group C received the same modified physical therapy program as group B plus postisometric facilitation technique to the painful shoulder. All dependent variables were measured by the second author, who was blinded to the participant's intervention group. The first author administered treatment to all 3 groups. All participants received 12 sessions (3 times/wk for 4 weeks). Pain level and shoulder range of motion (ROM; flexion, abduction, and external rotation) were recorded 3 times (pretreatment, immediately posttreatment, and 4 weeks of treatment). Mixed-design multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant pain reduction with significant ROM increase in all groups posttreatment and after 4 weeks. Post hoc analysis for within groups revealed that shoulder ROM and pain levels improved significantly posttreatment compared with pretreatment ROM in all groups, with the greatest improvement in group C. Between-group analysis revealed that pain-free shoulder flexion, abduction, external rotation, and pain level improved significantly in group C compared with groups A and B immediately after treatment and after 4 weeks

  5. Outcomes Following Closed Axillary Nerve Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Joseph W; Eichinger, Josef K

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old male who sustained an axillary nerve injury secondary to a glenohumeral joint dislocation at a young age, and who has served over 20 years in the military with near normal shoulder function. In addition, we review the literature for the natural history of axillary nerve injury. A 43-year-old male sustained a left anterior glenohumeral dislocation in a motor vehicle accident as an 18-year-old. Following prompt manual reduction and subsequent physical therapy, the patient developed a permanent axillary nerve palsy. Despite the development of complete atrophy of his deltoid musculature and persistent sensory loss in the axillary nerve distribution, he experienced restoration of function with minimal to no deficit. Ultimately, he enlisted in the military 4 years after the injury and has served 22 years, which includes combat deployments with normal shoulder function and absence of pain. Axillary nerve injury is a relatively common injury after anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation. There is little known about the long-term outcome of patient's with permanent axillary nerve injury. This case suggests that it is possible for a young athletic individual to function at a high level of activity after permanent loss of axillary nerve function. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Injury to the axillary nerve after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lädermann, A; Stimec, B V; Denard, P J; Cunningham, G; Collin, P; Fasel, J H D

    2014-02-01

    Subclinical neurological lesions after reverse shoulder arthroplasty are frequent, mainly those involving the axillary nerve. One of the major reported risk factors is postoperative lengthening of the arm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical relationship between the axillary nerve and prosthetic components after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The study hypothesis was that inferior overhang of the glenosphere relative to glenoid could put this nerve at risk. Eleven fresh frozen shoulder specimens were dissected after having undergone reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a classic deltopectoral approach. The mean distance from the inferior border of the glenoid to the inferior edge of the glenosphere was 6.0±4.3mm (range, 1.0 to 16.2mm). The axillary nerve was never closer than 15mm to the glenosphere. The main anterior branch of the axillary nerve was in close contact with the posterior metaphysis or humeral prosthetic implant. The mean distance between the nerve and the humeral implants was 5.2±2.1mm (range, 2.0 to 8.1mm). The proximity of the axillary nerve to the posterior metaphysis or humeral implants may be a risk factor for axillary nerve injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. This study quantifies the proximity of the axillary nerve to the implant after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Basic science study, cadaver study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on CT in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas

    2005-01-01

    Radiographic demonstration of mediastinal lymphadenopathy is important for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Plain radiographs are unreliable for this and CT, which is relatively more expensive and carries a high radiation burden, remains the gold standard. No studies correlating the presence of axillary with mediastinal lymphadenopathy have been reported. Such a correlation would allow for clinical or ultrasound diagnosis of PTB via the axilla. To correlate the presence of axillary lymphadenopathy with mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children with suspected PTB. CT scans were performed and reviewed in 100 children (prospectively recruited) with suspected PTB. The axilla and mediastinum were reviewed separately by covering the non-relevant sections on the CT scans prior to reading. Only nodes greater than 1 cm were regarded as pathological. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was present in 46% of children; 70% had lymphadenopathy in either axilla. Bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy was identified in 47%. Axillary lymphadenopathy showed a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 33% for the presence of mediastinal adenopathy. Bilateral axillary adenopathy had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 56%. Axillary lymphadenopathy has a moderate sensitivity and low specificity for the presence of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy in children with suspected PTB. Further research should be aimed at correlating ultrasound-detected axillary lymphadenopathy with FNA results in children. (orig.)

  8. The relationship of proximal locking screws to the axillary nerve during antegrade humeral nail insertion of four commercially available implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Edward J; Breien, Kristoffer M; Fehringer, Edward V; Mormino, Matthew A

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proximity of proximal interlocking mechanisms in 4 current antegrade humeral nails to the axillary nerve and its branches. Cadaveric study. Anatomy laboratory. Anatomic relationships. Four humeral nail designs (labeled SS, SL, SZ, and SN) were each inserted in successive antegrade fashion in 10 cadaveric upper extremity specimens. Three variables were measured: from acromion to the axillary nerve, from acromion to entry sites of proximal locking devices, and from locking devices to axillary nerves and their branches. In nail SS, the proximally directed oblique locking screw came into contact with the ascending branch of the axillary nerve in 6 of 10 specimens. Mean distance from spiral blades in nails SS and SL were 26 mm to the axillary nerve and 16 mm to its ascending branch. Interlocking screws for nails SZ, SN, and SL did not violate the axillary nerve or its branches in any specimen. Mean distance from lateral acromion to the axillary nerve measured 58.7 mm. Nail SS's oblique locking screw may injure the ascending branch of the axillary nerve. Three of the 4 nails tested did not endanger the axillary nerve. However, when transverse proximal locking screws are inserted from a lateral-to-medial direction, they may endanger an arborized axillary nerve. Blunt dissection should be performed with a visible path to bone before instrumentation to reduce the risk of axillary nerve injury. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  9. The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.; Pavlov, V.N.; Sidorin, A.O.; Yakovenko, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons based on the 22 Na isotope has been designed and constructed at JINR. Positrons emitted from radioactive source 22 Na have a very broad energy spectrum up to 0.5 MeV. To generate monochromatic beam of slow positrons the solid neon is used as a moderator. The solid neon allows forming slow positron beam of the energy of 1.2 eV at the spectrum width of 1 eV. The efficiency of moderation is 1 % of total positron flux

  10. Positron Annihilation in Carbon Nanotubes Studied by Coincidence Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, H.; Sato, K.; Kanazawa, I.; Sano, M.

    2008-05-01

    In order to assign the sites of positron annihilation, coincidence Doppler broadening spectra were measured for a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal, graphite powder, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MNTs) and cup-stacked carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The spectrum for graphite powder normalized to that for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is almost flat in the momentum region from 7×10-3 to 13×10-3 mec, having a ratio close to unity. The flat spectrum demonstrates that positrons injected into graphite powder annihilate in the interlayer spaces of piled graphite sheets, in the same manner as positrons in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite annihilate in the bulk. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectra for MNTs and CNTs are quite different from that for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which indicates that positrons injected into MNTs and CYTs annihilate not in the bulk, but on surface. The positron lifetime spectrum for multi-walled carbon nanotubes is analyzed in terms of a single component due to surface-trapped positrons, while that for CNTs is decomposed into three components attributable to para-positronium surface-trapped positrons and ortho-positronium. The difference between the coincidence Doppler broadening spectrum for CNTs and that for MNTs is explained in terms of positron annihilation on zigzag surfaces of CNTs which are composed of both graphite-sheet and graphite-edge planes.

  11. The Positron Emission Tomography. A diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, P.

    2001-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a new imaging modality, which is able to assess non-invasively the biochemical mechanisms, underlying physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo in humans. The technique relies on the administration of radioactive tracers labeled with short-lived positron emitters, which need to be produced on site via a particle accelerator (cyclotron). Radionuclides are produced upon request and formulated into biologically active organic molecules having precise pharmacokinetics and specificity. The radiotracer can be detected by the PET scanner and represented as tomographic sections (images of body sections) showing its regional distribution and concentration. This makes it possible to address clinical questions concerning occurrence and evolution of many diseases as well as their response to therapy. The ability to image (measure) biological processes and not only anatomy enables PET to explore diseases in the very early stage, including those diseases which are not related to modifications of organ structure (e.g. psychiatric diseases, metabolic disorders, biochemical disfunction). PET plays a major role, in conjunction with the other imaging modalities, to improve diagnosis capabilities and disease mechanism understanding [it

  12. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra

  13. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis: combination of the starch-iodine test with the tumescent liposuction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, J M

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate and permanently improve axillary hyperhidrosis. Excessive sweating of the axillae is a common problem for which patients frequently seek dermatologic advice and therapy. Many treatments, including aluminum chloride, topical and systemic anticholinergic agents, tranquilizers, iontophoresis, direct surgical excision, botulinum toxin injection, and thoracic sympathectomy, have been employed to control this problem. All have drawbacks of one sort or another. The starch-iodine technique for delineation of preoperative and postoperative axillary sweating is described in detail. A method of sweat gland removal utilizing tumescent liposuction is discussed. The combination of the starch-iodine technique and tumescent liposuction is safe and effective for therapy of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  14. First on-line positron experiments en route to pair-plasma creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanja, Juliane; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Stenson, Eve V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Niemann, Holger; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Saitoh, Haruhiko [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); The University of Tokyo (Japan); Stoneking, Matthew R. [Lawrence University (United States); Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Piochacz, Christian [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schweikhard, Lutz [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Electron-positron plasmas are predicted to show a fundamentally different behavior from traditional ion-electron plasmas, because of the equal masses of the two species. Using up to 10{sup 9} positrons per second provided by the NEPOMUC (Neutron-Induced Positron Source Munich) facility, the APEX/PAX team aims to create the first such plasma confined in a toroidal magnetic trap. Positron beam parameters as well as efficient injection and confinement schemes for both species in toroidal geometries are fundamental to the project. In this contribution we present results from first on-line positron experiments. Besides characterizing the NEPOMUC beam we conducted positron injection experiments into a dipole magnetic field configuration. Using static electric fields, a 5-eV positron beam was transported across magnetic field lines into the confinement region. With this method, up to 38% of the incoming particles reach the confinement region and make at least a 180 revolution around the magnet. Under dedicated experimental conditions confinement on the order of 1 ms was realized.

  15. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  16. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  17. PEBS - Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, P.; Kirn, T.; Yearwood, G.Roper; Schael, S.

    2007-01-01

    The best measurement of the cosmic ray positron flux available today was performed by the HEAT balloon experiment more than 10 years ago. Given the limitations in weight and power consumption for balloon experiments, a novel approach was needed to design a detector which could increase the existing data by more than a factor of 100. Using silicon photomultipliers for the readout of a scintillating fiber tracker and of an imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, the PEBS detector features a large geometrical acceptance of 2500 cm^2 sr for positrons, a total weight of 1500 kg and a power consumption of 600 W. The experiment is intended to measure cosmic ray particle spectra for a period of up to 20 days at an altitude of 40 km circulating the North or South Pole. A full Geant 4 simulation of the detector concept has been developed and key elements have been verified in a testbeam in October 2006 at CERN.

  18. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  19. Positrons in biomolecular systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, J.C.; Graf, G.; Costabal, H.; Ewert, D.H.; English, L.

    1982-01-01

    Pickoff-annihilation parameters, as related to the free volume model, are shown to be indicators of structural fluctuations in membranes and membrane bound proteins. Nitrous oxide anesthetic induces lateral rigidity in a membrane, and an anesthetic mechanism is suggested. Conformational changes of (Na + ,K + )ATPase in natural membrane are observed with ATP and Mg-ion binding. New positron applications to active transport and photosynthetic systems are suggested. (Auth.)

  20. Is axillary sonographic staging less accurate in invasive lobular breast cancer than in ductal breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaye, Prashant; Chhatani, Sharmila; Porter, Gareth; Steel, Jim; Doyle, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether axillary sonography is less accurate in invasive lobular breast cancer than in ductal breast cancer. Patients with invasive breast cancer were retrospectively identified from histologic records from 2010 to 2012. Staging axillary sonograms from 96 patients with primary breast cancer in each of 2 subgroups, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), were reviewed. Preoperative sonographically guided 14-gauge core biopsy was performed on morphologically abnormal lymph nodes. Thirty-one of 96 patients (32%) in each subgroup were node positive on final postoperative histopathologic analysis. Axillary staging sensitivity was 17 of 31 patients (54%) in the IDC subgroup and 15 of 31(48%) in the ILC subgroup. Further analysis of the data showed no statistically significant differences between these subgroups. We found that there was no statistically significant difference in the accuracy of axillary sonographic staging between ILC and IDC. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. The surgical importance of an axillary arch in sentinel node biopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2011-03-01

    When Carl Langer described the aberrant axillary arch in 1846 its relevance in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) surgery could not have been contemplated. The authors define an incidence and elucidate relevance of the arch in SNB of the axilla.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography of the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PCT) represents an important new tool for the noninvasive evaluation and, more importantly, quantification of myocardial performance. Most currently available techniques permit assessment of only one aspect of cardiac function, i.e., myocardial perfusion by gamma scintillation camera imaging with Thallium-201 or left ventricular function by echocardiography or radionuclide angiocardiography. With PCT it may become possible to study all three major segments of myocardial performance, i.e., regional blood flow, mechanical function and, most importantly, myocardial metabolism. Each of these segments can either be evaluated separately or in combination. This report briefly describes the principles and technological advantages of the imaging device, reviews currently available radioactive tracers and how they can be employed for the assessment of flow, function and metabolism; and, lastly, discusses possible applications of PCT for the study of cardiac physiology or its potential role in the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

  3. Progress towards a practical multicell positron trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, J. R. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States); Hurst, N. C.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Described here is progress in an experimental program to develop a 21 cell multicell trap for the accumulation and storage of {approx} 10{sup 12} positrons. The basic architecture is an arrangement of multiple Penning-Malmberg (PM) trapped plasmas (i.e., cells) arranged in parallel in a common vacuum system and magnetic field. Experiments are described that are intended to address several key issues, including the effects of large space charge potentials and high plasma densities on: plasma heating, deterioration of confinement, and decreased efficiency of rotating electric fields in producing plasma compression. The confinement of PM plasmas displaced both radially and toward the ends of the uniform magnetic field region will also be investigated.

  4. Positron emission tomography of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PCT) represents an important new tool for the noninvasive evaluation and, more importantly, quantification of myocardial performance. Most currently available techniques permit assessment of only one aspect of cardiac function, i.e., myocardial perfusion by gamma scintillation camera imaging with Thallium-201 or left ventricular function by echocardiography or radionuclide angiocardiography. With PCT it may become possible to study all three major segments of myocardial performance, i.e., regional blood flow, mechanical function and, most importantly, myocardial metabolism. Each of these segments can either be evaluated separately or in combination. This report briefly describes the principles and technological advantages of the imaging device, reviews currently available radioactive tracers and how they can be employed for the assessment of flow, function and metabolism; and, lastly, discusses possible applications of PCT for the study of cardiac physiology or its potential role in the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

  5. Applications of positron emission tomography to psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Brodie, J.D.; Gomez-mont, F.

    1985-01-01

    The brain's inaccessibility has hampered investigation of the metabolic changes underlying the behavioral and psychological symptoms of psychiatric patients. Using positron emission transaxial tomography (PET) to study the functioning human brain opens the possibility of directly investigating the patterns of activity associated with mental illness. A major focus of present-day research in psychiatry has been to identify etiological agents that fit a medical model of psychiatric illness. Experiments seeking pathophysiological indices that would permit objective classification of psychiatric illnesses have failed to reveal consistent abnormalities. The lack of consistency is explained in part by research designs that deal with the brain as if it were a homogeneous organ. PET offers a unique technique for monitoring the regional biochemical activity that is associated with the different ''brain states'' and ''brain traits'' of normal subjects and psychiatric patients

  6. A comparative study of thoracoscopic sympathicotomy versus local surgical treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Erik; Licht, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 1.4% of the population. Medical management is often frustrating, and the response generally transient. Surgical methods include thoracoscopic sympathectomy or sympathicotomy and local axillary surgery such as suction-curettage or en-bloc skin resection....... Many case series with retrospective follow-up are available in the literature, but no comparative studies between surgical techniques have been published....

  7. Axillary lymph node tuberculosis masquerading as inflammatory breast carcinoma in an immune-compromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Vani, B R; Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-02-01

    While tuberculosis is still the leading opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is more common than pulmonary tuberculosis, with lymph nodes being a common site. Axillary lymph node pathology such as tuberculosis and lymphoma rarely mimics inflammatory breast carcinoma by producing lymphatic obstruction. We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis in a 40-year-old immune-compromised woman, clinically presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Tuberculosis and metastatic carcinoma coexistence in axillary lymph node: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandramohan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coexistence of cancer and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes is rare. Only seven cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report We report here a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast metastasizing to the axillary lymph node along with tubercular granuloma in the same lymph node without primary mammary or pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion Primary tuberculosis coexisting with carcinoma is of rare occurrence. A possibility should always be borne in mind especially in patients from endemic areas.

  9. MIPO of proximal humerus fractures through an anterolateral acromial approach. Is the axillary nerve at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Josip; Mihalj, Mario; Čukelj, Fabijan; Ivanišević, Arsen

    2017-11-01

    It is known that shoulder surgery may cause iatrogenic injury to the axillary nerve as a serious complication, but there is little evidence to indicate whether the axillary nerve is at risk of injury during an anterolateral acromial approach for minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) of proximal humerus fractures. We hypothesised that this surgical method is safe for the axillary nerve and would preserve it from iatrogenic injury. We conducted a prospective follow-up cohort study on 49 consecutive patients with proximal humerus fractures who were managed with MIPO through an anterolateral approach. All patients underwent standardised electroneurographic testing, with assessment of amplitudes of evoked compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) and distal motor latencies (DML) of the axillary nerves, pre- and post-operatively. Six weeks after injury, all patients underwent needle electromyographic (EMG) testing of anterior, middle, posterior deltoid, teres minor and paraspinal muscles for detecting abnormal muscle activity as a sign of acute denervation. After six months of physical rehabilitation, patients with axillary nerve injury underwent control electroneurographic testing to check the recovery of neurographic features (CMAP, DML). All nerve measurements were compared to reference values, and between right and left side. Five patients had a mild-to-moderate traumatic axillary nerve injury before surgery. There were no significant differences between amplitudes of CMAP (p = 0.575) and DML (p = 0.857) pre- and post-surgical procedure. These results confirmed safety of this surgical method in the preservation of axillary nerve from iatrogenic injury, but the course of the axillary nerve must be kept in mind. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Konarik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery was encountered and described in a left upper limb of a male cadaver. A series of 214 upper limbs of Caucasian race was dissected. A variant artery, stemming from the very end of the axillary artery followed a superficial course distally. It passed the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm as usual radial artery, crossed ventrally to the palm and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of the brachioradial artery (incorrectly termed as the “radial artery with high origin”. Moreover, it was associated with another variation, concerning the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is essential for radiodiagnostic, surgical and traumatologic procedures. The superficially located artery brings an elevated danger of heavy bleeding in all unexpected situations, its variant branching can cause problems in radial catheterization procedures and the anomalously coursing other arterial variant poses an elevated danger in surgical procedures concerning the surgical neck of humerus.

  11. Tumescent suction curettage in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis: experience in 63 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis is a common and most distressing problem, which can be addressed by a variety of treatment modalities. To assess the value of tumescent suction curettage in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. 63 patients (39 female, 25 male; mean age 30.3 +/- 7.6 years) with axillary hyperhidrosis were enrolled in the study. All patients were treated in an outpatient setting with tumescent suction curettage of the axillary cavity, using two entry sites. The results were evaluated with the iodine-starch test after 4 weeks and after 6 months. Two years after the procedure, patient satisfaction was evaluated as 'satisfied', 'partially satisfied' or 'dissatisfied'. None of the patients had early postoperative complications of infection or seroma. All patients had a marked reduction of hyperhidrosis after 4 weeks, confirmed by the iodine-starch test. After 6 months, 15 patients had high sweat rates and asked for repeat surgery. Two years after the procedure, 49 patients were satisfied, 11 patients were partially satisfied and 3 patients were dissatisfied. Tumescent suction curettage is a safe and effective treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis resulting in a high level of patient satisfaction. Some patients will need repeat surgery. Suction curettage, however, should not be used as the first line of treatment in axillary hyperhidrosis.

  12. Injury of the axillary nerve subsequent to recurrence of shoulder dislocation. Clinical and electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumina, S; Bertino, A; Di Giorgio, G; Postacchini, F

    2005-01-01

    Injuries of the axillary nerve subsequent to recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation have received only minimal attention. It is the purpose of this study to define the prevalence and the progression in time of injury of the axillary nerve in patients with recurrence of anterior shoulder dislocation. For two years we observed a total of 185 patients who had had primary shoulder dislocation. Excluded from the study were patients who had fractures associated with metabolic disorders that favored neurologic deficit. During the period of study, 98 patients contacted us again after recurrence of the dislocation: there were 89 patients aged over 60 years and 9 aged below 60 years. All of the patients were evaluated clinically and submitted to EMG in order to verify the condition of the axillary nerve. Four patients (4%) had neuroapraxia of the axillary nerve. One of these also had neuroapraxia of the radial nerve. Of the four patients, one was a male aged 34 years; the others were all aged over 60 years. In all of the cases, function of the axillary nerve completely recovered after a mean period of 4 months (3-5.3 months) after recurrence. Injury of the axillary nerve can occur at the time of the first recurrence of the injury. However, prevalence is significantly lower than that observed after primary dislocation. The occurrence of this injury should be taken into consideration, particularly in elderly patients, in order to avoid erroneous clinical diagnosis and massive rupture of the cuff subsequent to recurrence of the dislocation.

  13. Axillary nerve neurotization with the anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose; Rajmohan, Bennet

    2012-09-01

    Combined neurotization of both axillary and suprascapular nerves in shoulder reanimation has been widely accepted in brachial plexus injuries, and the functional outcome is much superior to single nerve transfer. This study describes the surgical anatomy for axillary nerve relative to the available donor nerves and emphasize the salient technical aspects of anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries. Fifteen patients with brachial plexus injury who had axillary nerve neurotizations were evaluated. Five patients had complete avulsion, 9 patients had C5, six patients had brachial plexus injury pattern, and one patient had combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The long head of triceps branch was the donor in C5,6 injuries; nerve to brachialis in combined nerve injury and intercostals for C5-T1 avulsion injuries. All these donors were identified through the anterior approach, and the nerve transfer was done. The recovery of deltoid was found excellent (M5) in C5,6 brachial plexus injuries with an average of 134.4° abduction at follow up of average 34.6 months. The shoulder recovery was good with 130° abduction in a case of combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The deltoid recovery was good (M3) in C5-T1 avulsion injuries patients with an average of 64° shoulder abduction at follow up of 35 months. We believe that anterior approach is simple and easy for all axillary nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  16. Design of a transmission electron positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Kurihara, T.; Tsuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the plans and design of positron-electron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan. A used electron microscope is altered. The kinetic energies of positrons produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays are not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam is guided to a transmission electron microscope (JEM100SX). Positrons are moderated by a tungsten foil, are accelerated and are focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam is injected into an electron microscope. The focusing and aberration of positrons are the same as electrons in a magnetic system which are used in commercial electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (author)

  17. A positron accumulator for antihydrogen synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, L V; Fine, K S; Watson, T L; Van der Werf, D P; Charlton, M

    2001-01-01

    A positron accumulator based on the modified Penning-Malmberg design of Surko and co-workers at UCSD has been constructed and undergone testing in preparation for the ATHENA experiment now under way at CERN. This experiment aims to produce and characterize atomic anti- hydrogen. The positron accumulator utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a /sup 22 /Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 10/sup 7/ positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within a couple of minutes in this scheme using a 6 mCi source. Preliminary tests have so far demonstrated trapping of approximately 3*10/sup 6/ positrons and an efficiency of the Ne moderator of nearly 1%. (8 refs).

  18. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alex; Koymen, A. R.; Mehl, David; Jensen, K. O.; Lei, Chun; Lee, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Weiss et al. have demonstrated that it is possible to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons using a low energy (less than 30eV) beam of positrons. This mechanism makes possible a new electron spectroscopy, Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The probability of exciting an Auger transition is proportional to the overlap of the positron wavefunction with atomic core levels. Since the Auger electron energy provides a signature of the atomic species making the transition, PAES makes it possible to determine the overlap of the positron wavefunction with a particular element. PAES may therefore provide a means of detecting positron-atom complexes. Measurements of PAES intensities from clean and adsorbate covered Cu surfaces are presented which indicate that approx. 5 percent of positrons injected into CU at 25eV produce core annihilations that result in Auger transitions.

  19. Positron annihilation in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Ramaty, Reuven; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Positronium formation and annihilation are studied in a model for the interstellar medium consisting of cold cloud cores, warm partially ionized cloud envelopes, and hot intercloud gas. The gamma-ray spectra resulting from positron annihilation in these components of the interstellar medium are calculated. The spectra from the individual components are then combined, using two limiting assumptions for the propagation of the positrons, namely, that the positrons propagate freely throughout the interstellar medium, and that the positrons are excluded from the cold cloud cores. In the first case, the bulk of the positrons annihilate in the cloud cores and the annihilation line exhibits broad wings resulting from the annihilation of positronium formed by charge exchange in flight. In the second case, the positrons annihilate mainly in the warm envelopes, and the line wings are suppressed.

  20. Positron emission tomography imaging--technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Karp, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Positron imaging instrumentation has improved rapidly in the last few years. Scanners currently under development are beginning to approach fundamental limits set by positron range and noncolinearity effects. This report reviews the latest developments in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation, emphasizing the development of coding schemes that reduce the complexity and cost of high-resolution scanners. The relative benefits of using time-of-flight (TOF) information is discussed as well. 68 references

  1. Solvated Positron Chemistry. The Reaction of Hydrated Positrons with Chloride Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Shantarovich, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The reaction of hydrated positrons (caq+ with cloride ions in aqueous solutions has been studied by means of positron annihilation angular correlation measurements. A rate constant of k = (2.5 ± 0.5) × 1010 M−1 s−1 was found. Probably the reacting positrons annihilated from an e+ Cl− bound state...... resulting in an angular correlation curve 8% narrower than for the hydrated positron. Carbontetrachloride in benzene seems to give similar, but smaller effect....

  2. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Yagishita, A.; Kosuge, T.; Saito, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Sanami, T.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kakihara, K.; Shidara, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps-). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a 22Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  3. Toward a European Network of Positron Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwasz Grzegorz P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some applications of controlled-energy positron beams in material studies are discussed. In porous organic polysilicates, measurements of 3γ annihilation by Doppler broadening (DB method at the Trento University allowed to trace pore closing and filling by water vapor. In silicon coimplanted by He+ and H+, DB data combined with positron lifetime measurements at the München pulsed positron beam allowed to explain Si blistering. Presently measured samples of W for applications in thermonuclear reactors, irradiated by W+ and electrons, show vast changes of positron lifetimes, indicating complex dynamics of defects.

  4. [Long head of the triceps brachii in axillary nerve injury: anatomy and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzouk, J; Durandeau, A; Vital, J M; Fabre, T

    2002-10-01

    Earlier work has demonstrated possible paralysis of the long head of the triceps brachii (LTB) after surgical repair of traumatic injury to the axillary nerve. Anatomy textbooks describe the motor branch of the LTB arising from the radial nerve within the body of the triceps. We studied the position of the motor branch for the LTB to determine its exact origin. Three groups were studied: Group I included 9 traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve associated with clinical involvement of the LTB; Group II included 20 secondary posterior trunks dissected from cadaver specimens; Group III included 15 dissections of the infraclavicular plexus with complete dissection of the secondary posterior trunk. The position of the axillary nerve injury was retrieved from the operative reports for Group I. The precise origin of the motor branch for the LTB was identified for Group II. Neurostimulation was used to identify the origin of the motor branch for the LTB in Group III. For Group I: injury to the axillary nerve was situated 10 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior trunk in 6 cases and at the bifurcation in 3. Type IV injury was identified in 4 cases and type V in 5. For Group II: the motor branch for the LTB arose 6 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior branch in 13 cases, at the bifurcation in 5, and 10 mm proximally in 2, but never from the radial nerve. For Group III: the motor branch for the LTB arose 4.5 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior trunk in 11 cases, at the bifurcation in 4, and never from the radial nerve. Observed injuries to the axillary nerve with an associated paralysis of the long head of the triceps brachii were located proximally and were severe. Our dissections always located the motor branch of the LTB arising from the axillary nerve or the secondary posterior branch. We thus deducted that associated LTB paralysis is a sign of poor prognosis. In patients with axillary nerve injury it is a

  5. Added value of dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI for improved axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijnatten, Thiemo J.A. van; Goorts, B.; Voeoe, S.; Wildberger, J.E.; Boer, M. de; Kooreman, L.F.S.; Heuts, E.M.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Lobbes, M.B.I.; Smidt, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and potential added value of dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, compared to standard imaging modalities (i.e. ultrasound [US], MRI and PET/CT), for axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer. Twelve patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer underwent axillary US and dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI. Nine of the 12 patients also underwent whole-body PET/CT. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured for the primary breast tumor and the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node. A positive axillary lymph node on dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was defined as a moderate to very intense FDG-avid lymph node. The diagnostic performance of dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was calculated by comparing quantitative and its qualitative measurements to results of axillary US, MRI and PET/CT. The number of suspicious axillary lymph nodes was subdivided as follows: N0 (0 nodes), N1 (1-3 nodes), N2 (4-9 nodes) and N3 (≥ 10 nodes). According to dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI findings, seven patients were diagnosed with N1, four with N2 and one with N3. With regard to mean SUVmax, there was no significant difference in the primary tumor (9.0 [±5.0] vs. 8.6 [±5.7], p = 0.678) or the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node (7.8 [±5.3] vs. 7.7 [±4.3], p = 0.767) between dedicated axillary PET/MRI and PET/CT. Compared to standard imaging modalities, dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI resulted in changes in nodal status as follows: 40% compared to US, 75% compared to T2-weighted MRI, 40% compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, and 22% compared to PET/CT. Adding dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI to diagnostic work-up may improve the diagnostic performance of axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. (orig.)

  6. Axillary node metastatic carcinoma without definitive primary: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer R. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of unknown primary (CUP is the finding of a metastatic cancerous lesion without an established primary source localized within the body. CUP can be of any cancer cell type, however, adenocarcinoma is most often identified by histology. Up to 5% of all malignant diagnoses are classified as CUP. PET is an imaging modality often utilized to distinguish a primary source in the setting of CUP, yet often a primary is never identified. CUP can be further stratified using specific qualifiers as favorable and unfavorable, indicating the potential therapeutic response to treatment regimens. Treatment approach to CUP relies heavily on the cell type identified by histology, the location of the lesion, and the amount of spread within the body. In the typical setting and presentation, per current literature, CUP arises in the 7th decade of life in patients with multiple comorbidities, and often has a poor prognostic value. This case report identifies an atypical presentation of CUP, a 38-year-old Caucasian female with an axillary mobile mass, and no associated systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the node and immunohistochemical staining showed histology consistent with metastatic carcinoma. Mammography, MRI, and PET scan found no evidence of tumor primary or distant metastasis. Further staining confirmed metastatic carcinoma consistent with breast origin, without an established breast primary. As in this case, CUP may present in an atypical manner, warranting a thorough investigation aiming to identify the tumor primary to aid in identification of a proper treatment regimen and approach.

  7. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ścieszka, Joanna; Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-09-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  8. Ex vivo MRI of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, Alain; Pigneur, Frederic; Ghozali, Faridah; Dao, Thu-Ha; Cunin, Patrick; Meyblum, Evelyne; De Baecque-Fontaine, Cecile; Alamdari, Ali; Maison, Patrick; Deux, Jean Francois; Lagrange, Jean Leon; Lantieri, Laurent; Rahmouni, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a strategy for precise co-localization of lymph nodes on axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) specimens both on pathology and MR. To identify nodal features suggestive of metastatic involvement on a node-to-node basis. Materials and methods: National Institutional review-board approved this prospective study of 18 patients with breast cancer referred for ALND. Ex vivo T1 and inversion recovery (IR) T2 WI of ALND specimens tightly positioned within scaled plastic cranes was performed immediately after surgery. The correspondence of MR-based or pathologically based nodes location was assessed. The MR size and morphological presentation of metastatic and normal nodes were compared (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test). Quantitative variables were compared using Pearson coefficient. Results: 207 nodes were retrieved on pathology and 165 on MR. MR-pathological correlation of nodes location was high regarding MR-identified nodes (r = 0.755). An MR short axis threshold of 4 mm yielded the best predictive value for metastatic nodal involvement (Se = 78.6%; Sp = 62.3%). Irregular contours (Se = 35.7%; Sp = 96.7%), central nodal hyper-intensity on IR T2 WI (Se = 57.1%; Sp = 91.4%), and a cortical thickness above 3 mm (Se = 63.6%; Sp = 83.2%) were significantly associated with metastatic involvement. Conclusion: Ex vivo MR allows node-to-node correlation with pathology. Morphological MR criteria can suggest metastatic involvement

  9. [Bilateral axillary nodes. 30-year-old patient, housewife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, R; Ramseier, E

    2007-11-14

    A 20-year old patient who had been adequately treated for lymph node tuberculosis 14 years ago presented 1 week after giving birth to a healthy daughter. She complained about painful lumps in both axillae. During pregnancy the patient suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, lost 6 kg of weight, and had night sweats. During the last three months of her pregnancy she had a deep vein thrombosis in her right lower leg. The clinical examination showed soft axillary lumps up to 3 cm. The lab showed the following pathological findings: blood sedimentation rate 51 mm/h, CRP 44.8 mg/l, LDH 221 U/l and INR 1.3 (indicating insufficient anticoagulation with phenprocoumon). The chest x-ray showed no infiltrate or indications of a past tuberculosis. A fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on an accessible node. Gram stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, as well as the bacteriological cultures were all negative. An ultrasound examination of the axilla showed a thickened subcutis without a mass. Cytology showed lobular epithelium, consistent wih ductal mamma epithelium without atypical cells. The diagnosis of an accessory mamma tissue in both axillae was made. During the course of the following weeks the glands decreased in size and the patient was free of symptoms.

  10. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  11. NMF on positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bödvarsson, Bjarni; Hansen, Lars Kai; Svarer, Claus

    2007-01-01

    In positron emission tomography, kinetic modelling of brain tracer uptake, metabolism or binding requires knowledge of the cerebral input function. Traditionally, this is achieved with arterial blood sampling in the arm or as shown in (Liptrot, M, et al., 2004) by non-invasive K-means clustering...... is calculated from the NMF solution. The method is tested on a [18F]-Altanserin tracer ligand data set consisting of 5 healthy subjects. The results from using K-means clustering and NMF are compared to a sampled arterial TAC. The comparison is done by calculating the correlation with the arterial sampled TAC....

  12. Positron tomography. Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Comar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Whereas single photon tomography provides a new and rewarding dimension to conventional nuclear medicine, positron tomography makes a new original approach possible of the analysis in vivo of fundamental biological and physiological processes. The main object of both is the sectional representation of the distribution of a radioactive indicator injected into the body system; compared with conventional detectors (gamma cameras and scintigraphic systems) they provide much greater accuracy in localization. The characteristics of these two methods can be presented schematically by comparing their respective advantages and drawbacks [fr

  13. Positron emission tomography takes lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, R.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)'s ability to detect functional abnormalities before they manifest anatomically is examined and some of its most common applications are outlined. It is emphasised that when PET facility and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's national cyclotron are established at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, the availability of short-lived tracers such as oxygen 15, nitrogen 13 and fluorine 18 would improve the specificity of tests(e.g. for brain tumors or cardiac viability) further. Construction of the cyclotron will start shortly and is due to be completed and operating by the end of 1991

  14. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Kim, Junhyung; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kwon, Hyukjun; Son, Daegu; Han, Kihwan

    2012-03-01

    Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, and in some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affected individuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous pulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG) laser treatment for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. Twenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and a subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for the appropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor's test) against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was 300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The results were evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using the grading system and iodine starch test. The average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-to-good result and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor's test demonstrated that there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3) were treated in a conservative manner. A deep second degree burn (n=1) was treated by a surgical procedure. Subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effective noninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  15. Proximity of the axillary nerve during bicortical drilling for biceps tenodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sarah; Smith, Geoff; Ogunleye, Oluwafunto; Packham, Iain

    2016-06-01

    Pathology of the biceps tendon can contribute to significant shoulder pain and dysfunction for which biceps tenodesis may be indicated. A variety of techniques tenodesing the biceps tendon have been described. Recently, tenodesis using a uni- or bicortical button has been advocated. This cadaveric study investigates the proximity of the axillary nerve to the position of bicortical drill passages during biceps tenodesis. Twelve cadaveric shoulder specimens were used. The axillary nerve was marked during a preparatory dissection using wire. Drills were passed through the humerus at the proximal and distal ends of the bicipital groove, and at the superior insertion point of pectoralis major (PM). These were left in situ. The distances between these drills and the axillary nerves were measured using computed tomography imaging. The drill bits placed at the superior insertion of PM were in closest proximity to the axillary nerve (3D distance mean 10.7 mm, 95 % confidence interval 7.2-14.2 mm). A drill placed at the distal end of the bicipital groove was a mean distance of 18.2 mm from the nerve. This study highlights the need for caution when drilling the posterior humeral cortex during biceps tenodesis, particularly during drilling at the superior insertion of PM as this is the location that poses the highest risk to the axillary nerve. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric study to radiologically assess the proximity of the axillary nerve to the positions of biceps tenodesis. Surgeons should therefore be cautious when performing bicortical drilling for biceps tenodesis, and a supero-lateral drill trajectory would pose a smaller risk to the axillary nerve.

  16. Transfer of pectoral nerves to suprascapular and axillary nerves: an anatomic feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sylvain; Balaguer, Thierry; Baque, Patrick; Lebreton, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an anatomic study to provide detailed information on the pectoral nerves and anatomic data on the transfer of the pectoral nerves to the axillary nerve. Moreover, we experimentally determined the feasibility of transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. We dissected 26 brachial plexus from 15 fresh cadavers. The origin, location, course, and branching of the pectoral nerves were recorded. The length and the diameter of the pectoral nerves were measured. The diameter of the suprascapular and axillary nerves was recorded. In all dissections, we assessed the feasibility of directly transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular and axillary nerves. We found 3 constant branches of pectoral nerves arising from 3 distinct origins in 20 cases, and 3 constant branches arising from 2 distinct origins in 6 cases. The C7 sent nerve fibers to all 3 branches. The average length and diameter of the superior, middle, and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves were 65 mm, 110 mm, and 105 mm, and 2.0 mm, 2.3 mm, ad 2.4 mm, respectively. The average diameter of the suprascapular and axillary were 2.8 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The superior branch reached the suprascapular and axillary nerves in 17 and 8 cases. The middle and inferior branches reached the suprascapular and axillary nerve in all dissections. With an adequate length, diameter, and nerve composition, the middle and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves are suitable donor nerves to the axillary nerve and a potential source of reinnervation of the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The correlation between acromion-axillary nerve distance and upper arm length; a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samart, Supawat; Apivatgaroon, Adinun; Lakchayapakorn, Kajorn; Chemchujit, Bancha

    2014-08-01

    Deltoid splitting is one of common and useful approaches in proximal humerus surgery. The disadvantage of this approach is high risk of axillary nerve injury. Nowadays, there is no consensus in the proper mean of the individual's axillary nerve location. The present study aim to determine the correlation between the axillary nerve and the upper arm length that may create equations to calculate the nerve location. Seventy shoulders were measured the distance from lateral acromial edge to axillary nerve and compared with upper arm length in three positions of the shoulder (adduction 30°, abduction 45° and 90°). The authors used distance of lateral acromial edge to lateral epicondyle and tip ofgreater tuberosity to lateral epicondyle as the upper arm length. The average distance ofshoulder adduction 30°, abduction 45° and90° were 57.9, 57.1 and 52.9 mm, respectively. All of three positions showed linear correlation to upper arm length from both of reference sites. From acromion edge reference, where "Y" is axillary nerve distance in mm and "x" is upper arm length in cm, the relation were Y= 2.3x-10, Y= 2x-2 and Y= 2x-7with the accuracy rate were 88.57%, 85.71% and 81.43%, respectively. From greater tuberosity reference, the relations were Y = 2.54x-14, Y = 2x and Y = 2.3x-12 with the accuracy rates 87.14%, 80% and 84.29%, respectively. There is linear correlation between distance from the lateral acromial edge to axillary nerve and the upper arm length. The authors can predict the danger zone in the location of the anterior upper branch of the axillary nerve. However, further clinical study may helpful to prove the equations. Level ofevidence: Basic science anatomy study.

  18. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAxillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, and in some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affected individuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous pulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG laser treatment for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis.MethodsTwenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and a subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for the appropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor's test against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was 300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The results were evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using the grading system and iodine starch test.ResultsThe average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-to-good result and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor's test demonstrated that there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3 were treated in a conservative manner. A deep second degree burn (n=1 was treated by a surgical procedure.ConclusionsSubcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effective noninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  19. Locoregional Recurrence After Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection With or Without Axillary Dissection in Patients With Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases: Long-term Follow-up From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (Alliance) ACOSOG Z0011 Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Armando E; Ballman, Karla; McCall, Linda; Beitsch, Peter; Whitworth, Pat W; Blumencranz, Peter; Leitch, A Marilyn; Saha, Sukamal; Morrow, Monica; Hunt, Kelly K

    2016-09-01

    The early results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in locoregional recurrence for patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) randomized either to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) alone. We now report long-term locoregional recurrence results. ACOSOG Z0011 prospectively examined overall survival of patients with SLN metastases undergoing breast-conserving therapy randomized to undergo ALND after SLND or no further axillary specific treatment. Locoregional recurrence was prospectively evaluated and compared between the groups. Four hundred forty-six patients were randomized to SLND alone and 445 to SLND and ALND. Both groups were similar with respect to age, Bloom-Richardson score, Estrogen Receptor status, adjuvant systemic therapy, histology, and tumor size. Patients randomized to ALND had a median of 17 axillary nodes removed compared with a median of only 2 SLNs removed with SLND alone (P alone arm (P = 0.28). Ten-year cumulative locoregional recurrence was 6.2% with ALND and 5.3% with SLND alone (P = 0.36). Despite the potential for residual axillary disease after SLND, SLND without ALND offers excellent regional control for selected patients with early metastatic breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant systemic therapy.

  20. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ With Microinvasion: Prognostic Implications, Long-Term Outcomes, and Role of Axillary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Rahul R.; Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Lannin, Donald [Department of Surgical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the clinical-pathologic features and long-term outcomes for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) vs. DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT), to assess the impact of microinvasion. Patients and Methods: A total of 393 patients with DCIS/DCISM from our database were analyzed to assess differences in clinical-pathologic features and outcomes for the two cohorts. Results: The median follow-up was 8.94 years, and the mean age was 55.8 years for the entire group. The DCISM cohort was comprised of 72 of 393 patients (18.3%). Surgical evaluation of the axilla was performed in 58.3% (n = 42) of DCISM vs. 18.1% (n = 58) of DCIS, with only 1 of 42 DCISM (2.3%) vs. 0 of 58 DCIS with axillary metastasis. Surgical axillary evaluation was not an independent predictor of local-regional relapse (LRR), distant relapse-free survival (DRFS), or overall survival (OS) in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p > 0.05). For the DCIS vs. DCISM groups, respectively, the 10-year breast relapse-free survival was 89.0% vs. 90.7% (p = 0.36), DRFS was 98.5% vs. 97.9% (p = 0.78), and OS was 93.2% vs. 95.7% (p = 0.95). The presence of microinvasion did not correlate with LRR, age, presentation, race, family history, margin status, and use of adjuvant hormonal therapy (all p > 0.05). In univariate analysis, pathology (DCIS vs. DCISM) was not an independent predictor of LRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-4.30; p = 0.36), DRFS (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.07-6.95; p = 0.77), or OS (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.28-3.82; p = 0.95). Conclusions: Our data imply that the natural history of DCISM closely resembles that of DCIS, with a low incidence of local-regional and distant failures. On the basis of our large dataset, the incidence of axillary metastasis in DCISM appears to be small and not appear to correlate to outcomes, and thus, microinvasion alone should not be the sole criterion for more aggressive treatment.

  1. PLEPS: Pulsed low energy positron system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Egger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PLEPS, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München, located at NEPOMUC, is a unique tool for depth profiling of defects with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using a pulsed positron beam of variable energy.

  2. Slow positron beam at the JINR, Dubna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodek Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Low Energy Positron Toroidal Accumulator (LEPTA at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR proposed for generation of positronium in flight has been adopted for positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS. The positron injector generates continuous slow positron beam with positron energy range between 50 eV and 35 keV. The radioactive 22Na isotope is used. In distinction to popular tungsten foil, here the solid neon is used as moderator. It allows to obtain the beam intensity of about 105 e+/s width energy spectrum characterized by full width at half maximum (FWHM of 3.4 eV and a tail to lower energies of about 30 eV. The paper covers the characteristic of variable energy positron beam at the LEPTA facility: parameters, the rule of moderation, scheme of injector, and transportation of positrons into the sample chamber. Recent status of the project and its development in the field of PAS is discussed. As an example, the measurement of the positron diffusion length in pure iron is demonstrated.

  3. Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski

    2003-06-29

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.

  4. Positrons trapped in polyethylene: Electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolaccini, M.; Bisi, A.; Gambarini, G.; Zappa, L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of the iot 2 -component of positrons annihilated in polyethylene is found to increase with increasing electric field, while the formation probability of the positron state responsible for this component remains independent of the field. (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  5. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.; Denison, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  6. Applications for positron emission mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Irving N

    2006-01-01

    High resolution positron emission mammography (PEM) can address the current clinical needs of breast cancer patients and the requirements for future translational work. Combining the quantitative capabilities of positron emission tomography (PET) with millimeter resolution, PEM can image the earliest in situ forms of breast cancer as well as putative cancer precursor lesions (e.g., atypical ductal hyperplasia) whose behavior is important for prevention studies. The importance of the ability to detect intraductal cancer cannot be overemphasized, for several reasons: at least one-third of new cancers are detected at this intraductal stage, intervention at this stage represents the best opportunity for complete cure, and a significant number of invasive cancers contain an intraductal component. Without knowledge of the extent of the intraductal component, surgeons are unable to completely excise cancers about a third of the time, leading to unnecessary re-excisions or radiation therapy. Current investigations aimed at specifying best practices in radiotherapy of DCIS patients are stymied by the lack of objective quantitative methods of rapidly assessing response. Other future applications of PEM are suggested, including an information technology project built on PEM that promises to individualize therapy and facilitate surveillance of high risk populations. The high overall accuracy of PEM (i.e., both specificity and sensitivity) is an unusual and welcome development in the history of breast imaging. With this high accuracy, and continued technical innovation to reduce radiation dose, PEM may someday replace X-ray mammography as a first line approach to breast cancer detection.

  7. Positronic complexes with unnatural parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.; Varga, K.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the unnatural parity states of PsH, LiPs, NaPs, and KPs are investigated with the configuration interaction and stochastic variational methods. The binding energies (in hartree) are found to be 8.17x10 -4 , 4.42x10 -4 , 15.14x10 -4 , and 21.80x10 -4 , respectively. These states are constructed by first coupling the two electrons into a configuration which is predominantly 3 P e , and then adding a p-wave positron. All the active particles are in states in which the relative angular momentum between any pair of particles is at least L=1. The LiPs state is Borromean since there are no three-body bound subsystems (of the correct symmetry) of the (Li + , e - , e - , e + ) particles that make up the system. The dominant decay mode of these states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or undergoes positron annihilation

  8. Topical niacinamide 4% and desonide 0.05% for treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castanedo-Cazares JP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Pablo Castanedo-Cazares,1 Gabryela Lárraga-Piñones,1 Adriana Ehnis-Pérez,1 Cornelia Fuentes-Ahumada,1 Cuauhtemoc Oros-Ovalle,2 Bruce R Smoller,3 Bertha Torres-Álvarez11Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, Hospital Central Dr Ignacio Morones Prieto, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, México; 3Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AK, USABackground: Axillary hyperpigmentation is a frequent cause of cosmetic consultations in dark-skinned women from tropical areas, including Latin America. Currently, there is no widely accepted treatment for the disorder, but it is usually treated with bleaching agents because it is considered a variant of inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of niacinamide 4% and desonide 0.05% emulsions compared with placebo in the treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation.Methods: Twenty-four women aged 19–27 years with hyperpigmented axillae (phototype III–V were randomly assigned to receive the study treatments in the axillary region. Improvement was assessed at baseline, then clinically and by colorimetry 9 weeks later. Quantitative evaluation including melanin, inflammatory infiltrates, NKI/Beteb, CD1a, CD68, and collagen type IV content was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, assisted by computerized morphometric analysis.Results: Both niacinamide and desonide induced significant colorimetric improvement compared with placebo; however, desonide showed a better depigmenting effect than niacinamide. A good to excellent response was achieved in 24% of cases for niacinamide, 30% for desonide, and 6% for placebo. We observed a marked disruption of the basal membrane in axillary hyperpigmentation and an inflammatory infiltrate that improved after treatment. Decreased pigmentation in the desonide-treated axillae was associated with recovery of disruption at the basal membrane

  9. Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes. PMID:22312589

  10. Experimentation with low-energy positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The capability of studying the interactions of positrons with surfaces has recently been exploited by using ultra-high-vacuum techniques. The result has been a new understanding of how positrons interact with surfaces and because of this we are now able to make much stronger fluxes of slow positrons. The higher beam strengths in turn are opening up new possibilities for experimentation on surfaces and solids and for studying the atomic physics of positronium and positron-molecule scattering at low energies. The lectures are intended to review some of the history of this subject and to outline the present state of our knowledge of experimentation with low-energy positron beams. (orig./TW)

  11. Simulation of a Positron Source for CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Golge; A. Freyberger; C. Hyde-Wright

    2007-01-01

    A positron source for the 6 GeV (or the proposed 12 GeV upgrade) recirculating linacs at Jefferson Lab is presented. The proposed 100nA CW positron source has several unique characteristics; high incident beam power (100kW), 10 MeV incident electron beam energy, CW incident beam and CW production. Positron production with 10 MeV electrons has several advantages; the energy is below neutron threshold so the production target will not become activated during use and the absolute energy spread is bounded by the low incident energy. These advantages are offset by the large angular distribution of the outgoing positrons. Results of simulations of the positron production, capture, acceleration and injection into the recirculating linac are presented. Energy flow and thermal management of the production target present a challenge and are included in the simulations

  12. [Isolated traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve. Radial nerve transfer in four cases and literatura review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the results of an initial series of four cases of traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve, treated by a nerve transfer from the triceps long branch of the radial nerve. An extensive analysis of the literature has also been made. Four patients aged between 21 and 42 years old presenting an isolated traumatic palsy of the axillary nerve were operated between January 2007 and June 2010. All cases were treated by nerve transfer six to eight months after the trauma. The results of these cases are analyzed, the same as the axillary nerve injuries series presented in the literature from 1982. One year after the surgery, all patients improved their abduction a mean of 70° (range 30 to 120°), showing a M4 in the British Medical Council Scale. No patient complained of triceps weakness after the procedure. These results are similar to those published employing primary grafting for the axillary nerve. Isolated injuries of the axillary nerve should be treated with surgery when spontaneous recovery is not verified 6 months after the trauma. Primary repair with grafts is the most popular surgical technique, with a rate of success of approximately 90%. The preliminary results of a nerve transfer employing the long triceps branch are similar, and a definite comparison of both techniques with a bigger number of cases should be done in the future. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Klimešová

    Full Text Available Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1 with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury would increase; (2 favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3 consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems.

  14. Axillary nerve palsy after retrograde humeral nailing: clinical confirmation of an anatomical fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lögters, Tim Tobias; Wild, Michael; Windolf, Joachim; Linhart, Wolfgang

    2008-12-01

    Locked antegrade or retrograde nailing of humeral shaft and proximal humerus fractures is a well established treatment option. Anatomic-morphological studies revealed a potential high risk of axillary nerve injury within proximal interlocking screw insertion. However, clinical experiences do not seem to confirm this, as there is a lack of interlocking screw insertion associated axillary lesions in literature. We report about a 69-year-old man with a humeral shaft fracture (AO-type 12-A3) stabilized by a retrograde implanted interlocking nail. Proximal interlocking screw insertion was performed in a posterior-to-anterior direction. The fracture healed uneventfully. In a follow-up examination 2 years later, an atrophy and paralysis of the deltoid muscle were visible. Electrophysiological evaluation confirmed an isolated axillary nerve injury. Nevertheless, the patient showed good functional recovery with almost free range of motion. Even for clinical practise proximal interlocking screw insertion is associated with a substantial risk of axillary nerve injury. Particularly for posterior-to-anterior screw insertion anatomic conditions should be considered. In spite of axillary nerve lesion, recovery of almost full shoulder function is possible by compensating the loss of deltoid function by rotator cuff muscles.

  15. Triceps motor branch transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury: Outcomes in 9 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Xu, B; Tong, J-S; Zhang, C-G; Dong, Z; Liu, J-B

    2017-12-01

    Triceps motor branch transfer has been used for more than ten years to restore deltoid function after axillary nerve injury. However, there have been few reports of the outcome of this procedure in isolated axillary nerve injury. Triceps motor branch transfer could be an effective method to restore deltoid function for patients with isolated axillary nerve injury. Nine patients who underwent triceps motor branch transfer for treatment of isolated axillary nerve injury were followed up for at least 22 months. Shoulder abduction was assessed for all patients. The DASH outcome questionnaire was completed by every patient. Electrophysiological study was performed on 7 patients. All patients regained≥90° (mean, 137°) shoulder abduction. Mean DASH score decreased from 35.2 before surgery to 13.1 at the last follow-up. There was no noticeable weakness of elbow extension in any patient. Triceps motor branch transfer provided good results and may be a feasible alternative to nerve grafting for the treatment of complete isolated axillary nerve injury. IV, retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Proximity of Axillary Nerve During Cortical Button Repair of Pectoralis Major Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sarah T; Smith, Geoff C; Ogunleye, Oluwafunto E; Clark, Damian A; Packham, Iain N

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon is a rare but severe injury. Several techniques have been described for PM fixation, including a transosseus technique, placing cortical buttons at the superior, middle and inferior PM tendon insertion points. The present cadaveric study investigates the proximity of the posterior branch of the axillary nerve to the drill positions for transosseus PM tendon repair. Twelve cadaveric shoulders were used. The axillary nerve was marked during a preparatory dissection. Drills were passed through the humerus at the superior, middle and inferior insertions of the PM tendon and the drill bits were left in situ. The distance between these and each axillary nerve was measured using computed tomography. The superior drill position was in closest proximity to the axillary nerve (three-dimensional distance range 0-18.01 mm, mean 10.74 mm, 95% confidence interval 7.24 mm to 14.24 mm). The middle PM insertion point was also very close to the nerve. Caution should be used when performing bicortical drilling of the humerus, especially when drilling at the superior border of the PM insertion. We describe 'safe' and 'danger' zones for the positioning of cortical buttons through the humerus reflecting the risk posed to the axillary nerve.

  17. Long-nerve grafts and nerve transfers demonstrate comparable outcomes for axillary nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Johnsen, Parker H; Lee, Steve K; Feinberg, Joseph H

    2014-07-01

    To compare the functional and EMG outcomes of long-nerve grafts to nerve transfers for complete axillary nerve palsy. Over a 10-year period at a single institution, 14 patients with axillary nerve palsy were treated with long-nerve grafts and 24 patients were treated with triceps-to-axillary nerve transfers by the same surgeon (S.W.W.). Data were collected prospectively at regular intervals, beginning before surgery and continuing up to 11 years after surgery. Prior to intervention, all patients demonstrated EMG evidence of complete denervation of the deltoid. Deltoid recovery (Medical Research Council [MRC] grade), shoulder abduction (°), improvement in shoulder abduction (°), and EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation were compared between cohorts. There were no significant differences between the long-nerve graft cohort and the nerve transfer cohort with respect to postoperative range of motion, deltoid recovery, improvement in shoulder abduction, or EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation. These data demonstrate that outcomes of long-nerve grafts for axillary nerve palsy are comparable with those of modern nerve transfers and question a widely held belief that long-nerve grafts do poorly. When healthy donor roots or trunks are available, long-nerve grafts should not be overlooked as an effective intervention for the treatment of axillary nerve injuries in adults with brachial plexus injuries. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional cardiac imaging: positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic cardiovascular imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease by providing information about the function of the heart. During the past 30 years, cardiovascular imaging has evolved from the simple chest x-ray and fluoroscopy to such sophisticated techniques as invasive cardiac angiography and cinearteriography and, more recently, to noninvasive cardiac CT scanning, nuclear magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography, which reflect more complex physiologic functions. As research tools, CT, NMR, and PET provide quantitative information on global as well as regional ventricular function, coronary artery stenosis, myocardial perfusion, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, or oxygen utilization, with little discomfort or risk to the patient. As imaging modalities become more sophisticated and more oriented toward clinical application, the prospect of routinely obtaining such functional information about the heart is becoming realistic. However, these advances are double-edged in that the interpretation of functional data is more complex than that of the anatomic imaging familiar to most physicians. They will require an enhanced understanding of the physiologic and biochemical processes, as well as of the instrumentation and techniques for analyzing the data. Of the new imaging modalities that provide functional information about the heart, PET is the most useful because it quantitates the regional distribution of radionuclides in vivo. Clinical applications, interpretation of data, and the impact of PET on our understanding of cardiac pathophysiology are discussed. 5 figures

  19. Positron emission mammography: initial clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Edward A; Freimanis, Rita I; Perrier, Nancy D; Morton, Kathryn; Lesko, Nadia M; Bergman, Simon; Geisinger, Kim R; Williams, Rodney C; Sharpe, Connie; Zavarzin, Valera; Weinberg, Irving N; Stepanov, Pavel Y; Beylin, David; Lauckner, Kathryn; Doss, Mohan; Lovelace, Judy; Adler, Lee P

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of high-risk mammograms represents an enormous clinical challenge. Functional breast imaging coupled with mammography (positron emission mammography [PEM]) could improve imaging of such lesions. A prospective study was performed using PEM in women scheduled for stereotactic breast biopsy. Patients were recruited from the surgical clinic. Patients were injected with 10 mCi of 2-[18F] fluorodeoxyglucose. One hour later, patients were positioned on the stereotactic biopsy table, imaged with a PEM scanner, and a stereotactic biopsy was performed. Imaging was reviewed and compared with pathologic results. There were 18 lesions in 16 patients. PEM images were analyzed by drawing a region of interest at the biopsy site and comparing the count density in the region of interest with the background. A lesion-to-background ratio >2.5 appeared to be a robust indicator of malignancy and yielded a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 91%, and overall diagnostic accuracy of 89%. No adverse events were associated with the PEM imaging. The data show that PEM is safe, feasible, and has an encouraging accuracy rate in this initial experience. Lesion-to-background ratios >2.5 were found to be a useful threshold value for identifying positive (malignant) results. This study supports the further development of PEM.

  20. Brief reports: a clinical evaluation of block characteristics using one milliliter 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We report onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using 1 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per nerve (total local anesthetic volume 4 mL). Block performance time, block onset time, duration of surgery, and block duration were measured. Seventeen consecutive patients were recruited. The mean (SD) block performance and onset times were 271 (67.9) seconds and 9.7 (3.7) minutes, respectively. Block duration was 160.8 (30.7) minutes. All operations were performed using regional anesthesia alone. The duration of anesthesia obtained is sufficient for most ambulatory hand surgery.

  1. [Ultrasonic guided cannulation of the axillary vein in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schregel, W; Höer, H; Radtke, J; Cunitz, G

    1994-10-01

    Cannulation of the axillary vein is claimed to be an effective and relatively safe access to the central venous (CV) system [2, 4, 5, 8]. However, anatomical landmarks recommended for venous location (Muskulus pectoralis minor, processus coracoideus) are probably hard to identify in the majority of intensive care (ICU) patients. This investigation evaluated unidirectional 8 MHz Doppler ultrasound (US) in locating the axillary vein. Success rates and complications of this CV access in ICU patients is analysed. METHODS. The experimental design was approved by the local ethical committee (RUB). In 50 patients from our ICU cannulation of the axillary vein was attempted; all were in need of a CV line. Other CV puncture sites (except for the subclavian vein) were associated with contraindications. Patients were placed in a 15 degrees Trendelenburg position (15 exceptions); the arm was abducted to 45 degrees [5, 8]. The course of the axillary vein was located by Doppler US and marked on the skin with a felt pen. Prior to puncture, US intensity was judged by a score ranging from 0 to 4. After skin desinfection, sterile draping, and local anaesthesia, puncture of the axillary vein was attempted. The puncture kit LeaderCath 11,515 (Vygon, Aachen, FRG) was used. When venous blood could be aspirated, the Seldinger guidewire was inserted and the definite catheter placed. The experimental design allowed up to ten punctures, slightly modified in angle and direction of the needle, if puncture of the axillary vein or guide-wire placement failed. The cannulation attempt was classified as unsuccessful in the following cases: malposition, axillary vein not encountered by the puncture needle, guide-wire placement unsuccessful, or if identification and cannulation of the vein lasted more than 20 min. The puncture attempts were evaluated in respect to success rate, time, relation of US intensity to puncture attempts and CV pressure, complications, and malposition. RESULTS. Of the 50

  2. Positron emission tomography and migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabriat, H.

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a brain imaging technique that allows in vivo studies of numerous physiological parameters. There have been few PET studies in migraine patients. Cerebral blood flow changes with no variations in brain oxygen consumption have been reported in patients with prolonged neurologic manifestations during migraine attacks. Parenteral administration of reserpine during migraine headache has been followed by a fall in the overall cerebral uptake of glucose. The small sample sizes and a number of methodologic problems complicate the interpretation of these results. Recent technical advances and the development of new PET tracers can be expected to provide further insight into the pathophysiology of migraine. Today cerebral cortex 5 HT 2 serotonin receptors can be studied in migraine patients with PET

  3. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  4. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging in the Staging and Prognosis of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberini, J.L.; Wartski, M.; Gontier, E.; Madar, O.; Pecking, A.P. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Lerebours, F. [Oncology Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Fourme, E. [Biostatistics Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Le Stanc, E. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Foch Hospital, Suresnes (France); Cherel, P. [Radiology Department, Cancer Research Center Rene Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France); Alberini, J.L. [School of Medicine, Versailles Saint-Quentin University (France)

    2009-07-01

    Background: To prospectively assess fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) staging and prognosis value in patients with suspected inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Methods: Sixty-two women (mean age 50.7 {+-} 11.4 years) presenting with unilateral inflammatory breast tumors (59 invasive carcinomas; 3 mastitis) underwent a PET/CT scan before biopsy. Results: PET/CT scan was positive for the primary malignant tumor in 100% and false positive in 2 of 3 benign mastitis. In 59 IBC patients, FDG nodal foci were detected in axillary (90%; n = 53) and extra-axillary areas (56%; n = 33) ipsilateral to the cancer. Compared with clinical examination, the axillary lymph node status by PET/CT was upstaged and down staged in 35 and 5 patients, respectively. In 7 of 9 N0 patients, the axillary lymph node positivity on PET/CT was correct, as revealed by pathological post surgery assessment (not available in the 2 remaining patients). The nodal foci were compared with preoperative fine needle aspiration and/or pathological post chemotherapy findings available in 44 patients and corresponded to 38 true positive, 4 false-negative, and 2 false-positive cases. In 18 of 59 IBC patients (31%), distant lesions were found. On the basis of a univariate analysis of the first enrolled patients (n = 42), among 28 patients who showed intense tumoral uptake (standard uptake value(max){>=}5), the 11 patients with distant lesions had a worse prognosis than the 17 patients without distant lesions (P =.04). Conclusions: FDG-PET/CT imaging provides additional invaluable information regarding nodal status or distant metastases in IBC patients and should be considered in the initial staging. It seems also that some prognostic information can be derived from FDG uptake characteristics. (authors)

  5. Scintillators for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Like most applications that utilize scintillators for gamma detection, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) desires materials with high light output, short decay time, and excellent stopping power that are also inexpensive, mechanically rugged, and chemically inert. Realizing that this ''ultimate'' scintillator may not exist, this paper evaluates the relative importance of these qualities and describes their impact on the imaging performance of PET. The most important PET scintillator quality is the ability to absorb 511 keV photons in a small volume, which affects the spatial resolution of the camera. The dominant factor is a short attenuation length (≤ 1.5 cm is required), although a high photoelectric fraction is also important (> 30% is desired). The next most important quality is a short decay time, which affects both the dead time and the coincidence timing resolution. Detection rates for single 511 keV photons can be extremely high, so decay times ≤ 500 ns are essential to avoid dead time losses. In addition, positron annihilations are identified by time coincidence so ≤5 ns fwhm coincidence pair timing resolution is required to identify events with narrow coincidence windows, reducing contamination due to accidental coincidences. Current trends in PET cameras are toward septaless, ''fully-3D'' cameras, which have significantly higher count rates than conventional 2-D cameras and so place higher demands on scintillator decay time. Light output affects energy resolution, and thus the ability of the camera to identify and reject events where the initial 511 keV photon has undergone Compton scatter in the patient. The scatter to true event fraction is much higher in fully-3D cameras than in 2-D cameras, so future PET cameras would benefit from scintillators with a 511 keV energy resolution < 10--12% fwhm

  6. Positron emission tomography with f18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the staging and preoperative evaluation of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D B; Clary-Macy, C; Challa, S; Sasse, K C; Merrick, S H; Hawkins, R; Caputo, G; Jablons, D

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of positron emission tomography with F18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the preoperative evaluation and staging of malignant mesothelioma in patients who were candidates for aggressive combined modality therapy. Eighteen consecutive patients with biopsy-proven malignant mesothelioma underwent positron emission tomographic scanning. The results of positron emission tomographic imaging were compared with results obtained by computed tomography, mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and pathologic examination of surgical specimens. All patients fasted and received an average of 14.5 +/- 2.7 mCi of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomographic scanning. Attenuation-corrected whole-body and regional emission images of the chest and upper abdomen were acquired and formatted into transaxial, coronal, and sagittal images. All primary malignant mesotheliomas accumulated F18-fluorodeoxyglucose, and the mean standardized uptake value was 7. 6 (range, 3.33-14.85; n = 9). There were no false-negative results of positron emission tomography. Identification of occult extrathoracic metastases by positron emission tomography was the basis for excluding two patients from surgical therapy. There were two false-positive results of positron emission tomography: increased F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the contralateral chest that was negative by thoracoscopic biopsy (n = 1) and increased abdominal F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake after partial colectomy for diverticular disease (n = 1). Positron emission tomography can identify malignant pleural mesothelioma and appears to be a useful noninvasive staging modality for patients being considered for aggressive combined modality therapy.

  7. Quantifying the number of lymph nodes identified in one-stage versus two-stage axillary dissection in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Olaf E; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    To establish whether a different number of lymph nodes is identified in a delayed versus an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients.......To establish whether a different number of lymph nodes is identified in a delayed versus an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients....

  8. Lynch Syndrome Associated Colon Adenocarcinoma Resembling Lymphoma on Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Win, Aung Zaw

    2015-01-01

    The patient was a 46-year-old Asian male diagnosed with lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma in the right ascending colon. A presurgical staging 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) found increased metabolic activity in the cervical, axillary, mediastinal, supraclavicular, para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. This pattern of metastasis was very unusual for lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma and the involvement of those lymph nodes resembles the pattern of spread of lymphoma. He underwent right hemicolectomy and he was subsequently treated with 12 cycles of folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan. A restaging FDG-PET/CT at the end of the chemotherapy showed interval decrease in size and metabolic activity in the affected lymph nodes. FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging modality in following-up the treatment response in colon adenocarcinoma

  9. Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Local Tumor Staging in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer: A Comparison With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Nagarajah, James; Buchbender, Christian; Hoffmann, Oliver; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Poeppel, Thorsten; Forsting, Michael; Quick, Harald H; Umutlu, Lale; Kinner, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast for lesion detection and local tumor staging of patients with primary breast cancer in comparison to PET/computed tomography (CT) and MRI. The study was approved by the local institutional review board. Forty-nine patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a PET/CT, and subsequently, a contrast-enhanced PET/MRI of the breast after written informed consent was obtained before each examination. Two radiologists independently evaluated the corresponding data sets (PET/CT, PET/MRI, and MRI) and were instructed to identify primary tumors lesions as well as multifocal/multicentric and bilateral disease. Furthermore, the occurrence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and the T-stage for each patient was determined. Histopathological verification of the local tumor extent and the axillary lymph node status was available for 30 of 49 and 48 of 49 patients, respectively. For the remaining patients, a consensus characterization was performed for the determination of the T-stage and nodal status, taking into account the results of clinical staging, PET/CT, and PET/MRI examinations. Statistical analysis was performed to test for differences in diagnostic performance between the different imaging procedures. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Positron emission tomography/MRI and MRI correctly identified 47 (96%) of the 49 patients with primary breast cancer, whereas PET/CT enabled detection of 46 (94%) of 49 breast cancer patients and missed a synchronous carcinoma in the contralateral breast in 1 patient. In a lesion-by-lesion analysis, no significant differences could be obtained between the 3 imaging procedures for the identification of primary breast cancer lesions (P > 0.05). Positron emission tomography/MRI and

  10. Is the Axillary Nerve at Risk During a Deltoid-Splitting Approach for Proximal Humerus Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Jessica L; Guzman, Miguel A; Cannada, Lisa K; Kaar, Scott G

    2016-05-01

    The strain placed across the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach could correlate with microtrauma and place the patient at risk of a neuropraxia or more permanent injury. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the change in length and strain exhibited by the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach and to determine the presence of any microscopic structural damage. The axillary nerve was identified through a lateral deltoid-splitting approach in 10 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. Two suture tags were placed near the lateral margins of the incision. The initial distance between the 2 tags was measured and the distance at each retractor click of a Kölbel retractor until full expansion (6 clicks). The retractor was then released for a 1-minute break at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The strain at each interval was calculated as change in length divided by the initial distance. The section of nerve in the field of exposure was excised for histologic analysis. The location of the axillary nerve was 6.32 cm (range, 5.20-7.6 cm) from the anterolateral aspect of the acromion. The mean final increase in length was 8.42 mm (range, 6.43-12.26 mm). The strain increased to a final mean of 51% (range, 28%-99%). Histologic analysis confirmed disruption of the myelin sheaths and axonal retraction. This study demonstrated a progressive, irreversible increase in axillary nerve length and strain, resulting in microscopic damage to the neuronal structure during a deltoid-splitting approach. Prolonged soft tissue retraction can place the axillary nerve at substantial risk for injury.

  11. Positron imaging system for plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Omura, Tomohide; Yamashita, Takaji

    2000-01-01

    The positron imaging system, which we have developed, is composed of two planar detectors which detect gamma-rays. These are placed on either side of a plant onto which tracers labeled with positron emitting nuclides have been fed. A pair of gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positrons and electrons is measured simultaneously from both directions, to identify the tracer position. This measurement method enables dynamic movements of substances within the plant to be obtained as a two-dimensional image, without contact. (author)

  12. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  13. Multimode vibrational couplings in resonant positron annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'A Sanchez, Sergio; Lima, Marco A P; Varella, Márcio T do N

    2011-09-02

    The mechanisms for multimode vibrational couplings in resonant positron annihilation are not well understood. We show that these resonances can arise from positron-induced distortions of the potential energy surface (target response to the positron field). Though these distortions can transfer energy into single- and multiquantum vibrations, they have so far been disregarded as a pathway to resonant annihilation. We also compare the existing annihilation theories and show that the currently accepted model can be cast as a special case of the Feshbach annihilation theory.

  14. Porous silicon investigated by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.M. de la; Pareja, R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the anodic conversion in silicon single crystals is investigated by positron lifetime measurements. Anodization at constant current induces changes in the positron lifetime spectrum of monocrystalline silicon samples. It is found that theses changes are primarily dependent on the silicon resistivity. The annihilation parameter behaviour of anodized samples, treated at high temperature under reducing conditions, is also investigated. The results reveal that positron annihilation can be a useful technique to characterize porous silicon formed by anodizing as well as to investigate its thermal behaviour. (author)

  15. [Verneuil's disease. The diffuse inguino-perineo-gluteal and bilateral axillary form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropet, Y; Balmat, P; Mantion, G; Agache, P; Vichard, P

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of suppurative hidradenitis of unusual severity affecting the axillary, inguinal, perianal, genital and sacral areas. The surgical treatment consisted initially of large excision of the axillary areas. A musculo-cutaneous latissimus dorsi island flap was then used to cover the defect. 45 days later, a complete excision, in only one operative session, of the inguinal, perianal, genital and sacral area was performed, associate durth colostomy. A mesh graft was performed 15 days after the excision. This procedure allowed an early scar.

  16. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Tetik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results.

  17. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  18. Intercostobrachial nerve injury from axillary dissection resulting in necrotizing fasciitis after a burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Peter; Malic, Claudia; Austen, Orla

    2008-01-01

    We present here the successful management of a 50-year-old female patient who developed necrotizing fasciitis after a burn injury to her left arm. The burn injury was sustained in a minimally lymphoedematous arm, in an area of post surgical paresthesia caused by division of the intercostobrachial nerve. This is a common consequence of axillary lymph node dissection. We discuss the diagnosis, management strategies, and the available literature. We conclude that division of the intercostobrachial nerve increases the risk of morbidity significantly and support the view that its preservation at the time of axillary surgery is preferable.

  19. Axillary artery counter-current aortography in the newborn with aortic arch obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.C.; Lo, R.N.S.; Leung, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    13 newborn infants with aortic coarctation were evaluated by counter-current aortographic technique. The right radial or brachial artery approach (2 cases in each group) did not give successful aortic arch imaging while the right axiallary artery approach resulted in adequate imaging in each of 9 cases investigated. In 2, the axillary artery was transiently weakened but returned to normal within 24 hours. No other complications were encountered. Axillary artery counter-current aortography is a safe and relatively non-invasive procedure which can be used to image the aortic arch in the newborn babies when other non-invasive diagnosis of aortic arch obstruction is tentative. (orig.)

  20. Editorial Commentary: Shoulder Anatomy, Finding the Axillary Nerve: Measure Twice, Cut Once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottage, Wesley M

    2018-03-01

    Most descriptions of shoulder anatomy note that the axillary nerve lies approximately 5 cm below the anterolateral corner of the acromion, and the nerve has been reported to range from 2 to 7 cm from the acromial edge, depending on the patient and measuring technique. The safe trans-deltoid operable area has been described as up to 4 cm below the acromion. A useful clinical guide I use is that the inferior extent of the subacromial bursa ends above the axillary nerve. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) ... Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT)? What is Positron Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Scanning? Positron emission tomography, ...

  2. New parameter-free polarization potentials in low-energy positron collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashok

    1990-01-01

    The polarization potential plays a decisive role in shaping up the cross sections in low energy positron collisions with atoms and molecules. However, its inclusion without involving any adjustable parameter, is still a challenge. Various other techniques employed so far for positron collisions are summarized, and a new, nonadjustable and very simple form of the polarization potential for positron-atom (molecule) collisions below the threshold of positronium formation is discussed. This new recently proposed potential is based on the correlation energy of a single positron in a homogeneous electron gas. The correlation energy was calculated by solving the Schrodinger equation of the positron-electron system and fitted to an analytical form in various ranges of the density parameter. In the outside region, the correlation energy is joined smoothly with the correct asymptotic form. This new positron correlation polarization (PCOP) potential was tested on several atomic and molecular targets such as the Ar, CO, and CH4. The results on the total and differential cross sections on these targets are shown along with the experimental data where available.

  3. A transmission positron microscope and a scanning positron microscope being built at KEK, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Yagishita, A.; Shidara, T.; Nakahara, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the plans of positron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan improving used electron microscopes. The kinetic energies of positron produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays have not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam will be guided near electron microscopes, a transmission electron microscope (JEM100S) and a scanning electron microscope (JSM25S). Positrons are slowed down by a tungsten foil, accelerated and focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam will be injected into an electron microscope. The focusing of positrons and electrons is achieved by magnetic system of the electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (orig.)

  4. Prevention of axillary nerve injury in anterior shoulder reconstructions: use of a subscapularis muscle-splitting technique and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Edward G; Caicedo, Juan Carlos; Kim, Tae Kyun; Banchasuek, Prachan

    2002-01-01

    Previous authors have suggested that the axillary nerve should be explored or palpated during all anterior shoulder stabilization procedures. The goal of this study was to document the axillary nerve injury rate in a cohort of patients who had undergone anterior shoulder stabilization without axillary nerve dissection. Use of a subscapularis muscle-splitting approach by using a retractor along the scapular neck does not result in significant risk of injury to the axillary nerve, and exploration of the axillary nerve is not necessary using this approach. Prospective cohort study. One hundred and twenty-eight anterior stabilizations were performed with a subscapularis muscle-splitting approach that has been previously described. In all cases a retractor was placed along the inferior scapular neck to protect the axillary nerve. The axillary nerve was not exposed or palpated in any case. All patients were evaluated on the 1st postoperative day and again within 10 days for symptoms of axillary nerve palsy, including sensory loss and return of muscle function. One patient (0.8%) had paresthesia in an axillary nerve distribution; recovery occurred without the need for electromyography or other interventions. There were no clinically detected cases of axillary nerve motor dysfunction. Routine exposure of the axillary nerve is not necessary during anterior stabilization procedures using a subscapularis muscle-splitting approach if proper precautions are taken to protect the nerve. Other techniques of anterior stabilization may require exposure of the axillary nerve.

  5. Effectiveness of the extended surgical approach to visualize the axillary nerve in the blind zone in an arthroscopic axillary nerve injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andrés A; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to create a model of axillary nerve (AN) injury during an arthroscopic capsular plication to analyze the site for potential nerve injury and to determine the AN length that can be visualized through standard and extended anterior, axillary, and posterior approaches. Six arthroscopic inferior capsular plications were performed in 3 human adult frozen cadavers. A nonabsorbable suture was used to plicate the inferior capsule aiming at capturing the AN (at a location closest to the joint capsule). We then attempted to explore the AN through 3 different surgical approaches (each approach was performed in 2 shoulders): a standard and an extended anterior, axillary, and posterior approach. Surgical clips were used to mark the AN length that was visualized through each approach. The AN injury was located in a range from 5.4 to 7.8 cm from its origin from the posterior cord. This location corresponds with the previously described AN injury zone B (blind) and zone C (circumflex). Compared to the standard approaches, the extended anterior, axillary, and posterior approaches improved the visualization of the AN by 3.6, 1.5, and 2.8 cm, respectively. None of these approaches independently was sufficient to expose the entire course of the AN. The blind zone is a potential location for AN injury after inferior capsular plication. On the basis of this study, a combination of a standard and an extended surgical approach may lead to better exposure of most of the AN length. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparison of Outcomes of Triceps Motor Branch-to-Axillary Nerve Transfer or Sural Nerve Interpositional Grafting for Isolated Axillary Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Heather L; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-08-01

    Deltoid paralysis following isolated axillary nerve injury can be managed with triceps motor branch transfer or interpositional grafting. No consensus exists on the treatment that results in superior deltoid function. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' experience with axillary nerve injury management and compare functional outcomes following these two treatment options. Twenty-nine adult isolated axillary nerve injury patients that had either interpositional nerve grafting or triceps motor branch transfer with greater than 1 year of follow-up between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed for demographic and clinical factors and functional outcomes of deltoid reinnervation, including clinical examination (shoulder abduction and forward flexion graded by the Medical Research Council system) and electromyographic recovery. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale grades were also compared. Twenty-one patients had a triceps motor transfer and eight had interpositional nerve grafting. At a mean follow-up of 22 months, Medical Research Council scores were greater in the grafting group compared with the nerve transfer group (4.3 versus 3.0), and more graft patients achieved useful deltoid function (Medical Research Council score ≥3) recovery (100 percent versus 62 percent); however, both groups had similar improvement in self-reported disability: change in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score of 11 following nerve transfer versus 15 following nerve graft. Although the question of nerve transfer versus grafting for restoration of axillary nerve function is controversial, this study demonstrates that grafting can result in good objective functional outcomes, particularly during an earlier time course after injury. This question requires further investigation in a larger, prospective patient population. Therapeutic, III.

  7. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  8. Radiopharmaceutical chemistry for positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, PH

    Radiopharmaceutical chemistry includes the selection, preparation, and preclinical evaluation of radiolabeled compounds. This paper describes selection criteria for candidates for positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. Practical aspects of nucleophilic and electrophilic

  9. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  10. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomography, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  11. New Possibilities of Positron-Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The reasons for the emergence of the angular distribution of photons generated as a result of annihilation of an electron and a positron in a positron-emission tomograph are investigated. It is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity (i.e., the probability of photon emission at different angles) is a consequence of the Doppler effect in the center-of-mass reference system of the electron and the positron. In the reference frame attached to the electron, the angular distribution of the number of emitted photons does not exists but is replaced by the Doppler shift of the frequency of photons. The results obtained in this study make it possible to extend the potentialities of the positron-emission tomograph in the diagnostics of diseases and to obtain additional mechanical characteristics of human tissues, such as density and viscosity.

  12. Ionization and positron emission in giant quasiatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Reinhardt, J.; Reus, T. de; Wietschorke, K.H.; Schaefer, A.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, U.; Schlueter, P.

    1985-07-01

    Electron excitation processes in superheavy quasiatoms are treated within a relativistic framework. Theoretical results on K-hole production rates as well as delta-electron and positron spectra are compared with experimental data. It is demonstrated that the study of heavy ion collisions with nuclear time delay promises a signature for the spontaneous positron formation in overcritical systems. Corresponding experimental results are confronted with our theoretical hypothesis. Recent speculations on the origin of the observed peak structures in positron spectra are critically reviewed. Atomic excitations are also employed to obtain information on the course of a nuclear reaction. Using a semiclassical picture we calculate the emission of delta-electrons and positrons in deep-inelastic nuclear reactions. Furthermore some consequences of conversion processes in giant systems are investigated. (orig.)

  13. Polymeric membrane studied using slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-S.; Lo, C.-H.; Cheng, M.-L.; Chen Hongmin; Liu Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Nanda, D.; Tung, K.-L.; Huang, S.-H.; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, J.-Y.; Sun Yiming; Yu Changcheng; Zhang Renwu; Jean, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    A radioisotope slow positron beam has been built at the Chung Yuan Christian University in Taiwan for the research and development in membrane science and technology. Doppler broadening energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime have been measured as a function of positron energy up to 30 keV in a polyamide membrane prepared by the interfacial polymerization between triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on modified porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) asymmetric membrane. The multilayer structures and free-volume depth profile for this asymmetric membrane system are obtained. Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with a slow beam could provide new information about size selectivity of transporting molecules and guidance for molecular designs in polymeric membranes

  14. Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)

  15. Positron lifetime experiments in indium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.M. de la; Pareja, R.

    1988-01-01

    Positron lifetime experiments have been performed on as-grown samples which had been isochronally annealed up to 820 K and plastically deformed and these experiments yield a constant lifetime of 282 ± 2 ps which is attributed to bulk positron states in InSe. Electron-irradiated samples exhibit a two-component spectrum, revealing the presence of positron traps which anneal out at about 330 K. The nature of the native shallow donors in InSe is discussed in the light of the results, which support the idea that native donor centres are probably interstitial In atoms rather than Se vacancies. Positron trapping observed in the electron-irradiated samples is attributed to defects related to In vacancies. (author)

  16. Does Axillary Boost Increase Lymphedema Compared With Supraclavicular Radiation Alone After Breast Conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Shelly B.; Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Anderson, Penny R.; Ross, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine independent predictors of lymphedema (LE) after breast radiotherapy and to quantify added risks of LE from regional node irradiation (RNI). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,579 women with T1-2, N 0-3, M0 breast cancer treated with breast conservation between 1970 and 2005 were studied. A total of 2,169 patients (84%) received radiation to the breast (B), 226 (8.8%) to the breast and supraclavicular LNs (B+SC), and 184 (7.1%) to the breast, supraclavicular LNs, and a posterior axillary boost (B+SC+PAB). Median follow-up was 81 months (range, 3-271). Results: Eighteen percent of patients developed LE. LE risks were as follows: 16% (B), 23% (B+SC), and 31% (B+SC+PAB) (p < 0.0001). LE severity was greater in patients who had RNI (p = 0.0002). On multivariate analysis, RT field (p < 0.0001), obesity index (p = 0.0157), systemic therapy (p = 0.0013), and number of LNs dissected (p < 0.0001) independently predicted for LE. In N1 patients, the addition of a SC to tangents (p < 0.0001) and the addition of a PAB to tangents (p = 0.0017) conferred greater risks of LE, but adding a PAB to B+SC RT did not (p = 0.8002). In the N2 patients, adding a PAB increased the risk of LE 4.5-fold over B+SC RT (p = 0.0011). Conclusions: LE predictors included number of LNs dissected, RNI, obesity index, and systemic therapy. LE risk increased when a SC or PAB were added in the N1 subgroup. In the N2 patients, a PAB increased the risk over B+SC. The decision to boost the axilla must be weighed against the increased risk of LE that it imposes

  17. [Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Alexandre; Ferraro, Leonardo Henrique Cunha; Rezende, André Hosoi; Sadatsune, Eduardo Jun; Falcão, Luiz Fernando Dos Reis; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90) of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block (ABPB). Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous). The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block: a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability) or the same concentration (0.9 probability). Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤ 2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4hours after the blockade. MEC90 was 0.241% [R2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20%-0.34%]. No successful block patient reported pain after 4hours. This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided ABPB can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Low energy positron scattering from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.P.; Jones, A.; Caradonna, P.; Makochekanwa, C.; Buckman, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new experiment has been developed for high resolution studies of positron scattering from atoms and molecules. Based on the Surko trap technology, a pulsed positron beam has been used to obtain preliminary measurements of low energy, differential elastic scattering cross sections from helium. The operation of the beamline is described and preliminary absolute cross section values for scattering energies of 5, 10 and 15 eV are presented and compared with contemporary theoretical calculations

  19. NEPOMUC: Neutron induced positron source Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hugenschmidt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NEPOMUC, operated by the Technische Universität München and the Universität der Bundeswehr München, provides a high-intensity low-energy positron beam for applications in solid state and surface physics as well as for fundamental research in nuclear and atomic physics. The intensity amounts to > 109 moderated positrons per second at a beam energy of E = 1 keV.

  20. Clinical utility of positron emission mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Shannon B.; Shah, Zeeshan A.

    2013-01-01

    Several imaging modalities have been introduced over recent years to better screen for and stage breast cancer. Positron emission mammography (PEM) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and introduced into clinical use as a diagnostic adjunct to mammography and breast ultrasonography. PEM has higher resolution and a more localized field of view than positron emission tomography–computed tomography and can be performed on patients to stage a newly diagnosed malignancy. Revie...

  1. Positron annihilation at grain boundaries in metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuriplach, J.; Melikhova, O.; Hou, M.; Van Petegem, S.; Zhurkin, E.; Šob, Mojmír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2007), s. 3461-3464 ISSN 1862-6351. [International Conference on Positron Annihilation /14./. Hamilton, Ontario, 23.07.2006-28.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041302; GA MŠk OC 147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : positron annihilation * grain boundaries * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Electrical properties of MOS structures on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown silicon: A positron annihilation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Harmatha, L.; Tapajna, M.; Ballo, P.; Pisecny, P.; Sik, J.; Koegel, G.; Krsjak, V.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of interface trap density, effective generation lifetime (GL) and effective surface generation velocity have been performed using different methods on selected MOS structures prepared on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown (NCz) silicon. The application of the positron annihilation technique using a pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) focused on the detection of nitrogen-related defects in NCz silicon in the near surface region. In the case of p-type Cz silicon, all the results could be used for the testing of homogeneity. In n-type Cz silicon, positron annihilation was found insensitive to nitrogen doping

  3. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-11-20

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55{+-}0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 {mu}m. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5{+-}4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the

  4. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55±0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 μm. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5±4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the SPM

  5. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  6. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Asghar, S; Andersen, H L

    2011-01-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop...... and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block....

  7. Right Axillary Artery Cannulation for Surgical Management of the Hostile Ascending Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Lazopoulos, George; Milonakis, Michael; Athanasiadis, George; Romana, Konstantina; Skouteli, Elian; Bastounis, Elias

    2005-01-01

    Extensive aortic disease, such as atherosclerosis with aneurysms or dissections that involve the ascending aorta, can complicate the choice of a cannulation site for cardiopulmonary bypass. To date, the standard peripheral arterial cannulation site has been the common femoral artery; however, this approach carries the risk of atheroembolism due to retrograde aortic perfusion, or it is undesirable because of severe iliofemoral disease. Arterial perfusion through the axillary artery provides sufficient antegrade aortic flow, is more likely to perfuse the true lumen in the event of dissection, and is associated with fewer atheroembolic complications. From September 2000 through March 2004, 27 patients underwent right axillary artery cannulation for acute ascending aortic dissection (n = 16), ascending aortic aneurysm (n = 9), or coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 2). Direct artery cannulation was performed in the first 4 patients, and the last 23 patients were cannulated through a longitudinal arteriotomy via an 8-mm woven Dacron graft. Seventeen patients underwent hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade cerebral perfusion. Two patients died intraoperatively: one due to low cardiac output and one due to diffuse bleeding. One patient suffered mild right-arm paresthesia postoperatively, but recovered completely. Axillary artery cannulation was successful in all patients; it provided sufficient arterial flow, and there were no intraoperative problems with perfusion. In the presence of extensive aortic or iliofemoral disease, arterial perfusion through the axillary artery is a safe and effective means of providing sufficient arterial inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass. In this regard, it is an excellent alternative to standard femoral artery cannulation. PMID:16107111

  8. Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), e88093 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P540; GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bud bank * axillary meristem * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  9. Case Report: Variant Origin of an Arterial Trunk from Axillary Artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Axillary artery is known to show different variations mostly in its branching pattern. Similarly, the origin of profunda brachii is often encountered with abnormality. Therefore, when the vascular variations in the upper limb persist, mostly it is confined to its branching pattern followed by its variant origin. But, among ...

  10. Secondary node analysis as an indicator for axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, Manel; Torres, Mireia; Solà, Montse; Navinés, Jordi; Pascual, Icíar; Mariscal, Antonio; Caballero, Albert; Castellà, Eva; Luna, Miguel Ángel; Julián, Joan Francesc

    2017-11-01

    Currently, there is no agreement regarding if it would be necessary to perform an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have macrometastases in the sentinel lymph node (SLN). We studied the utility of the secondary node analysis (SN), defined as the following node after the SLN in an anatomical and lymphatic pathway, as a sign of malignant axillary involvement. An observational, retrospective and multicentre study was designed to assess the utility of the SN as a sign of axillary involvement. Among 2273 patients with breast cancer, a valid sample of 283 was obtained representing those who had the SN studied. Main endpoints of our study were: the SLN, the SN and the ALND histological pattern. Sensitivity, specificity and precision of the test were also calculated. SN test, in cases with positive SLN, has a sensitivity of 61.1%, a specificity of 78.7%, a positive predictive value of 45.8% and a negative predictive value of 87.3% with a precision of 74.7%. The study of the SN together with the technique of the SLN allows a more precise staging of the axillary involvement, in patients with breast cancer, than just the SLN technique. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Positron emission tomography in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Bentourkia, M.; Benard, F.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography is a sophisticated molecular imaging technique, using a special scanner, that displays the functional status of tissues in the body at the cellular level (their metabolism). It is a diagnostic scan that provides the physician with information not available with traditional anatomic studies such as CT or MRI. PET can detect changes in cell function (disease) long before they are evident as physical (anatomic) changes seen on CT or MRI. In this way PET can add important information about many diseases allowing the physician to make a diagnosis often much earlier than with anatomic imaging techniques such as CT or MRI alone. In addition, in cases where an abnormality is noted on CT or MRI, PET can help differentiate benign changes from changes due to disease. PET scanning also typically images the entire body, unlike CT/MRI which is usually broken up into specific limited body section scans. All cells use glucose as an energy source but cancer cells use much more since they are growing much faster and out of control. This is the basis of imaging with F-18 FDG glucose, the radiotracer agent use in a PET oncology study. The abnormal, accelerated glucose used by cancer cells is detected by the PET scanner that processes the emissions from the F-18 FDG glucose by abnormally high levels of metabolism (tumor)

  12. Positron in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a rapid expansion of clinical indications of positron emission tomography (PET) based imaging in assessing a wide range of disorders influencing their clinical management. This is primarily based upon a large dataset of evidence that has been generated over the years. The impact has been most remarkable in the field of cancer, where it takes a pivotal role in the decision making (at initial diagnosis, early response assessment and following completion of therapeutic intervention) of a number of important malignancies. The concept of PET based personalized cancer medicine is an evolving and attractive proposition that has gained significant momentum in recent years. The non-oncological applications of PET and PET/CT are in (A) Cardiovascular Diseases (e.g. Myocardial Viability, Flow reserve with PET Perfusion Imaging and atherosclerosis imaging); (B) Neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Dementia, Epileptic Focus detection, Parkinson's Disease, Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders and Psychiatric diseases); (C) Infection and Inflammatory Disorders (e.g. Pyrexia of Unknown origin, complicated Diabetic Foot, Periprosthetic Infection, Tuberculosis, Sarcoidosis, Vasculitic disorders etc). Apart from these, there are certain novel clinical applications where it is undergoing critical evaluation in various large and small scale studies across several centres across the world. The modality represents a classical example of a successful translational research of recent times with a revolutionary and far-reaching impact in the field of medicine. (author)

  13. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Goto, Ikuo

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed with the 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose method on 29 patients with epilepsy (generalized epilepsy, 4; partial epilepsy, 24; undetermined type, 1). The subjects were restricted to patients with epilepsy without focal abnormality on X-CT. All the patients with generalized epilepsy showed a normal pattern on PET. Fourteen out of the 24 patients with partial epilepsy and the 1 with epilepsy of undermined type showed focal hypometabolism on PET. The hypometabolic zone was localized in areas including the temporal cortex in 11 patients, frontal in 2 and thalamus in 1. The location of hypometabolic zone and that of interictal paroxysmal activity on EEG were well correlated in most patients. The patients with poorly-controlled seizure showed a higher incidence of PET abnormality (12 out of 13) than those with well-controlled seizures (2 out of 11). The incidence of abnormality on PET and MRI and the location of both abnormality were not necessarily coincident. These results indicated that the PET examination in epilepsy provides valuable information about the location of epileptic focus, and that the findings on PET in patients with partial epilepsy may be one of the good indicators about the intractability of partial epilepsy, and that PET and MRI provide complementary information in the diagnosis of epilepsy. (author)

  14. Clinical investigation: Regional nodal failure patterns in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Katz, Angela; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Perkins, George H.; Jhingran, Anuja; Theriault, Richard; Singletary, Eva; Sahin, Aysegul; McNeese, Marsha D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe regional nodal failure patterns in patients who had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection to define subgroups of patients who might benefit from supplemental regional nodal radiation to the axilla or supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 1031 patients treated with mastectomy (including a level I-II axillary dissection) and doxorubicin-based systemic therapy without radiation on five clinical trials at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patient records, including pathology reports, were retrospectively reviewed. All regional recurrences (with or without distant metastasis) were recorded. Median follow-up was 116 months (range, 6-262 months). Results: Twenty-one patients recurred within the low-mid axilla (10-year actuarial rate 3%). Of these, 16 were isolated regional failures (no chest wall failure). The risk of failure in the low-mid axilla was not significantly higher for patients with increasing numbers of involved nodes, increasing percentage of involved nodes, larger nodal size or gross extranodal extension. Only 3 of 100 patients with 20% involved axillary nodes, and the presence of gross extranodal extension (10-year actuarial rates 15%, 14%, and 19%, respectively, p 20% involved axillary nodes, or gross extranodal extension are at increased risk of failure in the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex and should receive radiation to undissected regions in addition to the chest wall

  15. Lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 in vascular tissues of axillary buds causes severe reduction in their outgrowth and disorder of metabolic balance in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Miwa; Ishiyama, Keiki; Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Kojima, Soichi; Hanada, Atsushi; Kanno, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Toshihiko; Seto, Yoshiya; Kyozuka, Junko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The development and elongation of active tillers in rice was severely reduced by a lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 (GS1;2), and, to a lesser extent, lack of NADH-glutamate synthase1 in knockout mutants. In situ hybridization using the basal part of wild-type seedlings clearly showed that expression of OsGS1;2 was detected in the phloem companion cells of the nodal vascular anastomoses and large vascular bundles of axillary buds. Accumulation of lignin, visualized using phloroglucin HCl, was also observed in these tissues. The lack of GS1;2 resulted in reduced accumulation of lignin. Re-introduction into the mutants of OsGS1;2 cDNA under the control of its own promoter successfully restored the outgrowth of tillers and lignin deposition to wild-type levels. Transcriptomic analysis using a 5 mm basal region of rice shoots showed that the GS1;2 mutants accumulated reduced amounts of mRNAs for carbon and nitrogen metabolism, including C1 unit transfer in lignin synthesis. Although a high content of strigolactone in rice roots is known to reduce active tiller number, the reduction of outgrowth of axillary buds observed in the GS1;2 mutants was independent of the level of strigolactone. Thus metabolic disorder caused by the lack of GS1;2 resulted in a severe reduction in the outgrowth of axillary buds and lignin deposition. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  17. Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. (National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

  18. Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas

  19. Temporal artery and axillary thermometry comparison with rectal thermometry in children presenting to the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Adam J; Juliano, Michael L; Conley, Sean P; Cronyn, Patrick D; McGlynn, Andrea; Auten, Jonathan D

    2017-12-01

    Accurate temperature readings, often obtained rectally, are an important part of the initial evaluation of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. Temporal artery thermometry (TAT) is one way to noninvasively measure temperature. We sought to compare the accuracy of axillary and temporal artery temperatures compared to rectal. This prospective study included children age 0-36months presenting to the Emergency Department of a large military treatment facility. Rectal, axillary, and temporal artery temperatures were obtained. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV) were reported. The effect of cutoff values 99.9°F, 100.4°F, and 102.2°F on test characteristics were also evaluated. The sensitivities of axillary and temporal artery thermometry to detect rectal fever is 11.5% and 61.5% respectively. Cutoff values did not significantly alter test characteristics. In this study, temporal artery thermometry was 0.2°C lower than rectal temperature, axillary measurement was 0.9°C below the reference standard. Mean temperature difference in the febrile group between TAT and rectal thermometry was >0.5°C compared with a mean temperature difference 0.05°C in afebrile patients. The findings of our study do not support using axillary thermometry to screen pediatric patients for fever in the emergency department. TAT cannot be recommended as a rectal thermometry replacement where height and duration of fever are used in pediatric disease prediction models. TAT may have a role in screening for fever in the appropriate pediatric patient population like primary orthopedic or trauma presentations where the balance between device precision, data capture and patient comfort may favor use of TAT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Nerve transfer from triceps medial head and anconeus to deltoid for axillary nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2014-05-01

    To report our results with reconstruction of the axillary nerve by transferring the branch to the triceps lower medial head and anconeus to the anterior division of the axillary nerve. This study included 9 patients with isolated injury of the axillary nerve. Their average age ± SD was 35 ± 9 years, and the mean interval ± SD between injury and surgery was 6.6 ± 2.6 months. Through a posterior arm approach, the radial nerve branch to the lower triceps medial head and anconeus was transferred to the anterior division of the axillary nerve. We observed patients for a mean of 34 ± 7 months. At final evaluation, we measured range of shoulder motion, shoulder abduction and elbow extension strength, and abduction endurance. Patients were assessed via the deltoid extension lag test and abduction-in-internal-rotation test. All patients recovered deltoid function and maintained full active elbow extension. Seven of 9 patients recovered from lagging abduction in internal rotation. Abduction strength improved from approximately 40% that of the normal side at 90° of abduction preoperatively to 60% of normal strength postoperatively. There was improved endurance in abduction from approximately 25% to 65% that of the normal side, which was sufficient to eliminate all reports of shoulder pain or fatigability. Transfer of the radial nerve branch for the lower triceps medial head and anconeus to the anterior division of the axillary nerve proved to be an effective method of deltoid reinnervation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Abduction in internal rotation: a test for the diagnosis of axillary nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2011-12-01

    To describe and validate the use of a test of abduction in internal rotation for the assessment of axillary nerve injury. A total of 14 male patients with a mean age of 29 years (SD ± 6 y), with axillary nerve lesions lasting an average of 6 months, participated. We measured their shoulder range of motion. In the upright position, with the trunk bending forward, we asked our patients to actively extend the shoulder (swallowtail test), and then we extended the shoulders and asked each patient to hold them in that position (deltoid extension lag test). For the abduction in internal rotation test, we asked patients to abduct the shoulder in internal rotation. If full abduction compared with the normal contralateral side was not possible, the examiner passively held the affected limb in maximal abduction and internal rotation. The patient was instructed to maintain the position when the examiner released the limb. In each test, any lag compared with the normal side accounted for deltoid palsy. All patients exhibited abduction beyond horizontal and full external rotation. The swallowtail test and the deltoid extension lag test identified the axillary nerve lesion in 10 of 14 patients. The abduction in internal rotation test recognized the axillary nerve injury in all 14. The average difference in the range of abduction in internal rotation between the normal and affected side was 37° (abduction lag). Compensatory abduction in axillary nerve palsy has been attributed to the action of the supraspinatus, biceps, coracobrachialis, and pectoralis major. During abduction in internal rotation, compensatory abduction is impaired, clearly indicating deltoid muscle dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Axon Counts Yield Multiple Options for Triceps Fascicular Nerve to Axillary Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, M Michael; Schreiber, Joseph J; Rosenblatt, Lauren; Byun, David J; Lee, Steve K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the relative axonal match between potential donor and recipient nerves, so that maximal reinnervation potential may be reached with the least chance of donor site morbidity. In 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens, the main trunk and anterior, posterior, sensory and teres minor branches of the axillary nerve were identified, as were the radial nerve branches to the long, medial, and lateral heads of the triceps. The swing distances of the triceps fascicular nerve branches and the axillary nerve branches relative to the inferior border of the teres major muscle were recorded. Histomorphological analysis and axon counts were performed on sections of each branch. The median number of axons in the main axillary trunk was 7,887, with 4,052, 1,242, and 1,161 axons in the anterior, posterior, and teres minor branches, respectively. All specimens had a single long head triceps branch (median, 2,302 axons), a range of 1 to 3 branches to the medial head of the triceps (composite axon count, 2,198 axons), and 1 to 3 branches to the lateral head of the triceps (composite average, 1,462 axons). The medial and lateral head branches had sufficient swing distance to reach the anterior branch of the axillary nerve in all 10 specimens, with only 4 specimens having adequate long head branch swing distances. It is anatomically feasible to transfer multiple branches of the radial nerve supplying the medial, lateral, and sometimes, long head of the triceps to all branches of the axillary nerve in an attempt to reinnervate the deltoid and teres minor muscles. Understanding the axon counts of the different possible transfer combinations will improve operative flexibility and enable peripheral nerve surgeons to reinnervate for both abduction and external rotation with the highest donor/recipient axon count ratios. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, andin some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affectedindividuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneouspulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG laser treatment for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis.Methods Twenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patientswere categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and asubcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for theappropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor’stest against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The resultswere evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using thegrading system and iodine starch test.Results The average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-togoodresult and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor’s test demonstratedthat there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms.Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3 were treated in a conservativemanner. A deep second degree burn (n=1 was treated by a surgical procedure.Conclusions Subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effectivenoninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  4. Axillary lymph nodes siliconoma in a woman with intracapsular implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plachkov, I.; Cvetankov, K.; Hadjidekov, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Siliconoma, or silicone granuloma is the migration of silicon particles in the axillary lymph nodes, muscle and other non- ruptured or intact silicone implant. The latter is a relatively rare finding, and usually occurs in patients with extracapsular rupture of silicone prosthesis and has a typical ultrasound image. We present a case of a young woman with bilateral silicone prostheses placed 5 years ago, where in the right axilla are enlarged, structurally altered lymph nodes in the clinical and ultrasonography studies. Subsequent magnetic resonance examination shows intracapsular rupture ipsilateral silicone prosthesis and migration of silicon particles in the axillary lymph nodes. What you will learn: In this case we present twenty-three year old woman who reported pain and ‘swelling’ in the right axilla. The patient is with bilateral silicone prosthesis, she is not febrile and not reported other illness. After physical examination enlarged and tender lymph nodes in the right axilla was found. Several structurally altered and enlarged lymph nodes were visualized by ultrasound. These lymph nodes are hypoechogenic with obliterated fatty hilus. Due to the suspicion of silicone ‘extravasation’ in axillary lymph nodes, a magnetic resonance study of both mammary glands was performed. The images show intracapsular rupture of the right prosthesis without reliable data on silicone gel outside the fibrous capsule. Discussion: Siliconoma is a complication after plastic surgery of the breast and can affect both the axillary lymph nodes, and other lymphatic chains and also muscle and lung. Most frequently it occurs at damage of the extracapsular silicone prostheses. More rarely siliconoma occurs in siliconoma intracapsular damage, as in the presented case or in a silicone gel microbleed. Conclusion: The presence of siliconoma in axillary lymph nodes is relatively rare complication in plastic surgery of the breast. Methods of imaging diagnostic

  5. Effectiveness of OK-432 (Sapylin) to reduce seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinlong; Gao, Erli; Liu, Xinying; Ye, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yizuo; Li, Quan; Qu, Jinmiao; Dai, Xuanxuan; Wang, Ouchen; Pan, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer cannot be ignored. Various approaches have been used in an effort to reduce it, but these results are still controversial. We aimed to describe a new method of application of OK-432 (Sapylin, heat-treated Su strain of Streptococcus) to reduce seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer and to verify the safety and efficacy of it as a beneficial supplement for conventional surgery. A prospective, randomized analysis of consecutive quadrantectomy or mastectomy plus axillary lymphadenectomy using or not using OK-432 was designed. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 111 patients were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study and completed the follow-up. OK-432 applied to the axillary fossa plus placement of closed suction drainage was used in 54 patients (the experimental group); placement of closed suction drainage was used in 57 patients (the control group). There were no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, treatment received, tumor size, number of removed lymph nodes, and lymph node status. Postoperative drainage magnitude and duration were significantly reduced in the experimental group (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). One week after hospital discharge, fewer patients developed a palpable seroma in the experimental group: 10 in the experimental group versus 28 in the control group (P = 0.001). Fewer seromas needed aspiration (mean 1 [range 0-3] in the experimental group vs. mean 4 [range 1-5] in the control group; P OK-432 is a feasible and safe option for axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. The use of it does not always prevent seroma formation, but it can reduce drainage magnitude and duration, as well as decrease the incidence of seroma after the removal of drainage. It may be increasingly conducted in day surgery clinics.

  6. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  7. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  8. Solvated Positron Chemistry. Competitive Positron Reactions with Halide Ions in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Palle; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen; Andersen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown by means of the angular correlation technique that the binding of positrons to halides is strongly influenced by solvation effects. For aqueous solutions we find increasing values for the binding energies between the halide and the positron with increasing mass of the halide...

  9. Positron emission tomography with Positome, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukui, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.; Feindel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with Positome II using 68 Ga-EDTA was performed in cases with brain tumor and cerebral arteriovenous malformation. A significant focal uptake in static study and hemodynamic changes in dynamic study were noted in all cases except one case with intracranial lipoma. Comparing this method with sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate cerebral image study and computerized axial tomography, the diagnostic rate for detecting brain tumor was almost equal in all of these three methods. However, detecting and localizing was easier and clearer in static positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA than in sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate cerebral image and computerized axial tomography without infusion of contrast medium. Furthermore, static positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA was superior to computerized axial tomography without infusion of contrast medium for detecting cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Concerning dynamic positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA, semiquantitative values obtained by this method correlated well with findings of computerized axial tomography and was thought to be more precise and in detail than the findings of sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate cerebral image study. Summation of the previous studies about dynamic positron emission tomography with 77 Kr in occlusive cerebrovascular disease is also reported. In conclusion, static positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA is a very useful diagnostic method for detecting and localizing brain tumor and cerebral arteriovenous malformation without any attendant complications. Furthermore, a good combination of static and dynamic positron emission tomography and computerized axial tomography appear to be outstandingly effective for not only detecting the lesion but also understanding the pathophysiological aspect in cases with various intracranial lesions. (author)

  10. Positron sources for electron-positron colliders application to the ILC and CLIC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The increased demanding qualities for positron sources dedicated to e+e- colliders pushed on investigations oriented on new kinds of e+ sources. The different kinds of positron sources polarized and no polarized are considered. Their main features (intensity, emittance) are described and analysed. Comparison between the different sources is worked out. The characteristics of the positron beam available in the collision point are greatly depending on the capture device and on the positron accelerator. Different kinds of capture systems are considered and their qualities, compared. Intense positron sources which are necessary for the colliders require intense incident beams (electrons or photons). The large number of pairs created in the targets leads to important energy deposition and so, thermal heating, which associated to temperature gradients provoke mechanical stresses often destructive. Moreover, the important Coulomb collisions, can affect the atomic structure in crystal targets and the radiation resist...

  11. Expression of LRP and MDR1 in locally advanced breast cancer predicts axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy after induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, José; Gonzalez-Roces, Severino; Pollán, Marina; Lucas, Raul; Tejerina, Armando; Martin, Miguel; Alba, Alfonso

    2001-01-01

    total clinical response rate of 75.0%. None achieved a complete pathological response. MDR1 mRNA expression detected by RT-PCR was associated with the presence of invaded axillary nodes at surgery in 18/22 cases (81.8%), compared with 13/24 (54.2%) in the group with undetectable MDR1 expression. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). LRP expression in more than 20% of tumor cells before any treatment was associated with axillary nodal metastasis after chemotherapy and rescue mastectomy in 17/23 cases, compared with 3/8 in nonexpressors. Again, this difference was highly significant (P < 0.01). LRP expression before treatment and MDR1 mRNA expression after treatment were significantly interrelated (P < 0.001), which might reflect the presence of chemoresistant clones liable to metastasize to the regional nodes. Persistence of previously detected MDR1-positivity after treatment (7/9 compared with 0/2 cases) was significantly associated with axillary node metastasis (P < 0.05). Finally, in a logistic regression multivariate model, histology other than ductal, a Ki67 labeling index of at least 20% and the combination of LRP and MDR1 positivity emerged as independent predictors of axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy. The expression of different genes involved in resistance to chemotherapy, both before and after treatment with neoadjuvant, is associated with the presence of axillary node invasion at rescue surgery in locally advanced breast cancer. This might reflect the presence of intrinsically resistant clones before any form of therapy, which persist after it, and could be helpful both for prognosis and for the choice of individual treatment

  12. Coexistence of tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis and giant borderline malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystosarcoma phyllodes are uncommon breast tumors which rarely metastasize to axillary lymph nodes. The tumor is similar to fibroadenoma in structure, but it is different histologically. Although surgery (excision vs. mastectomy is the mainstay of treatment, the need for adjuvant therapies such as radiotherapy for a malignant variety is unclear. Its association with ipsilateral tubercular axillary lymph nodes has not been reported in literature so far. We report a 35-year-old female that presented with a giant borderline malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast along with ipsilateral tubercular granulomatous axillary lymph nodes. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 114-117

  13. Application of positron emission tomography in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valind, S.O.; Wollmer, P.E.; Rhodes, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    The early application of positron emission tomography in the lung was mainly concerned with the investigation of the regional volume of the vascular and extravascular compartments, using measurements of fractional blood volume and lung density. However, in addition to its passive role in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, the lung exerts a number of active, metabolic functions such as the inactivation of circulating vasoactive compounds and the synthesis and release of biologically active substances. Furthermore, many of the pulmonary disorders originate at a cellular or metabolic level, or have metabolic consequences. Many of the substrates of biochemical reactions and the biologically active compounds, or their analogs, can be labeled with positron-emitting radioisotopes without disturbing their biological or biochemical characteristics. In combination with the development of the appropriate physiological and biochemical models, the quantitative measurements possible with PET provide a unique opportunity of regionally studying the metabolic processes of the lung of man in vivo. Hence, a range of different expressions of metabolism and of lung function can be evaluated and their interdependence can be studied regionally

  14. Clinical application of positron CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Tsuneo; Yamaura, Akira; Shishido, Fumio; Tateno, Yukio.

    1981-01-01

    A newley designed positron CT has been applied for neurosurgical patients. The radiopharmaceuticals administered are 13 N-ammonia, 11 C-CO, and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose, which are produced and synthesized in the institute using the cyclotron. 13 N-ammonia and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose are administered by intravenous injection but 11 C-CO is administered by inhaling. 13 N-ammonia acts as a diffusible tracer and is readily metabolized to glutamine in the brain tissue, but the extraction fraction of the glutamine is so slow that the 13 N-ammonia imaging reflects the distribution of the crebral perfusion. 11 C-CO is combined with the hemoglobin and undiffusible in behavior. This makes the 11 C-CO images conduct the cerebral blood pooling distribution. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose is an analogous substance of glucose and is transported within the brain tissue competitively. Then, fluorodeoxyglucose is metabolized to fluorodeoxyglucose-6-phosphate but no further. This characteristic property of fluorodeoxyglucose let 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose images convey the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose. In normal volunteer subjects, the distribution of 13 N-ammonia and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose appeared in a similar fashion, and was in accordance with the brain tissue. Both tracers were accumulated in particularly high concentrations in the gray matter and the basal ganglia. 11 C-CO activity was prominently accumulated in various dural sinuses and the vascular areas. In stroke patients, old lesions showed a lack of perfusion but fresh lesions showed hyperperfusion surrounded by a decreased perfused area. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose activity was decreased in the lesion in spite of the hyperperfusion. (J.P.N.)

  15. Randomized controlled trial of late-course concurrent versus sequential chemoradiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery in locally advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Huang, Haixin; Yang, Hui; Chen, Dagui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy could increase the local control rate in patients with high recurrence risk after breast-conserving surgery, but the effect of concurrent chemoradiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary dissection is not clear. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of late-course concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus sequential therapy (SCRT) after mastectomy and axillary surgery in locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial of 155 patients with stage pT3–4p N1–3c M0 or pAnyT pN2–3c M0 breast cancer undergoing 5-fluorouracil+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel (FEC-D) chemotherapy after mastectomy and axillary dissection. Patients were randomized to the CCRT group (intensity-modulated radiation therapy was performed concurrently with docetaxel) or to the SCRT group (radiotherapy after chemotherapy). Recurrences, adverse reactions, and short-term effects were observed. Results: All the patients completed the planned therapy. The median follow-up was 39 (range, 16–62) months. Compared with SCRT, the 3-year local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) in the CCRT group was improved (81.8% vs 92.3%, P = .046). There was no significant difference in 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In the pT3–4 pN1–3 cM0 subgroup, the 3-year local recurrence-free survival and DFS were significantly improved in the CCRT group (69.4% vs 88.2%, P = .036; and 41.7% vs 72.6%, P = .049, respectively). No significant difference was observed adverse reactions between the 2 groups. Conclusion: LRFS of patients with locally advanced invasive breast cancer after mastectomy and axillary surgery was better with CCRT than with SCRT and with similar profiles of adverse reactions. The DFS of patients staged pT3–4 pN1–3 cM0 was also improved. PMID:29019894

  16. Buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia: Axillary brachial plexus block versus intramuscular administration in a placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Peripheral administration of opioids has been suggested for prolongation of regional analgesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken to compare the effect of regional (axillary brachial plexus block [ABPB] versus intramuscular (IM buprenorphine (2 μg/kg in adults. Material and Methods: Seventy-five adults undergoing upper limb surgery received ABPB with local anaesthetic (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, 15 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000, 9 ml normal saline [NS]. In addition, regional group RB (n = 25 received buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in ABPB and 1 ml NS IM. Systemic Group SB (n = 25 received 1 ml NS in ABPB and buprenorphine 2 μg/kg IM. Group C (n = 25 received 1 ml NS in ABPB and IM. Onset, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic parameters, sedation score, pain scores using visual analog scale, duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesic (RA requirement, adverse events, and patient satisfaction were noted. Results: Demographics, onset and duration of sensory, motor block were similar. RB group had longest duration of analgesia (20.61 ± 1.33 h compared to SB (10.91 ± 0.90 h and control group (5.86 ± 0.57 h (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C. RA requirement was highest in the control group and least in RB group (P = 0.000 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C. SB group had a maximum number of side effects (P = 0.041, SB vs. RB/C. Patient satisfaction was highest with group RB (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C, and P = 0.06 SB vs. C. Conclusion: Buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in axillary plexus block provides significantly prolonged analgesia with less RA requirement and greater patient satisfaction compared to IM administration. This is highly suggestive of action on peripheral opioid receptors.

  17. Energy-resolved positron annihilation for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, L.D.; Gilbert, S.J.; Surko, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study designed to address the long-standing question regarding the origin of very large positron annihilation rates observed for many molecules. We report a study of the annihilation, resolved as a function of positron energy (ΔE∼25 meV, full width at half maximum) for positron energies from 50 meV to several eV. Annihilation measurements are presented for a range of hydrocarbon molecules, including a detailed study of alkanes, C n H 2n+2 , for n=1-9 and 12. Data for other molecules are also presented: C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 ; CD 4 ; isopentane; partially fluorinated and fluorinated methane (CH x F 4-x ); 1-fluorohexane (C 6 H 13 F) and 1-fluorononane (C 9 H 19 F). A key feature of the results is very large enhancements in the annihilation rates at positron energies corresponding to the excitation of molecular vibrations in larger alkane molecules. These enhancements are believed to be responsible for the large annihilation rates observed for Maxwellian distributions of positrons in molecular gases. In alkane molecules larger than ethane (C 2 H 6 ), the position of these peaks is shifted downward by an amount ∼20 meV per carbon. The results presented here are generally consistent with a physical picture recently considered in detail by Gribakin [Phys. Rev. A 61, 022720 (2000)]. In this model, the incoming positron excites a vibrational Feshbach resonance and is temporarily trapped on the molecule, greatly enhancing the probability of annihilation. The applicability of this model and the resulting enhancement in annihilation rate relies on the existence of positron-molecule bound states. In accord with this reasoning, the experimental results presented here provide the most direct evidence to date that positrons bind to neutral molecules. The shift in the position of the resonances is interpreted as a measure of the binding energy of the positron to the molecule. Other features of the results are also discussed, including large

  18. Regional cerebral effects of ketone body infusion with 3-hydroxybutyrate in humans: Reduced glucose uptake, unchanged oxygen consumption and increased blood flow by positron emission tomography. A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svart, Mads; Gormsen, Lars C; Hansen, Jakob; Zeidler, Dora; Gejl, Michael; Vang, Kim; Aanerud, Joel; Moeller, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Ketone bodies are neuroprotective in neurological disorders such as epilepsy. We randomly studied nine healthy human subjects twice-with and without continuous infusion of 3-hydroxybutyrate-to define potential underlying mechanisms, assessed regionally (parietal, occipital, temporal, cortical grey, and frontal) by PET scan. During 3-hydroxybutyrate infusions concentrations increased to 5.5±0.4 mmol/l and cerebral glucose utilisation decreased 14%, oxygen consumption remained unchanged, and cerebral blood flow increased 30%. We conclude that acute 3-hydroxybutyrate infusion reduces cerebral glucose uptake and increases cerebral blood flow in all measured brain regions, without detectable effects on cerebral oxygen uptake though oxygen extraction decreased. Increased oxygen supply concomitant with unchanged oxygen utilisation may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies.

  19. Ischemic patterns assessed by positron emission tomography predict adverse outcome in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Richard M.; Tio, Rene A.; van der Harst, Pim; Voors, Adriaan A.; Koning, Paul M.; Zeebregts, Clark J. A. M.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have no coronary artery disease, regional impairment of myocardial perfusion combined with preserved metabolism has been found using positron emission tomography (PET). Our aim was to assess the prognostic relevance of PET-mismatch

  20. Value of positron emission tomography and computer tomography (PET/CT) for urologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujelbene, N.; Mirimanoff, R.O.; Ozsahin, M.; Zouhair, A.; Prior, J.O.; Boubaker, A.; Azria, D.; Schaffer, M.; Gez, E.; Jichlinski, P.; Meuwly, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is a functional imaging technique that allows the detection of the regional metabolic rate, and is often coupled with other morphological imaging technique such as computed tomography. The rationale for its use is based on the clearly demonstrated fact that functional changes in tumor processes happen before morphological changes. Its introduction to the clinical practice added a new dimension in conventional imaging techniques. This review presents the current and proposed indications of the use of positron emission/computed tomography for prostate, bladder and testes, and the potential role of this exam in radiotherapy planning. (authors)

  1. Defects introduced by Ar plasma exposure in GaAs probed by monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Wada, Kazumi; Nakanishi, Hideo

    1994-10-01

    Ar-plasma-induced defects in n-type GaAs were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. The depth distribution of the defects was obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation as a function of incident positron energy. The damaged layer induced by the exposure was found to extend far beyond the stopping range of Ar ions, and the dominant defects were identified as interstitial-type defects. After 100degC annealing, such defects were annealed. Instead, vacancy-type defects were found to be the dominant defects in the subsurface region. (author).

  2. Computed tomography image of the mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes in clinically sound Rottweilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Fonseca Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trough computed tomography (CT, it is possible to evaluate lymph nodes in detail and to detect changes in these structures earlier than with radiographs and ultrasound. Lack of information in the veterinary literature directed the focus of this report to normal aspects of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes of adult dogs on CT imaging. A CT scan of 15 normal adult male and female Rottweilers was done. To define them as clinically sound, anamnesis, physical examination, complete blood count, renal and hepatic biochemistry, ECG, and thoracic radiographs were performed. After the intravenous injection of hydrosoluble ionic iodine contrast medium contiguous 10mm in thickness thoracic transverse images were obtained with an axial scanner. In the obtained images mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes were sought and when found measured in their smallest diameter and their attenuation was compared to musculature. Mean and standard deviation of: age, weight, body length and the smallest diameter of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes were determined. Mean and standard deviation of parameters: age 3.87±2.03 years, weight 41.13±5.12, and body length 89.61±2.63cm. Axillary lymph nodes were seen in 60% of the animals, mean of the smallest diameter was 3.58mm with a standard deviation of 2.02 and a minimum value of 1mm and a maximum value of 7mm. From 13 observed lymph nodes 61.53% were hypopodense when compared with musculature, and 30.77% were isodense. Mediastinal lymph nodes were identified in 73.33% of the dogs; mean measure of the smallest diameter was 4.71mm with a standard deviation of 2.61mm and a minimum value of 1mm, and a maximum value of 8mm. From 14 observed lymph nodes 85.71% were isodense when compared with musculature and 14.28% were hypodense. The results show that it is possible to visualize axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes in adult clinically sound Rottweilers with CT using a slice thickness and interval of 10mm. The

  3. Positron beam production with a deuteron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, D B; Shefer, R E; Klinkowstein, R; Hughey, B J

    2002-01-01

    A graphite target was bombarded with 1.5 MeV deuterons, producing the isotope sup 1 sup 3 N, which is a positron emitter. Using the activated material a slow positron beam with an intensity of 0.7 (0.14)x10 sup 5 s sup - sup 1 was produced. A (saturated) sup 1 sup 3 N yield of 63 (11) MBq/mu A was observed, with 1.5 MeV deuterons, which is consistent with previous calculations and experiments. Our results show that, with the method we outline, positron beams with an average intensity of up to 1x10 sup 8 s sup - sup 1 may be produced.

  4. Positron Annihilation in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbrecht, Jason

    2017-04-01

    While there are a variety of undergraduate laboratory experiments in the literature, they tend to focus on specific positron experiments and use specialized equipment that limit their flexibility. Here we present a positron spectroscopy experimental apparatus designed for the undergraduate lab. Rather than specialized pulse processing the apparatus utilizes a PC oscilloscope as its primary data acquisition utility with pulse processing happening in software instead of hardware. This allows the apparatus to explore a variety of physical phenomena with the positron annihilation including material science, 2 and 3 gamma annihilation properties, polarimetry via Compton scattering, QED tests, and local hidden variable theories. The supporting software is flexible and allows students to pursue these experiments through exploration rather than simply supporting data acquisition. St. Olaf College.

  5. Positron Spectroscopy of Nanodiamonds after Hydrogen Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Nikitina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and defects of nanodiamonds influence the hydrogen sorption capacity. Positronium can be used as a sensor for detecting places with the most efficient capture of hydrogen atoms. Hydrogenation of carbon materials was performed from gas atmosphere. The concentration of hydrogen absorbed by the sample depends on the temperature and pressure. The concentration 1.2 wt % is achieved at the temperature of 243 K and the pressure of 0.6 MPa. The hydrogen saturation of nanodiamonds changes the positron lifetime. Increase of sorption cycle numbers effects the positron lifetime, as well as the parameters of the Doppler broadening of annihilation line. The electron-positron annihilation being a sensitive method, it allows detecting the electron density fluctuation of the carbon material after hydrogen saturation.

  6. Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Thomas; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin G H; Beloborodov, Andrei M; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Rodriguez, Jerome; Strong, Andrew W; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-03-17

    Microquasars are stellar-mass black holes accreting matter from a companion star and ejecting plasma jets at almost the speed of light. They are analogues of quasars that contain supermassive black holes of 10(6) to 10(10) solar masses. Accretion in microquasars varies on much shorter timescales than in quasars and occasionally produces exceptionally bright X-ray flares. How the flares are produced is unclear, as is the mechanism for launching the relativistic jets and their composition. An emission line near 511 kiloelectronvolts has long been sought in the emission spectrum of microquasars as evidence for the expected electron-positron plasma. Transient high-energy spectral features have been reported in two objects, but their positron interpretation remains contentious. Here we report observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity. The emission spectrum around 511 kiloelectronvolts shows clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, which implies a high rate of positron production. This supports the earlier conjecture that microquasars may be the main sources of the electron-positron plasma responsible for the bright diffuse emission of annihilation γ-rays in the bulge region of our Galaxy. Additionally, microquasars could be the origin of the observed megaelectronvolt continuum excess in the inner Galaxy.

  7. Hypermetabolic axillary mass on 18F FDG PET/CT: breast cancer arising from accessory breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Bae, Sang Gyun; Lee, Seok Mo

    2010-01-01

    Differential diagnosis among several causes of axillary malignant mass is important. The most common cause of palpable malignant axillary mass is metastatic lymphadenopathy. Although carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue is rare, the diagnosis should be kept in mind when evaluation malignant axillary mass. In this report we present a case with carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue. 18 F FDG PET/CT was performed for the purpose of localizing primary breast cancer lesion and systemic evaluation. PET/CT showed hypermetabolic lesions only in the right axilla. There is no evidence of malignancy in both breasts. When nuclear physicians encounter a hypermetabolic axillary mass indicating malignant lesion without evidence of primary breast malignant lesion, carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue should be included in the differential diagnosis

  8. Cerebral metabolic data obtained by positron emission tomography in physiological aging. A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, J.; Hommel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Following a summary of the general principles and limitations of metabolic measurements by positron emission tomography and of the different indices used to interpret the data, the authors review the results of published studies on physiological aging. Globally, with strict inclusion criteria absolute metabolic values at rest and under partial sensorial deprivation are little or not modified by age. In contrast, functional interactions between regions, as deduced from metabolic intercorrelations, are perhaps different in elderly people. In any case, positron emission tomography seems to discriminate between normal aging and different patterns of pathological aging. Technical improvements, more refined neuropsychological correlations and the use of dynamic activation paradigms will no doubt provide, in the future, a better definition of normal and pathological aging as positron tomography [fr

  9. Development of Texas intense positron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeymen, A.R.; Uenlue, K.; Jacobsen, F.M.; Goektepeli, S.; Wehring, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a reactor-based low-energy positron beam facility utilizing some novel techniques in positron beam production. This facility will be located at the University of Texas (UT) at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) and is being developed by UT Austin and UT Arlington researchers. TIPS will use a large area (total area of 900-1800 cm 2 ) 64 Cu source to supply fast β + particles for subsequent moderation to form an intense monoenergetic positron beam in the energy range of 0-50 keV with an expected intensity of 10 8 e + /s. Natural copper will be neutron activated near the core of the NETL 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor to produce the 64 Cu isotope. The activated source will be transported to the moderator/remoderator assembly, outside the biological shield of the reactor. This assembly combines the primary moderation and posterior remoderation of the fast β + particles into one stage using solid Kr to produce a low-energy positron source of a few eV with a diameter of 8 mm. The low-energy positron beam is then extracted by an electrostatic modified SOA gun and after further acceleration to 5 keV, the beam is focused onto the object slit of a 90 deg. bending magnet. After further focusing and another 90 deg. bend, the beam enters the main accelerator/decelerator that transports the beam onto the target for experimentation. The components of TIPS have been manufactured and are currently being optimized. In this communication we present some of the details of the TIPS facility and furthermore briefly discuss its intended applications

  10. Tumour and lymph node uptakes on dual-phased 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography correlate with prognostic parameters in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chuan; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lin, Chia-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2014-12-01

    To examine correlations between the uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) by primary tumours and axillary lymph nodes, and clinical and biological tumour prognostic parameters, in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who had received a dual-phased FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan for pretreatment staging were enrolled retrospectively. Maximal standardized uptake values at 1 h (SUV1), 2 h (SUV2), and retention indices (RI) of the tumours and ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes were measured. SUV and RI were compared with clinical and biological prognostic parameters. A total of 32 patients participated in the study. Tumour FDG uptake correlated with histological grade and tumour size. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes correlated positively with lymph node status, metastasis status and clinical stage. RI values for the tumour and lymph nodes were significantly positively correlated with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity. FDG uptake in tumours and lymph nodes showed correlations with some clinical and biological parameters, and may serve as a predictive marker of tumour biological behaviour in breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Characterization of the melting process of PTFE using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y; Nishijima, S

    2015-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the lifetime of ortho-positronium(o-Ps) is known to be able to be separated into two components due to annihilation in the crystal region and in the amorphous region. The melting process of PTFE was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that volume expansion with an increase of temperature is dominantly due to the expansion of the amorphous region and a Ps bubble is formed at melting in both regions. The o-Ps relating to the crystal region definitely remains on the surface of crystal at the time of annihilation. The production of lower energy electrons at melting was deduced by the analysis of the Doppler broadened annihilation photopeak, and the increase in the number of such electrons was found to have great influence on the formation of the o-Ps and annihilation processes of positron and o-Ps. (paper)

  12. Effects of acupuncture evaluated by EEG topogram and positron CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazu; Yano, Tadashi

    1990-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) topography and positron CT were performed in 30 subjects to examine the effects of needle stimulation on the function of the central nervous system. Needle stimulation was administered to IC 10 Shousanli-IC 4 Hoku, bilateral VF 12 Head-Wanku, and G 36 Tsusanli-LP 6 Shanyinchiao at a frequency of 2 Hz. Changes in EEG power were observed in all cortical regions, especially in the area from the frontal to the occipital lobe. The subjects could be divided into two types - the type in which the power increased only in the α zone, and the type in which the power increased in both θ and α zones. Positron CT revealed that 'de-qi' (the acupuncture feeling) transiently invigorates the paleocortex and the neocortex, and exerts influences on a wide range of cranial nervous cells via the A 10 nerve. Variation in regional cerebral blood flow induced by the electric needle stimulation was 15-20 ml/100 g brain tissue/min on average. Comfortable stimulation by the needle method is effective in eliminating disharmony between the neocortex and the paleocortex, regulating the function of the autonomic nerves, and stabilizing the spirit. (N.K.)

  13. Effects of acupuncture evaluated by EEG topogram and positron CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kazu; Yano, Tadashi (Meiji Coll. of Oriental Medicine, Hiyoshi, Kyoto (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) topography and positron CT were performed in 30 subjects to examine the effects of needle stimulation on the function of the central nervous system. Needle stimulation was administered to IC{sub 10} Shousanli-IC{sub 4} Hoku, bilateral VF{sub 12} Head-Wanku, and G{sub 36} Tsusanli-LP{sub 6} Shanyinchiao at a frequency of 2 Hz. Changes in EEG power were observed in all cortical regions, especially in the area from the frontal to the occipital lobe. The subjects could be divided into two types - the type in which the power increased only in the {alpha} zone, and the type in which the power increased in both {theta} and {alpha} zones. Positron CT revealed that 'de-qi' (the acupuncture feeling) transiently invigorates the paleocortex and the neocortex, and exerts influences on a wide range of cranial nervous cells via the A{sub 10} nerve. Variation in regional cerebral blood flow induced by the electric needle stimulation was 15-20 ml/100 g brain tissue/min on average. Comfortable stimulation by the needle method is effective in eliminating disharmony between the neocortex and the paleocortex, regulating the function of the autonomic nerves, and stabilizing the spirit. (N.K.).

  14. Tangential vs. defined radiotherapy in early breast cancer treatment without axillary lymph node dissection. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Universitaet Kiel, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Kiel (Germany); Temme, Nils; Foerster, Manuela; Reible, Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Hermann, Robert Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated low regional recurrence rates in early-stage breast cancer omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have positive nodes in sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND). This finding has triggered an active discussion about the effect of radiotherapy within this approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dose distribution in the axilla in standard tangential radiotherapy (SRT) for breast cancer and the effects on normal tissue exposure when anatomic level I-III axillary lymph node areas are included in the tangential radiotherapy field configuration. We prospectively analyzed the dosimetric treatment plans from 51 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. We compared and analyzed the SRT and the defined radiotherapy (DRT) methods for each patient. The clinical target volume (CTV) of SRT included the breast tissue without specific contouring of lymph node areas, whereas the CTV of DRT included the level I-III lymph node areas. We evaluated the dose given in SRT covering the axillary lymph node areas of level I-III as contoured in DRT. The mean V{sub D95} {sub %} of the entire level I-III lymph node area in SRT was 50.28 % (range, 37.31-63.24 %), V{sub D45} {sub Gy} was 70.1 % (54.8-85.4 %), and V{sub D40} {sub Gy} was 83.5 % (72.3-94.8 %). A significant difference was observed between lung dose and heart toxicity in SRT vs. DRT. The V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and V{sub 30} {sub Gy} of the right and the left lung in DRT were significantly higher in DRT than in SRT (p < 0.001). The mean heart dose in SRT was significantly lower (3.93 vs. 4.72 Gy, p = 0.005). We demonstrated a relevant dose exposure of the axilla in SRT that should substantially reduce local recurrences. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant increase in lung and heart exposure when including the axillary lymph nodes regions in the tangential radiotherapy field set-up. (orig.) [German] Aktuelle Studien zeigen

  15. Recent considerations of the GSI positron peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Reinhardt, J.; Reus, J. de; Ionescu, D.; Schramm, S.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1987-08-01

    In this report we examine various attempts to explain the GSI positron peaks. After the presentation of recent experimental data we briefly sketch theoretical investigations concerning the new particle hypothesis. The failure of standard models employing a linear coupling led to more exotic scenarios for particle production. One exciting recent idea is outlined. After that we treat the possible formation of a resonance in ordinary Bhabha scattering which could represent a time-reversed channel to the observations in heavy-ion collisions. Finally we discuss the poly-positronium model and a purely atomic physics model to interprete the GSI positron events. (orig./HSI)

  16. Heuristic theory of positron-helium scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An error in a previous modified adiabatic approximation (Drachman, 1966), due to a lack of generality in the form of the short-range correlation part of the wave function for L greater than zero, is corrected heuristically by allowing the monopole suppression parameter to depend on L. An L-dependent local potential is constructed to fit the well-known positron-hydrogen s, p, and d wave phase shifts below the rearrangement threshold. The same form of potential yields a positron-helium cross-section in agreement with a recent experimental measurement near threshold.

  17. Positron emission tomography imaging of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2001-01-01

    The merging of molecular biology and nuclear medicine is developed into molecular nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography (PET) of gene expression in molecular nuclear medicine has become an attractive area. Positron emission tomography imaging gene expression includes the antisense PET imaging and the reporter gene PET imaging. It is likely that the antisense PET imaging will lag behind the reporter gene PET imaging because of the numerous issues that have not yet to be resolved with this approach. The reporter gene PET imaging has wide application into animal experimental research and human applications of this approach will likely be reported soon

  18. Positron trapping at dislocations in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergersen, B.; McMullen, T.

    1977-01-01

    The trapping rate of positrons at dislocations in metals, and its temperature dependence, are calculated. Two different trapping processes, with the excess energy absorbed in either electron-hole pair formation or by phonon creation, are considered and the former is found to be the most important. An extension of the theory to include depletion of the positron density around the dislocations in a diffusion approximation is included. The trapping is found to be transition limited if the temperature is low or the trap potential shallow. At room temperature diffusion is important for deep traps. (author)

  19. Clinical utility of positron emission mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Shannon B; Shah, Zeeshan A

    2013-07-01

    Several imaging modalities have been introduced over recent years to better screen for and stage breast cancer. Positron emission mammography (PEM) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and introduced into clinical use as a diagnostic adjunct to mammography and breast ultrasonography. PEM has higher resolution and a more localized field of view than positron emission tomography-computed tomography and can be performed on patients to stage a newly diagnosed malignancy. Review of mammograms together with magnetic resonance or PEM images improves detection of disease.

  20. Observation of diffraction effects in positron channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palathingal, J.C.; Peng, J.P.; Lynn, K.G.; Wu, X.Y.; Schultz, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of positron channeling was made with a high-angular resolution apparatus, employing positrons of kinetic energy 1 MeV, derived from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Dynamitron. The pattern of transmission through a Si (100) single crystal of thickness 0.245 μm was investigated for a number of major planes. The authors have observed for the first time, in excellent detail, the fine structure of the channeling pattern expected to arise from the particle diffraction effects, theoretically explainable in terms of the quantum-mechanical many-beam calculations

  1. Apparatus for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-06-12

    Non-destructive testing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention comprises a photon source. The photon source produces photons having predetermined energies and directs the photons toward a specimen being tested. The photons from the photon source result in the creation of positrons within the specimen being tested. A detector positioned adjacent the specimen being tested detects gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons. A data processing system operatively associated with the detector produces output data indicative of a lattice characteristic of the specimen being tested.

  2. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided axillary/subclavian venous approaches for pacemaker and defibrillator lead implantation: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardo, Mattia; Nocerino, Pasquale; Gaia, Salzano; Ciardiello, Carmine

    2018-03-01

    Subclavian access is a reliable technique for lead insertion in pacemaker and defibrillator (ICD) implantation, but it is often accompanied by complications. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the ultrasound-guided axillary approach to the subclavian method. This randomized comparative study was performed on 174 patients: as a first attempt, 116 patients underwent the ultrasound-guided axillary access and 58 patients underwent the subclavian approach. A total of 364 leads were placed. Operators were trained in ultrasound-guided vein access technique. Axillary access was successful in 69% of patients (32/46), in the training phase and, as a first attempt, in 91.4% of patients (106/116), in the randomized phase. When axillary approach failed, we performed the following: subclavian access in 5.2% of patients (6/116), cephalic approach in 2.6% of patients (3/116), surgical method in 0.9% of patients (1/116). The subclavian technique was effective, as a first attempt, in 55 patients (94.8%). When the subclavian access failed, the ultrasound axillary approach successfully performed in all three cases. During a mean follow-up of 18 ± 6 months, the number of lead complications was similar in the subclavian group compared to the axillary group (p = 0.664). As first attempt, ultrasound-guided axillary method showed similarly high-success rate than subclavian approach and well performed when the first attempt in subclavian group failed. Axillary access can be considered a safe and effective alternative technique to the conventional subclavian method for device implantation.

  3. Repair of Multiple Subclavian and Axillary Artery Aneurysms in a 58-Year-Old Man with Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dolapoglu, Ahmet; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Dilation of the ascending aorta and aortic dissections are often seen in Marfan syndrome; however, true aneurysms of the subclavian and axillary arteries rarely seem to develop in patients who have this disease. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with Marfan syndrome who had undergone a Bentall procedure and thoracoabdominal aortic repair for an aortic dissection and who later developed multiple aneurysmal dilations of his right subclavian and axillary arteries. The aneurysms were succe...

  4. Axillary fine needle aspiration cytology for pre-operative staging of patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of radiologically abnormal axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer can identify patients suitable for primary axillary clearance (AC) rather than sentinel node biopsy, enabling surgical axillary staging by a single operation. This study assessed the accuracy of FNAC in predicting positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: 161 patients with screen-detected invasive carcinoma and who had pre-operative FNAC of a radiologically abnormal axillary lymph node were identified from two screening units, The axillary FNAC reports were correlated with sentinel node biopsy and AC reports, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: FNAC had a moderate sensitivity (66.3%) and NPV (71.8%), and a high specificity (98.7%) and PPV (98.3%). Most patients (86%) had a single axillary operation. The sensitivity was highest in grade 3 (81.8%) and ductal type (77.8%) tumours. The sensitivity was lower in tumours of special type (34.8%), grade 1 tumours (50%) and those without lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (55.9%). The NPV was highest in pT1 (86.7%) and in grade 1 (84.5%) tumours, and lowest (44%) in tumours with LVI. The PPV was 100% in grade 1 and 3 tumours, stage pT2 and pT3 tumours and those without LVI, and was high (>96%) in all other groups. In lymph-node-positive patients, the mean number of lymph nodes involved was higher in the case of a positive (6.4) than negative FNAC (4.4). CONCLUSIONS: FNAC of ultrasonically abnormal axillary lymph nodes achieved surgical staging by a single operation in most patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma, with moderate sensitivity and high specificity.

  5. Axillary nerve injury in young adults-An overlooked diagnosis? Early results of nerve reconstruction and nerve transfers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Lars; Cöster, Marcus; Björkman, Anders; Backman, Clas

    2012-01-01

    An injury to the axillary nerve from a shoulder trauma can easily be overlooked. Spontaneous functional recovery may occur, but occasionally reconstructive surgery is required. The time frame for nerve reconstruction procedures is from a neurobiological view crucial for a good functional outcome. This study presents a group of operatively and non-operatively treated young adults with axillary nerve injuries caused by motorcycle accidents, where the diagnosis was set late. Ten young men (media...

  6. Measurement of positron annihilation lifetimes for positron burst by multi-detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. Y.; Kuang, P.; Liu, F. Y.; Han, Z. J.; Cao, X. Z.; Zhang, P.

    2018-03-01

    It is currently impossible to exploit the timing information in a gamma-ray pulse generated within nanoseconds when a high-intensity positron burst annihilation event occurs in a target using conventional single-detector methods. A state-of-the-art solution to the problem is proposed in this paper. In this approach, a multi-detector array composed of many independent detection cells mounted spherically around the target is designed to detect the time distribution of the annihilated gamma rays generated following, in particular, a positron burst emitting huge amounts of positrons in a short pulse duration, even less than a few nano- or picoseconds.

  7. Positron astrophysics and areas of relation to low-energy positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guessoum, N.

    2014-01-01

    I briefly review our general knowledge of positron astrophysics, focusing mostly on the theoretical and modelling aspects. The experimental/observational aspects of the topic have recently been reviewed elsewhere [E. Churazov et al., Mon. Nat. R. Astron. Soc. 411, 1727 (2011); N. Prantazos et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1001 (2011)]. In particular, I highlight the interactions and cross sections of the reactions that the positrons undergo in various cosmic media. Indeed, these must be of high interest to both the positron astrophysics community and the low-energy positron physics community in trying to find common areas of potential collaboration for the future or areas of research that will help the astrophysics community make further progress on the problem. The processes undergone by positrons from the moments of their birth to their annihilation (in the interstellar medium or other locations) are thus examined. The physics of the positron interactions with gases and solids (dust grains) and the physical conditions and characteristics of the environments where the processes of energy loss, positronium formation, and annihilation take place, are briefly reviewed. An explanation is given about how all the relevant physical information is taken into account in order to calculate annihilation rates and spectra of the 511 keV emission in the ISM; special attention is paid to positron interactions with dust and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, an attempt is made to show to what extent the interactions between positrons and interstellar dust grains are similar to laboratory experiments in which beams of low-energy positrons impinge upon solids and surfaces. Sample results are shown for the effect of dust grains on positron annihilation spectra in some phases of the ISM which, together with high resolution spectra measured by satellites, can be used to infer useful knowledge about the environment where the annihilation is predominantly taking place

  8. beta sup + -gamma coincidence positron lifetime spectrometer with positron energy selection by electromagnetic lens

    CERN Document Server

    Chalermkarnnon, P; Araki, H; Shirai, Y; Shishido, I

    2002-01-01

    A beta sup + -gamma coincidence positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with two electromagnetic lenses was constructed. The electromagnetic lens was used to have energy-selected positron beam. It accomplished a time resolution of 385 ps (FWHM) for the total system with a Pilot U plastic scintillator. By using a silicon avalanche diode instead of Pilot U plastic scintillator to initiate start timing signals, the time resolution was improved to 345 ps (FWHM). With this method, in-situ positron lifetime measurements at high temperatures or under high stresses can be attained easily. (author)

  9. Solvated Positron Chemistry - Positron Reactions with Pseudo-Halide Ions in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen; Andersen, Jan Rud

    1982-01-01

    The hydrated positron e+aq reactions with SCN−, OCN−, CN−, S2− were studied by means of the angular correlation technique. The positron forms bound states with SCN−, CN−, and S2− but not with OCN−. Apparently, the e+aq reaction with SH− results in a positron bound state with S2−. It was difficult...... to determine the shapes of the bound-state angular correlation curves. Only in the SCN− case could a very rough estimate of the rate constant be obtained. Estimates of the binding energies relative to those of the corresponding halide ion states could be determined for SCN− and S2−....

  10. Positron annihilation studies of mesoporous silica films using a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chunqing; Muramatsu, Makoto; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Kinomura, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ito, Kenji; Kabayashi, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra were measured for mesoporous silica films, which were synthesized using triblock copolymer (EO 106 PO 70 EO 106 ) as a structure-directing agent. Different positron lifetime spectra for the deposited and calcined films indicated the formation of meso-structure after calcination, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation. Open porosity or pore interconnectivity of a silica film might be evaluated by a two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectrum of an uncapped film. Pore sizes and their distributions in the silica films were found to be affected by thermal treatments

  11. Role of vibrational dynamics in resonant positron annihilation on molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A C L; Danielson, J R; Natisin, M R; Surko, C M

    2013-05-31

    Vibrational Feshbach resonances are dominant features of positron annihilation for incident positron energies in the range of the molecular vibrations. Studies in relatively small molecules are described that elucidate the role of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution into near-resonant multimode states, and the subsequent coupling of these modes to the positron continuum, in suppressing or enhancing these resonances. The implications for annihilation in other molecular species, and the necessary ingredients of a more complete theory of resonant positron annihilation, are discussed.

  12. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  13. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  15. Comparison of Temporal Artery Thermometry with Axillary and Rectal Thermometry in Full Term Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ekta; Batra, Prerna; Khurana, Ritika; Dewan, Pooja

    2017-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of temporal artery thermometer in febrile and hypothermic neonates in comparison to axillary thermometer. It was a cross sectional observational study. Study participants included 210 neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital, divided into three groups of 70 each, namely normothermic, febrile and hypothermic. Temperatures were measured using temporal artery, axillary and rectal thermometers in each patient. Mean rectal temperature was found to be comparable to mean temporal artery temperature in normothermic babies. Temporal artery thermometer had a better sensitivity to diagnose fever, than hypothermia. Also, temporal artery temperature showed a good correlation with rectal temperature in normothermic and febrile group and not in hypothermic neonates. Temporal artery thermometer can accurately detect temperature in febrile and normothermic fullterm neonates but not in hypothermic neonates. Further studies are required before advocating temporal artery thermometry as a replacement of rectal thermometry among this group of population.

  16. Comparison of rectal, axillary, tympanic, and temporal artery thermometry in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Prerna; Goyal, Sudhanshu

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of temperature in the emergency room is important for diagnosis as well as investigating a patient. Various noninvasive methods thermometry are available today, but there is no consensus on the most accurate method of thermometry. The present study was conducted to compare different methods of temperature measurement available in the emergency room, that is, rectal, axillary, and temporal artery and tympanic membrane. This was a cross-sectional observational study Fifty febrile and 50 afebrile children aged 2 to 12 years attending the pediatric emergency room of a tertiary care hospital were included. Temperatures were measured using rectal, axillary, tympanic (right and left), and temporal artery thermometers and were compared. All the temperatures correlated well with rectal temperature, with temporal artery temperature showing the best correlation (correlation coefficients, 0.99 in the febrile and 0.91 in the afebrile group). Temporal artery thermometry has the potential to replace rectal thermometry in a busy emergency room setting.

  17. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  18. Asymptomatic Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: An Unusual Cause of Axillary Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Healy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian tube malignancy is considered a rare disease and is often mistaken histologically and clinically for ovarian cancer. The etiology is poorly understood, and it typically presents at an advanced disease stage, as symptoms are often absent in the initial period. As a result, primary fallopian tube cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presents with a 5-day history of left axillary swelling and a normal breast examination. Mammogram and biopsy of a lesion in the left breast revealed a fibroadenoma but no other abnormalities. Initial sampling of the axillary node was suspicious for a primary breast malignancy, but histology of the excised node refuted this. PET-CT showed an area of high uptake in the right pelvis, and a laparoscopy identified a tumor of the left fallopian tube which was subsequently excised and confirmed as a serous adenocarcinoma.

  19. Depth profiling of aluminium metal using slow positron beam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow positron beam Doppler-broadening technique was used to study depth profiling of aluminium metals sample. The variation of the line-shape parameters with incident positron energy was studied. Also, the depth profile of the S parameter was investigated. The positron implantation profile and backscattering fraction for ...

  20. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources