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Sample records for axillary bud viability

  1. Axillary bud development in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de H.A.

    1996-01-01


    Each chrysanthemum cutting originates from an axillary bud. For an improvement of the cultivation of cuttings or more specific their quality, it is necessary that the development of an axillary bud can be controlled as good as possible. Axillary bud development can be distinguished into

  2. Axillary bud development in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis - van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Axillary buds form the basis of flower production of a rose crop. Within a rose crop there exists an undesired large variation in shoot number and size, which affects flower yield. Part of this variation may be traced back to early variation in axillary buds. The aim of the research

  3. Development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses as affected by bud age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of axillary bud age on the development and potential for growth of the bud into a shoot was studied in roses. Age of the buds occupying a similar position on the plant varied from 'subtending leaf just unfolded' up to 1 year later. With increasing age of the axillary bud its dry mass,

  4. In vitro PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF AXILLARY BUDS IN Musa spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    As axillary buds have shown mass propagation abilities in Big Ebanga, this explant is tested ... tested. To verify the efficiency of this protocol and then assure its wide adoption, axillary buds have been excised from suckers of various cultivars belonging to other genomic ... various data were processed with the software.

  5. Effect of temperature on development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of temperature during axillary bud formation on axillary bud development and subsequent shoot growth was investigated. Growth potential of the axillary buds was studied either in situ, by pruning the parent shoot above the bud, or in isolation, by grafting the bud or by culturing the bud

  6. Ontogeny of axillary buds and shoots in roses: Leaf initiation and pith development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven

  7. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Klimešová

    Full Text Available Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1 with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury would increase; (2 favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3 consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems.

  8. Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), e88093 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P540; GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bud bank * axillary meristem * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  9. The miR156-SPL4 module predominantly regulates aerial axillary bud formation and controls shoot architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jiqing; Fu, Chunxiang; Liu, Sijia; Tang, Chaorong; Debnath, Smriti; Flanagan, Amy; Ge, Yaxin; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen; Larson, Preston R; Wen, Jiangqi; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Grasses possess basal and aerial axillary buds. Previous studies have largely focused on basal bud (tiller) formation but scarcely touched on aerial buds, which may lead to aerial branch development. Genotypes with and without aerial buds were identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a dedicated bioenergy crop. Bud development was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Microarray, RNA-seq and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to identify regulators of bud formation. Gene function was characterized by down-regulation and overexpression. Overexpression of miR156 induced aerial bud formation in switchgrass. Various analyses revealed that SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE4 (SPL4), one of the miR156 targets, directly regulated aerial axillary bud initiation. Down-regulation of SPL4 promoted aerial bud formation and increased basal buds, while overexpression of SPL4 seriously suppressed bud formation and tillering. RNA-seq and RT-qPCR identified potential downstream genes of SPL4. Unlike all previously reported genes acting as activators of basal bud initiation, SPL4 acts as a suppressor for the formation of both aerial and basal buds. The miR156-SPL4 module predominantly regulates aerial bud initiation and partially controls basal bud formation. Genetic manipulation of SPL4 led to altered plant architecture with increased branching, enhanced regrowth after cutting and improved biomass yield. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP) VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

    OpenAIRE

    T. Raghavendra; P. Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine), Napthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA) at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimati...

  11. In vitro establishment of axillary buds of Colocasia esculenta Schott clone `INIVIT MC-2001'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosdada Gálvez Guerra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The new Colocacia esculenta Schott clone `INIVIT MC-2001', obtained by the INIVIT breeding program, presented high percentages of losses in the in vitro establishment phase, mainly by microbial contamination. The aim of this study was to establish axillary buds of taro clone `INIVIT MC-2001' with low percentages of microbial contamination and explants mortality. For disinfection, six treatments were studied using different concentrations and times of immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO and ozonized water. Furthermore, the influence of the concentration of 6-BAP (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg l-1 of 6-BAP in the culture medium was determined. With the use of 3.0% sodium hypochlorite for the disinfection of taro corms for 25 minutes we were able to reduce the percentage of microbial contamination and gain efficiency in the establishment of the apices of axillary buds of 85.38%. By employing the culture medium consisting of MS salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg l-1 6-BAP at 29 days of culture, the explants were achieved the morphology characteristics for transferring to the multiplication phase. Keywords: axillary buds, Colocasia, ozone.

  12. BRANCHED1 promotes axillary bud dormancy in response to shade in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Poza-Carrión, César; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Cubas, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Plants interpret a decrease in the red to far-red light ratio (R:FR) as a sign of impending shading by neighboring vegetation. This triggers a set of developmental responses known as shade avoidance syndrome. One of these responses is reduced branching through suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene BRANCHED1 (BRC1), expressed in axillary buds, is required for branch suppression in response to shade. Unlike wild-type plants, brc1 mutants develop several branches after a shade treatment. BRC1 transcription is positively regulated 4 h after exposure to low R:FR. Consistently, BRC1 is negatively regulated by phytochrome B. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type and brc1 buds of plants treated with simulated shade has revealed groups of genes whose mRNA levels are dependent on BRC1, among them a set of upregulated abscisic acid response genes and two networks of cell cycle- and ribosome-related downregulated genes. The downregulated genes have promoters enriched in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF (TCP) binding sites, suggesting that they could be transcriptionally regulated by TCP factors. Some of these genes respond to BRC1 in seedlings and buds, supporting their close relationship with BRC1 activity. This response may allow the rapid adaptation of plants to fluctuations in the ratio of R:FR light.

  13. Role of Tulipa gesneriana TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TgTB1) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth in bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pachon, Natalia M; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Heynen, Eveline; Sergeeva, Lidiya; Benders, Anne; Blilou, Ikram; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-12-07

    Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season. Dormancy was assessed by weight increase and TgTB1 expression levels, a conserved TCP transcription factor and well-known master integrator of environmental and endogenous signals influencing axillary meristem outgrowth in plants. We showed that TgTB1 expression in tulip bulbs can be modulated by sucrose, cytokinin and strigolactone, just as it has been reported for other species. However, the limited growth of mid-located buds, even when their TgTB1 expression is downregulated, points at other factors, probably physical, inhibiting their growth. We conclude that the time of axillary bud initiation determines the degree of dormancy and the sink strength of the bud. Thus, development, apical dominance, sink strength, hormonal cross-talk, expression of TgTB1 and other possibly physical but unidentified players, all converge to determine the growth capacity of tulip axillary buds.

  14. Change in Auxin and Cytokinin Levels Coincides with Altered Expression of Branching Genes during Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierck, Robrecht; De Keyser, Ellen; De Riek, Jan; Dhooghe, Emmy; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL), auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12), cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1) and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2). Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in C17 at floral

  15. Change in Auxin and Cytokinin Levels Coincides with Altered Expression of Branching Genes during Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robrecht Dierck

    Full Text Available In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL, auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12, cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1 and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2. Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in

  16. Regulation of correlative inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth by basal branches varies with growth stage in Trifolium repens

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roderick G.; Hay, Michael J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Trifolium repens the decline in bud outgrowth that occurs with distance from basal root systems is due to correlative inhibition by the first-formed basal branches. The apical and axillary buds on these basal branches are the source of the inhibitory effect, but their mode of action is unclear. Inhibition might occur via basal branches being a sink for xylem-transported branching stimulants or alternatively by providing a source of inhibitory signals, or by both mechanisms. To distinguish ...

  17. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

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    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  18. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP i cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Grandio, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose M.; Tarancon, Carlos; Immink, Richard G.H.; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally themost important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out

  19. Effect of pretreatment methods of dormant pear buds on viability after cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to develop alternatives for dormant bud cryopreservation by using several cryoprotectants on four pear cultivars with a view to improve the viability of the dormant buds. We used different cryoprotectants such as Honey, PVS2, PVS3, PVS4, Towill, IPBB-1 for cultivars: Talgarskaya Kra...

  20. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto

    1999-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M 1 V 2 population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M 1 V 1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M 1 V 1 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M 1 V 1 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  1. Regulation of correlative inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth by basal branches varies with growth stage in Trifolium repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roderick G; Hay, Michael J M

    2015-07-01

    In Trifolium repens the decline in bud outgrowth that occurs with distance from basal root systems is due to correlative inhibition by the first-formed basal branches. The apical and axillary buds on these basal branches are the source of the inhibitory effect, but their mode of action is unclear. Inhibition might occur via basal branches being a sink for xylem-transported branching stimulants or alternatively by providing a source of inhibitory signals, or by both mechanisms. To distinguish between these mechanisms, four experiments were conducted on plants varying in initial growth stage from 10 to 19 nodes along their main stems to determine any variation in the relative importance of the operative mechanisms of correlative inhibition. Inhibitory signal exported into the main stem, detected as a branching response to girdling of basal branches, was relatively more significant in smaller (initially with 10-15 nodes on the main stem) than in larger (>19 nodes on main stem) plants. This signal was shown not to involve auxin fluxes, and is unidentified. However, across all stages of growth, the predominant mechanism driving correlative inhibition was the action of axillary and apical buds of basal branches as sinks for the stimulatory signal. This study indicates that the relative importance of the mechanisms regulating bud outgrowth in T. repens varies with growth stage and that, during intermediate stages, regulation has some similarity to that in Pisum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Axillary budbreak in a cut rose crop as influenced by light intensity and red:far-red ratio at bud level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2014-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut rose (Rosa ·hybrida) are harvested, a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Earlier experiments indicated that light reaching the bud affected the number of budbreaks. In all these studies, whole

  3. Identification and expression analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families during axillary bud outgrowth in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming; Li, Guofang; Qi, Siyan; Liu, Xiaojie; Chen, Xilong; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Dong; Han, Mingyu

    2018-04-20

    Cytokinins (CKs) play a crucial role in promoting axillary bud outgrowth and targeting the control of CK metabolism can be used to enhance branching in plants. CK levels are maintained mainly by CK biosynthesis (isopentenyl transferase, IPT) and degradation (dehydrogenase, CKX) genes in plants. A systematic study of the IPT and CKX gene families in apple, however, has not been conducted. In the present study, 12 MdIPTs and 12 MdCKXs were identified in the apple genome. Systematic phylogenetic, structural, and synteny analyses were performed. Expression analysis of these genes in different tissues was also assessed. MdIPT and MdCKX genes exhibit distinct expression patterns in different tissues. The response of MdIPT, MdCKX, and MdPIN1 genes to various treatments (6-BA, decapitation and Lovastatin, an inhibitor of CKs synthesis) that impact branching were also investigated. Results indicated that most of the MdIPT and MdCKX, and MdPIN1 genes were upregulated by 6-BA and decapitation treatment, but inhibited by Lovastatin, a compound that effectively suppresses axillary bud outgrowth induced by decapitation. These findings suggest that cytokinin biosynthesis is required for the activation of bud break and the export of auxin from buds in apple tree with intact primary shoot apex or decapitated apple tree. MdCKX8 and MdCKX10, however, exhibited little response to decapitation, but were significantly up-regulated by 6-BA and Lovastatin, a finding that warrants further investigation in order to understand their function in bud-outgrowth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of carbon ion beam irradiation on the shoot regeneration from in vitro axillary bud explants of the Impatiens hawkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Li, Ping; Dong, Xicun; Qu, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qiang

    Accelerated ion beams is an excellent mutagen in plant breeding which can induce higher mutation frequencies and wider mutation spectrum than those of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations, such as X-rays (Okamura et al. 2003, Yamaguchi et al. 2003). Mutation breeding operation of two Saintpaulia ionahta cultivars using the method combining plant tissue culture technique and carbon ion beam irradiations were set out at Institute of Modern Physics from 2005 (Zhou et al. 2006). The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiations on regenerated shoots of Impatiens hawkeri from another kind of explants named in vitro axillary buds explants were studied recently. The biology endpoints in this study included relative number of roots (RNR), relative length of roots (RLR), relative height of shoots (RHS), relative number of nodes (RNN), survival fraction (SF) and morphology changes in the regenerated shoots. The experimental results showed that carbon ion beams inhibited the root and stem developments of axillary bud explants more severely than X-rays did. And the 50% lethal dose (LD50 ) is about 23.3 Gy for the carbon ion beam and 49.1 Gy for the X-rays, respectively. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Impatiens hawkeri with respect to X-rays according to 50% SF was about two. Secondly, the percentage of shoots regenerated with malformed shoots including curliness, carnification, nicks in all Impatiens hawkeri axillary bud explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 55.6%, while the highest number for the 40 Gy X-ray irradiation was 40%. Last, many regenerated shoots whose vascular bundle fused together were obtained only from explants irradiated with carbon ion beams. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the axillary explants of Impatiens hawkeri is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy

  5. In Vitro Flower Induction from Shoots Regenerated from Cultured Axillary Buds of Endangered Medicinal Herb Swertia chirayita H. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro flowering and effective micropropagation protocol were studied in Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant using axillary bud explants. The Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS supplemented with benzyl amino purine (BAP 1.0 mg L-1 and adenine sulfate 70.0 mg L-1 was found optimum for production of multiple shoots. In the present study, incubation of flowering cultures on BAP supplemented medium (during shoot multiplication was found necessary for flowering (6 weeks. However, concentrations of auxins-like IBA (0–2.0 mg/L were ineffective to form reproductive buds. Subculture duration, photoperiod, and carbon source type do have influence on the in vitro flowering. The mature purple flowers were observed when the cultures were maintained in the same medium. This is the very first report that describes in vitro flowering system to overcome problems associated with flower growth and development as well as lay foundation for fruit and seed production in vitro in Swertia chirayita.

  6. SUBSTRATES UTILIZATION TO ASSESS ROOTEDNESS CAPACITY AND VIABILITY BUDS AT SOME GRAPE VARIETIES

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    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is a fruit crop of enormous economic importance with over eight million hectares planted in vineyards worldwide. Table grapes and wines represent a considerable share of the economy in many grape and wine-producing countries. During the dormant, due to low temperatures and how to prepare grape for entrance in winter time, wood annual increases and buds may be adversely affected. The way how the vines passed by dormant period can affect the buds and wood viability and rooting ability of vine cuttings. In this study were tested on different culture substrates vine cuttings belonging to a noble variety and a hybrid vines: Merlot and Isabella. Noble grapes are a term used to describe the international variety of grapes that are most recognizable for the top quality wine they produce. In this paper was determinate total dry matter of vine cuttings, humidity of biological material, vine cuttings rooting capacity and viability status buds cuttings placed on three nutritional substrates.

  7. Lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 in vascular tissues of axillary buds causes severe reduction in their outgrowth and disorder of metabolic balance in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Miwa; Ishiyama, Keiki; Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Kojima, Soichi; Hanada, Atsushi; Kanno, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Toshihiko; Seto, Yoshiya; Kyozuka, Junko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The development and elongation of active tillers in rice was severely reduced by a lack of cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 (GS1;2), and, to a lesser extent, lack of NADH-glutamate synthase1 in knockout mutants. In situ hybridization using the basal part of wild-type seedlings clearly showed that expression of OsGS1;2 was detected in the phloem companion cells of the nodal vascular anastomoses and large vascular bundles of axillary buds. Accumulation of lignin, visualized using phloroglucin HCl, was also observed in these tissues. The lack of GS1;2 resulted in reduced accumulation of lignin. Re-introduction into the mutants of OsGS1;2 cDNA under the control of its own promoter successfully restored the outgrowth of tillers and lignin deposition to wild-type levels. Transcriptomic analysis using a 5 mm basal region of rice shoots showed that the GS1;2 mutants accumulated reduced amounts of mRNAs for carbon and nitrogen metabolism, including C1 unit transfer in lignin synthesis. Although a high content of strigolactone in rice roots is known to reduce active tiller number, the reduction of outgrowth of axillary buds observed in the GS1;2 mutants was independent of the level of strigolactone. Thus metabolic disorder caused by the lack of GS1;2 resulted in a severe reduction in the outgrowth of axillary buds and lignin deposition. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phenology of perennial native grass below-ground axillary buds in the northern mixed-grass prairie

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    Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of vegetative reproduction, the timing of belowground bud recruitment is unknown for most dominant, perennial native grasses as is the relationship between bud development and envir...

  9. The ratio of red light to far red light alters Arabidopsis axillary bud growth and abscisic acid signalling before stem auxin changes

    OpenAIRE

    Holalu, Srinidhi V.; Finlayson, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana shoot branching is inhibited by a low red light to far red light ratio (R:FR, an indicator of competition), and by loss of phytochrome B function. Prior studies have shown that phytochrome B deficiency suppresses bud growth by elevating systemic auxin signalling, and that increasing the R:FR promotes the growth of buds suppressed by low R:FR by inhibiting bud abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and signalling. Here, systemic auxin signalling and bud ABA signalling w...

  10. Extensive transcriptome changes during natural onset and release of vegetative bud dormancy in Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    To survive winter conditions, axillary buds of poplar transition from paradormancy to endodormancy. Following sufficient chilling, endodormant axillary buds will transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. We utilized the near whole genome NimbleGen poplar microarrays to follow transcriptome diff...

  11. Field evaluation of regenerated plants by somatic embryogenesis from shoots apexes of axillary buds in ´Navolean’ (Musa spp., AAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shoots apexes from axilary buds for callus induction with embryogenic structures in plantain ‘Navolean’ (Group AAB permitted to develop a plant regeneration method through out somatic embryogenesis. In order to know the phenotypic variants that may be produced with the previously mentioned method , 1000 plants were planted in field conditions in comparison to those coming from somatic embryos obtained from multibuds as initial explants and organogenesis-derived plants (shoot tipsand conventionally derived plants (corms, during two growing cycles. The main morphological characters and yield components were evaluated. The total frequency of somaclonal variation during the first growing cycle in plants coming from somatic embryos obtained from shoots apexes from axilary buds as initial explants were 1.1%, and 8,6% in regenerated plants from somatic embryos obtained from multi-buds as initial explants. Later, in this same growing cycle, plants regenerated from somatic embryos (both sources showed a similar performance between them and they were significantly superior in all evaluated variants in comparison to corm-derived plants. In the second growing cycle, significant differences were not observed in yield components of suckers from evaluated plants, in spite of the propagation method used. With regard to somaclonal variation, the best performance was obtained with shoots apexes from axilary buds as explants. Finally, the feasibility of using the new method was shown. Key words: embryogenic cell suspensions, somaclonal variation

  12. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets; Posicao da gema axilar e a inducao de mutacao em mudas de crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M{sub 1}V{sub 2} population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M{sub 1}V{sub 1} populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  13. A Conserved Carbon Starvation Response Underlies Bud Dormancy in Woody and Herbaceous Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarancón, Carlos; González-Grandío, Eduardo; Oliveros, Juan C.; Nicolas, Michael; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Plant shoot systems give rise to characteristic above-ground plant architectures. Shoots are formed from axillary meristems and buds, whose growth and development is modulated by systemic and local signals. These cues convey information about nutrient and water availability, light quality, sink/source organ activity and other variables that determine the timeliness and competence to maintain development of new shoots. This information is translated into a local response, in meristems and buds, of growth or quiescence. Although some key genes involved in the onset of bud latency have been identified, the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) controlled by these genes are not well defined. Moreover, it has not been determined whether bud dormancy induced by environmental cues, such as a low red-to-far-red light ratio, shares genetic mechanisms with bud latency induced by other causes, such as apical dominance or a short-day photoperiod. Furthermore, the evolution and conservation of these GRNs throughout angiosperms is not well established. We have reanalyzed public transcriptomic datasets that compare quiescent and active axillary buds of Arabidopsis, with datasets of axillary buds of the woody species Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and apical buds of Populus tremula x Populus alba (poplar) during the bud growth-to-dormancy transition. Our aim was to identify potentially common GRNs induced during the process that leads to bud para-, eco- and endodormancy. In Arabidopsis buds that are entering eco- or paradormancy, we have identified four induced interrelated GRNs that correspond to a carbon (C) starvation syndrome, typical of tissues undergoing low C supply. This response is also detectable in poplar and grapevine buds before and during the transition to dormancy. In all eukaryotes, C-limiting conditions are coupled to growth arrest and latency like that observed in dormant axillary buds. Bud dormancy might thus be partly a consequence of the underlying C starvation syndrome

  14. A Conserved Carbon Starvation Response Underlies Bud Dormancy in Woody and Herbaceous Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tarancón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant shoot systems give rise to characteristic above-ground plant architectures. Shoots are formed from axillary meristems and buds, whose growth and development is modulated by systemic and local signals. These cues convey information about nutrient and water availability, light quality, sink/source organ activity and other variables that determine the timeliness and competence to maintain development of new shoots. This information is translated into a local response, in meristems and buds, of growth or quiescence. Although some key genes involved in the onset of bud latency have been identified, the gene regulatory networks (GRNs controlled by these genes are not well defined. Moreover, it has not been determined whether bud dormancy induced by environmental cues, such as a low red-to-far-red light ratio, shares genetic mechanisms with bud latency induced by other causes, such as apical dominance or a short-day photoperiod. Furthermore, the evolution and conservation of these GRNs throughout angiosperms is not well established. We have reanalyzed public transcriptomic datasets that compare quiescent and active axillary buds of Arabidopsis, with datasets of axillary buds of the woody species Vitis vinifera (grapevine and apical buds of Populus tremula x Populus alba (poplar during the bud growth-to-dormancy transition. Our aim was to identify potentially common GRNs induced during the process that leads to bud para-, eco- and endodormancy. In Arabidopsis buds that are entering eco- or paradormancy, we have identified four induced interrelated GRNs that correspond to a carbon (C starvation syndrome, typical of tissues undergoing low C supply. This response is also detectable in poplar and grapevine buds before and during the transition to dormancy. In all eukaryotes, C-limiting conditions are coupled to growth arrest and latency like that observed in dormant axillary buds. Bud dormancy might thus be partly a consequence of the underlying C

  15. Cultivo inicial in vitro de gemas axilares de Ananas comosus (L. Merr., em meio líquido/sólido, na presença/ausência de luz In nitial in vitro culture of axillary buds of Ananas comosus (L. Merr. in liquid/semi-solid culture medium, in the presence/absence of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brandão Santa Cruz Barboza

    2009-01-01

    evaluated in four replications per treatment. More buds were obtained in liquid medium without filter paper bridge, where 80.0% of explants differentiated new shoots. In treatments cultivated in the dark, 68.8% to 87.5% of the explants did not regenerate new shoots. Explants cultivated in volumes of 2.5 mL and 5.0 mL of medium, in the presence of light, were more efficient in the induction and formation of shoots. The cultivation of axillary buds of lateral pineapple sprouts in 2.5 mL or 5.0 mL of MS liquid medium, supplemented with 0.63 μM NAA and 2.5 μM BAP, in the presence of light, represents an adequate protocol for establishing new pineapple shoots for use in subsequent phases of micropropagation.

  16. Inhibition of tobacco axillary bud differentiation by silencing CUP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... exhibited some important phenotypes, such as leaf fusion, leaf curl and incomplete leaf. CUC3 in N. tabacum was silenced successfully by RNA interference (RNAi), which .... 0.1 mg NAA L-1 and 1.0 mg BAP L-1 was used as co-culture medium. Co-culture medium with hygromycin B 50 mg hygromycin.

  17. Inhibition of tobacco axillary bud differentiation by silencing CUP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... Eltayeb AE, Kawano N, Badawi GH, Kaminaka H, Sanekata T,. Shibahara T, Inanaga S, Tanaka K (2007). Overexpression of monodehydroascorbate reductase in transgenic tobacco confers enhanced tolerance to ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol stresses. Planta, 225 (5): 1255-1264. Greb T, Clarenz O, ...

  18. Evaluation of the Pectiform effect in the in vitro establishment of axilary buds of sweet potato clone CENSA 78-354

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando S. González Paneque

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of studying the effect of different Pectimorf dose in the establishment and budding of axillary buds of sweet potato starting from buds, tuberous roots belonging to the clone CEMSA 78-354 were collected and placed in flasks with water in the laboratory under semicontrolled conditions to induce the sprouting of the buds. Later on, axillary buds of the buds of the tubers (establishment and axillary buds coming from in vitro plants (multiplicationwere selected as sowing material (explants, which were sowed in the Murashige and Skoog culture medium containing the MS salts, thiamin (1 mg.l-1, myoinositol (100 mg.l-1, sucrose (3%, gelryte (2 g.l-1, giberelic acid (10.0 mg.l-1 and indol-3-acetic acid (0.05 mg.l-1 and the already mentioned culture medium without the previously refered regulators of the growth with different Pectimorf concentration: 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg.l-1. The morphological behavior of the in vitro plantas was evaluated to the five, fifteen and thirty days after established the buds under in vitro conditions , and different variables related with the in vitro growth of the buds were analyzed, among which we have: number of sprouted buds, height of the in vitro plants (cm, number, longitude and width of the leaves, buds with roots, longitude of the roots (cm and longitude of the petiole (cm. The best results were obtained when using the axillary buds coming from budding of tuberous roots in comparison with the axillary buds of the in vitro plants and with the use of the culture medium containing 10.0 mg.l-1 of Pectimorf. Key works: Ipomoea batatas, micropropagation, oligogalacturonides

  19. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    , originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (dark pink were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V2 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream. Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V2 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named ‘Magali’ was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar.

  20. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth(1[OPEN])

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roman, H.; Girault, T.; Barbier, F.; Peron, T.; Brouard, N.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Vian, A.; Sakr, S.; Lothier, J.; Le Gourrierec, J.; Leduc, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 1 (2016), s. 489-509 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cell-cycle regulation * pea axillary buds * oryza-sativa l. * apical dominance * rosa sp * arabidopsis-thaliana * lateral buds * meristem activity * plant-responses * acts downstream Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  1. Topical glycopyrrolate reduces axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D M

    2016-12-01

    Oral anti-cholinergic medications reduce generalized hyperhidrosis, but the effectiveness of topical anticholinergic solutions on axillary hyperhidrosis is unclear. This study determines the initial effectiveness of 1% and 2% topical glycopyrrolate spray and compares this with Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. In a non-randomized, consecutive patient, prospective questionnaire, treatment comparison study, 40 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were allocated to one of four study groups (10 patients to each group): (a) 1% glycopyrrolate spray, (b) 2% glycopyrrolate spray, (c) subcutaneous Botulinum toxin type A injections, (d) no treatment. Clinical outcomes were measured by comparing a prospectively administered questionnaire, completed both pre-treatment and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Forty healthy volunteers without axillary hyperhidrosis completed the same questionnaire. The three treatment groups showed a significant (P hyperhidrosis scores following treatment. The degree of improvement was less for the 1% glycopyrrolate group when compared with the Botulinum toxin type A group (P hyperhidrosis to a level similar to those without hyperhidrosis. Patients in both, the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups reported a significant improvement in axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms. These included reduction in psychologically precipitating factors (e.g. public speaking) and axillary hyperhidrosis-specific physical effects (e.g. limitation of clothing choice). Topical glycopyrrolate spray could provide a further treatment modality to manage axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Effect of climate change on bud phenology of young aspen plants (Populus tremula. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry; Chenhao, Cao; Virjamo, Virpi; Nybakken, Line; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2017-10-01

    Boreal tree species are excellent tools for studying tolerance to climate change. Bud phenology is a trait, which is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations and thus useful for climate change investigations. However, experimental studies of bud phenology under simulated climate change outdoors are deficient. We conducted a multifactorial field experiment with single (T, UVA, UVB) and combined treatments (UVA+T, UVB+T) of elevated temperature (T, +2°C) and ultraviolet-B radiation (+30% UVB) in order to examine their impact on both male and female genotypes of aspen ( Populus tremula L.). This study focuses on the effect of the treatments in years 2 and 3 after planting (2013, 2014) and follows how bud phenology is adapting in year 4 (2015), when the treatments were discontinued. Moreover, the effect of bud removal was recorded. We found that elevated temperature played a key role in delaying bud set and forcing bud break in intact individuals, as well as slightly delaying bud break in bud-removed individuals. UVB delayed the bud break in bud-removed males. In addition, both UVA and UVB interacted with temperature in year 3 and even in year 4, when the treatments were off, but only in male individuals. Axillary bud removal forced both bud break and bud set under combined treatments (UVA+T, UVB+T) and delayed both under individual treatments (T, UVB). In conclusion, male aspens were more responsive to the treatments than females and that effect of elevated temperature and UV radiation on bud set and bud break of aspen is not disappearing over 4-year study period.

  3. Radial to axillary nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaclocha, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Martínez-Gómez, Deborah; Vanaclocha, Leyre

    2018-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is common after brachial plexus injuries, particularly with shoulder luxation. Nerve grafting is the traditional procedure for postganglionic injuries. Nerve transfer is emerging as a viable option particularly in late referrals. At the proximal arm the radial and axillary nerves lie close by. Sacrificing one of the triceps muscle nerve branches induces little negative consequences. Transferring the long head of the triceps nerve branch is a good option to recover axillary nerve function. The surgical technique is presented in a video, stressing the steps to achieve a successful result. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WbVbpMuPxIE .

  4. Four Hypotheses to Explain Axillary Budbreak after Removal of Flower Shoots in a Cut-rose Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Okello, R.C.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2013-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut-rose (Rosa ×hybrida) are harvested (removed), a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Besides removing within-shoot correlative inhibition, it is hypothesized that shoot removal leads to 1)

  5. Axillary hyperhidrosis: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Jason E; Khachemoune, Amor

    2017-11-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis is characterized by an increased amount of sweat production, localized to the armpits, to compensate for environmental conditions and to control thermoregulation. It affects about 3.12% of the US population. It has a significant effect on one's psychological and physical health, as well as one's occupational life. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, genetics, and management and treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  6. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  7. Axillary breast: Navigating uncharted terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha A Bhave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Axillary breast is a common condition that leads to discomfort and cosmetic problems. Liposuction alone and open excision are two techniques used for treatment. Materials and Methods: This study assesses the results of treatment in 24 consecutive patients, operated between 2005 and 2015.All patients had Kajava class IV masses. Three were treated by liposuction alone, while 21 were treated by open axillaplasty with limited liposuction. Results: One patient treated by liposuction alone had to be re-operated for a residual lump, while with axillaplasty, no major complications were observed and the results were uniformly good. Discussion: Certain points of technique emerged as major determinants in obtaining the best results. In brief, these are: a limited skin excision; b placing elliptical incisions within the most lax, apical axillary skin, irrespective of the location of the lump; c raising skin flaps at the level of superficial fascia; dmeticulous dissection and preservation of the nerves, especially the second intercostobrachial; f judicious liposuction for eliminating dog ears and axillary sculpting only; g avoiding drains. Conclusion: Open axillaplasty with limited liposuction is the best way to minimise complications and produce good results.

  8. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer. Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi *. Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Received 16 October 2012; accepted 7 January 2013. Available online 7 March 2013. KEYWORDS. Breast cancer;. Axillary lymph nodes.

  9. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  10. Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

  11. Colon cryptogenesis: asymmetric budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wee Tan

    Full Text Available The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein in most colon cancers.

  12. Automated quantification of budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel image cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Daniel J; Kury, Alexandria L; Kuksin, Dmitry; Pirani, Alnoor; Flanagan, Kevin; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The measurements of concentration, viability, and budding percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are performed on a routine basis in the brewing and biofuel industries. Generation of these parameters is of great importance in a manufacturing setting, where they can aid in the estimation of product quality, quantity, and fermentation time of the manufacturing process. Specifically, budding percentages can be used to estimate the reproduction rate of yeast populations, which directly correlates with metabolism of polysaccharides and bioethanol production, and can be monitored to maximize production of bioethanol during fermentation. The traditional method involves manual counting using a hemacytometer, but this is time-consuming and prone to human error. In this study, we developed a novel automated method for the quantification of yeast budding percentages using Cellometer image cytometry. The automated method utilizes a dual-fluorescent nucleic acid dye to specifically stain live cells for imaging analysis of unique morphological characteristics of budding yeast. In addition, cell cycle analysis is performed as an alternative method for budding analysis. We were able to show comparable yeast budding percentages between manual and automated counting, as well as cell cycle analysis. The automated image cytometry method is used to analyze and characterize corn mash samples directly from fermenters during standard fermentation. Since concentration, viability, and budding percentages can be obtained simultaneously, the automated method can be integrated into the fermentation quality assurance protocol, which may improve the quality and efficiency of beer and bioethanol production processes.

  13. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  14. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  15. Fibroadenoma in the bilateral accessory axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, P; Izzo, V; Cervelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The authors treated a case of bilateral accessory axillary breast tissue. Excision with histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of fibroadenoma. Treatment left the woman with incision scars (3.5 cm) in the axillary pyramid, a location often not seen during a patient's normal movements. Thus, despite a minor aesthetic incision, gives the advantage of complete histologic analysis was gained. Liposuction treatment was used in this case. The scar results were good.

  16. Axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch: comparison between axillary and posterior arm approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Daniel Tôrres; Alencar, Fernando Henrique Uchôa de; Lemos, Marcos Vinícius Vieira de; Kobig, Rudolf Nunes; Rocha, João Francisco Recalde

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the functional outcome of axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch through the axillary approach and posterior arm approach. The study included 27 patients with post-traumatic brachial plexus injury treated with axillary nerve neurotization by a triceps motor branch for functional recovery of shoulder abduction and external rotation. The patients were retrospectively evaluated and two groups were identified, one with 13 patients undergoing axillary nerve neurotization by an axillary approach and the second with 14 patients using the posterior arm approach. Patients underwent assessment of muscle strength using the scale recommended by the British Medical Research Council, preoperatively and 18 months postoperatively, with useful function recovery considered as grade M3 or greater. In the axillary approach group, 76.9% of patients achieved useful abduction function recovery and 69.2% achieved useful external rotation function recovery. In the group with posterior arm approach, 71.4% of patients achieved useful abduction function recovery and 50% achieved useful external rotation function recovery. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant ( p  = 1.000 for the British Medical Research Council abduction scale and p  = 0.440 for external rotation). According to the British Medical Research Council grading, axillary nerve neurotization with a triceps motor branch using axillary approach or posterior arm approach shows no statistical differences.

  17. Midterm Experience of Ipsilateral Axillary-Axillary Arteriovenous Loop Graft as Tertiary Access for Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To present a series of ipsilateral axillary artery to axillary vein loop arm grafts as an alternative vascular access procedure for haemodialysis in patients with difficult access. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Patients who underwent an axillary loop arteriovenous graft from September 2009 to September 2012 were included. Preoperative venous imaging to exclude central venous stenosis and to image arm/axillary veins was performed. A cuffed PTFE graft was anastomosed to the distal axillary artery and axillary vein and looped on the arm. Results. 25 procedures were performed on 22 patients. Median age was 51 years, with 9 males and 13 females. Median number of previous access procedures was 3 (range 0–7. Median followup was 16.4 months (range 1–35. At 3 months and 1 year, the primary and secondary patency rates were 70% and 72% and 36% and 37%, respectively. There were 11 radiological interventions in 6 grafts including 5 angioplasties and 6 thrombectomies. There were 19 surgical procedures in 10 grafts, including thrombectomy, revision, repair for bleeding, and excision. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that the axillary loop arm graft yields acceptable early patency rates in a complex group of patients but to maintain graft patency required high rates of surgical and radiological intervention, in particular graft thrombectomy.

  18. Results of surgery without axillary dissection for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Kenji; Okamura, Shinsuke; Morita Katsuyuki

    2000-01-01

    We believe that routine axillary dissection for relatively early breast cancer should be reconsidered in view of the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and its effects on postoperative quality of life. We have performed bioptic lumpectomy to examine histological type, invasive tumor size, histological infiltration, and lymphatic invasion and have avoided axillary dissection in cases with a low risk of lymph node metastasis. In 126 cases of T0, T1a, or T2a breast cancers less than 3 cm in diameter in which axillary dissection was not performed, axillary recurrence was observed in 2 cases. Both patients underwent salvage procedures and are alive without disease. Furthermore, axillary recurrence was not observed in 23 cases treated with tangent irradiation and breast-preserving surgery. These findings suggest that axillary recurrence is possible in cases with previous indications for avoiding axillary dissection and that breast irradiation may prevent axillary recurrence. (author)

  19. Axillary arthrotomography of the glenoid labrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Kanzaria, P.K.; Goss, T.P.; Pappas, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    In a study of 67 shoulders evaluated by axillary arthrotomography, tears of the glenoid labrum were accurately detected in all 26 surgically confirmed cases. One false-positive case was identified in the five patients without labral tears; there were no false-negative cases. Only 40% of the patients had clinical evidence of subluxation or dislocation. Axillary arthrotomography provides important information about the integrity of the labrum that may be helpful in planning surgery for patients without clinical subluxation or dislocation but with pain, clicking, or vague shoulder discomfort secondary to labral pathology (functional instability)

  20. Muscular Variations During Axillary Dissection: A Clinical Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle and the coracoid process, without interruption by any type of tendinous fibres. The axillary arch muscle crossed anteriorly over the axillary vein [Figure 1]. The mastectomy along with axillary dissection was completed uneventfully. There was left sided absence of pectoralis major and minor muscles in a 45 years old ...

  1. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  2. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend Jan; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Rottier, P.J.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  3. Brachial plexus injury with emphasis on axillary nerve paralysis after thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Soon-Ho; Suk Choi, Matthew Seung

    2006-12-01

    Thoracic sympathicotomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with the use of 2 mm thoracoscope and instruments is a simple and safe procedure. Nerve paralysis of any type after thoracic sympathicotomy is an extremely rare event. We report a 44-year-old woman who developed brachial plexus injury of her left arm after thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. The lesion involved the whole arm. All nerves of the brachial plexus except the axillary nerve recovered quickly. An axillary nerve type lesion was observed for 7 weeks, until the patient fully recovered all functions of her arm. The mechanism is believed not to be caused by the procedure itself, but by dorsal overextension of the abducted arm during the operation.

  4. [Axillary pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer with axillary involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Román-Santamaría, J M; Pelayo Alarcón, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    2015-01-01

    To compare axillary involvement (N+) at initial staging in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) with axillary lymphadenectomy histologic results after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NeoChemo). Retrospective study between November 2011 and September 2013 of LABC cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on docetaxel (associated with trastuzumab in HER2 positive cases and carboplatin/adriamycin in HER2 negative cases). Those clinically or radiologically suspected cases of axillary involvement were histologically confirmed. When there was no suspicion of axillary involvement, sentinel lymph node radioguided biopsy (SLNRB) was performed using intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid albumin prior to neoadjuvant treatment. Axillary lymphadenectomy after NeoChemo was undertaken in all cases with positive axilla. Final pathologic response was classified as complete (pCR) when there was no evidence of tumoral disease and as non-pathologic complete response (no pCR) in the opposite case. A total of 346 patients treated with docetaxel were reviewed, identifying 105 LABC. Axillary involvement at initial staging was detected in 70 (67%) before starting NeoChemo. From these 70, 73% (n=51) were N+ (fine needle biopsy and/or biopsy) and the remaining 19 (27%) were occult N+ detected by SLNRB. Axillary lymphadenectomy detected pCR in 56% (39/70), increasing up to 84% pCR when initial N+ status was reached using SNLB. On the other hand, when N+ was detected using fine needle biopsy/lymph biopsy, pCR was only 45%. More than 50% of women affected by locally advanced breast cancer with tumoral axillary involvement at initial diagnosis present free metastatic axilla after therapeutic neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. This increases up to almost 90% in case of occult metastatic axilla detected with sentinel node biopsy prior starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. CASE REPORT Unilateral axillary adenopathy with unremarkable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bursitis. As a local inflammatory cause for the unilateral axillary adenopathy was presumed, no biopsy was performed. Follow-up ultrasound was arranged for 4 weeks later. Diagnosis. After discussion with the patient's family physician, she attended for consultation the same day. A clinical diagnosis of elbow bursitis was.

  6. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. Radiofrequency Thermotherapy for Treating Axillary Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Christoph H; Grallath, Tanja; Schick, Kerstin S; Hashmonai, Moshe

    2016-05-01

    Thermotherapy has been established between conservative and surgical options as a minimally invasive method for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. The objective of this study was to present radiofrequency thermotherapy (RFTT) as a safe and effective new treatment method. Thirty adult patients with pronounced axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with RFTT with noninsulated microneedles 3 times at intervals of 6 weeks. Subjective improvement was rated using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Satisfaction and estimated reduction of sweating were monitored. Objective measurements were made using gravimetry. Adverse effects were recorded in follow-up. At the 6-month follow-up, improvement in sweating was seen in 27 patients. The HDSS dropped from 3.4 to 2.1, the DLQI improved significantly from 16 to 7. The gravimetric measurements of sweat were reduced from 221 to 33 mg/min. The average reduction of sweating was reported to be 72%. Adverse effects were generally mild and improved rapidly. Radiofrequency thermotherapy was shown to be an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for axillary hyperhidrosis. Patients described their sweating as normal. The method clearly has the potential to normalize axillary sweating.

  8. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  9. Anterior deltopectoral approach for axillary nerve neurotisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose

    2012-04-01

    To report outcome of axillary nerve neurotisation for brachial plexus injury through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Nine men aged 20 to 52 (mean, 27.8) years with brachial plexus injury underwent axillary nerve neurotisation through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Three of the patients had complete avulsion of C5-T1 nerve roots. The remaining 6 patients had brachial plexus injury of C5-C6 nerve roots, with associated subluxation of the glenohumeral joint, atrophy of the supraspinatus, deltoid and elbow flexors. They had no active shoulder abduction, external rotation, and elbow flexion. The pectoralis major and minor were cut and/or retracted to expose the underlying infraclavicular plexus. The axillary nerve was identified with respect to the available donor nerves (long head of triceps branch, thoracodorsal nerve, and medial pectoral nerve). In addition to the axillary nerve neurotisation, each patient had a spinal accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve for better shoulder animation. Patients were followed up for 24 to 30 (mean, 26) months. In the 3 patients with C5-T1 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 63 and 20 degrees, respectively, whereas the mean abduction strength was M3 (motion against gravity). In the 6 patients with C5-C6 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 133 and 65 degrees, respectively, whereas the strength of the deltoids and triceps was M5 (normal) in all. In 4 patients with the pectoralis major cut and repaired, the muscle regained normal strength. The anterior deltopectoral approach enabled easy access to all available donor nerves for axillary nerve neurotisation and achieved good outcomes.

  10. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Evelyne; Crespel, Laurent; Denoyes, Béatrice; Morel, Philippe; Demene, Marie-Noëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Wenden, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs. quiescence and to floral induction vs. vegetative development. PMID:25520729

  11. Axillary lymph node treatment in breast cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick A; Suggs, Jeanann; Mangana, Sophy H

    2014-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) is the standard of care for staging of breast cancer. Patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) do not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI). However, if a patient has a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx), then axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) is the standard treatment. Recent studies, notably the Z-0011 and MA-20 trials, have demonstrated that omission of axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did not decrease overall survival. MA-20 demonstrated that inclusion of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in addition to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did increase survival when compared to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) without regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Ongoing studies are randomizing patients to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx).

  12. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Haim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Methods Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 ± 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Results Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p Mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude was 2.83, SD 2.50 mV in the paralyzed shoulder and was 7.44, SD 5.47 mV in the sound shoulder (p p p = 0.003, 1-sided for amplitude, and patients with left paralyzed shoulder compared to patients with left sound shoulder (p = 0.011, 1-sided for latency, p = 0.001, 1-sided for amplitude, support the same outcomes. The electro-physiological changes in the axillary nerve may appear during the first six weeks after stroke breakout. Conclusion Continuous traction of the axillary nerve, as in hypotonic shoulder, may affect the electro-physiological properties of the nerve. It most probably results from subluxation of the head of the humerus, causing demyelinization and even axonopathy. Slowing of the conduction velocities of

  13. Constitutive expression of the Poplar FD-like basic leucine zipper transcription factor alters growth and bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier-Line, Cécile M; Coleman, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    In poplar, the CO/FT regulatory module mediates seasonal growth cessation. Although FT interacts with the basic leucine zipper transcription factor FD, surprisingly little is known about the possible role of FD in bud development and growth cessation in trees. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of the poplar FD homolog, PtFD1, during short-day (SD)-induced bud development, and the consequences of overexpressing PtFD1 on bud development and shoot growth. PtFD1 was primarily expressed in apical and axillary buds and exhibited a transient increase in expression during the initial stages of SD-induced bud development. This transient increase declined with continued SD treatment. When PtFD1 was overexpressed in poplar, SD-induced growth cessation and bud formation were abolished. PTFD1 overexpression also resulted in precocious flowering of juvenile plants in long-day (LD) photoperiods. Because the phenotypes associated with overexpression of PtFD1 are similar to those observe when poplar FT1 is overexpressed (Science, 312, 2006, 1040), the expression and diurnal patterns of expression of both poplar FT1 and FT2 were characterized in PtFD1 overexpression poplars and found to be altered. DNA microarray analysis revealed few differences in gene expression between PtFD1 overexpressing poplars in LD conditions while extensive levels of differential gene expression occur in SD-treated plants. These results enforce the connection between the regulation of flowering and the regulation of growth cessation and bud development in poplar. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Sun, Ming; Du, Dongliang; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum. The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated) were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated) were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT) as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum. This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of flower

  15. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    The most common neurological defect in traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation is isolated axillary nerve palsy. Most recover spontaneously; however, some have persistent axillary neuropathy. An intact rotator cuff may compensate for an isolated axillary nerve injury; however, given the high rate of rotator cuff pathology with advancing age, patients with an axillary nerve injury are at risk for complete shoulder disability. To review reconstruction of the axillary nerve to alleviate shoulder pain, augment shoulder stability, abduction and external rotation to alleviate sole reliance on the rotator cuff to move and stabilize the shoulder. A retrospective review of 10 patients with an isolated axillary nerve injury and an intact rotator cuff who underwent a triceps nerve branch to axillary nerve transfer was performed. Patient demographics, surgical technique, deltoid strength, donor-site morbidity, complications and time to surgery were evaluated. Ten male patients, mean age 38.3 years (range 18 to 66 years), underwent a triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury 7.4 months (range five to 12 months) post-traumatic shoulder dislocation. Deltoid function was British Medical Research Council grade 0/5 in all patients preoperatively and ≥3/5 deltoid strength in eight patients at final follow-up (14.8 months [range 12 to 25 months]). There were no complications and no donor-site morbidity. A triceps to axillary nerve transfer for isolated axillary neuropathy following traumatic shoulder dislocation improved shoulder pain, stability and deltoid strength, and potentially preserves shoulder function with advancing age by alleviating sole reliance on the rotator cuff for shoulder abduction and external rotation.

  16. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  17. [Acute axillary eczema caused by mercury compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippen, H

    1979-01-01

    Not every axillary dermatitis is caused by an allergy against corresponding cosmetics (deodorants or anti-perspirants). This is shown in a 24-year-old man with an acute contact dermatitis in the left axilla. Sensitization probably developed against mercury salts due to the regular use of thermometers which were kept in a disinfecting solution containing phenylmercuric borate. The patient was in two hospitals for a check up before heart surgery and temperature was regularly measured in the left axilla. In both clincis phenylmercuric borate was used for desinfection of the thermometers. The sensitivity was proofed by positive patch tests.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed sequences in bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental process of lily flower bud differentiation has been studied in morphology thoroughly, but the mechanism in molecular biology is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out. Little is known about the physiological responses of flower bud differentiation in Oriental hybrid lily ...

  19. Axillary apocrine carcinoma skin: report of a case | Issara | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and axillary MRI had objectified mass axillary measuring 171mm. Pathological examination with immunostaining was in favor of apocrine carcinoma. The cutaneous apocrine carcinomas are well-known in the mammary glands, but it is difficult to morphologically distinguish between breast cancer and apocrine carcinoma.

  20. Contemporary management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries-A Western Trauma Association multicenter review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christine J; Cogbill, Thomas H; Kallies, Kara J; Ramirez, Luis D; Cardenas, Justin M; Todd, S Rob; Chapman, Kayla J; Beckman, Marshall A; Sperry, Jason L; Anto, Vincent P; Eriksson, Evert A; Leon, Stuart M; Anand, Rahul J; Pearlstein, Maura; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa; Cothren Burlew, Clay; Fox, Charles J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Roberts, Jennifer C; Harrison, Paul B; Berg, Gina M; Haan, James M; Lightwine, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Subclavian and axillary artery injuries are uncommon. In addition to many open vascular repairs, endovascular techniques are used for definitive repair or vascular control of these anatomically challenging injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the relative roles of endovascular and open techniques in the management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries comparing hospital outcomes, and long-term limb viability. A multicenter, retrospective review of patients with subclavian or axillary artery injuries from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, was completed at 11 participating Western Trauma Association institutions. Statistical analysis included χ, t-tests, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. A p value less than 0.05 was significant. Two hundred twenty-three patients were included; mean age was 36 years, 84% were men. An increase in computed tomography angiography and decrease in conventional angiography was observed over time (p = 0.018). There were 120 subclavian and 119 axillary artery injuries. Procedure type was associated with injury grade (p < 0.001). Open operations were performed in 135 (61%) patients, including 93% of greater than 50% circumference lacerations and 83% of vessel transections. Endovascular repairs were performed in 38 (17%) patients; most frequently for pseudoaneurysms. Fourteen (6%) patients underwent a hybrid procedure. Use of endovascular versus open procedures did not increase over the duration of the study (p = 0.248). In-hospital mortality rate was 10%. Graft or stent thrombosis occurred in 7% and graft or stent infection occurred in 3% of patients. Mean follow-up was 1.6 ± 2.4 years (n = 150). Limb salvage was achieved in 216 (97%) patients. The management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries still requires a wide variety of open exposures and procedures, especially for the control of active hemorrhage from more than 50% vessel lacerations and transections. Endovascular repairs were used most often for

  1. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Atzmon; Ring, Haim

    2008-12-17

    To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 +/- 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p atrophy in the same limb. The usefulness of routine screening nerve conduction studies in the shoulder of hemiplegic patients seems to be advocated.

  2. Intra-inflorescence pollen viability in accessions of Brachiaria ruziziensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Pinto de Paula

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the pollen viability is important to ensure success in controlled hybridizations and, consequently, support breeding programs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pollen viability in progenies of artificially induced tetraploid accessions of Brachiaria ruziziensis, and to verify if the position of the flower buds on the raceme affects the pollen viability rate. Staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen (Alexander’s technique was used to determine the viability of the pollen grains. Tetraploid accessions of B. ruziziensis plants had high pollen viability (x = 76.8% to x = 99.6%. Some of these plants had viability rates similar to diploid B. ruziziensis, showing that the induction of chromosome duplication by colchicine did not result in abnormalities in production and morphology of pollen grains. Pollen grains from middle and apical regions of the raceme presented higher viability rates (x = 97.9% and x = 97.7% respectively. The viability of pollen grains in artificially induced tetraploid accessions of B. ruziziensis plants was high, which may favor obtaining fertile descendants in possible crosses

  3. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during...... pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: We identified...... were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during...

  4. Axillary Silicone Granulomas in Patients With Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Canedo, M I; Blázquez Sánchez, N; Valdés Solís, P; de Troya Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Subcutaneous lesions may be detected during follow-up of patients with melanoma. The main entities that should be contemplated in the differential diagnosis in such cases are in-transit and regional lymph node metastases. We describe 2 cases of women with breast implants who developed palpable subcutaneous lesions in the axillary region during follow-up of melanoma. In both cases, the ultrasound study showed diffuse hyperechoic signals forming the characteristic snowstorm sign in the subcutaneous tissue. Ultrasound proved to be a key diagnostic tool for ruling out melanoma-related disease, such as in-transit metastases and regional lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Proximal humerus fracture associated with delayed axillary nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary nerve injury is the most common complication in humerus fracture. The symptoms that are caused by affecting axillary nerve vary according to the structures involved such as sensory disturbance and weakness of muscles, e.g., three parts of deltoid and teres muscles in an affected limb. The severity of injury is classified in demyelinating and axonal lesions, which usually occurs at the onset of fracture. The author reports a case of humerus fracture with delayed axonal lesion of axillary nerve result from inadvertent traction.

  6. A predictive tool to estimate the risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative axillary ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, T J; Heikkilä, P S; Mansfield, A S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose of this ......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose...... of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative preoperative axillary ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 1,395 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and SNB formed the original patient series. A univariate analysis was conducted to assess...... four other centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 426 of the 1,395 (30.5 %) patients in the original patient series had axillary lymph node metastases. Histological size (P

  7. Axillary web syndrome following secondary breast-conserving surgery: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Panmei; Zhu, Liling; Chen, Kai; Jia, Weijuan; Hu, Yue; Su, Fengxi

    2013-01-01

    Background Axillary web syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery. Case presentation A patient developed axillary web syndrome after secondary breast surgery and recovered in 3 weeks through physical therapy and using Aescuven Forte. Discussion The pathogenesis of axillary web syndrome is not clear. It is reported that axillary surgery is the main cause. The presented case indicates that tissue injury might be an important cause of a...

  8. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Lund, J; Jenstrup, M T

    2012-01-01

    performed using a newly developed in-plane ultrasound-guided technique. In one patient undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery, we used the axillary nerve block as the only analgesic combined with propofol sedation and spontaneous breathing. Chronic shoulder pain was eliminated after the axillary nerve...... block in two patients. The pain score after arthroscopic shoulder surgery in these two patients remained low until termination of the nerve block. In a fourth patient, severe post-operative pain after osteosynthesis of a displaced proximal humerus fracture was almost eliminated after performing...... an axillary nerve block. These findings warrant larger clinical trials that investigate the pain-mediating role of the axillary nerve in the perioperative setting....

  9. Energy expenditure during ambulation with ortho crutches and axillary crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, C A; Cullen, K E

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen normal male college students were studied during unassisted ambulation and nonweight-bearing ambulation with Ortho crutches and axillary crutches to determine energy expenditure. Subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Energy expenditure was determined by analyzing expired air collected by a calorimeter. Heart rate was monitored by telemetry. During the first 2.5 minutes of walking, heart rate and energy expenditure were significantly greater for ambulation with axillary crutches than with Ortho crutches. After 11.5 minutes of walking, no difference in energy cost was found between crutch types; however, heart rate increased significantly (p less than .01) during ambulation with axillary crutches. Differences in energy cost and heart rate were attributed to increased upper extremity work performed when using axillary crutches. We concluded that during nonweight-bearing ambulation for short periods of time or over a short distance, the Ortho crutch is less taxing in terms of energy cost and heart rate demands.

  10. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Nerve Transfers for Treatment of Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Wheelock, Margie; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Almost one-half of all dislocations involve the shoulder and may also involve the axillary nerves, which may influence functional recovery and result in persistent shoulder neuropathy. Although individuals with intact rotator cuffs may be able to compensate for axillary nerve dysfunction, the injury may become problematic in later years, especially given the increasing incidence of rotator cuff tears in aging populations, thus placing increased importance on the immediate success of acute man...

  12. Surgical Algorithm and Results of Isolated Traumatic Axillary Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wayne A; Schippert, David W; Daws, Snow B; Koman, L Andrew; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-03-01

    Axillary nerve injuries are common and typically occur during high-energy, traumatic events. The purpose of this study is to propose a treatment algorithm for acute isolated axillary nerve injuries and report the outcomes of surgically treated patients. A retrospective review identified 14 patients surgically treated for an isolated axillary nerve injury. Axillary nerve neurolysis was performed for all patients, and a triceps branch of the radial nerve was transferred to the axillary nerve in patients without evidence of deltoid function following intraoperative axillary nerve stimulation. Four patients were treated with neurolysis alone and 10 patients received a transfer. Pre- and postoperative deltoid strength, shoulder abduction, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) outcome score were evaluated. At most recent follow-up, both the neurolysis and nerve transfer groups had significant improvement in deltoid strength, with 86% achieving M4 or greater. Shoulder abduction improved from a mean of 63 to 127 degrees. This difference was significant in the nerve transfer group and when all patients were analyzed together. DASH scores significantly improved from a mean of 47 to 34 when all patients were analyzed together. No patients experienced a decrease in elbow extension strength following nerve transfer. In patients with preserved triceps strength, a triceps branch of the radial nerve can be coapted directly to the axillary nerve in the absence of deltoid contraction following electrical stimulation. Functional improvements were seen in patients treated with neurolysis alone and in combination with nerve transfer, supporting the use of intraoperative axillary nerve stimulation to guide treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Proximal humerus fracture associated with delayed axillary nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2016-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is the most common complication in humerus fracture. The symptoms that are caused by affecting axillary nerve vary according to the structures involved such as sensory disturbance and weakness of muscles, e.g., three parts of deltoid and teres muscles in an affected limb. The severity of injury is classified in demyelinating and axonal lesions, which usually occurs at the onset of fracture. The author reports a case of humerus fracture with delayed axonal lesion of axill...

  14. The role of axillary dissection in mammographically detected carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandelidis, S M; Peters, K L; Walusimbi, M S; Casady, R L; Laux, S V; Cavanaugh, S H; Bauer, T L

    1997-04-01

    Axillary dissection remains a standard component of the treatment of invasive carcinoma of the breast. The presence of metastases to the regional lymph nodes guides adjuvant therapy and aids in determining prognosis. Mammography results in the discovery of small and often node-negative carcinomas of the breast. This 15-year, retrospective analysis investigated whether certain patients with small tumors could be spared the morbidity of axillary dissection. Medical records showed that from January 1980 to May 1995, 4,543 needle localization biopsies were done at York Hospital because of abnormalities detected on mammograms. Of these, 703 (15.5 percent) proved to be carcinoma. Of the carcinomas, 68 percent were infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 26 percent were ductal carcinoma in situ, and 5.4 percent were infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Axillary dissection was done on 588 patients, and 88.1 percent of the patients had no metastases to axillary lymph nodes. No axillary metastases were present in 109 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent axillary lymph node dissection or in 21 patients with microscopic invasive tumors. Only two of 54 patients with a T1a tumor (tumor [T], 0.5 to 1 to 2 cm) were given adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ and microscopic invasive tumors do not require node dissections. Possibly patients with T1a tumors and patients with well-differentiated, estrogen-receptor positive, progesterone-receptor positive, T1b tumors can also be spared axillary node dissection. By following this approach on occasion, patients with positive nodes might not undergo axillary lymph node dissection, but they may still be offered adjuvant therapy.

  15. Comprehensive transcriptome analyses reveal differential gene expression profiles of Camellia sinensis axillary buds at para-, endo-, ecodormancy, and bud flush stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter dormancy is an important biological feature for tea plant to survive cold winters, and it also affects the economic output of tea plant, one of the few woody plants in the world whose leaves are harvested and one of the few non-conifer evergreen species with characterized dormancies. To disco...

  16. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  17. Complex bud architecture and cell-specific chemical patterns enable supercooling of Picea abies bud primordial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud primordia of Picea abies, despite a frozen shoot, stay ice free down to -50 °C by a mechanism termed supercooling whose biophysical and biochemical requirements are poorly understood. Bud architecture was assessed by 3D-reconstruction, supercooling and freezing patterns by infrared video thermog...

  18. Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Toyoda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the risk of axillary osmidrosis is governed by a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 538G>A in human ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11 gene. However, little data are available for the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands that produce apocrine sweat—a source of odor from the armpits. To determine the effect of the non-synonymous SNP ABCC11 538G>A (G180R on the ABCC11 in vivo, we generated transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice with adenovirus vector, and examined the protein levels of each ABCC11 in the mice with immunoblotting using an anti-ABCC11 antibody we have generated in the present study. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands extracted from axillary osmidrosis patients carrying each ABCC11 genotype: 538GG, GA, and AA. Analyses of transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice showed that ABCC11 538G>A diminishes the ABCC11 protein levels in vivo. Consistently, ABCC11 protein was detected in the human axillary apocrine glands of the 538GG homozygote or 538GA heterozygote, not in the 538AA homozygote. These findings would contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of axillary osmidrosis.

  19. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro clonal propagation of bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) CV. CISH-B1 through enhanced axillary branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Rajesh; Chandra, Ramesh; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Mishra, Maneesh; Srivastava, Navin

    2008-10-01

    Rapid clonal micropropagation protocol of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. cv. CISH-B1 was achieved by nodal stem segment of mature bearing tree. Three centimeter long shoots having one axillary bud excised from 10-15th nodal region of shoots during September gave quick in vitro bud burst (5.33 days) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP, 8.84 μM + IAA 5.7 μM. The maximum number of proliferated shoots (9.0/explant) were obtained on same medium supplemented with BAP 8.84 μM + IAA 5.7 μM. The micro shoots were rooted (100 %) on + IAA 5.7 μM. In vitro rooted plants were acclimatized on autoclaved coconut husk containing plant salt mixture and under shade net house (50 % shade 70-80 % RH). The plants were established in the field after acclimatization. The micropropagated plants were tested for its genetic fidelity using 13 RAPD, 3 ISSR and 2 DAMD primers. Profile obtained by all the three Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPAR) technique from mother tree and micropropagated plants revealed genetic integrity of micropropagated plants with that of mother tree.

  1. Iatrogenic axillary neuropathy after intramuscular injection of the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Loren T; Carter, Gregory T; Kilmer, David D; Han, Jay J

    2007-06-01

    A previously healthy 26-yr-old male presented for an electrodiagnostic evaluation with complaints of significant right deltoid muscle atrophy and shoulder abduction weakness after receiving an intramuscular (IM) deltoid injection of an antiemetic 4 wk earlier. Electrodiagnostic evaluation confirmed an acute axillary neuropathy. We hypothesize that direct mechanical trauma to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve resulted in axillary mononeuropathy with axonal loss, although chemically induced nerve injury cannot be excluded. Injections in and about the shoulder complex are performed routinely for the purposes of vaccination, IM medication administration, deltoid trigger-point injections, and intra-articular and bursal steroid injections. Although such injections are considered routine office procedures, there is increased risk of neurovascular injury if they are performed incorrectly. The purpose of this brief report is to make practitioners aware of the potential for axillary neuropathy with such procedures, to review the salient anatomy, and to propose a potential guideline for clinical practice to minimize iatrogenic axillary neuropathy.

  2. The Effect of Ethnicity on Human Axillary Odorant Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Greene, Kathryn; Varallo, Lauren; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory highlighted marked ethnic differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cerumen among individuals of Caucasian, East Asian, and African-American descent, based, in part, on genetic differences in a gene that codes for a transport protein, which is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family C, member 11 (ABCC11). In the current work, we hypothesized that axillary odorants produced by East Asians would differ markedly from those obtained from individuals of European or African descent based on the pattern of ethnic diversity that exists in ABCC11. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we examined differences in axillary odorant VOCs among 30 individuals of African-American, Caucasian, and East Asian descent with respect to their ABCC11 genotype. While no qualitative differences in the type of axillary odorants were observed across ethnic groups, we found that characteristic axillary odorants varied quantitatively with respect to ethnic origin. We propose that ABCC11 is not solely responsible for predicting the relative amounts of volatiles found in axillary secretions and that other biochemical pathways must be involved.

  3. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  4. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  5. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  6. Influence of arm position on ultrasound visibility of the axillary brachial plexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frkovic, Vedran; Ward, Catherine; Preckel, Benedikt; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Wegener, Jessica T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Contemporary axillary brachial plexus block is performed by separate injections targeting radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerve. These nerves are arranged around the axillary artery, making ultrasound visualisation sometimes challenging. In particular, the radial nerve can be

  7. Bud-grafting yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Funk

    1963-01-01

    Several years ago we began work on the vegetative propagation of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) with the aim of eventually establishing a clonal seed orchard. We tried field grafting, field budding, and air layering. We then attempted rooting cuttings in the greenhouse and in an indoor propagation bench. The best we could do with any of these methods was 4...

  8. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  9. Monitoring eucalypt bud temperature using mobile temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of traditional methods of air and bud temperature measurement were not viable, due to significant risks of data and meteorological equipment loss posed by severe weather, vandalism and theft. Between 1996 and 2004, a robust structure for housing the miniature Hobo® temperature logger (hereafter termed ...

  10. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  11. Radial to Axillary Nerve Transfers: A Combined Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir J; Daly, Charles A; Seiler, John G; Wray, Walter H; Ruch, David S; Leversedge, Fraser J

    2016-12-01

    Loss of active shoulder abduction after brachial plexus or isolated axillary nerve injury is associated with a severe functional deficit. The purpose of this 2-center study was to retrospectively evaluate restoration of shoulder abduction after transfer of a radial nerve branch to the axillary nerve for patients after brachial plexus or axillary nerve injury. Patients who underwent transfer of a radial nerve branch to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed. A total of 27 patients with an average follow-up of 22 months were included. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative shoulder abduction and triceps strength and active and passive shoulder range of motion. Shoulder abduction strength increased after surgery in 89% of patients. Average preoperative shoulder abduction was 12° compared with 114° after surgery. Twenty-two of 27 patients (81.5%) achieved at least M3 strength, with 17 of 27 patients (62.9%) achieving M4 strength. No differences were observed when subgroup analysis was performed for isolated nerve transfer versus multiple nerve transfer, mechanism of injury, injury level, branch of radial nerve transferred, or time from injury to surgery. A negative correlation was found comparing increasing age and both shoulder abduction strength and active shoulder abduction. No patients lost triceps strength after surgery. There were 4 patients who achieved no significant gain in shoulder abduction or deltoid strength and were deemed failures. No postoperative complications occurred. Transfer of a branch of the radial nerve to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was successful in improving shoulder abduction strength and active shoulder motion in the majority of the patients with brachial plexus or isolated axillary nerve injury. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping the axillary nerve within the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Grabska, Joanna; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Jordan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Reports place the frequency of axillary nerve injury at 6% for all brachial plexus injuries, emphasizing the importance of an accurate anatomic description of this nerve within the deltoid in order to reduce iatrogenic injury. The aim of the present study was to explore the anatomic variations of the axillary nerve within the deltoid muscle. Fifty human cadavers were dissected, resulting in 100 nerve specimens. The anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve were identified and their length measured from their point of origin (split from the axillary nerve) to their termination in the deltoid muscle. In 65% of cases, the axillary nerve split into two branches (anterior and posterior) within the quadrangular space, and in the remaining 35% split within the deltoid muscle. The posterior branch of the deltoid muscle irrespectively of origin gave off a branch to the teres minor and the superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve in 100% of cases. The branch to the posterior part of the deltoid muscle was present in 90% of cases, and the branch to the middle part of the deltoid was present in 38% of cases. The anterior branch of the deltoid muscle provided a branch to the joint capsule, a branch to the anterior part of the deltoid muscle and the middle part of the deltoid in 100% of cases. In 18% of the cases, the anterior branch of the axillary nerve provided a branch to the posterior part of the deltoid muscle. The middle part of the deltoid muscle received dual innervation in 38% of cases and the posterior part of the deltoid muscle in 8% of the cases.

  13. Potential axillary nerve stretching during RSA implantation: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Blandine; Leclère, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent; Paganini, Federico; Unglaub, Frank; Spies, Christian; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1 cm (position 2) and 2 cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV.

  14. Bipolar budding in yeasts - an electron microscope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1971-01-01

    Bud formation in yeasts with bipolar budding was studied by electron microscopy of thin sections. Budding in yeasts of the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Hanseniaspora valbyensis and Wickerhamia fluorescens resulted in concentric rings of scar ridges on the wall of the mother cell. The wall

  15. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  16. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  17. Bilateral axillary artery aneurysms after Bentall procedure in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Yurio

    2015-11-01

    A man with Marfan syndrome underwent a Bentall procedure for annuloaortic ectasia and severe aortic regurgitation at 43 years of age. Twenty-eight years after the Bentall procedure, he developed bilateral axillary artery aneurysms (length × diameter: right: 80 × 39 mm; left: 103 × 45 mm). Aneurysmectomy and reconstruction of the axillary artery were performed using an artificial vascular graft. Histological examination revealed cystic medial necrosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, but long-term follow-up is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Axillary hyperhidrosis treated with alcoholic solution of aluminium chloride hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, K T; Crow, K D; Ellis, J P; Harman, R R; Saihan, E M

    1978-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with axillary hyperhidrosis took part in a trial of treatment with a solution of 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol, applied topically each night for a week and then whenever the patient thought it necessary. Excellent control of sweating was achieved in 64 patients, and occlusion of the area was found to be unnecessary. No troublesome side effects were reported. The results of this study indicate that 20% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in absolute alcohol is the treatment of first choice for patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:667571

  19. [Axillary hyperhidrosis--efficacy and tolerability of an aluminium chloride antiperspirant. Prospective evaluation on 20 patients with idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streker, M; Reuther, T; Verst, S; Kerscher, M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aluminium chloride gel for treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. A total of 20 patients aged 22-38 (mean age: 26.9+/-4.3) with idiopathic axillary hyperhidrosis were included and treated with an antiperspirant (Sweat-off, Sweat-off GmbH, Hügelsheim). Study duration was 42 days. Treatment efficacy was evaluated clinically, as well as by starch-iodine test, gravimetric analysis and evaluation of the skin surface pH. After treatment there was a significant clinical improvement accompanied by significant qualitative and quantitative reduction of sweat as well as a significant reduction of skin surface pH. Except for slight skin irritation in 6 patients, there were no other side effects. Patient satisfaction improved markedly during the study. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with aluminium chloride is an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment modality.

  20. Axillary treatment for patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis: systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Amit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis, axillary treatment is widely recommended. This is either surgical removal of the axillary lymph nodes, or axillary radiotherapy. The rationale for axillary treatment is that it will reduce the risk of recurrence in the axilla, and may improve survival. However, both treatments are associated with adverse effects, such as lymphedema, pain and sensory loss, and are costly to the health services and to patients. With improvements in adjuvant therapy, routine axillary treatment may no longer offer any overall advantage. Objectives To assess the short and long term benefits and adverse effects of routine axillary treatment (axillary lymph node clearance or axillary radiotherapy for patients with lymph node positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods/Design Criteria for potentially eligibility for the study will be that the participants are men and women with early breast cancer and lymph nodes with metastasis. The study compares either axillary treatment with no axillary treatment, or axillary node clearance with axillary radiotherapy, and the study is a randomized trial. Primary outcomes are axillary recurrence, disease-free and overall survival. Secondary outcomes include breast or chest wall recurrence, distant metastasis, time to axillary recurrence, axillary recurrence-free survival, arm morbidity, quality of life and health economic costs. The search strategy will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP search portal. Two independent reviewers will assess studies for inclusion in the review, assess study quality and extract data. Characteristics of included studies will be described. Meta-analysis will be conducted using ReVman software. Comment This review addresses an important clinical question, and results will inform clinical practice and health care policy.

  1. High Ki67 predicts unfavourable outcomes in early breast cancer patients with a clinically clear axilla who do not receive axillary dissection or axillary radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurrida, S; Bagnardi, V; Curigliano, G; Mastropasqua, M G; Orecchia, R; Disalvatore, D; Greco, M; Cataliotti, L; D'Aiuto, G; Talakhadze, N; Goldhirsch, A; Viale, G

    2013-10-01

    Axillary dissection is increasingly forgone in early breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axilla. The GRISO 053 randomised trial recruited 435 patients of age over 45 years, tumour ≤1.4 cm and clinically negative axilla, to assess the importance of axillary radiotherapy versus no axillary radiotherapy in patients not given axillary dissection. In the present study on a subgroup GRISO cases our aim was to assess the prognostic importance of tumour biological factors after more than 10 years of follow-up. We retrospectively assessed biological factors in a subgroup of 285 GRISO cases (145 given axillary radiotherapy; 140 not given axillary radiotherapy) with complete biologic, therapeutic and follow-up information, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Only 10-year cumulative incidence of distant metastasis was lower in the axillary radiotherapy (1%) than no axillary radiotherapy arm (7%) (p=0.037). Irrespective of study arm, hormone receptor positivity had significantly favourable effects on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative subtypes were associated with lower 10-year DFS (60% and 76%, respectively) than luminal A (96%) and B (91%) (p=0.001). Ten-year DFS for high (≥14%) Ki67 cancers was lower than for low Ki67 cancers (p=0.027); however, this effect was mainly confined to the no axillary radiotherapy arm. For patients with clinically node-negative small breast cancer not given axillary dissection, 10-year DFS is worsened by HER2 positivity, triple-negative phenotype and high Ki67. Axillary radiotherapy counteracts the negative prognostic effect of high Ki67 in patients not receiving axillary dissection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer | El-Fayoumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of later clinical involvement of the axilla and at establishing a sound basis for adjuvant treatment planning axillary dissection is an important operative procedure. ... Methods: Eighteen patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, while the other two patients who were fulfilling the criteria for conservative breast surgery ...

  3. Traumatiske laesioner af a. axillaris og a. brachialis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M; Hensler, M K; Schroeder, T V

    1994-01-01

    During af six year period 16 patients were treated for an axillary or brachial artery trauma. The vascular injury was caused by fracture in nine cases, contusion in four and penetrating injury in three. Concomitant nerve or tendon lesion occurred in five cases. Five of the 16 events were industri...

  4. Use Of Continuous Axillary Brachial Plexus Block Facilitates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report the successful use of continuous axillary brachial plexus block in the assessment of muscle functions during tendon repair. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife between November 2006 and December 2007. The study included ...

  5. Endovascular treatment of a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Sang Dong

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery is extremely rare. The standard treatment for axillary artery aneurysm has been surgical repair, but endovascular management of select aneurysms using stent grafts has become more prevalent with the development of endoluminal technology. We report the case of a 36-year old man with a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. He experienced a tingling sensation and intermittent pain in the left upper extremity and had no history of trauma to the axilla. We performed endovascular treatment [placement of a Viabahn stent graft (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ, USA)] for a spontaneous aneurysm in the axillary artery. Following the procedure, his symptoms disappeared completely. After 6, 12 and 24 months, we carried out computed tomography angiography; all scans showed no complications. Now, the patient has no symptoms related to aneurysm in the axilla. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of a Microwave Device for Treating Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H Chih-Ho; Lupin, Mark; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F

    2012-01-01

    Background A third-generation microwave-based device has been developed to treat axillary hyperhidrosis by selectively heating the interface between the skin and underlying fat where the sweat glands reside. Materials and Methods Thirty-one (31) adults with primary axillary hyperhidrosis were enrolled. All subjects had one to three procedure sessions over a 6-month period to treat both axillae fully. Efficacy was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS), gravimetric weight of sweat, and the Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI), a dermatology-specific quality-of-life scale. Subject safety was assessed at each visit. Subjects were followed for 12 months after all procedure sessions were complete. Results At the 12-month follow-up visit, 90.3% had HDSS scores of 1 or 2, 90.3% had at least a 50% reduction in axillary sweat from baseline, and 85.2% had a reduction of at least 5 points on the DLQI. All subjects experienced transient effects in the treatment area such as swelling, discomfort, and numbness. The most common adverse event (12 subjects) was the presence of altered sensation in the skin of the arm that resolved in all subjects. Conclusion The device tested provided efficacious and durable treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:22452511

  7. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Kirsch, Richard; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    -based standardized scoring system for tumor budding in colorectal cancer. The ITBCC included nine sessions with presentations, a pre-meeting survey and an e-book covering the key publications on tumor budding in colorectal cancer. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation' method was used...... colorectal cancer (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of survival in stage II colorectal cancer (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding should be taken into account along with other clinicopathological features in a multidisciplinary setting (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding is counted on H&E (19/22, 86...

  8. Effective axillary malodour reduction by polyquaternium-16-containing deodorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traupe, B; Fölster, H; Max, H; Schulz, J

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, individuals apply deodorants to combat malodour formation originating from the axillary vault. Considering the globally increasing demand for efficacious, safe deodorants, we investigated the antimicrobial effectiveness of a polymeric quaternary ammonium compound (PQ-16) as a new active in a roll-on formulation against microbial growth and axillary malodour. We utilized an in vivo microbiological assessment to determine antimicrobial effects of the PQ-16-containing deodorant formulation (DEO1) (i) in comparison with a commercially available deodorant roll-on claiming a 24-h protection against body odour (DEO2) and (ii) in comparison with a roll-on containing the same formulation as DEO1 but comprising aluminium chlorohydrate instead of PQ-16 (DEO3) 1, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Also, the axillary malodour intensity 24 and 48 h after application of deodorants was investigated in a controlled in vivo study performed by a trained sniffer panel using direct sniffing. Treatment with DEO1 in comparison with application of DEO2 significantly reduced the log 10 bacterial count at all points in time. After 24 and 48 h, sniffers rated malodour production in the DEO1-treated axillae significantly lower than in the DEO2-treated armpits. Application of DEO1 in comparison with DEO3 decreased the log 10 bacterial count after 1, 4, 8 and 24 h (significant for 4 and 8 h). After 48 h, the log 10 bacterial count showed similar values for both DEO1 and DEO3. The sniffer panel reported no significant differences between axillary malodour in DEO1-treated compared to DEO3-treated armpits after 24 and 48 h. We identified polyquaternium-16 (PQ-16, copolymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) as a highly effective deodorant active. Results showed that a newly developed PQ-16-containing deodorant roll-on formulation (i) significantly reduced axillary malodour 24 and 48 h after treatment, (ii) significantly decreased the amount of axillary

  9. Relationship between axillary nerve and percutaneously inserted proximal humeral locking plate: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Dedeoğlu, Semih; Imren, Yunus; Kahraman, Sinan; Çakar, Murat; Öztürk, Kahraman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the axillary nerve and the percutaneously inserted proximal humeral locking plate and to evaluate the risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous plate insertion. The study included 50 shoulders of 25 fresh frozen cadavers. A 5 cm incision was made from the anterolateral border of the acromion to the arm and a 5-hole 3.5-mm proximal humeral plate was inserted. The axillary nerve was then dissected. Plate holes which crossed the axillary nerve were noted. The distance between the axillary nerve and the lateral edge of the acromion and the length of the arm were measured and their relations evaluated with a correlation test. The average arm length was 319 mm. The average distance between the axillary nerve and the lateral edge of the acromion was 60 mm. There was a significant correlation between the arm length and acromion-axillary nerve distance (paxillary nerve lesions. In 1 case, the distal end of the plate was inserted in the deltoid muscle. No constant relationship between the plate holes and the axillary nerve was detected. There is a risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous plate insertion. It must be ensured that the plate is inserted under the deltoid fascia during the surgery. The axillary nerve must be visible during application of the screws due to the impossibility of knowing which holes cross the axillary nerve.

  10. Avulsive axillary artery injury in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Nathaniel C; Beck, John D; Harter, G Dean

    2014-01-01

    In addition to neurologic injuries such as peripheral nerve palsy, axillary vessel injury should be recognized as a possible complication of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Limb lengthening associated with Grammont-type reverse total shoulder arthroplasty places tension across the brachial plexus and axillary vessels and may contribute to observed injuries. The Grammont-type reverse total shoulder arthroplasty prosthesis reverses the shoulder ball and socket, shifts the shoulder center of rotation distal and medial, and lengthens the arm. This alteration of native anatomy converts shearing to compressive glenohumeral joint forces while augmenting and tensioning the deltoid lever arm. Joint stability is enhanced; shoulder elevation is enabled in the rotator cuff–deficient shoulder. Arm lengthening associated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty places a longitudinal strain on the brachial plexus and axillary vessels. Peripheral nerve palsies and other neurologic complications of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty have been documented. The authors describe a patient with rotator cuff tear arthropathy and a history of radioulnar synostosis who underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty complicated by intraoperative injury to the axillary artery and postoperative radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerve palsies. Following a seemingly unremarkable placement of reverse shoulder components, brisk arterial bleeding was encountered while approximating the incised subscapularis tendon in preparation for wound closure. Further exploration revealed an avulsive-type injury of the axillary artery. After an unsuccessful attempt at primary repair, a synthetic arterial bypass graft was placed. Reperfusion of the right upper extremity was achieved and has been maintained to date. Postoperative clinical examination and electromyographic studies confirmed ongoing radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous neuropathies.

  11. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  12. AXILLARY ARTERY- A STUDY ON BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswary Thampi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery is of considerable importance. There may be variations in the origin of branches, additional branches or 2 or more from common trunk or the artery may arise separately. The anomalous branching pattern can be correlated to the developmental defects of vasculature during embryonic life. The axillary artery is a part of axis artery of upper limb. Morphological variations of axillary artery of upper limb is very important for vascular surgeons, cardiologists, anaesthetists, radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. Present study is aimed at finding out the branching pattern of axillary artery, clinical significance and to correlate its embryological basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 20 formalin fixed cadavers (40 limbs, which were allotted to the undergraduate, postgraduate students and BDS students of Government Medical College, Kottayam. Cadavers were numbered 1-20 and the axillary artery and its branches were dissected on both sides following the classical incision and dissection procedure taking care to preserve all branches. The artery was studied under the following headings- 1. Origin of all branches; 2. Course and variation. RESULTS In the present study, it was observed that the branching pattern of axillary artery showed variations in 80% of cases. 8 upper limbs showed normal pattern of distribution (20%. The branches revealed different levels of origin and distribution from the normal pattern. The most common variations observed in the origin of subscapular artery and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries together constitute 40%. The remaining 40% of variations were observed in superior thoracic (17.5%, thoracoacromial (12.5% and lateral thoracic (10%. These observations in the arterial variations highlights the awareness during regional surgeries and other interventional procedures. CONCLUSION Variations observed in this

  13. Assessment of myocardial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Mark I; Bergmann, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and resultant congestive heart failure is increasing. Patients with this condition are at high risk for cardiac death and usually have significant limitations in their lifestyles. Although there have been advances in medical therapy resulting in improved survival and well being, the best and most definitive therapy, when appropriate, is revascularization. In the setting of coronary artery disease, accounting for approximately two thirds of cases of congestive heart failure, LV dysfunction often is not the result of irreversible scar but rather caused by impairment in function and energy use of still viable-myocytes, with the opportunity for improved function if coronary blood flow is restored. Patients with LV dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy, whether using thallium-201, Tc-99m sestamibi, or Tc-99m tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization, including some patients referred instead for cardiac transplantation. Other noninvasive modalities, such as stress echocardiography, also facilitate the assessment of myocardial viability, but there are advantages and disadvantages compared with the nuclear techniques. Nuclear imaging appears to require fewer viable cells for detection, resulting in a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than stress

  14. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED) employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum ...

  15. Mutant induction through adventitious buds of Kohleria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parliman, B.J.; Stushnoff, C.

    1979-01-01

    Freshly cut leaves of Kohleria eriantha and K. x 'Longwood' were exposed in a wide range of gamma irradiation doses and allowed to root and form adventitious buds. K. Eriantha could not be successfully propagated from leaf half cuttings. 'Longwood' produced a small number of adventitious plantlets as compared to other Gesneriads. Colchicine treatments reduced leaf half survival in 'Longwood' by more than 50%. Leaf halves exposed to low and moderate doses of gamma irradiation showed increased overall plantlet production compared to nonirradiated leaf halves. (Auth.)

  16. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Demirci

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively found were α-copaene (12% and 10%, germacrene D (11% and 18% and δ-cadinene (11% and 15% in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation.

  17. Outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, M; Al-Shawi, A; Gschwind, C R; Warwick, D J; Tonkin, M A

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the outcome of axillary nerve injuries treated with nerve grafting. Thirty-six patients were retrospectively reviewed after a mean of 53 months (minimum 12 months). The mean interval from injury to surgery was 6.5 months. Recovery of deltoid function was assessed by the power of both abduction and retropulsion, the deltoid bulk and extension lag. The deltoid bulk was almost symmetrical in nine of 34 cases, good in 22 and wasted in three. Grade M4 or M5* was achieved in 30 of 35 for abduction and in 32 of 35 for retropulsion. There was an extension lag in four patients. Deltoid bulk continued to improve with a longer follow-up following surgery. Nerve grafting to the axillary nerve is a reliable method of regaining deltoid function when the lesion is distal to its origin from the posterior cord.

  18. Epicormic buds in trees: a review of bud establishment, development and dormancy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew R. ​Meier; Michael R. Saunders; Charles H. Michler

    2012-01-01

    The formation of epicormic sprouts on the boles of trees is a phenomenon that has, until recently, been poorly understood. Renewed interest in the topic in the last two decades has led to significant advances in our knowledge of the subject, especially in regard to bud anatomy, morphology and ontogeny. There exists, however, no comprehensive synthesis of results from...

  19. Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A Gordon; Austin, Corrine J; Cox, Diana S; Taylor, David; Calvert, Ralph

    2013-03-01

    The generation of malodour on various sites of the human body is caused by the microbial biotransformation of odourless natural secretions into volatile odorous molecules. On the skin surface, distinctive odours emanate, in particular, from the underarm (axilla), where a large and permanent population of microorganisms thrives on secretions from the eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous glands. Traditional culture-based microbiological studies inform us that this resident microbiota consists mainly of Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. Among the molecular classes that have been implicated in axillary malodour are short- and medium-chain volatile fatty acids, 16-androstene steroids and, most recently, thioalcohols. Most of the available evidence suggests that members of the Corynebacterium genus are the primary causal agents of axillary odour, with the key malodour substrates believed to originate from the apocrine gland. In this article, we examine, in detail, the microbiology and biochemistry of malodour formation on axillary skin, focussing on precursor-product relationships, odour-forming enzymes and metabolic pathways and causal organisms. As well as reviewing the literature, some relevant new data are presented and considered alongside that already available in the public domain to reach an informed view on the current state-of-the-art, as well as future perspectives. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathological axillary lymph nodes detected at mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, E. T.; O' Doherty, A.; Hill, A. D.; Quinn, C. M. E-mail: c.quinn@st-vincents.ie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of abnormal axillary lymph nodes detected at mammographic screening in the absence of a concomitant breast lesion. METHODS: Twenty-three thousand, seven hundred and seven women were screened at the Merrion Unit as part of the Irish National Breast Screening Programme ('BreastCheck') in the period June 2000 to July 2002. Nine women (0.4 per 1000 women screened) were found to have an abnormal axillary lymph node(s) in the absence of a mammographic breast lesion and were recalled for assessment. The radiological criteria for recall included: size greater than or equal to 15 mm, round or irregular shape, increased node density and absence of hilar lucency. Each woman underwent further mammographic views, ultrasound examination of axilla and breast, clinical examination and lymph node biopsy either by 14 G needle core biopsy (NCB) or open excision. RESULTS: The final pathological diagnoses in the nine patients were oestrogen receptor (OR) positive metastatic breast carcinoma (two patients), metastatic malignant melanoma (one patient), malignant lymphoma (two patients), caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis (one patient), and other benign conditions (three patients). CONCLUSION: Abnormal axillary lymph nodes, in the absence of an accompanying breast lesion, are rarely identified on screening mammogram, but may harbour significant pathology and their presence on screening mammogram merits further investigation including biopsy.

  1. Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifiro, Giuseppe; Travaini, Laura Lavinia; Paganelli, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe; Gentilini, Oreste

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy would represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. Subdermal or peritumoural injection of small aliquots (and very low activity) of radiotracer is preferred to intratumoural administration, and 99m Tc-labelled colloids with most of the particles in the 100-200 nm size range would be ideal for radioguided sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The success rate of radioguidance in localising the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery is about 97% in institutions where a high number of procedures are performed, and the success rate of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel node detection is about 100%. The sentinel lymph node should be processed for intraoperative frozen section examination in its entirety, based on conventional histopathology and, when necessary, immune staining with anti-cytokeratin antibody. Nowadays, lymphoscintigraphy is a useful procedure in patients with different clinical evidence of breast cancer. (orig.)

  2. Electrochemical regulation of budding yeast polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Haupt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs, which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization.

  3. How I do it: Simple and effortless approach to identify thoracodorsal nerve on axillary clearance procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Zin, T; Maw, M; Oo, SM; Pai, DR; Paijan, RB; Kyi, M

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer surgery frequently involves an axillary clearance procedure for nodal metastases. Injury to the thoracodorsal nerve is one of the complications related to the axillary dissection. The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle which facilitates in certain movements of the arm. Moreover, it can be used as a nerve graft in long thoracic nerve injury whether in trauma or surgery. Understanding the anatomy structures and good surgical technique in the axillary cleara...

  4. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. How I do it: Simple and effortless approach to identify thoracodorsal nerve on axillary clearance procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, T; Maw, M; Oo, Sm; Pai, Dr; Paijan, Rb; Kyi, M

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer surgery frequently involves an axillary clearance procedure for nodal metastases. Injury to the thoracodorsal nerve is one of the complications related to the axillary dissection. The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle which facilitates in certain movements of the arm. Moreover, it can be used as a nerve graft in long thoracic nerve injury whether in trauma or surgery. Understanding the anatomy structures and good surgical technique in the axillary clearance procedure can identify and prevent such an injury to the thoracodorsal nerve. Here, we demonstrate a simple and effortless technique for identification of the thoracodorsal nerve during axillary surgery.

  6. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  7. Dormancy induction and release in buds and seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy is a complex trait in both buds and seeds, which is an important mechanism for survival during the life cycle of plants. Over the years, a vast wealth of information has been generated on how environmental and developmental signals impact dormancy in buds and seeds. At the molecular level, ...

  8. Unearthing belowground bud banks in fire-prone ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G; Lamont, Byron B; Paula, Susana; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Fidelis, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    Despite long-time awareness of the importance of the location of buds in plant biology, research on belowground bud banks has been scant. Terms such as lignotuber, xylopodium and sobole, all referring to belowground bud-bearing structures, are used inconsistently in the literature. Because soil efficiently insulates meristems from the heat of fire, concealing buds below ground provides fitness benefits in fire-prone ecosystems. Thus, in these ecosystems, there is a remarkable diversity of bud-bearing structures. There are at least six locations where belowground buds are stored: roots, root crown, rhizomes, woody burls, fleshy swellings and belowground caudexes. These support many morphologically distinct organs. Given their history and function, these organs may be divided into three groups: those that originated in the early history of plants and that currently are widespread (bud-bearing roots and root crowns); those that also originated early and have spread mainly among ferns and monocots (nonwoody rhizomes and a wide range of fleshy underground swellings); and those that originated later in history and are strictly tied to fire-prone ecosystems (woody rhizomes, lignotubers and xylopodia). Recognizing the diversity of belowground bud banks is the starting point for understanding the many evolutionary pathways available for responding to severe recurrent disturbances. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  10. Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India. V Jadhav Pravin, SS Mane, RS Nandanwar, PB Kale, MS Dudhare, MP Moharil, RG Dani. Abstract. We describe a peculiar and often harmful budding disorder in soybean, leading to huge yield loss in India. To determine the prevalence of floral distortion in ...

  11. This bud's for you: mechanisms of cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via nuclear envelope budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Lee G; Budnik, Vivian

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. While this barrier provides advantages, it also presents a challenge for the nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Decades-old dogma holds that all such border-crossing is via the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the diameter of the NPC central channel limits the passage of large cargos. Here, we review evidence that such large RNPs employ an endogenous NE-budding pathway, previously thought to be exclusive to the nuclear egress of Herpes viruses. We discuss this and other models proposed, the likelihood that this pathway is conserved, and the consequences of disrupting NE-budding for synapse development, localized translation of synaptic mRNAs, and laminopathies inducing accelerated aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Axillary artery thrombus and infective endocarditis in lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease, often associated with severe infection. A female patient was referred for surgical treatment of infective endocarditis after being treated for systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. She developed symptoms of left axillary artery occlusion before heart operation. Bulky fungal hyphae were noted on pathological examination of the surgically removed thrombi. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery after receiving high doses of antibiotics and subsequent mitral valve replacement. Either infective endocarditis or fungal thrombi may be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus and impaired renal function.

  13. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  14. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  15. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  16. Breast-axillary complex in HIV/AIDS patients | Eni | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient on HAART had a hard breast-axillary mass complex. Biopsy (FNAB) revealed inflammatory cells and no malignancy in all three cases. HIV screening was positive in all cases. One of the patients had excision of breast-axillary mass complex, and the histology showed features of chronic inflammation, with no ...

  17. Acute traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation complicated by axillary nerve damage: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    An elite soccer player presented with a classic acute anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint complicated by axillary nerve damage. The incidence, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, conservative treatment and rehabilitation of the anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation and associated axillary nerve damage are discussed in this paper.

  18. Surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve branches to the deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Teerawutthichaikit, Tanawit; Witoonchart, Kiat; Uerpairojkit, Chairoj; Malungpaishrope, Kanchai; Suppauksorn, Sunikom; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the innervation of the posterior deltoid muscle by the anterior branch of the axillary nerve have been reported. The objective of this study is to clarify the anatomy of the axillary nerve branches to the deltoid muscle. One hundred and twenty-nine arms (68 right and 61 left) from 88 embalmed cadavers (83 male and 46 female) were included in the study. The anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve were identified and their lengths were measured from the point of emergence from the axillary nerve to their terminations in the deltoid muscle. In all cases, the axillary nerves split into two branches (anterior and posterior) within the quadrangular space and none split within the deltoid muscle. In all specimens, the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid muscle received their nerve supplies from the anterior branch of the axillary nerve. The posterior part of the deltoid muscle was supplied only by the anterior branch of the axillary nerve in 2.3% of the specimens, from the posterior branch in 8.5%, and from both branches in 89.1%. There were two sub-branches of the anterior branch in 4.7% of the specimens. The anterior branch of the axillary nerve supplied not only the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid muscle but also the posterior part in most cases (91.5%). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Axillary Nerve Reconstruction: Anterior-Posterior Exposure With Sural Nerve Cable Graft Pull-Through Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Heather L; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-12-01

    Deltoid paralysis after axillary nerve injury results in limitations in shoulder function and stability. In the setting of an isolated axillary nerve injury with no clinical or electromyographic evidence of recovery that is within 6 to 9 months postinjury, the authors' preferred technique to reinnervate the deltoid is to reconstruct the axillary nerve with sural nerve grafting. Intraoperative neuromuscular electrophysiology is critical to determine the continuity of the axillary nerve before proceeding with reconstruction. The majority of the time, both an anterior and posterior incision and dissection of the axillary nerve is required to adequately delineate the zone of injury. This also ensures that both proximally and distally, uninjured axillary nerve is present before graft inset and also facilitates the ability to perform a meticulous microsurgical inset of the nerve graft posteriorly. The nerve graft must be pulled through from posterior to anterior to span the zone of injury and reconstruct the axillary nerve. Careful infraclavicular brachial plexus dissection is necessary to prevent further injury to components of the brachial plexus in the setting of a scarred bed. Patients will require postoperative therapy to prevent limitations in shoulder range of motion secondary to postoperative stiffness. This paper presents a detailed surgical technique for axillary nerve reconstruction by an anterior-posterior approach with a pull-through technique of a sural nerve cable graft.

  20. Involvement of calcium signalling in dormancy release of grape buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuequn; Halaly, Tamar; Crane, Omer; Keilin, Tsvicka; Keren-Keiserman, Alexandra; Ogrodovitch, Aliza; Galbraith, David; Or, Etti

    2007-01-01

    Artificial induction of grape bud dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) serves as a reliable model system to explore the events occurring shortly after the induction of dormancy release. Recently, a group of genes with remarkable differences in expression level between HC-treated and control buds was identified. The identification of several calcium signalling-related genes within that group raised the hypothesis of the involvement of Ca(2+) signalling in grape bud dormancy release. Therefore, the effects of HC treatment on the expression profiles of several calcium sensors, the effect of the plasma membrane calcium channel blocker LaCl(3) and the calcium chelator EGTA on HC-induced and chilling-induced bud-break, and the effect of HC application on calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation activities in the bud tissue were studied. Here the HC-induced expression of Ca(2+)-ATPase is described, indicating that this treatment might evoke an increase in [Ca(2+)]cyt. Similar induction was confirmed for calmodulin, calmodulin-binding protein, and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). Both LaCl(3) and EGTA blocked the inducing effect of HC on bud-break, and their inhibitory effects were removed by supplying exogenous Ca(2+). Calcium-dependent histone phosphorylation was up to 70% higher in HC-treated buds. Endogenous protein phosphorylation assays detected four proteins exhibiting increased phosphorylation following HC treatment, of which two were phosphorylated in a calcium-dependent manner. One of these, a 47 kDa protein, presented strong and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation only in HC-treated buds. The potential role of CDPK in the phosphorylation of this protein was supported by an immunoprecipitation assay. The data suggest, for the first time, that calcium signalling is involved in the mechanism of bud dormancy release.

  1. Bud development and shoot morphology in relation to crown location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukk, Maarja; Sõber, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Plant architecture is shaped by endogenous growth processes interacting with the local environment. The current study investigated crown development in young black alder trees, assessing the effects of local light conditions and branch height on individual bud mass and contents. In addition, we examined the characteristics of parent shoots [the cross-sectional area (CSA) of stem and total leaf area, shoot length, the number of nodes, the number and total mass of buds per shoot] and leaf–stem as well as bud–stem allometry, as several recent studies link bud development to hydraulic architecture. We sampled shoots from top branches and two lower-crown locations: one subjected to deep shade and the other resembling the upper branches in light availability. Sampling was carried out three times between mid-July and late October, spanning from the early stages of bud growth to dormancy. Individual bud mass and shoot characteristics varied in response to light conditions, whereas leaf–stem allometry depended on branch height, most likely compensating for the increasing length of hydraulic pathways. Despite the differences in individual bud mass, the number of preformed leaves varied little across the crown, indicating that the plasticity in shoot characteristics was mainly achieved by neoformation. The relationship between total bud mass and stem CSA scaled similarly across crown locations. However, scaling slopes gradually decreased throughout the sampling period, driven by bud rather than by stem growth. This suggests that the allometry of total bud mass and CSA of stem is regulated locally, instead of resulting from crown-level processes. PMID:26187607

  2. Mammographic characterization of breast cancer associated with axillary lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharee Hongsmatip

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe mammographic characterization of breast cancer associated with axillary lymph node metastasis at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Methods: The data were collected retrospectively from female patients with breast cancers who underwent breast surgery and axillary node dissection at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011. One hundred and ninety histopathologically proven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC were randomly recruited; consisted of ninety-five patients with axillary lymph node metastasis and the rest of patients without axillary lymph node metastasis. All patients were reviewed their mammograms with additional ultrasounds and correlation between each mammographic characteristic and ipsilateral node involvement was analyzed, using P-value (P, Odd ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: Mammographic characterization associated with the highest risk of axillary node metastasis was malignant pattern of ipsilateral axillary node (P < 0.001; OR = 44.53; 95% CI = 13.10 - 151.37 with following by intermediate pattern of ipsilateral axillary node (P = 0.002; OR=5.18; 95% CI = 1.79 - 15.04. The other characteristics in descending orders for associated with axillary node involvement are upper outer quadrant tumors associated risk of ipsilateral axillary node involvement (P = 0.02; OR = 3.36; 95% CI = 1.23 - 9.14 and size of breast cancer by additional ultrasound (P = 0.04; OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.02-2.17. There was no association between risk of axillary node involvement and the rest of mammographic findings, including microcalcification of the tumor, vascularity of the tumor and size of axillary node. Conclusions: The highest predictive risk of axillary node metastasis in breast cancer was malignant axillary node pattern. The moderate risk was intermediate axillary node pattern and the lower risks were the tumor located in upper outer quadrant and increased tumor

  3. Axillary Artery Injury Associated with Proximal Humerus Fracture: A Report of 6 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne M. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common, but associated injury of the axillary artery is uncommon. The majority of published blunt traumatic axillary artery injuries are associated with anterior glenohumeral dislocation; a few are associated with isolated proximal humerus fractures or fracture-dislocation. Experience within our institution demonstrates that axillary artery injury is often unrecognized on initial presentation owing to palpable peripheral pulses and the absence of ischemia and places the hand at risk of necrosis and amputation if there is prolonged ischemia and the forearm at risk of compartment syndrome after revascularization. Accurate physical examination in combination with a low threshold for Doppler examination or angiography can establish the diagnosis of axillary artery injury. We present 6 cases of axillary artery injury associated with proximal humerus fractures in order to highlight the potential for this vascular injury in the setting of a proximal humerus fracture.

  4. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

  5. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years. After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus.

  6. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria.

  7. Lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Peros, George; Cataliotti, Luigi; Vlastos, George

    2006-11-01

    Lymphedema is a relatively common, potentially serious and unpleased complication after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer. It may be associated with functional, esthetic, and psychological problems, thereby affecting the quality-of-life (QOL) of breast cancer survivors. Objective measurements (preferentially by measuring arm volumes or arm circumferences at predetermined sites) are required to identify lymphedema, but also subjective assessment can help to determine the clinical significance of any volume/circumference differences. Lymphedema per se predisposes to the development of other secondary complications, such as infections of the upper limb, psychological sequelae, development of malignant tumors, alterations of the QOL, etc. The risk of lymphedema is associated with the extent of ALND and the addition of axillary radiation therapy. Treatment involves the application of therapeutic measures of the so-called decongestive lymphatic therapy. Prevention is of key importance to avoid lymphedema formation. The application of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of breast cancer has been associated with a reduced incidence of lymphedema formation.

  8. Effects of shoulder position on axillary nerve positions during the split lateral deltoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sunny; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Lee, Thay Q

    2009-01-01

    The axillary nerve may be injured during percutaneous fixation of proximal humerus fractures. This study investigated the kinematic behavior of the superior and inferior borders of the axillary nerve under varying shoulder positions. This information may reduce iatrogenic neurologic injury during fracture reduction and hardware placement. The lateral deltoid approach was performed on 7 fresh frozen shoulders. The inferior and superior borders of the axillary nerve were tagged. Screws were placed in the anterior, middle, and posterior acromion as landmarks. Three-dimensional distances of the inferior and superior border of the nerve were measured to the mid-acromion while the shoulder was placed in combinations of forward flexion, vertical abduction, and humeral rotation. The distances were compared by repeated measures ANOVA statistical analysis. The distance from the mid-acromion to the superior border of the axillary nerve was 66.6 mm (+/-5.7), and to the inferior axillary nerve was 75.7 mm (+/-5.8) with the shoulder in neutral position. Vertical abduction to 60 degrees significantly moved the superior and inferior borders of the axillary nerve to a distance of 53.9 (+/-7.7) and 61.6 mm (+/-8.1), respectively (P axillary nerve (P > 0.5). The longest distance from the mid-acromion to the inferior border of the axillary nerve was 86 mm with the arm forward flexed. The main determinant of axillary nerve position with respect to the acromion is vertical abduction. Axillary nerve position is essentially unaffected by varying degrees of humeral rotation and forward flexion. Vertical glenohumeral abduction to 60 degrees is required to move the nerve significantly closer to the acromion.

  9. In vitro induction of multiple buds from cotyledonary nodes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Momordica charantia L.) were used for tissue culture to establish regeneration system, and the effects of different genotypes of Balsam pear, hormone combinations, seedling ages, dark period and AgNO3 concentrations on the bud regeneration ...

  10. Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

    We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

  11. Apoptosis at inflection point in liquid culture of budding yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hagiwara

    Full Text Available Budding yeasts are highly suitable for aging studies, because the number of bud scars (stage proportionally correlates with age. Its maximum stages are known to reach at 20-30 stages on an isolated agar medium. However, their stage dynamics in a liquid culture is virtually unknown. We investigate the population dynamics by counting scars in each cell. Here one cell division produces one new cell and one bud scar. This simple rule leads to a conservation law: "The total number of bud scars is equal to the total number of cells." We find a large discrepancy: extremely fewer cells with over 5 scars than expected. Almost all cells with 6 or more scars disappear within a short period of time in the late log phase (corresponds to the inflection point. This discrepancy is confirmed directly by the microscopic observations of broken cells. This finding implies apoptosis in older cells (6 scars or more.

  12. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  13. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone.

  14. Longleaf pine bud development: influence of seedling nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Barnett; D. P. Jackson; R. K. Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    A subset of seedlings from a larger study (Jackson and others 2006, 2007) were selected and evaluated for two growing seasons to relate bud development, and root-collar diameter (RCD), and height growth with three nursery fertilization rates. We chose seedlings in the 0.5 (lowest), 2.0 (mid-range), and 4.0 (highest) mg of nitrogen per seedling treatments. Buds moved...

  15. Tumor Budding: The Name is EMT. Partial EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Grigore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor budding is a histological phenomenon encountered in various cancers, whereby individual malignant cells and/or small clusters of malignant cells are seen in the tumor stroma. Postulated to be mirror epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor budding has been associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the vast heterogeneity in its exact definition, methodology of assessment, and patient stratification need to be resolved before it can be routinely used as a standardized prognostic feature. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity in defining and assessing tumor budding, its clinical significance across multiple cancer types, and its prospective implementation in clinical practice. Next, we review the emerging evidence about partial, rather than complete, epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype at the tumor bud level, and its connection with tumor proliferation, quiescence, and stemness. Finally, based on recent literature, indicating a co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in many tumor buds, we posit tumor budding to be a manifestation of this hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype displaying collective cell migration.

  16. [Axillary local anesthetic spread after the thoracic interfacial ultrasound block - a cadaveric and radiological evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Patricia Alfaro de la; Jones, Jerry Wayne; Álvarez, Servando López; Garcia, Paula Diéguez; Miguel, Francisco Javier Garcia de; Rubio, Eva Maria Monzon; Boeris, Federico Carol; Sacramento, Monir Kabiri; Duany, Osmany; Pérez, Mario Fajardo; Gordon, Borja de la Quintana

    Oral opioid analgesics have been used for management of peri- and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing axillary dissection. The axillary region is a difficult zone to block and does not have a specific regional anesthesia technique published that offers its adequate blockade. After institutional review board approval, anatomic and radiological studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue and local anesthetic injected respectively into the axilla via the thoracic inter-fascial plane. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies were then conducted in 15 of 34 patients scheduled for unilateral breast surgery that entailed any of the following: axillary clearance, sentinel node biopsy, axillary node biopsy, or supernumerary breasts, to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the thoracic interfascial plane in vivo. Radiological and cadaveric studies showed that the injection of local anesthetic and methylene blue via the thoracic inter-fascial plane, using ultrasound guide technique, results in reliable deposition into the axilla. In patients, the injection of the local anesthetic produced a reliable axillary sensory block. This finding was supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies that showed hyper-intense signals in the axillary region. These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the thoracic interfascial plane nerve block in the axillary region, and underline the clinical potential of this novel nerve block. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Axillary local anesthetic spread after the thoracic interfacial ultrasound block - a cadaveric and radiological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alfaro de la Torre

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral opioid analgesics have been used for management of peri- and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing axillary dissection. The axillary region is a difficult zone to block and does not have a specific regional anesthesia technique published that offers its adequate blockade. Methods After institutional review board approval, anatomic and radiological studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue and local anesthetic injected respectively into the axilla via the thoracic inter-fascial plane. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies were then conducted in 15 of 34 patients scheduled for unilateral breast surgery that entailed any of the following: axillary clearance, sentinel node biopsy, axillary node biopsy, or supernumerary breasts, to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the thoracic interfascial plane in vivo. Results Radiological and cadaveric studies showed that the injection of local anesthetic and methylene blue via the thoracic inter-fascial plane, using ultrasound guide technique, results in reliable deposition into the axilla. In patients, the injection of the local anesthetic produced a reliable axillary sensory block. This finding was supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies that showed hyper-intense signals in the axillary region. Conclusions These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the thoracic interfascial plane nerve block in the axillary region, and underline the clinical potential of this novel nerve block.

  18. Outcomes Following Closed Axillary Nerve Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Joseph W; Eichinger, Josef K

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old male who sustained an axillary nerve injury secondary to a glenohumeral joint dislocation at a young age, and who has served over 20 years in the military with near normal shoulder function. In addition, we review the literature for the natural history of axillary nerve injury. A 43-year-old male sustained a left anterior glenohumeral dislocation in a motor vehicle accident as an 18-year-old. Following prompt manual reduction and subsequent physical therapy, the patient developed a permanent axillary nerve palsy. Despite the development of complete atrophy of his deltoid musculature and persistent sensory loss in the axillary nerve distribution, he experienced restoration of function with minimal to no deficit. Ultimately, he enlisted in the military 4 years after the injury and has served 22 years, which includes combat deployments with normal shoulder function and absence of pain. Axillary nerve injury is a relatively common injury after anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation. There is little known about the long-term outcome of patient's with permanent axillary nerve injury. This case suggests that it is possible for a young athletic individual to function at a high level of activity after permanent loss of axillary nerve function. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Injury to the axillary nerve after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lädermann, A; Stimec, B V; Denard, P J; Cunningham, G; Collin, P; Fasel, J H D

    2014-02-01

    Subclinical neurological lesions after reverse shoulder arthroplasty are frequent, mainly those involving the axillary nerve. One of the major reported risk factors is postoperative lengthening of the arm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical relationship between the axillary nerve and prosthetic components after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The study hypothesis was that inferior overhang of the glenosphere relative to glenoid could put this nerve at risk. Eleven fresh frozen shoulder specimens were dissected after having undergone reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a classic deltopectoral approach. The mean distance from the inferior border of the glenoid to the inferior edge of the glenosphere was 6.0±4.3mm (range, 1.0 to 16.2mm). The axillary nerve was never closer than 15mm to the glenosphere. The main anterior branch of the axillary nerve was in close contact with the posterior metaphysis or humeral prosthetic implant. The mean distance between the nerve and the humeral implants was 5.2±2.1mm (range, 2.0 to 8.1mm). The proximity of the axillary nerve to the posterior metaphysis or humeral implants may be a risk factor for axillary nerve injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. This study quantifies the proximity of the axillary nerve to the implant after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Basic science study, cadaver study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium clusters in the human axillary region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Callewaert

    Full Text Available The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n = 17, whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n = 36. The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome.

  1. Comparing axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on CT in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas

    2005-01-01

    Radiographic demonstration of mediastinal lymphadenopathy is important for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Plain radiographs are unreliable for this and CT, which is relatively more expensive and carries a high radiation burden, remains the gold standard. No studies correlating the presence of axillary with mediastinal lymphadenopathy have been reported. Such a correlation would allow for clinical or ultrasound diagnosis of PTB via the axilla. To correlate the presence of axillary lymphadenopathy with mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children with suspected PTB. CT scans were performed and reviewed in 100 children (prospectively recruited) with suspected PTB. The axilla and mediastinum were reviewed separately by covering the non-relevant sections on the CT scans prior to reading. Only nodes greater than 1 cm were regarded as pathological. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was present in 46% of children; 70% had lymphadenopathy in either axilla. Bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy was identified in 47%. Axillary lymphadenopathy showed a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 33% for the presence of mediastinal adenopathy. Bilateral axillary adenopathy had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 56%. Axillary lymphadenopathy has a moderate sensitivity and low specificity for the presence of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy in children with suspected PTB. Further research should be aimed at correlating ultrasound-detected axillary lymphadenopathy with FNA results in children. (orig.)

  2. Probiotic viability - does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

  3. The relationship of proximal locking screws to the axillary nerve during antegrade humeral nail insertion of four commercially available implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Edward J; Breien, Kristoffer M; Fehringer, Edward V; Mormino, Matthew A

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proximity of proximal interlocking mechanisms in 4 current antegrade humeral nails to the axillary nerve and its branches. Cadaveric study. Anatomy laboratory. Anatomic relationships. Four humeral nail designs (labeled SS, SL, SZ, and SN) were each inserted in successive antegrade fashion in 10 cadaveric upper extremity specimens. Three variables were measured: from acromion to the axillary nerve, from acromion to entry sites of proximal locking devices, and from locking devices to axillary nerves and their branches. In nail SS, the proximally directed oblique locking screw came into contact with the ascending branch of the axillary nerve in 6 of 10 specimens. Mean distance from spiral blades in nails SS and SL were 26 mm to the axillary nerve and 16 mm to its ascending branch. Interlocking screws for nails SZ, SN, and SL did not violate the axillary nerve or its branches in any specimen. Mean distance from lateral acromion to the axillary nerve measured 58.7 mm. Nail SS's oblique locking screw may injure the ascending branch of the axillary nerve. Three of the 4 nails tested did not endanger the axillary nerve. However, when transverse proximal locking screws are inserted from a lateral-to-medial direction, they may endanger an arborized axillary nerve. Blunt dissection should be performed with a visible path to bone before instrumentation to reduce the risk of axillary nerve injury. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  4. Initial axillary surgery: results from the BreastSurgANZ Quality Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chilton; Walters, David; de Silva, Primali; Taylor, Corey; Spillane, Andrew; Kollias, James; Pyke, Chris; Campbell, Ian; Maddern, Guy

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the preference and reasons for initial axillary surgery performed on women with invasive breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand using data from the Breast Surgeon's Society of Australia and New Zealand Quality Audit (BQA) according to whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or no axillary surgery was used. Patient data from 1999 to 2011 were categorized according to primary tumour size (≤3 cm or >3 cm) and analysed by year of diagnosis, type of initial axillary surgery and frequency of second axillary surgery following SLN biopsy. Patient age at diagnosis, health insurance status, surgeon caseload and hospital location were also examined as factors affecting the likelihood of performing different types of axillary surgery. Seventy thousand six hundred and eighty-eight episodes of early breast cancer with axillary surgery data were reported to the BQA in the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing SLN biopsy as the first operation increased over this period in both tumour size groups with a concomitant decline in the use of ALND as the first operation over the same interval. Elderly women (>70 years old) were four times less likely to undergo axillary surgery for their initial management when compared with women aged 41-70 years old (P < 0.001). Factors favouring ALND as the initial surgery over SLN biopsy included larger tumour size, elderly age, uninsured status and having surgery in a regional centre. From 1999 to 2011, SLN biopsy as the initial axillary surgery has been widely adopted by surgeons reporting to the BQA. Future evaluation of the BQA data in the following 3-5 years will be performed to monitor this progression. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis: combination of the starch-iodine test with the tumescent liposuction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, J M

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate and permanently improve axillary hyperhidrosis. Excessive sweating of the axillae is a common problem for which patients frequently seek dermatologic advice and therapy. Many treatments, including aluminum chloride, topical and systemic anticholinergic agents, tranquilizers, iontophoresis, direct surgical excision, botulinum toxin injection, and thoracic sympathectomy, have been employed to control this problem. All have drawbacks of one sort or another. The starch-iodine technique for delineation of preoperative and postoperative axillary sweating is described in detail. A method of sweat gland removal utilizing tumescent liposuction is discussed. The combination of the starch-iodine technique and tumescent liposuction is safe and effective for therapy of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  6. Is axillary sonographic staging less accurate in invasive lobular breast cancer than in ductal breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaye, Prashant; Chhatani, Sharmila; Porter, Gareth; Steel, Jim; Doyle, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether axillary sonography is less accurate in invasive lobular breast cancer than in ductal breast cancer. Patients with invasive breast cancer were retrospectively identified from histologic records from 2010 to 2012. Staging axillary sonograms from 96 patients with primary breast cancer in each of 2 subgroups, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), were reviewed. Preoperative sonographically guided 14-gauge core biopsy was performed on morphologically abnormal lymph nodes. Thirty-one of 96 patients (32%) in each subgroup were node positive on final postoperative histopathologic analysis. Axillary staging sensitivity was 17 of 31 patients (54%) in the IDC subgroup and 15 of 31(48%) in the ILC subgroup. Further analysis of the data showed no statistically significant differences between these subgroups. We found that there was no statistically significant difference in the accuracy of axillary sonographic staging between ILC and IDC. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. The surgical importance of an axillary arch in sentinel node biopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2011-03-01

    When Carl Langer described the aberrant axillary arch in 1846 its relevance in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) surgery could not have been contemplated. The authors define an incidence and elucidate relevance of the arch in SNB of the axilla.

  8. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Welsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses.

  9. A comparative study of thoracoscopic sympathicotomy versus local surgical treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Erik; Licht, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 1.4% of the population. Medical management is often frustrating, and the response generally transient. Surgical methods include thoracoscopic sympathectomy or sympathicotomy and local axillary surgery such as suction-curettage or en-bloc skin resection....... Many case series with retrospective follow-up are available in the literature, but no comparative studies between surgical techniques have been published....

  10. Axillary lymph node tuberculosis masquerading as inflammatory breast carcinoma in an immune-compromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Vani, B R; Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-02-01

    While tuberculosis is still the leading opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is more common than pulmonary tuberculosis, with lymph nodes being a common site. Axillary lymph node pathology such as tuberculosis and lymphoma rarely mimics inflammatory breast carcinoma by producing lymphatic obstruction. We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis in a 40-year-old immune-compromised woman, clinically presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Tuberculosis and metastatic carcinoma coexistence in axillary lymph node: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandramohan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coexistence of cancer and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes is rare. Only seven cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report We report here a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast metastasizing to the axillary lymph node along with tubercular granuloma in the same lymph node without primary mammary or pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion Primary tuberculosis coexisting with carcinoma is of rare occurrence. A possibility should always be borne in mind especially in patients from endemic areas.

  12. MIPO of proximal humerus fractures through an anterolateral acromial approach. Is the axillary nerve at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Josip; Mihalj, Mario; Čukelj, Fabijan; Ivanišević, Arsen

    2017-11-01

    It is known that shoulder surgery may cause iatrogenic injury to the axillary nerve as a serious complication, but there is little evidence to indicate whether the axillary nerve is at risk of injury during an anterolateral acromial approach for minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) of proximal humerus fractures. We hypothesised that this surgical method is safe for the axillary nerve and would preserve it from iatrogenic injury. We conducted a prospective follow-up cohort study on 49 consecutive patients with proximal humerus fractures who were managed with MIPO through an anterolateral approach. All patients underwent standardised electroneurographic testing, with assessment of amplitudes of evoked compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) and distal motor latencies (DML) of the axillary nerves, pre- and post-operatively. Six weeks after injury, all patients underwent needle electromyographic (EMG) testing of anterior, middle, posterior deltoid, teres minor and paraspinal muscles for detecting abnormal muscle activity as a sign of acute denervation. After six months of physical rehabilitation, patients with axillary nerve injury underwent control electroneurographic testing to check the recovery of neurographic features (CMAP, DML). All nerve measurements were compared to reference values, and between right and left side. Five patients had a mild-to-moderate traumatic axillary nerve injury before surgery. There were no significant differences between amplitudes of CMAP (p = 0.575) and DML (p = 0.857) pre- and post-surgical procedure. These results confirmed safety of this surgical method in the preservation of axillary nerve from iatrogenic injury, but the course of the axillary nerve must be kept in mind. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumescent suction curettage in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis: experience in 63 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis is a common and most distressing problem, which can be addressed by a variety of treatment modalities. To assess the value of tumescent suction curettage in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. 63 patients (39 female, 25 male; mean age 30.3 +/- 7.6 years) with axillary hyperhidrosis were enrolled in the study. All patients were treated in an outpatient setting with tumescent suction curettage of the axillary cavity, using two entry sites. The results were evaluated with the iodine-starch test after 4 weeks and after 6 months. Two years after the procedure, patient satisfaction was evaluated as 'satisfied', 'partially satisfied' or 'dissatisfied'. None of the patients had early postoperative complications of infection or seroma. All patients had a marked reduction of hyperhidrosis after 4 weeks, confirmed by the iodine-starch test. After 6 months, 15 patients had high sweat rates and asked for repeat surgery. Two years after the procedure, 49 patients were satisfied, 11 patients were partially satisfied and 3 patients were dissatisfied. Tumescent suction curettage is a safe and effective treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis resulting in a high level of patient satisfaction. Some patients will need repeat surgery. Suction curettage, however, should not be used as the first line of treatment in axillary hyperhidrosis.

  14. Injury of the axillary nerve subsequent to recurrence of shoulder dislocation. Clinical and electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumina, S; Bertino, A; Di Giorgio, G; Postacchini, F

    2005-01-01

    Injuries of the axillary nerve subsequent to recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation have received only minimal attention. It is the purpose of this study to define the prevalence and the progression in time of injury of the axillary nerve in patients with recurrence of anterior shoulder dislocation. For two years we observed a total of 185 patients who had had primary shoulder dislocation. Excluded from the study were patients who had fractures associated with metabolic disorders that favored neurologic deficit. During the period of study, 98 patients contacted us again after recurrence of the dislocation: there were 89 patients aged over 60 years and 9 aged below 60 years. All of the patients were evaluated clinically and submitted to EMG in order to verify the condition of the axillary nerve. Four patients (4%) had neuroapraxia of the axillary nerve. One of these also had neuroapraxia of the radial nerve. Of the four patients, one was a male aged 34 years; the others were all aged over 60 years. In all of the cases, function of the axillary nerve completely recovered after a mean period of 4 months (3-5.3 months) after recurrence. Injury of the axillary nerve can occur at the time of the first recurrence of the injury. However, prevalence is significantly lower than that observed after primary dislocation. The occurrence of this injury should be taken into consideration, particularly in elderly patients, in order to avoid erroneous clinical diagnosis and massive rupture of the cuff subsequent to recurrence of the dislocation.

  15. Axillary nerve neurotization with the anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose; Rajmohan, Bennet

    2012-09-01

    Combined neurotization of both axillary and suprascapular nerves in shoulder reanimation has been widely accepted in brachial plexus injuries, and the functional outcome is much superior to single nerve transfer. This study describes the surgical anatomy for axillary nerve relative to the available donor nerves and emphasize the salient technical aspects of anterior deltopectoral approach in brachial plexus injuries. Fifteen patients with brachial plexus injury who had axillary nerve neurotizations were evaluated. Five patients had complete avulsion, 9 patients had C5, six patients had brachial plexus injury pattern, and one patient had combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The long head of triceps branch was the donor in C5,6 injuries; nerve to brachialis in combined nerve injury and intercostals for C5-T1 avulsion injuries. All these donors were identified through the anterior approach, and the nerve transfer was done. The recovery of deltoid was found excellent (M5) in C5,6 brachial plexus injuries with an average of 134.4° abduction at follow up of average 34.6 months. The shoulder recovery was good with 130° abduction in a case of combined axillary and suprascapular nerve injury. The deltoid recovery was good (M3) in C5-T1 avulsion injuries patients with an average of 64° shoulder abduction at follow up of 35 months. We believe that anterior approach is simple and easy for all axillary nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  18. MED and PSACH COMP mutations affect chondrogenesis in chicken limb bud micromass cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Blas, J; Dion, A S; Seghatoleslami, M R; Giunta, K; Oca, P; Jimenez, S A; Williams, C J

    2010-09-01

    Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) cause pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). We studied the effects of over-expression of wild type and mutant COMP on early stages of chondrogenesis in chicken limb bud micromass cultures. Cells were transduced with RCAS virus harboring wild type or mutant (C328R, PSACH; T585R, MED) COMP cDNAs and cultured for 3, 4, and 5 days. The effect of COMP constructs on chondrogenesis was assessed by analyzing mRNA and protein expression of several COMP binding partners. Cell viability was assayed, and evaluation of apoptosis was performed by monitoring caspase 3 processing. Over-expression of COMP, and especially expression of COMP mutants, had a profound affect on the expression of syndecan 3 and tenascin C, early markers of chondrogenesis. Over-expression of COMP did not affect levels of type II collagen or matrilin-3; however, there were increases in type IX collagen expression and sulfated proteoglycan synthesis, particularly at day 5 of harvest. In contrast to cells over-expressing COMP, cells with mutant COMP showed reduction in type IX collagen expression and increased matrilin 3 expression. Finally, reduction in cell viability, and increased activity of caspase 3, at days 4 and 5, were observed in cultures expressing either wild type or mutant COMP. MED, and PSACH mutations, despite displaying phenotypic differences, demonstrated only subtle differences in their cellular viability and mRNA and protein expression of components of the extracellular matrix, including those that interact with COMP. These results suggest that COMP mutations, by disrupting normal interactions between COMP and its binding partners, significantly affect chondrogenesis. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Budżet zadaniowy w oświacie

    OpenAIRE

    Kopańska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Budżet to podstawowe narzędzie zarządzania finansami publicznymi. Jego forma – a więc to jak poszczególne wydatki i dochody są w nim zapisywane stanowi jeden z najważniejszych czynników wpływających na efektywność publicznych podmiotów. W ostatnich dziesięcioleciach, coraz częściej postuluje się odejście od klasycznej formy budżetu i poszukuje się takich które tę efektywność będą wyraźnie poprawiać. W niniejszym opracowaniu analizie poddane są możliwości i ograniczenia zastosowania budże...

  20. Adventitious bud regeneration from the stigma of Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmas isolated from flower buds of 'Nakielska' variety of Sinapis alba were used to develop a micropropagation method suitable for breeding of new cultivars. The origin of adventitious bud regeneration was studied on MS medium, under stimulation by bezylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 2,4-D - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Histological analysis showed the structure of Sinapis stigma (composed from four types of tissue: papillae, transmitting tissue, parenchyma and vascular bundles and revealed that numerous meristematic centers developed from parenchyma cells in close vicinity of vascular bundles. Buds very quickly appeared on the surface of initial explants and later formed multiplantlets that were easily rooted in the soil.

  1. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture.

  2. Viability of bacteria in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Glukhova, T. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    The viability of bacteria in oligotrofic bogs and fens was determined by the luminescent microscopy method with the help of a two-component fluorescent dye (L7012 LIVE/DEAD). Living bacterial cells were found in the entire peat profiles. Their portion was maximal (up to 60%) in the upper layers and did not exceed 25% in the lower layers. The portion of dead bacterial cells varied from 3 to 19%, and dormant cells constituted 25 to 95% of the total number of bacterial cells. The numbers of dormant cells increased down the profiles irrespectively of the peat type. The portion of nanoforms did not exceed 5% of the total. The cells of the nanoforms, unlike the bacteria of typical sizes, were characterized by their high viability (93-98%).

  3. [Long head of the triceps brachii in axillary nerve injury: anatomy and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzouk, J; Durandeau, A; Vital, J M; Fabre, T

    2002-10-01

    Earlier work has demonstrated possible paralysis of the long head of the triceps brachii (LTB) after surgical repair of traumatic injury to the axillary nerve. Anatomy textbooks describe the motor branch of the LTB arising from the radial nerve within the body of the triceps. We studied the position of the motor branch for the LTB to determine its exact origin. Three groups were studied: Group I included 9 traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve associated with clinical involvement of the LTB; Group II included 20 secondary posterior trunks dissected from cadaver specimens; Group III included 15 dissections of the infraclavicular plexus with complete dissection of the secondary posterior trunk. The position of the axillary nerve injury was retrieved from the operative reports for Group I. The precise origin of the motor branch for the LTB was identified for Group II. Neurostimulation was used to identify the origin of the motor branch for the LTB in Group III. For Group I: injury to the axillary nerve was situated 10 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior trunk in 6 cases and at the bifurcation in 3. Type IV injury was identified in 4 cases and type V in 5. For Group II: the motor branch for the LTB arose 6 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior branch in 13 cases, at the bifurcation in 5, and 10 mm proximally in 2, but never from the radial nerve. For Group III: the motor branch for the LTB arose 4.5 mm (mean) from the bifurcation of the secondary posterior trunk in 11 cases, at the bifurcation in 4, and never from the radial nerve. Observed injuries to the axillary nerve with an associated paralysis of the long head of the triceps brachii were located proximally and were severe. Our dissections always located the motor branch of the LTB arising from the axillary nerve or the secondary posterior branch. We thus deducted that associated LTB paralysis is a sign of poor prognosis. In patients with axillary nerve injury it is a

  4. Added value of dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI for improved axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijnatten, Thiemo J.A. van; Goorts, B.; Voeoe, S.; Wildberger, J.E.; Boer, M. de; Kooreman, L.F.S.; Heuts, E.M.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Lobbes, M.B.I.; Smidt, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and potential added value of dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, compared to standard imaging modalities (i.e. ultrasound [US], MRI and PET/CT), for axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer. Twelve patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer underwent axillary US and dedicated axillary hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI. Nine of the 12 patients also underwent whole-body PET/CT. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured for the primary breast tumor and the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node. A positive axillary lymph node on dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was defined as a moderate to very intense FDG-avid lymph node. The diagnostic performance of dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI was calculated by comparing quantitative and its qualitative measurements to results of axillary US, MRI and PET/CT. The number of suspicious axillary lymph nodes was subdivided as follows: N0 (0 nodes), N1 (1-3 nodes), N2 (4-9 nodes) and N3 (≥ 10 nodes). According to dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI findings, seven patients were diagnosed with N1, four with N2 and one with N3. With regard to mean SUVmax, there was no significant difference in the primary tumor (9.0 [±5.0] vs. 8.6 [±5.7], p = 0.678) or the most FDG-avid axillary lymph node (7.8 [±5.3] vs. 7.7 [±4.3], p = 0.767) between dedicated axillary PET/MRI and PET/CT. Compared to standard imaging modalities, dedicated axillary hybrid PET/MRI resulted in changes in nodal status as follows: 40% compared to US, 75% compared to T2-weighted MRI, 40% compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, and 22% compared to PET/CT. Adding dedicated axillary 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI to diagnostic work-up may improve the diagnostic performance of axillary nodal staging in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. (orig.)

  5. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  6. Axillary node metastatic carcinoma without definitive primary: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer R. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of unknown primary (CUP is the finding of a metastatic cancerous lesion without an established primary source localized within the body. CUP can be of any cancer cell type, however, adenocarcinoma is most often identified by histology. Up to 5% of all malignant diagnoses are classified as CUP. PET is an imaging modality often utilized to distinguish a primary source in the setting of CUP, yet often a primary is never identified. CUP can be further stratified using specific qualifiers as favorable and unfavorable, indicating the potential therapeutic response to treatment regimens. Treatment approach to CUP relies heavily on the cell type identified by histology, the location of the lesion, and the amount of spread within the body. In the typical setting and presentation, per current literature, CUP arises in the 7th decade of life in patients with multiple comorbidities, and often has a poor prognostic value. This case report identifies an atypical presentation of CUP, a 38-year-old Caucasian female with an axillary mobile mass, and no associated systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the node and immunohistochemical staining showed histology consistent with metastatic carcinoma. Mammography, MRI, and PET scan found no evidence of tumor primary or distant metastasis. Further staining confirmed metastatic carcinoma consistent with breast origin, without an established breast primary. As in this case, CUP may present in an atypical manner, warranting a thorough investigation aiming to identify the tumor primary to aid in identification of a proper treatment regimen and approach.

  7. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ścieszka, Joanna; Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-09-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  8. Ex vivo MRI of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, Alain; Pigneur, Frederic; Ghozali, Faridah; Dao, Thu-Ha; Cunin, Patrick; Meyblum, Evelyne; De Baecque-Fontaine, Cecile; Alamdari, Ali; Maison, Patrick; Deux, Jean Francois; Lagrange, Jean Leon; Lantieri, Laurent; Rahmouni, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a strategy for precise co-localization of lymph nodes on axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) specimens both on pathology and MR. To identify nodal features suggestive of metastatic involvement on a node-to-node basis. Materials and methods: National Institutional review-board approved this prospective study of 18 patients with breast cancer referred for ALND. Ex vivo T1 and inversion recovery (IR) T2 WI of ALND specimens tightly positioned within scaled plastic cranes was performed immediately after surgery. The correspondence of MR-based or pathologically based nodes location was assessed. The MR size and morphological presentation of metastatic and normal nodes were compared (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test). Quantitative variables were compared using Pearson coefficient. Results: 207 nodes were retrieved on pathology and 165 on MR. MR-pathological correlation of nodes location was high regarding MR-identified nodes (r = 0.755). An MR short axis threshold of 4 mm yielded the best predictive value for metastatic nodal involvement (Se = 78.6%; Sp = 62.3%). Irregular contours (Se = 35.7%; Sp = 96.7%), central nodal hyper-intensity on IR T2 WI (Se = 57.1%; Sp = 91.4%), and a cortical thickness above 3 mm (Se = 63.6%; Sp = 83.2%) were significantly associated with metastatic involvement. Conclusion: Ex vivo MR allows node-to-node correlation with pathology. Morphological MR criteria can suggest metastatic involvement

  9. [Bilateral axillary nodes. 30-year-old patient, housewife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, R; Ramseier, E

    2007-11-14

    A 20-year old patient who had been adequately treated for lymph node tuberculosis 14 years ago presented 1 week after giving birth to a healthy daughter. She complained about painful lumps in both axillae. During pregnancy the patient suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, lost 6 kg of weight, and had night sweats. During the last three months of her pregnancy she had a deep vein thrombosis in her right lower leg. The clinical examination showed soft axillary lumps up to 3 cm. The lab showed the following pathological findings: blood sedimentation rate 51 mm/h, CRP 44.8 mg/l, LDH 221 U/l and INR 1.3 (indicating insufficient anticoagulation with phenprocoumon). The chest x-ray showed no infiltrate or indications of a past tuberculosis. A fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on an accessible node. Gram stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, as well as the bacteriological cultures were all negative. An ultrasound examination of the axilla showed a thickened subcutis without a mass. Cytology showed lobular epithelium, consistent wih ductal mamma epithelium without atypical cells. The diagnosis of an accessory mamma tissue in both axillae was made. During the course of the following weeks the glands decreased in size and the patient was free of symptoms.

  10. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs

  12. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  13. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Angela; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields

  14. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Kim, Junhyung; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kwon, Hyukjun; Son, Daegu; Han, Kihwan

    2012-03-01

    Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, and in some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affected individuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous pulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG) laser treatment for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. Twenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and a subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for the appropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor's test) against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was 300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The results were evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using the grading system and iodine starch test. The average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-to-good result and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor's test demonstrated that there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3) were treated in a conservative manner. A deep second degree burn (n=1) was treated by a surgical procedure. Subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effective noninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  15. Proximity of the axillary nerve during bicortical drilling for biceps tenodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sarah; Smith, Geoff; Ogunleye, Oluwafunto; Packham, Iain

    2016-06-01

    Pathology of the biceps tendon can contribute to significant shoulder pain and dysfunction for which biceps tenodesis may be indicated. A variety of techniques tenodesing the biceps tendon have been described. Recently, tenodesis using a uni- or bicortical button has been advocated. This cadaveric study investigates the proximity of the axillary nerve to the position of bicortical drill passages during biceps tenodesis. Twelve cadaveric shoulder specimens were used. The axillary nerve was marked during a preparatory dissection using wire. Drills were passed through the humerus at the proximal and distal ends of the bicipital groove, and at the superior insertion point of pectoralis major (PM). These were left in situ. The distances between these drills and the axillary nerves were measured using computed tomography imaging. The drill bits placed at the superior insertion of PM were in closest proximity to the axillary nerve (3D distance mean 10.7 mm, 95 % confidence interval 7.2-14.2 mm). A drill placed at the distal end of the bicipital groove was a mean distance of 18.2 mm from the nerve. This study highlights the need for caution when drilling the posterior humeral cortex during biceps tenodesis, particularly during drilling at the superior insertion of PM as this is the location that poses the highest risk to the axillary nerve. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric study to radiologically assess the proximity of the axillary nerve to the positions of biceps tenodesis. Surgeons should therefore be cautious when performing bicortical drilling for biceps tenodesis, and a supero-lateral drill trajectory would pose a smaller risk to the axillary nerve.

  16. Transfer of pectoral nerves to suprascapular and axillary nerves: an anatomic feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sylvain; Balaguer, Thierry; Baque, Patrick; Lebreton, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an anatomic study to provide detailed information on the pectoral nerves and anatomic data on the transfer of the pectoral nerves to the axillary nerve. Moreover, we experimentally determined the feasibility of transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. We dissected 26 brachial plexus from 15 fresh cadavers. The origin, location, course, and branching of the pectoral nerves were recorded. The length and the diameter of the pectoral nerves were measured. The diameter of the suprascapular and axillary nerves was recorded. In all dissections, we assessed the feasibility of directly transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular and axillary nerves. We found 3 constant branches of pectoral nerves arising from 3 distinct origins in 20 cases, and 3 constant branches arising from 2 distinct origins in 6 cases. The C7 sent nerve fibers to all 3 branches. The average length and diameter of the superior, middle, and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves were 65 mm, 110 mm, and 105 mm, and 2.0 mm, 2.3 mm, ad 2.4 mm, respectively. The average diameter of the suprascapular and axillary were 2.8 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The superior branch reached the suprascapular and axillary nerves in 17 and 8 cases. The middle and inferior branches reached the suprascapular and axillary nerve in all dissections. With an adequate length, diameter, and nerve composition, the middle and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves are suitable donor nerves to the axillary nerve and a potential source of reinnervation of the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The correlation between acromion-axillary nerve distance and upper arm length; a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samart, Supawat; Apivatgaroon, Adinun; Lakchayapakorn, Kajorn; Chemchujit, Bancha

    2014-08-01

    Deltoid splitting is one of common and useful approaches in proximal humerus surgery. The disadvantage of this approach is high risk of axillary nerve injury. Nowadays, there is no consensus in the proper mean of the individual's axillary nerve location. The present study aim to determine the correlation between the axillary nerve and the upper arm length that may create equations to calculate the nerve location. Seventy shoulders were measured the distance from lateral acromial edge to axillary nerve and compared with upper arm length in three positions of the shoulder (adduction 30°, abduction 45° and 90°). The authors used distance of lateral acromial edge to lateral epicondyle and tip ofgreater tuberosity to lateral epicondyle as the upper arm length. The average distance ofshoulder adduction 30°, abduction 45° and90° were 57.9, 57.1 and 52.9 mm, respectively. All of three positions showed linear correlation to upper arm length from both of reference sites. From acromion edge reference, where "Y" is axillary nerve distance in mm and "x" is upper arm length in cm, the relation were Y= 2.3x-10, Y= 2x-2 and Y= 2x-7with the accuracy rate were 88.57%, 85.71% and 81.43%, respectively. From greater tuberosity reference, the relations were Y = 2.54x-14, Y = 2x and Y = 2.3x-12 with the accuracy rates 87.14%, 80% and 84.29%, respectively. There is linear correlation between distance from the lateral acromial edge to axillary nerve and the upper arm length. The authors can predict the danger zone in the location of the anterior upper branch of the axillary nerve. However, further clinical study may helpful to prove the equations. Level ofevidence: Basic science anatomy study.

  18. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAxillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, and in some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affected individuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneous pulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG laser treatment for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis.MethodsTwenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and a subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for the appropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor's test against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was 300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The results were evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using the grading system and iodine starch test.ResultsThe average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-to-good result and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor's test demonstrated that there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3 were treated in a conservative manner. A deep second degree burn (n=1 was treated by a surgical procedure.ConclusionsSubcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effective noninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  19. Regulation of homologous recombination at telomeres in budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is suppressed at normal length telomere sequences. In contrast, telomere recombination is allowed when telomeres erode in the absence of telomerase activity or as a consequence of nucleolytic degradation or incomplete replication. Here, we review the mechanisms...... that contribute to regulating mitotic homologous recombination at telomeres and the role of these mechanisms in signalling short telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  20. Developmental control of hypoxia during bud burst in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitha, Karlia; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Signorelli, Santiago; Gibbs, Daniel J; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Dormant or quiescent buds of woody perennials are often dense and in the case of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) have a low tissue oxygen status. The precise timing of the decision to resume growth is difficult to predict, but once committed, the increase in tissue oxygen status is rapid and developmentally regulated. Here, we show that more than a third of the grapevine homologues of widely conserved hypoxia-responsive genes and nearly a fifth of all grapevine genes possessing a plant hypoxia-responsive promoter element were differentially regulated during bud burst, in apparent harmony with resumption of meristem identity and cell-cycle gene regulation. We then investigated the molecular and biochemical properties of the grapevine ERF-VII homologues, which in other species are oxygen labile and function in transcriptional regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes. Each of the 3 VvERF-VIIs were substrates for oxygen-dependent proteolysis in vitro, as a function of the N-terminal cysteine. Collectively, these data support an important developmental function of oxygen-dependent signalling in determining the timing and effective coordination bud burst in grapevine. In addition, novel regulators, including GASA-, TCP-, MYB3R-, PLT-, and WUS-like transcription factors, were identified as hallmarks of the orderly and functional resumption of growth following quiescence in buds. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of population source and node position on rhizome bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of population source (agro-ecozone) and node position on bud distribution in mature (determinate) rhizome of first- (from natural vegetati on) and second- (from screenhouse-grown plants) generation speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) from the derived savanna (DS), southern Guinea savanna (SGS) ...

  2. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  3. Contribution of the tooth bud mesenchyme to alveolar bone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diep, L.; Matalová, Eva; Mitsiadis, T. A.; Tucker, A. S.

    312B, č. 5 (2009), 510-517 ISSN 1552-5007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC524/08/J032; GA AV ČR KJB500450802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tooth * alveolar bone * bud Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.938, year: 2009

  4. Phenotypic plasticity to altered apical bud temperature in Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Ieperen, van Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies investigated temperature effects on leaf initiation and expansion by relating these processes to air temperature or the temperature of a specific organ (e.g. leaf temperature). In reality plant temperature is hardly ever equal to air temperature or spatially uniform. Apical bud

  5. Extending the dormant bud cryopreservation method to new tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cryopreservation of germplasm, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant material is economically favorable over tissue culture options. Although the DB cryopreservation method has been known for many years, the approach is feasible only for cryopreserving a select number of temperate tree s...

  6. Preparation and isolation of a taste bud-derived fraction from bovine circumvallate papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, C K; Whittaker, N F; Henkin, R I

    1976-02-24

    A crude extract from taste buds was prepared from circumvallate papillae of bovine tongues by a procedure consisting of freezing, coring, excision, treatment with hypotonic buffer, nitrogen pressurization and selective homogenization. Examination of taste buds by light and electron microscopy before and after this procedure indicated that some of the contents of the buds, mainly from the more apical portions, was extruded following the procedure; anatomical changes could not be observed in the epithelial tissue immediately surrounding the taste buds.

  7. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  8. Effects of bud loading levels and nitrogen doses on yield, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several bud loading levels in winter pruning and nitrogen doses on yield and physical and chemical properties of fresh vine-leaves of grape cultivar “Narince”. Vines trained with bilateral cordon system was pruned to yield 35000 to 53000 buds/ha (16 or 24 buds/vine) ...

  9. Forces of Change: Mechanics Underlying Formation of Functional 3D Organ Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Wrighton, Paul J.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    3D organ buds that can recapitulate organ function have myriad applications for regenerative and personalized medicine. Here, Takebe et al. (2015) describe a generalized method for organ bud formation, demonstrating that mechanosensitive mesenchymal stem cells drive condensation of heterotypic cell mixtures to create buds from diverse organs.

  10. Forces of Change: Mechanics Underlying Formation of Functional 3D Organ Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, Paul J; Kiessling, Laura L

    2015-05-07

    3D organ buds that can recapitulate organ function have myriad applications for regenerative and personalized medicine. Here, Takebe et al. (2015) describe a generalized method for organ bud formation, demonstrating that mechanosensitive mesenchymal stem cells drive condensation of heterotypic cell mixtures to create buds from diverse organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visible dormant buds as related to tree diameter and log position

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1967-01-01

    Red oaks and yellow-poplars in a stand of second-growth cove hardwoods in West Virginia were studied to determine whether visible dormant buds are related to tree size or log position. No correlation was found between dormant buds and tree size, for either species; but yellow-poplars had a significantly greater number of buds on the upper log.

  12. File list: NoD.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud hg19 No description Pancreas Pancreatic bud ERX6293...95,ERX629396,ERX629399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud hg19 No description Pancreas Pancreatic bud ERX6293...95,ERX629396,ERX629399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic bud ERX629395...,ERX629396,ERX629399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. The occurrence of taste buds in adults of the terrestrial ceacilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two generations of gustatory organs occur during amphibian ontogeny in frogs and salamanders (Anura and Caudata), and are classified as taste buds or taste discs. Taste buds are present in larval forms, whereas taste discs are typical for adults. The little research done on Gymnophiona suggests that only taste buds are ...

  1. Tumor Budding in Breast Carcinoma: Relation to E-Cadherin, MMP-9 Expression, and Metastasis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Sriwidyani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor budding is a histopathologic entity refers to small cluster of cancer cells at the invasive edge of tumor. It was assumed that tumor budding is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an early event in metastasis. Objective: This study aimed to find out the correlation of tumor budding with E-cadherin and MMP-9 expression and risk of metastasis in breast carcinoma. Method: We investigated 35 cases breast carcinoma with metastasis and 35 cases without metastasis. The number of tumor budding was counted in cytokeratin-stained slides with 400x magnification (0.57 mm2. Result: Cut-off point by ROC analysis was 11 and the patient was categorized into low grade (0-10 buds and high grade (11 or more buds tumor budding. Inter-observer agreement was good with K value 0.914. Low level of E-cadherin was not significantly correlated with high grade tumor budding (p=0.660, meanwhile high level of MMP-9 was significantly correlated with high grade tumor budding (p=0.001. High grade tumor budding was a significant, independent risk factor of metastasis in breast carcinoma (OR=38.2, 95% CI 7.5-193.7, p<0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, tumor budding grade is related to level of MMP-9 but has no correlation E-cadherin expression. High grade tumor budding is an independent risk factor of metastasis in breast carcinoma.

  2. Evaluation of twig pre-harvest temperature for effective cryopreservation of Vaccinium dormant buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation of plant material by dormant buds is less expensive than using shoot tips; however currently, dormant buds are used only for preservation of selected temperate tree and shrub species. Using dormant buds could be an efficient strategy for long-term preservation of blueberry (Vacciniu...

  3. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Valencia CA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo Valencia,1 Carlos A Buitrago Villa,1 Jose A Chacon Cardona21Internal Medicine, Nephrology, 2Epidemiology, Caldas University, Manizales, ColombiaBackground: We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter.Methods: All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy, or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF, ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU, this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used.Results: Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012: 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found.Conclusion: The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the

  4. [Isolated traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve. Radial nerve transfer in four cases and literatura review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the results of an initial series of four cases of traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve, treated by a nerve transfer from the triceps long branch of the radial nerve. An extensive analysis of the literature has also been made. Four patients aged between 21 and 42 years old presenting an isolated traumatic palsy of the axillary nerve were operated between January 2007 and June 2010. All cases were treated by nerve transfer six to eight months after the trauma. The results of these cases are analyzed, the same as the axillary nerve injuries series presented in the literature from 1982. One year after the surgery, all patients improved their abduction a mean of 70° (range 30 to 120°), showing a M4 in the British Medical Council Scale. No patient complained of triceps weakness after the procedure. These results are similar to those published employing primary grafting for the axillary nerve. Isolated injuries of the axillary nerve should be treated with surgery when spontaneous recovery is not verified 6 months after the trauma. Primary repair with grafts is the most popular surgical technique, with a rate of success of approximately 90%. The preliminary results of a nerve transfer employing the long triceps branch are similar, and a definite comparison of both techniques with a bigger number of cases should be done in the future. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Axillary nerve palsy after retrograde humeral nailing: clinical confirmation of an anatomical fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lögters, Tim Tobias; Wild, Michael; Windolf, Joachim; Linhart, Wolfgang

    2008-12-01

    Locked antegrade or retrograde nailing of humeral shaft and proximal humerus fractures is a well established treatment option. Anatomic-morphological studies revealed a potential high risk of axillary nerve injury within proximal interlocking screw insertion. However, clinical experiences do not seem to confirm this, as there is a lack of interlocking screw insertion associated axillary lesions in literature. We report about a 69-year-old man with a humeral shaft fracture (AO-type 12-A3) stabilized by a retrograde implanted interlocking nail. Proximal interlocking screw insertion was performed in a posterior-to-anterior direction. The fracture healed uneventfully. In a follow-up examination 2 years later, an atrophy and paralysis of the deltoid muscle were visible. Electrophysiological evaluation confirmed an isolated axillary nerve injury. Nevertheless, the patient showed good functional recovery with almost free range of motion. Even for clinical practise proximal interlocking screw insertion is associated with a substantial risk of axillary nerve injury. Particularly for posterior-to-anterior screw insertion anatomic conditions should be considered. In spite of axillary nerve lesion, recovery of almost full shoulder function is possible by compensating the loss of deltoid function by rotator cuff muscles.

  6. Triceps motor branch transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury: Outcomes in 9 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Xu, B; Tong, J-S; Zhang, C-G; Dong, Z; Liu, J-B

    2017-12-01

    Triceps motor branch transfer has been used for more than ten years to restore deltoid function after axillary nerve injury. However, there have been few reports of the outcome of this procedure in isolated axillary nerve injury. Triceps motor branch transfer could be an effective method to restore deltoid function for patients with isolated axillary nerve injury. Nine patients who underwent triceps motor branch transfer for treatment of isolated axillary nerve injury were followed up for at least 22 months. Shoulder abduction was assessed for all patients. The DASH outcome questionnaire was completed by every patient. Electrophysiological study was performed on 7 patients. All patients regained≥90° (mean, 137°) shoulder abduction. Mean DASH score decreased from 35.2 before surgery to 13.1 at the last follow-up. There was no noticeable weakness of elbow extension in any patient. Triceps motor branch transfer provided good results and may be a feasible alternative to nerve grafting for the treatment of complete isolated axillary nerve injury. IV, retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Proximity of Axillary Nerve During Cortical Button Repair of Pectoralis Major Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sarah T; Smith, Geoff C; Ogunleye, Oluwafunto E; Clark, Damian A; Packham, Iain N

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon is a rare but severe injury. Several techniques have been described for PM fixation, including a transosseus technique, placing cortical buttons at the superior, middle and inferior PM tendon insertion points. The present cadaveric study investigates the proximity of the posterior branch of the axillary nerve to the drill positions for transosseus PM tendon repair. Twelve cadaveric shoulders were used. The axillary nerve was marked during a preparatory dissection. Drills were passed through the humerus at the superior, middle and inferior insertions of the PM tendon and the drill bits were left in situ. The distance between these and each axillary nerve was measured using computed tomography. The superior drill position was in closest proximity to the axillary nerve (three-dimensional distance range 0-18.01 mm, mean 10.74 mm, 95% confidence interval 7.24 mm to 14.24 mm). The middle PM insertion point was also very close to the nerve. Caution should be used when performing bicortical drilling of the humerus, especially when drilling at the superior border of the PM insertion. We describe 'safe' and 'danger' zones for the positioning of cortical buttons through the humerus reflecting the risk posed to the axillary nerve.

  8. Long-nerve grafts and nerve transfers demonstrate comparable outcomes for axillary nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Johnsen, Parker H; Lee, Steve K; Feinberg, Joseph H

    2014-07-01

    To compare the functional and EMG outcomes of long-nerve grafts to nerve transfers for complete axillary nerve palsy. Over a 10-year period at a single institution, 14 patients with axillary nerve palsy were treated with long-nerve grafts and 24 patients were treated with triceps-to-axillary nerve transfers by the same surgeon (S.W.W.). Data were collected prospectively at regular intervals, beginning before surgery and continuing up to 11 years after surgery. Prior to intervention, all patients demonstrated EMG evidence of complete denervation of the deltoid. Deltoid recovery (Medical Research Council [MRC] grade), shoulder abduction (°), improvement in shoulder abduction (°), and EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation were compared between cohorts. There were no significant differences between the long-nerve graft cohort and the nerve transfer cohort with respect to postoperative range of motion, deltoid recovery, improvement in shoulder abduction, or EMG evidence of deltoid reinnervation. These data demonstrate that outcomes of long-nerve grafts for axillary nerve palsy are comparable with those of modern nerve transfers and question a widely held belief that long-nerve grafts do poorly. When healthy donor roots or trunks are available, long-nerve grafts should not be overlooked as an effective intervention for the treatment of axillary nerve injuries in adults with brachial plexus injuries. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplicação de gemas axilares de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Sob diferentes meios de cultura Multiplication of axillary shoots in Acacia mearnsii de wild. Under different culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruter Disarz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A propagação de indivíduos superiores de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. visando ao estabelecimento de florestas mais produtivas, homogêneas, resistentes a pragas e doenças é uma necessidade nos dias atuais. Este estudo objetivou determinar o melhor meio de cultura, a concentração dos seus principais sais e a utilização de carvão ativado para multiplicação in vitro de gemas axilares de A. mearnsii. Plântulas germinadas in vitro forneceram explantes que foram inoculados em diferentes meios de cultura B5, MS, SP e WPM. Foram testadas diversas concentrações do meio MS: ¼, ½, ¾ e 1/1 (concentração original, 5/4, 3/ 2, 7/4 e 2/1, com e sem carvão ativado. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco, sete e quatro repetições, respectivamente, com quatro explantes por parcela. As avaliações foram feitas em intervalos de 30 dias, através da contagem do número de folhas e gemas e da presença de calos e clorose. Entre os meios utilizados em sua composição original, o MS promoveu a maior multiplicação de gemas (3,7 gemas/explante aos 30 dias. Entre as concentrações de macronutrientes do meio MS, a diluição para 3/4 da concentração original com a adição de carvão ativado apresentou as melhores respostas para a multiplicação de gemas axilares de acácia-negra (7,7 gemas/explante aos 60 dias.The propagation of some superior black wattle individuals (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. aiming the establishment of more productive, homogeneous forests, resistant to plagues and diseases, is in great need in our days. The objective of the present report is to find the best culture medium and analyze the use of activated charcoal in the in vitro multiplication of axillary buds of A. mearnsii. Explants of in vitro germinated plants were inoculated in different culture media: B5, MS, SP and WPM. Several concentrations of MS medium were tested: 1/4; 1/2; 3/4; 1/1 (original concentration; 5/4; 3/2; 7/4 and 2

  10. [Ultrasonic guided cannulation of the axillary vein in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schregel, W; Höer, H; Radtke, J; Cunitz, G

    1994-10-01

    Cannulation of the axillary vein is claimed to be an effective and relatively safe access to the central venous (CV) system [2, 4, 5, 8]. However, anatomical landmarks recommended for venous location (Muskulus pectoralis minor, processus coracoideus) are probably hard to identify in the majority of intensive care (ICU) patients. This investigation evaluated unidirectional 8 MHz Doppler ultrasound (US) in locating the axillary vein. Success rates and complications of this CV access in ICU patients is analysed. METHODS. The experimental design was approved by the local ethical committee (RUB). In 50 patients from our ICU cannulation of the axillary vein was attempted; all were in need of a CV line. Other CV puncture sites (except for the subclavian vein) were associated with contraindications. Patients were placed in a 15 degrees Trendelenburg position (15 exceptions); the arm was abducted to 45 degrees [5, 8]. The course of the axillary vein was located by Doppler US and marked on the skin with a felt pen. Prior to puncture, US intensity was judged by a score ranging from 0 to 4. After skin desinfection, sterile draping, and local anaesthesia, puncture of the axillary vein was attempted. The puncture kit LeaderCath 11,515 (Vygon, Aachen, FRG) was used. When venous blood could be aspirated, the Seldinger guidewire was inserted and the definite catheter placed. The experimental design allowed up to ten punctures, slightly modified in angle and direction of the needle, if puncture of the axillary vein or guide-wire placement failed. The cannulation attempt was classified as unsuccessful in the following cases: malposition, axillary vein not encountered by the puncture needle, guide-wire placement unsuccessful, or if identification and cannulation of the vein lasted more than 20 min. The puncture attempts were evaluated in respect to success rate, time, relation of US intensity to puncture attempts and CV pressure, complications, and malposition. RESULTS. Of the 50

  11. Quantifying the number of lymph nodes identified in one-stage versus two-stage axillary dissection in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Olaf E; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    To establish whether a different number of lymph nodes is identified in a delayed versus an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients.......To establish whether a different number of lymph nodes is identified in a delayed versus an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients....

  12. Is the Axillary Nerve at Risk During a Deltoid-Splitting Approach for Proximal Humerus Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Jessica L; Guzman, Miguel A; Cannada, Lisa K; Kaar, Scott G

    2016-05-01

    The strain placed across the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach could correlate with microtrauma and place the patient at risk of a neuropraxia or more permanent injury. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the change in length and strain exhibited by the axillary nerve during the deltoid-splitting approach and to determine the presence of any microscopic structural damage. The axillary nerve was identified through a lateral deltoid-splitting approach in 10 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. Two suture tags were placed near the lateral margins of the incision. The initial distance between the 2 tags was measured and the distance at each retractor click of a Kölbel retractor until full expansion (6 clicks). The retractor was then released for a 1-minute break at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The strain at each interval was calculated as change in length divided by the initial distance. The section of nerve in the field of exposure was excised for histologic analysis. The location of the axillary nerve was 6.32 cm (range, 5.20-7.6 cm) from the anterolateral aspect of the acromion. The mean final increase in length was 8.42 mm (range, 6.43-12.26 mm). The strain increased to a final mean of 51% (range, 28%-99%). Histologic analysis confirmed disruption of the myelin sheaths and axonal retraction. This study demonstrated a progressive, irreversible increase in axillary nerve length and strain, resulting in microscopic damage to the neuronal structure during a deltoid-splitting approach. Prolonged soft tissue retraction can place the axillary nerve at substantial risk for injury.

  13. [Verneuil's disease. The diffuse inguino-perineo-gluteal and bilateral axillary form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropet, Y; Balmat, P; Mantion, G; Agache, P; Vichard, P

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of suppurative hidradenitis of unusual severity affecting the axillary, inguinal, perianal, genital and sacral areas. The surgical treatment consisted initially of large excision of the axillary areas. A musculo-cutaneous latissimus dorsi island flap was then used to cover the defect. 45 days later, a complete excision, in only one operative session, of the inguinal, perianal, genital and sacral area was performed, associate durth colostomy. A mesh graft was performed 15 days after the excision. This procedure allowed an early scar.

  14. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Tetik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results.

  15. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  16. Durability of the Viabahn stent graft after axillary artery pseudoaneurysm exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Y. Chen, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm formation caused by iatrogenic arterial injury during a regional anesthetic block is a rare complication. We report a case of a 56-year-old male patient who developed an axillary artery pseudoaneurysm caused by brachial plexus block performed for an upper extremity dialysis access operation. Successful repair of this pseudoaneurysm was achieved with endovascular stent graft exclusion. The repaired axillary artery with the stent graft remained patent after 10 years of follow-up. The successful long-term patency of this treatment and a strategy to potentially avoid this complication are discussed.

  17. Intercostobrachial nerve injury from axillary dissection resulting in necrotizing fasciitis after a burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Peter; Malic, Claudia; Austen, Orla

    2008-01-01

    We present here the successful management of a 50-year-old female patient who developed necrotizing fasciitis after a burn injury to her left arm. The burn injury was sustained in a minimally lymphoedematous arm, in an area of post surgical paresthesia caused by division of the intercostobrachial nerve. This is a common consequence of axillary lymph node dissection. We discuss the diagnosis, management strategies, and the available literature. We conclude that division of the intercostobrachial nerve increases the risk of morbidity significantly and support the view that its preservation at the time of axillary surgery is preferable.

  18. Axillary artery counter-current aortography in the newborn with aortic arch obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.C.; Lo, R.N.S.; Leung, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    13 newborn infants with aortic coarctation were evaluated by counter-current aortographic technique. The right radial or brachial artery approach (2 cases in each group) did not give successful aortic arch imaging while the right axiallary artery approach resulted in adequate imaging in each of 9 cases investigated. In 2, the axillary artery was transiently weakened but returned to normal within 24 hours. No other complications were encountered. Axillary artery counter-current aortography is a safe and relatively non-invasive procedure which can be used to image the aortic arch in the newborn babies when other non-invasive diagnosis of aortic arch obstruction is tentative. (orig.)

  19. Editorial Commentary: Shoulder Anatomy, Finding the Axillary Nerve: Measure Twice, Cut Once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottage, Wesley M

    2018-03-01

    Most descriptions of shoulder anatomy note that the axillary nerve lies approximately 5 cm below the anterolateral corner of the acromion, and the nerve has been reported to range from 2 to 7 cm from the acromial edge, depending on the patient and measuring technique. The safe trans-deltoid operable area has been described as up to 4 cm below the acromion. A useful clinical guide I use is that the inferior extent of the subacromial bursa ends above the axillary nerve. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor budding is a strong and reproducible prognostic marker in T3N0 colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Lai Mun

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor budding along the advancing front of colorectal adenocarcinoma is an early event in the metastatic process. A reproducible, prognostic budding scoring system based on outcomes in early stage colorectal cancer has not been established. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-eight T3N0M0 colorectal carcinoma patients with known outcome were identified. Tumor budding was defined as isolated tumor cells or clusters of <5 cells at the invasive tumor front. Tumor bud counts were generated in 5 regions at 200x by 2 pathologists (conventional bud count method). The median bud count per case was used to divide cases into low (median=0) and high budding (median > or =1) groups. Forty cases were reevaluated to assess reproducibility using the conventional and a novel rapid bud count method. RESULTS: Fifty-seven (45%) carcinomas had high and 71 (55%) had low budding scores. High budding was associated with an infiltrative growth pattern (P<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.005). Five-year cancer-specific survival was significantly poorer in high compared with low budding groups: 63% versus 91%, respectively, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor budding to be independently prognostic (hazard ratio=4.76, P<0.001). Interobserver agreement was at least equivalent comparing the conventional to the rapid bud count methods: 87.5% agreement (kappa=0.75) versus 92.5% agreement (kappa=0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor budding is a strong, reproducible, and independent prognostic marker of outcome that is easily assessed on hematoxylin and eosin slides. This may be useful for identifying the subset of T3N0M0 patients at high risk of recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  1. Prevention of axillary nerve injury in anterior shoulder reconstructions: use of a subscapularis muscle-splitting technique and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Edward G; Caicedo, Juan Carlos; Kim, Tae Kyun; Banchasuek, Prachan

    2002-01-01

    Previous authors have suggested that the axillary nerve should be explored or palpated during all anterior shoulder stabilization procedures. The goal of this study was to document the axillary nerve injury rate in a cohort of patients who had undergone anterior shoulder stabilization without axillary nerve dissection. Use of a subscapularis muscle-splitting approach by using a retractor along the scapular neck does not result in significant risk of injury to the axillary nerve, and exploration of the axillary nerve is not necessary using this approach. Prospective cohort study. One hundred and twenty-eight anterior stabilizations were performed with a subscapularis muscle-splitting approach that has been previously described. In all cases a retractor was placed along the inferior scapular neck to protect the axillary nerve. The axillary nerve was not exposed or palpated in any case. All patients were evaluated on the 1st postoperative day and again within 10 days for symptoms of axillary nerve palsy, including sensory loss and return of muscle function. One patient (0.8%) had paresthesia in an axillary nerve distribution; recovery occurred without the need for electromyography or other interventions. There were no clinically detected cases of axillary nerve motor dysfunction. Routine exposure of the axillary nerve is not necessary during anterior stabilization procedures using a subscapularis muscle-splitting approach if proper precautions are taken to protect the nerve. Other techniques of anterior stabilization may require exposure of the axillary nerve.

  2. Clonal and bud bank traits: patterns across temperate plant communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Herben, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2015), s. 243-253 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GA13-17118S; GA ČR GAP505/12/1007 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal and bud bank traits * vegetation * central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  3. Saponins from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongzhu; Koike, Kazuo; Li, Wei; Satou, Tadaaki; Guo, Dean; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Five new saponins, mimengosides C-G (1-5), were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis along with five known compounds, namely, songaroside A, acteoside, phenylethyl 2-glucoside, echinacoside, and phenylethyl alcohol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods, and these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against HL-60 leukemia cells.

  4. Bud dormancy in apple trees after thermal fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat waves on the evolution of bud dormancy, in apple trees with contrasting chilling requirements. Twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' were collected in orchards in Papanduva, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were exposed to constant (3°C or alternating (3 and 15°C for 12/12 hours temperature, combined with zero, one or two days a week at 25°C. Two additional treatments were evaluated: constant temperature (3°C, with a heat wave of seven days at 25°C, in the beginning or in the middle of the experimental period. Periodically, part of the twigs was transferred to 25°C for daily budburst evaluation of apical and lateral buds. Endodormancy (dormancy induced by cold was overcome with less than 330 chilling hours (CH of constant cold in 'Castel Gala' and less than 618 CH in 'Royal Gala'. A daily 15°C-temperature cycle did not affect the endodormancy process. Heat waves during endodormancy resulted in an increased CH to achieve bud requirements. The negative effect of high temperature depended on the lasting of this condition. Chilling was partly cancelled during dormancy when the heat wave lasted 36 continuous hours or more. Therefore, budburst prediction models need adjustments, mainly for regions with mild and irregular winters, such as those of Southern Brazil.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of bud dormancy events in perennial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino eRíos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Release of bud dormancy in perennial plants resembles vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. In both cases a certain period of chilling is required for accomplishing the reproductive phase, and several transcription factors with the MADS-box domain perform a central regulatory role in these processes. The expression of DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM-related genes has been found to be up-regulated in dormant buds of numerous plant species such as poplar, raspberry, leafy spurge, blackcurrant, Japanese apricot and peach. Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach. Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modifications involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants.

  6. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Weinberg; K Nakanishi; D Patel; D Bartel

    2011-12-31

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  7. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, David E.; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bartel, David P. (Whitehead); (MSKCC)

    2011-09-20

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  8. Effectiveness of the extended surgical approach to visualize the axillary nerve in the blind zone in an arthroscopic axillary nerve injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andrés A; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to create a model of axillary nerve (AN) injury during an arthroscopic capsular plication to analyze the site for potential nerve injury and to determine the AN length that can be visualized through standard and extended anterior, axillary, and posterior approaches. Six arthroscopic inferior capsular plications were performed in 3 human adult frozen cadavers. A nonabsorbable suture was used to plicate the inferior capsule aiming at capturing the AN (at a location closest to the joint capsule). We then attempted to explore the AN through 3 different surgical approaches (each approach was performed in 2 shoulders): a standard and an extended anterior, axillary, and posterior approach. Surgical clips were used to mark the AN length that was visualized through each approach. The AN injury was located in a range from 5.4 to 7.8 cm from its origin from the posterior cord. This location corresponds with the previously described AN injury zone B (blind) and zone C (circumflex). Compared to the standard approaches, the extended anterior, axillary, and posterior approaches improved the visualization of the AN by 3.6, 1.5, and 2.8 cm, respectively. None of these approaches independently was sufficient to expose the entire course of the AN. The blind zone is a potential location for AN injury after inferior capsular plication. On the basis of this study, a combination of a standard and an extended surgical approach may lead to better exposure of most of the AN length. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison of Outcomes of Triceps Motor Branch-to-Axillary Nerve Transfer or Sural Nerve Interpositional Grafting for Isolated Axillary Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Heather L; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-08-01

    Deltoid paralysis following isolated axillary nerve injury can be managed with triceps motor branch transfer or interpositional grafting. No consensus exists on the treatment that results in superior deltoid function. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' experience with axillary nerve injury management and compare functional outcomes following these two treatment options. Twenty-nine adult isolated axillary nerve injury patients that had either interpositional nerve grafting or triceps motor branch transfer with greater than 1 year of follow-up between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed for demographic and clinical factors and functional outcomes of deltoid reinnervation, including clinical examination (shoulder abduction and forward flexion graded by the Medical Research Council system) and electromyographic recovery. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale grades were also compared. Twenty-one patients had a triceps motor transfer and eight had interpositional nerve grafting. At a mean follow-up of 22 months, Medical Research Council scores were greater in the grafting group compared with the nerve transfer group (4.3 versus 3.0), and more graft patients achieved useful deltoid function (Medical Research Council score ≥3) recovery (100 percent versus 62 percent); however, both groups had similar improvement in self-reported disability: change in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score of 11 following nerve transfer versus 15 following nerve graft. Although the question of nerve transfer versus grafting for restoration of axillary nerve function is controversial, this study demonstrates that grafting can result in good objective functional outcomes, particularly during an earlier time course after injury. This question requires further investigation in a larger, prospective patient population. Therapeutic, III.

  10. Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of

  11. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  12. Why Enveloped Viruses Need Cores—The Contribution of a Nucleocapsid Core to Viral Budding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Guillermo R.; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana; Hagan, Michael F.

    2018-02-01

    During the alphavirus lifecycle, a nucleocapsid core buds through the cell membrane to acquire an outer envelope of lipid membrane and viral glycoproteins. However, the presence of a nucleocapsid core is not required for assembly of infectious particles. To determine the role of the nucleocapsid core, we develop a coarse-grained computational model with which we investigate budding dynamics as a function of glycoprotein and nucleocapsid interactions, as well as budding in the absence of a nucleocapsid. We find that there is a transition between glycoprotein-directed budding and nucleocapsid-directed budding which occurs above a threshold strength of nucleocapsid interactions. The simulations predict that glycoprotein-directed budding leads to significantly increased size polydispersity and particle polymorphism. This polydispersity can be qualitatively explained by a theoretical model accounting for the competition between bending energy of the membrane and the glycoprotein shell. The simulations also show that the geometry of a budding particle leads to a barrier to subunit diffusion, which can result in a stalled, partially budded state. We present a phase diagram for this and other morphologies of budded particles. Comparison of these structures against experiments could establish bounds on whether budding is directed by glycoprotein or nucleocapsid interactions. Although our model is motivated by alphaviruses, we discuss implications of our results for other enveloped viruses.

  13. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121(∘)C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  15. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya eIshikawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA of various flower bud tissues of using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen.

  16. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  17. Effects of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during dynamic hand contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Payne, G

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at orbitomeatal (OM) plane +5.0 and +9.0 cm in 10 subjects at rest and during dynamic hand contractions before and after axillary blockade. Handgrip strength was significantly reduced, and rating of perceived exertion increased after blockade. During...

  18. What do you think of an unusual axillary mass? | Benzzi | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin apocrine carcinoma is a rare malgnancy of epidermal adnexa, most frequent in axillary seat, where apocrine sweat gland are abundant, the neoplasm can arise ... Standard treatment is surgical excision with margins of 2 to 3cm for local tumor, for apocrine adenocarcinoma regional lymph node dissection if nodes were ...

  19. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Asghar, S; Andersen, H L

    2011-01-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop...... and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block....

  20. Right Axillary Artery Cannulation for Surgical Management of the Hostile Ascending Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Lazopoulos, George; Milonakis, Michael; Athanasiadis, George; Romana, Konstantina; Skouteli, Elian; Bastounis, Elias

    2005-01-01

    Extensive aortic disease, such as atherosclerosis with aneurysms or dissections that involve the ascending aorta, can complicate the choice of a cannulation site for cardiopulmonary bypass. To date, the standard peripheral arterial cannulation site has been the common femoral artery; however, this approach carries the risk of atheroembolism due to retrograde aortic perfusion, or it is undesirable because of severe iliofemoral disease. Arterial perfusion through the axillary artery provides sufficient antegrade aortic flow, is more likely to perfuse the true lumen in the event of dissection, and is associated with fewer atheroembolic complications. From September 2000 through March 2004, 27 patients underwent right axillary artery cannulation for acute ascending aortic dissection (n = 16), ascending aortic aneurysm (n = 9), or coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 2). Direct artery cannulation was performed in the first 4 patients, and the last 23 patients were cannulated through a longitudinal arteriotomy via an 8-mm woven Dacron graft. Seventeen patients underwent hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade cerebral perfusion. Two patients died intraoperatively: one due to low cardiac output and one due to diffuse bleeding. One patient suffered mild right-arm paresthesia postoperatively, but recovered completely. Axillary artery cannulation was successful in all patients; it provided sufficient arterial flow, and there were no intraoperative problems with perfusion. In the presence of extensive aortic or iliofemoral disease, arterial perfusion through the axillary artery is a safe and effective means of providing sufficient arterial inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass. In this regard, it is an excellent alternative to standard femoral artery cannulation. PMID:16107111

  1. Case Report: Variant Origin of an Arterial Trunk from Axillary Artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Axillary artery is known to show different variations mostly in its branching pattern. Similarly, the origin of profunda brachii is often encountered with abnormality. Therefore, when the vascular variations in the upper limb persist, mostly it is confined to its branching pattern followed by its variant origin. But, among ...

  2. Secondary node analysis as an indicator for axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, Manel; Torres, Mireia; Solà, Montse; Navinés, Jordi; Pascual, Icíar; Mariscal, Antonio; Caballero, Albert; Castellà, Eva; Luna, Miguel Ángel; Julián, Joan Francesc

    2017-11-01

    Currently, there is no agreement regarding if it would be necessary to perform an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have macrometastases in the sentinel lymph node (SLN). We studied the utility of the secondary node analysis (SN), defined as the following node after the SLN in an anatomical and lymphatic pathway, as a sign of malignant axillary involvement. An observational, retrospective and multicentre study was designed to assess the utility of the SN as a sign of axillary involvement. Among 2273 patients with breast cancer, a valid sample of 283 was obtained representing those who had the SN studied. Main endpoints of our study were: the SLN, the SN and the ALND histological pattern. Sensitivity, specificity and precision of the test were also calculated. SN test, in cases with positive SLN, has a sensitivity of 61.1%, a specificity of 78.7%, a positive predictive value of 45.8% and a negative predictive value of 87.3% with a precision of 74.7%. The study of the SN together with the technique of the SLN allows a more precise staging of the axillary involvement, in patients with breast cancer, than just the SLN technique. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  5. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from d...

  6. Does the balanced scorecard support organizational viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Beeres, R.J.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we assess whether the balanced scorecard (BSC) supports the necessary functions for organizational viability. To this purpose, we use the viable system model (VSM) as a means to describe the functions required for organizational viability. Then we use the VSM as a template to assess

  7. Nitrate augmented myocardial viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.; Mansberb, R.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: 24 hour 201 TI reinjection imaging improves myocardial viability detection when compared to standard 3-4 hour redistribution imaging, however, it is a time-consuming approach and some images do not provide adequate quality due to high background activity on the delayed scan. We tested whether sensitivity of redistribution and same day reinjection imaging could be improved by giving short-acting nitrates immediately prior to redistribution and reinjection imaging. Eighteen patients underwent a stress test (exercise or pharmacological) and 4 hour redistribution 201 TI SPECT study. Immediately after redistribution imaging, each patient was given 600 μg of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate and reimaged 15-20 minutes later (nitrate augmented image). Immediately following nitrate augmentation imaging, each patient was reinjected with 30 MBq of 201 TI and reimaged 20 minutes later (nitrate augmented reinjection images). Each patient returned 24 hours later and was reinjected with 40 MBq of 201 TI and imaged 20 minutes later (24 hour reinjection images). In all, each patient had five SPECT images as follows: stress/redistribution/ nitrate augmented redistribution/nitrate augmented same day reinjection/ 24 hour reinjection. The myocardium was divided into 11 segments and perfusion to each segment was scored by consensus method (2 blinded assessors) on a 4 point graded scale (0 = no perfusion, 1 = minimal perfusion, 2 = moderate perfusion, 3 = normal perfusion). Perfusion scores were analysed on a segment by segment basis; as well, each patient was given an overall perfusion score equal to the sum of the perfusion score for each segment. 150 segments with reduced perfusion were identified, of these 23 (15.3%) showed improvement in the redistribution images, 60 (40%) segments improved in the nitrate augmented images, 49 (32.7%) improved in the nitrate augmented reinjection images and 52 (34.7%) improved in the 24 hour reinjection images. To assess overall cardiac

  8. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  9. Temporal artery and axillary thermometry comparison with rectal thermometry in children presenting to the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Adam J; Juliano, Michael L; Conley, Sean P; Cronyn, Patrick D; McGlynn, Andrea; Auten, Jonathan D

    2017-12-01

    Accurate temperature readings, often obtained rectally, are an important part of the initial evaluation of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. Temporal artery thermometry (TAT) is one way to noninvasively measure temperature. We sought to compare the accuracy of axillary and temporal artery temperatures compared to rectal. This prospective study included children age 0-36months presenting to the Emergency Department of a large military treatment facility. Rectal, axillary, and temporal artery temperatures were obtained. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV) were reported. The effect of cutoff values 99.9°F, 100.4°F, and 102.2°F on test characteristics were also evaluated. The sensitivities of axillary and temporal artery thermometry to detect rectal fever is 11.5% and 61.5% respectively. Cutoff values did not significantly alter test characteristics. In this study, temporal artery thermometry was 0.2°C lower than rectal temperature, axillary measurement was 0.9°C below the reference standard. Mean temperature difference in the febrile group between TAT and rectal thermometry was >0.5°C compared with a mean temperature difference 0.05°C in afebrile patients. The findings of our study do not support using axillary thermometry to screen pediatric patients for fever in the emergency department. TAT cannot be recommended as a rectal thermometry replacement where height and duration of fever are used in pediatric disease prediction models. TAT may have a role in screening for fever in the appropriate pediatric patient population like primary orthopedic or trauma presentations where the balance between device precision, data capture and patient comfort may favor use of TAT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nerve transfer from triceps medial head and anconeus to deltoid for axillary nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2014-05-01

    To report our results with reconstruction of the axillary nerve by transferring the branch to the triceps lower medial head and anconeus to the anterior division of the axillary nerve. This study included 9 patients with isolated injury of the axillary nerve. Their average age ± SD was 35 ± 9 years, and the mean interval ± SD between injury and surgery was 6.6 ± 2.6 months. Through a posterior arm approach, the radial nerve branch to the lower triceps medial head and anconeus was transferred to the anterior division of the axillary nerve. We observed patients for a mean of 34 ± 7 months. At final evaluation, we measured range of shoulder motion, shoulder abduction and elbow extension strength, and abduction endurance. Patients were assessed via the deltoid extension lag test and abduction-in-internal-rotation test. All patients recovered deltoid function and maintained full active elbow extension. Seven of 9 patients recovered from lagging abduction in internal rotation. Abduction strength improved from approximately 40% that of the normal side at 90° of abduction preoperatively to 60% of normal strength postoperatively. There was improved endurance in abduction from approximately 25% to 65% that of the normal side, which was sufficient to eliminate all reports of shoulder pain or fatigability. Transfer of the radial nerve branch for the lower triceps medial head and anconeus to the anterior division of the axillary nerve proved to be an effective method of deltoid reinnervation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abduction in internal rotation: a test for the diagnosis of axillary nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2011-12-01

    To describe and validate the use of a test of abduction in internal rotation for the assessment of axillary nerve injury. A total of 14 male patients with a mean age of 29 years (SD ± 6 y), with axillary nerve lesions lasting an average of 6 months, participated. We measured their shoulder range of motion. In the upright position, with the trunk bending forward, we asked our patients to actively extend the shoulder (swallowtail test), and then we extended the shoulders and asked each patient to hold them in that position (deltoid extension lag test). For the abduction in internal rotation test, we asked patients to abduct the shoulder in internal rotation. If full abduction compared with the normal contralateral side was not possible, the examiner passively held the affected limb in maximal abduction and internal rotation. The patient was instructed to maintain the position when the examiner released the limb. In each test, any lag compared with the normal side accounted for deltoid palsy. All patients exhibited abduction beyond horizontal and full external rotation. The swallowtail test and the deltoid extension lag test identified the axillary nerve lesion in 10 of 14 patients. The abduction in internal rotation test recognized the axillary nerve injury in all 14. The average difference in the range of abduction in internal rotation between the normal and affected side was 37° (abduction lag). Compensatory abduction in axillary nerve palsy has been attributed to the action of the supraspinatus, biceps, coracobrachialis, and pectoralis major. During abduction in internal rotation, compensatory abduction is impaired, clearly indicating deltoid muscle dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Axon Counts Yield Multiple Options for Triceps Fascicular Nerve to Axillary Nerve Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, M Michael; Schreiber, Joseph J; Rosenblatt, Lauren; Byun, David J; Lee, Steve K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the relative axonal match between potential donor and recipient nerves, so that maximal reinnervation potential may be reached with the least chance of donor site morbidity. In 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens, the main trunk and anterior, posterior, sensory and teres minor branches of the axillary nerve were identified, as were the radial nerve branches to the long, medial, and lateral heads of the triceps. The swing distances of the triceps fascicular nerve branches and the axillary nerve branches relative to the inferior border of the teres major muscle were recorded. Histomorphological analysis and axon counts were performed on sections of each branch. The median number of axons in the main axillary trunk was 7,887, with 4,052, 1,242, and 1,161 axons in the anterior, posterior, and teres minor branches, respectively. All specimens had a single long head triceps branch (median, 2,302 axons), a range of 1 to 3 branches to the medial head of the triceps (composite axon count, 2,198 axons), and 1 to 3 branches to the lateral head of the triceps (composite average, 1,462 axons). The medial and lateral head branches had sufficient swing distance to reach the anterior branch of the axillary nerve in all 10 specimens, with only 4 specimens having adequate long head branch swing distances. It is anatomically feasible to transfer multiple branches of the radial nerve supplying the medial, lateral, and sometimes, long head of the triceps to all branches of the axillary nerve in an attempt to reinnervate the deltoid and teres minor muscles. Understanding the axon counts of the different possible transfer combinations will improve operative flexibility and enable peripheral nerve surgeons to reinnervate for both abduction and external rotation with the highest donor/recipient axon count ratios. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, andin some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affectedindividuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneouspulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG laser treatment for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis.Methods Twenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patientswere categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and asubcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for theappropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor’stest against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The resultswere evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using thegrading system and iodine starch test.Results The average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-togoodresult and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor’s test demonstratedthat there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms.Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3 were treated in a conservativemanner. A deep second degree burn (n=1 was treated by a surgical procedure.Conclusions Subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effectivenoninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  14. Axillary lymph nodes siliconoma in a woman with intracapsular implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plachkov, I.; Cvetankov, K.; Hadjidekov, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Siliconoma, or silicone granuloma is the migration of silicon particles in the axillary lymph nodes, muscle and other non- ruptured or intact silicone implant. The latter is a relatively rare finding, and usually occurs in patients with extracapsular rupture of silicone prosthesis and has a typical ultrasound image. We present a case of a young woman with bilateral silicone prostheses placed 5 years ago, where in the right axilla are enlarged, structurally altered lymph nodes in the clinical and ultrasonography studies. Subsequent magnetic resonance examination shows intracapsular rupture ipsilateral silicone prosthesis and migration of silicon particles in the axillary lymph nodes. What you will learn: In this case we present twenty-three year old woman who reported pain and ‘swelling’ in the right axilla. The patient is with bilateral silicone prosthesis, she is not febrile and not reported other illness. After physical examination enlarged and tender lymph nodes in the right axilla was found. Several structurally altered and enlarged lymph nodes were visualized by ultrasound. These lymph nodes are hypoechogenic with obliterated fatty hilus. Due to the suspicion of silicone ‘extravasation’ in axillary lymph nodes, a magnetic resonance study of both mammary glands was performed. The images show intracapsular rupture of the right prosthesis without reliable data on silicone gel outside the fibrous capsule. Discussion: Siliconoma is a complication after plastic surgery of the breast and can affect both the axillary lymph nodes, and other lymphatic chains and also muscle and lung. Most frequently it occurs at damage of the extracapsular silicone prostheses. More rarely siliconoma occurs in siliconoma intracapsular damage, as in the presented case or in a silicone gel microbleed. Conclusion: The presence of siliconoma in axillary lymph nodes is relatively rare complication in plastic surgery of the breast. Methods of imaging diagnostic

  15. Effectiveness of OK-432 (Sapylin) to reduce seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinlong; Gao, Erli; Liu, Xinying; Ye, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yizuo; Li, Quan; Qu, Jinmiao; Dai, Xuanxuan; Wang, Ouchen; Pan, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer cannot be ignored. Various approaches have been used in an effort to reduce it, but these results are still controversial. We aimed to describe a new method of application of OK-432 (Sapylin, heat-treated Su strain of Streptococcus) to reduce seroma formation after axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer and to verify the safety and efficacy of it as a beneficial supplement for conventional surgery. A prospective, randomized analysis of consecutive quadrantectomy or mastectomy plus axillary lymphadenectomy using or not using OK-432 was designed. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 111 patients were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study and completed the follow-up. OK-432 applied to the axillary fossa plus placement of closed suction drainage was used in 54 patients (the experimental group); placement of closed suction drainage was used in 57 patients (the control group). There were no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, treatment received, tumor size, number of removed lymph nodes, and lymph node status. Postoperative drainage magnitude and duration were significantly reduced in the experimental group (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). One week after hospital discharge, fewer patients developed a palpable seroma in the experimental group: 10 in the experimental group versus 28 in the control group (P = 0.001). Fewer seromas needed aspiration (mean 1 [range 0-3] in the experimental group vs. mean 4 [range 1-5] in the control group; P OK-432 is a feasible and safe option for axillary lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. The use of it does not always prevent seroma formation, but it can reduce drainage magnitude and duration, as well as decrease the incidence of seroma after the removal of drainage. It may be increasingly conducted in day surgery clinics.

  16. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  17. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  18. Bud irradiation to obtain resistence to citrus canker through induction of mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Pompeu Junior, J.; Dragone, P.; Sobrinho, J.T.; Prada, V.A.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radiosensitivity to gamma rays of the bud of the orange cultivar Pera is determined through irradiation of buds with several doses; the irradiated buds were grafted onto rootstocks of lemon cu. Cravo. The grafting percentage and the development of the V 1 stem from the irradiated buds are analysed; it is concluded that the best dose for induction of mutation is 4,0 OK. New buds are irradiated and grafted with this dose. The V 1 stems are Separeted into 3 Groups, according to the position of the buds on the stem. The V 2 stems are analysed according to the morphological alteraTions due to irradiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Comparison of Different Methods for RNA Extraction from Floral Buds of Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yan GAO; Guangqi ZHAO; Changhua JIANG; Yao SONG; Kang YE; Shucheng FENG

    2016-01-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), a species native to China, is one of the most important ornamental and medicinal plants. Like other tree species in temperate and boreal zones, the dormancy-activity transition of floral buds is critical for blooming time and fruit production. However, floral buds contain high levels of secondary metabolites, making the isolation of high quality RNA difficult. To obtain a method suitable for extracting RNA from floral buds of tree peony, we evaluated f...

  1. Coexistence of tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis and giant borderline malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystosarcoma phyllodes are uncommon breast tumors which rarely metastasize to axillary lymph nodes. The tumor is similar to fibroadenoma in structure, but it is different histologically. Although surgery (excision vs. mastectomy is the mainstay of treatment, the need for adjuvant therapies such as radiotherapy for a malignant variety is unclear. Its association with ipsilateral tubercular axillary lymph nodes has not been reported in literature so far. We report a 35-year-old female that presented with a giant borderline malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast along with ipsilateral tubercular granulomatous axillary lymph nodes. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 114-117

  2. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS-based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  3. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies and European silver fir (Abies alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eDhuli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species and Abies alba (temperate species to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle over a nine week period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids. Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  4. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  5. Evolutionary biology through the lens of budding yeast comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsit, Souhir; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Éléonore; Marchant, Axelle; Filteau, Marie; Landry, Christian R

    2017-10-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly advanced model system for studying genetics, cell biology and systems biology. Over the past decade, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to this species has contributed to this yeast also becoming an important model for evolutionary genomics. Indeed, comparative genomic analyses of laboratory, wild and domesticated yeast populations are providing unprecedented detail about many of the processes that govern evolution, including long-term processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation, and short-term processes, such as adaptation to natural and domestication-related environments.

  6. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  7. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  8. Computed tomography image of the mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes in clinically sound Rottweilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Fonseca Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trough computed tomography (CT, it is possible to evaluate lymph nodes in detail and to detect changes in these structures earlier than with radiographs and ultrasound. Lack of information in the veterinary literature directed the focus of this report to normal aspects of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes of adult dogs on CT imaging. A CT scan of 15 normal adult male and female Rottweilers was done. To define them as clinically sound, anamnesis, physical examination, complete blood count, renal and hepatic biochemistry, ECG, and thoracic radiographs were performed. After the intravenous injection of hydrosoluble ionic iodine contrast medium contiguous 10mm in thickness thoracic transverse images were obtained with an axial scanner. In the obtained images mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes were sought and when found measured in their smallest diameter and their attenuation was compared to musculature. Mean and standard deviation of: age, weight, body length and the smallest diameter of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes were determined. Mean and standard deviation of parameters: age 3.87±2.03 years, weight 41.13±5.12, and body length 89.61±2.63cm. Axillary lymph nodes were seen in 60% of the animals, mean of the smallest diameter was 3.58mm with a standard deviation of 2.02 and a minimum value of 1mm and a maximum value of 7mm. From 13 observed lymph nodes 61.53% were hypopodense when compared with musculature, and 30.77% were isodense. Mediastinal lymph nodes were identified in 73.33% of the dogs; mean measure of the smallest diameter was 4.71mm with a standard deviation of 2.61mm and a minimum value of 1mm, and a maximum value of 8mm. From 14 observed lymph nodes 85.71% were isodense when compared with musculature and 14.28% were hypodense. The results show that it is possible to visualize axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes in adult clinically sound Rottweilers with CT using a slice thickness and interval of 10mm. The

  9. Lung bud anomalies: Radiologic findings in 30 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kyung Myung; Yang, Hae Ryoun; Jeon, Jeong Su; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and congenital lobar emphysema are four major congenital cystic pulmonary diseases that represent a spectrum of closely related anomalies arising at early stage of embryonic lung bud maturation. Most of them present with recurrent pulmonary infections or chest pain since childhood and usually the diagnosis is made at this age. Sometimes the lesions are silent and found at adult age. We retrospectively analyzed the pain chest radiograms of 30 patients with a lung bud anomaly. The diagnosis was established by surgery and biopsy, but bronchography, computed tomography and ultrasonography aided in the diagnosis, seventeen bronchogenic cysts, 8 pulmonary sequestrations, 2 congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, 2 congenital lobar emphysema and 1 congenital bronchial stenosis are included in this study. Nine out of 13 intrapulmonary bronchogenic cysts involved the lower lobes: thin-walled cysts with or without air-fluid level were the characteristic chest roentgenographic finding. However, mediastinal bronchogenic cysts showed well-marginated mass. The pulmonary sequestration showed similar cysts mass with or without air-fluid levels in five out of eight patients, but the cyst wall was not so sharply defined as in the bronchogenic cyst. In two patients of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, a large thin-walled cyst with air fluid level was noted and differentiation from intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst was difficult both by chest roentgenogram and computed tomography. Two patients of congenital lobar emphysema and one patient of bronchial stenosis showed unilateral hyperlucent lung without discrete cystic mass formation

  10. A computational clonal analysis of the developing mouse limb bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcon

    Full Text Available A comprehensive spatio-temporal description of the tissue movements underlying organogenesis would be an extremely useful resource to developmental biology. Clonal analysis and fate mappings are popular experiments to study tissue movement during morphogenesis. Such experiments allow cell populations to be labeled at an early stage of development and to follow their spatial evolution over time. However, disentangling the cumulative effects of the multiple events responsible for the expansion of the labeled cell population is not always straightforward. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel computational method that combines accurate quantification of 2D limb bud morphologies and growth modeling to analyze mouse clonal data of early limb development. Firstly, we explore various tissue movements that match experimental limb bud shape changes. Secondly, by comparing computational clones with newly generated mouse clonal data we are able to choose and characterize the tissue movement map that better matches experimental data. Our computational analysis produces for the first time a two dimensional model of limb growth based on experimental data that can be used to better characterize limb tissue movement in space and time. The model shows that the distribution and shapes of clones can be described as a combination of anisotropic growth with isotropic cell mixing, without the need for lineage compartmentalization along the AP and PD axis. Lastly, we show that this comprehensive description can be used to reassess spatio-temporal gene regulations taking tissue movement into account and to investigate PD patterning hypothesis.

  11. Naumovozyma castellii: an alternative model for budding yeast molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Cohn, Marita

    2017-03-01

    Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii) is a member of the budding yeast family Saccharomycetaceae. It has been extensively used as a model organism for telomere biology research and has gained increasing interest as a budding yeast model for functional analyses owing to its amenability to genetic modifications. Owing to the suitable phylogenetic distance to S. cerevisiae, the whole genome sequence of N. castellii has provided unique data for comparative genomic studies, and it played a key role in the establishment of the timing of the whole genome duplication and the evolutionary events that took place in the subsequent genomic evolution of the Saccharomyces lineage. Here we summarize the historical background of its establishment as a laboratory yeast species, and the development of genetic and molecular tools and strains. We review the research performed on N. castellii, focusing on areas where it has significantly contributed to the discovery of new features of molecular biology and to the advancement of our understanding of molecular evolution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  13. Assessment of myocardial viability using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam

    2005-01-01

    The potential for recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial revascularization represents a practical clinical definition for myocardial viability. The evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with severe global left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary artery disease and with regional dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is an important issue whether left ventricular dysfunction may be reversible or irreversible after therapy. If the dysfunction is due to stunning or hibernation, functional improvement is observed. But stunned myocardium may recover of dysfunction with no revascularization. Hibernation is chronic process due to chronic reduction in the resting myocardial blood flow. There are two types of myocardial hibernation; 'functional hibernation' with preserved contractile reserve and 'structural hibernation' without contractile reserve in segments with preserved glucose metabolism. This review focus on the application of F-18 FDG and other radionuclides to evaluate myocardial viability. In addition the factors influencing predictive value of FDG imaging for evaluating viability and the different criteria for viability are also reviewed

  14. Hypermetabolic axillary mass on 18F FDG PET/CT: breast cancer arising from accessory breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Bae, Sang Gyun; Lee, Seok Mo

    2010-01-01

    Differential diagnosis among several causes of axillary malignant mass is important. The most common cause of palpable malignant axillary mass is metastatic lymphadenopathy. Although carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue is rare, the diagnosis should be kept in mind when evaluation malignant axillary mass. In this report we present a case with carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue. 18 F FDG PET/CT was performed for the purpose of localizing primary breast cancer lesion and systemic evaluation. PET/CT showed hypermetabolic lesions only in the right axilla. There is no evidence of malignancy in both breasts. When nuclear physicians encounter a hypermetabolic axillary mass indicating malignant lesion without evidence of primary breast malignant lesion, carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue should be included in the differential diagnosis

  15. Review of the surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve and the anatomic basis of its iatrogenic and traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Nihal; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Duparc, Fabrice

    2010-03-01

    The axillary nerve is invariably reported to be one of the most commonly injured nerves during surgical procedures of the shoulder, and the importance of protecting it cannot be overemphasized. Many researchers have tried to identify safe regions, but the results vary among published studies. The axillary nerve may also be injured during acute trauma to the shoulder or by chronic repeated trauma as has been described in the quadrilateral space syndrome. The nerve injury may occur together with shoulder dislocation and rotator cuff tear, thus comprising the so-called "unhappy triad" of the shoulder joint. Simple attention to potential variations in the origin and course of the axillary nerve and its relationship to the shoulder capsule and having a precise knowledge of "safe zones" during operations can enhance clinical outcomes. The objective of this review, therefore, is to discuss the surgical anatomy of the axillary nerve and further emphasize the clinical importance of the its injury following shoulder trauma.

  16. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  17. Form follows function: Morphological and immunohistological insights into epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics of tumor buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle-Ammour, Kathrin; Bader, Moritz; Ahrens, Theresa Dorothee; Franke, Kai; Timme, Sylvia; Csanadi, Agnes; Hoeppner, Jens; Kulemann, Birte; Maurer, Jochen; Reiss, Philip; Schilling, Oliver; Keck, Tobias; Brabletz, Thomas; Stickeler, Elmar; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Bronsert, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In cancer biology, the architectural concept "form follows function" is reflected by cell morphology, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition protein pattern. In vivo, features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition have been associated with tumor budding, which correlates significantly with patient outcome. Hereby, the majority of tumor buds are not truly detached but still connected to a major tumor mass. For detailed insights into the different tumor bud types and the process of tumor budding, we quantified tumor cells according to histomorphological and immunohistological epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics. Three-dimensional reconstruction from adenocarcinomas (pancreatic, colorectal, lung, and ductal breast cancers) was performed as published. Tumor cell morphology and epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics (represented by zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 and E-Cadherin) were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively in a three-dimensional context. Tumor buds were classified into main tumor mass, connected tumor bud, and isolated tumor bud. Cell morphology and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker expression were assessed for each tumor cell. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics between isolated tumor bud and connected tumor bud demonstrated no significant differences or trends. Tumor cell count correlated significantly with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and histomorphological characteristics. Regression curve analysis revealed initially a loss of membranous E-Cadherin, followed by expression of cytoplasmic E-Cadherin and subsequent expression of nuclear zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1. Morphologic changes followed later in this sequence. Our data demonstrate that connected and isolated tumor buds are equal concerning immunohistochemical epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics and histomorphology. Our data also give an insight in the process of tumor budding. While there is a notion that

  18. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  19. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided axillary/subclavian venous approaches for pacemaker and defibrillator lead implantation: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardo, Mattia; Nocerino, Pasquale; Gaia, Salzano; Ciardiello, Carmine

    2018-03-01

    Subclavian access is a reliable technique for lead insertion in pacemaker and defibrillator (ICD) implantation, but it is often accompanied by complications. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the ultrasound-guided axillary approach to the subclavian method. This randomized comparative study was performed on 174 patients: as a first attempt, 116 patients underwent the ultrasound-guided axillary access and 58 patients underwent the subclavian approach. A total of 364 leads were placed. Operators were trained in ultrasound-guided vein access technique. Axillary access was successful in 69% of patients (32/46), in the training phase and, as a first attempt, in 91.4% of patients (106/116), in the randomized phase. When axillary approach failed, we performed the following: subclavian access in 5.2% of patients (6/116), cephalic approach in 2.6% of patients (3/116), surgical method in 0.9% of patients (1/116). The subclavian technique was effective, as a first attempt, in 55 patients (94.8%). When the subclavian access failed, the ultrasound axillary approach successfully performed in all three cases. During a mean follow-up of 18 ± 6 months, the number of lead complications was similar in the subclavian group compared to the axillary group (p = 0.664). As first attempt, ultrasound-guided axillary method showed similarly high-success rate than subclavian approach and well performed when the first attempt in subclavian group failed. Axillary access can be considered a safe and effective alternative technique to the conventional subclavian method for device implantation.

  20. Repair of Multiple Subclavian and Axillary Artery Aneurysms in a 58-Year-Old Man with Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dolapoglu, Ahmet; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Dilation of the ascending aorta and aortic dissections are often seen in Marfan syndrome; however, true aneurysms of the subclavian and axillary arteries rarely seem to develop in patients who have this disease. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with Marfan syndrome who had undergone a Bentall procedure and thoracoabdominal aortic repair for an aortic dissection and who later developed multiple aneurysmal dilations of his right subclavian and axillary arteries. The aneurysms were succe...

  1. Axillary fine needle aspiration cytology for pre-operative staging of patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of radiologically abnormal axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer can identify patients suitable for primary axillary clearance (AC) rather than sentinel node biopsy, enabling surgical axillary staging by a single operation. This study assessed the accuracy of FNAC in predicting positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: 161 patients with screen-detected invasive carcinoma and who had pre-operative FNAC of a radiologically abnormal axillary lymph node were identified from two screening units, The axillary FNAC reports were correlated with sentinel node biopsy and AC reports, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: FNAC had a moderate sensitivity (66.3%) and NPV (71.8%), and a high specificity (98.7%) and PPV (98.3%). Most patients (86%) had a single axillary operation. The sensitivity was highest in grade 3 (81.8%) and ductal type (77.8%) tumours. The sensitivity was lower in tumours of special type (34.8%), grade 1 tumours (50%) and those without lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (55.9%). The NPV was highest in pT1 (86.7%) and in grade 1 (84.5%) tumours, and lowest (44%) in tumours with LVI. The PPV was 100% in grade 1 and 3 tumours, stage pT2 and pT3 tumours and those without LVI, and was high (>96%) in all other groups. In lymph-node-positive patients, the mean number of lymph nodes involved was higher in the case of a positive (6.4) than negative FNAC (4.4). CONCLUSIONS: FNAC of ultrasonically abnormal axillary lymph nodes achieved surgical staging by a single operation in most patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma, with moderate sensitivity and high specificity.

  2. Axillary nerve injury in young adults-An overlooked diagnosis? Early results of nerve reconstruction and nerve transfers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Lars; Cöster, Marcus; Björkman, Anders; Backman, Clas

    2012-01-01

    An injury to the axillary nerve from a shoulder trauma can easily be overlooked. Spontaneous functional recovery may occur, but occasionally reconstructive surgery is required. The time frame for nerve reconstruction procedures is from a neurobiological view crucial for a good functional outcome. This study presents a group of operatively and non-operatively treated young adults with axillary nerve injuries caused by motorcycle accidents, where the diagnosis was set late. Ten young men (media...

  3. A role for the budding yeast separase, Esp1, in Ty1 element retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina L Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Separase/Esp1 is a protease required at the onset of anaphase to cleave cohesin and thereby enable sister chromatid separation. Esp1 also promotes release of the Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus to enable mitotic exit. To uncover other potential roles for separase, we performed two complementary genome-wide genetic interaction screens with a strain carrying the budding yeast esp1-1 separase mutation. We identified 161 genes that when mutated aggravate esp1-1 growth and 44 genes that upon increased dosage are detrimental to esp1-1 viability. In addition to the expected cell cycle and sister chromatid segregation genes that were identified, 24% of the genes identified in the esp1-1 genetic screens have a role in Ty1 element retrotransposition. Retrotransposons, like retroviruses, replicate through reverse transcription of an mRNA intermediate and the resultant cDNA product is integrated into the genome by a conserved transposon or retrovirus encoded integrase protein. We purified Esp1 from yeast and identified an interaction between Esp1 and Ty1 integrase using mass spectrometry that was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Ty1 transposon mobility and insertion upstream of the SUF16 tRNA gene are both reduced in an esp1-1 strain but increased in cohesin mutant strains. Securin/Pds1, which is required for efficient localization of Esp1 to the nucleus, is also required for efficient Ty1 transposition. We propose that Esp1 serves two roles to mediate Ty1 transposition - one to remove cohesin and the second to target Ty1-IN to chromatin.

  4. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jacqueline P; Hartnett, David C

    2015-09-01

    Tiller recruitment from the belowground bud bank of caespitose grasses influences their ability to monopolize local resources and, hence, their genet fitness. Differences in bud production and outgrowth among tiller types within a genet and among species may explain co-occurrence of caespitose grasses. This study aimed to characterize genet bud-bank and tiller production and dynamics in two co-occurring species and compare their vegetative reproductive strategies. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of Hesperostipa comata and Nassella viridula, dominant C3 caespitose grasses in the northern mixed-grass prairie of North America, were assessed throughout an annual cycle. The two species showed similar strategies, maintaining polycyclic tillers and thus creating mixed-age genet bud banks comprising multiple bud cohorts produced in different years. Vegetative tillers produced the majority of buds, whereas flowering tillers contributed little to the bud bank. Buds lived for at least 2 yr and were maintained in multiple developmental stages throughout the year. Because bud longevity rarely exceeded tiller longevity, tiller longevity drove turnover within the bud bank. Tiller population dynamics, more than bud production per tiller, determined the differential contribution of tiller types to the bud bank. Nassella viridula had higher bud production per tiller, a consistent annual tiller recruitment density, and greater longevity of buds on senesced and flowering tillers than H. comata. Co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses had similar bud-bank and tiller dynamics contributing to genet persistence but differed in bud characteristics that could affect genet longevity and species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  6. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  8. Comparison of Temporal Artery Thermometry with Axillary and Rectal Thermometry in Full Term Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ekta; Batra, Prerna; Khurana, Ritika; Dewan, Pooja

    2017-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of temporal artery thermometer in febrile and hypothermic neonates in comparison to axillary thermometer. It was a cross sectional observational study. Study participants included 210 neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital, divided into three groups of 70 each, namely normothermic, febrile and hypothermic. Temperatures were measured using temporal artery, axillary and rectal thermometers in each patient. Mean rectal temperature was found to be comparable to mean temporal artery temperature in normothermic babies. Temporal artery thermometer had a better sensitivity to diagnose fever, than hypothermia. Also, temporal artery temperature showed a good correlation with rectal temperature in normothermic and febrile group and not in hypothermic neonates. Temporal artery thermometer can accurately detect temperature in febrile and normothermic fullterm neonates but not in hypothermic neonates. Further studies are required before advocating temporal artery thermometry as a replacement of rectal thermometry among this group of population.

  9. Comparison of rectal, axillary, tympanic, and temporal artery thermometry in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Prerna; Goyal, Sudhanshu

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of temperature in the emergency room is important for diagnosis as well as investigating a patient. Various noninvasive methods thermometry are available today, but there is no consensus on the most accurate method of thermometry. The present study was conducted to compare different methods of temperature measurement available in the emergency room, that is, rectal, axillary, and temporal artery and tympanic membrane. This was a cross-sectional observational study Fifty febrile and 50 afebrile children aged 2 to 12 years attending the pediatric emergency room of a tertiary care hospital were included. Temperatures were measured using rectal, axillary, tympanic (right and left), and temporal artery thermometers and were compared. All the temperatures correlated well with rectal temperature, with temporal artery temperature showing the best correlation (correlation coefficients, 0.99 in the febrile and 0.91 in the afebrile group). Temporal artery thermometry has the potential to replace rectal thermometry in a busy emergency room setting.

  10. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  11. Asymptomatic Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: An Unusual Cause of Axillary Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Healy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian tube malignancy is considered a rare disease and is often mistaken histologically and clinically for ovarian cancer. The etiology is poorly understood, and it typically presents at an advanced disease stage, as symptoms are often absent in the initial period. As a result, primary fallopian tube cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presents with a 5-day history of left axillary swelling and a normal breast examination. Mammogram and biopsy of a lesion in the left breast revealed a fibroadenoma but no other abnormalities. Initial sampling of the axillary node was suspicious for a primary breast malignancy, but histology of the excised node refuted this. PET-CT showed an area of high uptake in the right pelvis, and a laparoscopy identified a tumor of the left fallopian tube which was subsequently excised and confirmed as a serous adenocarcinoma.

  12. Coronavirus M proteins accumulate in the Golgi complex beyond the site of virion budding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Klumperman, J.; Locker, J.K.; Meijer, Adam; Geuze, H.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The prevailing hypothesis is that the intracellular site of budding of coronaviruses is determined by the localization of its membrane protein M (previously called E1). We tested this by analyzing the site of budding of four different coronaviruses in relation to the intracellular localization of

  13. Morphological and physiological aspects of the early phases of flower bud formation of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, F.A.

    1996-01-01


    For consistent yields in apple fruit production, knowledge of the factors affecting flower bud formation is required. The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the role of endogenous factors in flower bud formation of apple. The effects of temperature, applied gibberellin (GA

  14. Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Edelaar, P

    2001-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping at the nest and budding off part of the natal territory have been advanced as strategies to increase fitness in an environment that is saturated with territories. The importance of helping or territory budding as a determinant of lifetime reproductive

  15. Ethylene production, ACC and MACC content of freesia buds and florets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, G.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in ethylene production, ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and MACC (1-(malonylamino)-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) content of buds and florets of detached inflorescences were studied. Most of the ethylene produced by the inflorescences came from small buds at the apex. This

  16. effects of bud loading levels and different nitrogen doses on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several bud loading levels in winter pruning and nitrogen doses on yield and physical and chemical properties of fresh vine-leaves of grape cultivar. “Narince”. Vines trained with bilateral cordon system was pruned to yield 35000 to 53000 buds/ha (16 or.

  17. New technique for more rapid cryopreservation of dormant vegetative tree buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation of dormant buds of temperate trees in liquid nitrogen can provide a safe backup of field germplasm collections. However the process requires several months of preparation before buds can be cryopreserved. Cryopreservation at the natural moisture content (MC) would greatly accelerate...

  18. Apical bud toughness tests and tree sway movements to examine crown abrasion: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Brannon; Wayne Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Apical bud toughness differences were examined for several species to determine if crown abrasion affects shoot growth of determinate and indeterminate species during stand development. Determinate buds will set and harden after initial shoot elongation in the spring, while the indeterminate shoots form leaves from the apical meristem continuously based on the...

  19. Proactive error analysis of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Owen

    2012-07-13

    Detailed description of the tasks anesthetists undertake during the performance of a complex procedure, such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, allows elements that are vulnerable to human error to be identified. We have applied 3 task analysis tools to one such procedure, namely, ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade, with the intention that the results may form a basis to enhance training and performance of the procedure.

  20. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Incidental Carcinoma of the Gallbladder with Abdominal Wall and Axillary Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report is presented of intra-mural gallbladder carcinoma discovered incidentally after laparoscopic cholecystectomy who subsequently developed abdominal wall recurrence at the epigastric exit port, and axillary lymph node metastases. Possible preventative steps for tumour dissemination and a management plan if incidental carcinoma is diagnosed is discussed. The use of a non-porous retrieval bag, early recognition of the carcinoma and excision of the exit wound are advocated.

  1. Primary mucinous eccrine carcinoma of axillary skin: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Pradhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous eccrine carcinoma is a rare low-grade malignancy of sweat gland. Axilla is an uncommon site of this tumor. Primary mucinous carcinoma mimics metastatic mucinous carcinoma from breast, gastrointestinal tract, lung, and ovary. Histopathology with immunohistochemistry and other ancillary investigations are necessary to confirm the diagnosis and to exclude metastatic mucinous carcinoma. We present a rare case of primary mucinous carcinoma of axillary skin in an elderly male patient, diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.

  2. Tuberculosis axillary lymph node coexistent breast cancer in adjuvant treatment: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberg, Silvio Eduardo; do Amaral, Paulo Gustavo Ten?rio

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is rare. In most cases, involvement by tuberculosis occurs in axillary lymph nodes. We report a case of a 43-years-old patient who had undergone adenomastectomy and left sentinel lymph node biopsy due to a triple negative ductal carcinoma. At the end of adjuvant treatment, the patient had an atypical lymph node in the left axilla. Lymph node was excised, and after laboratory analysis, the diagnosis was ganglion tuberculosis. The patient underwent ...

  3. The role of sonography in patients with breast cancer presenting as an axillary mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Lee, Kyong Sik; Park, Byeong Woo

    2002-01-01

    To compare sonography and mammography in terms of their diagnostic value in breast cancer cases which initially presented as an axillary mass without a palpable mass or other clinical symptoms. Seven patients with enlarged axillary lymph nodes who first presented with no evidence of palpable breast lesions and who underwent both mammography and sonography were enrolled in this study. In six of the seven, the presence of metastatic adenocarcinoma was confirmed preoperatively by axillary needle aspiration biopsy; in four, subsequent sonographically guided breast core biopsy performed after careful examination of the primary site indicated that primary breast cancer was present. In each case, the radiologic findings were evaluated by both breast sonography and mammography. Breast lesions were detected mammographically in four of seven cases (57%); in three of the four, the lesion presented as a mass, and in one as microcalcification. In three of these four detected cases, fatty or scattered fibroglandular breast parenchyma was present; in one, the parenchyma was dense. In the three cases in which lesions were not detected, mammography revealed the presence of heterogeneously dense parenchyma. Breast sonography showed that lesions were present in six of seven cases (86%); in the remaining patient, malignant microcalcification was detected at mammography. Final pathologic examination indicated that all breast lesions except one, which was a ductal carcinoma in situ, with microinvasion, were infiltrating ductal carcinomas whose size ranged from microscopic to greater than 3 cm. At the time of this study, all seven patients were alive and well, having been disease free for up to 61 months after surgery. In women with a palpable axillary mass confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma, breast sonography may be a valuable adjunct to mammography

  4. Anatomical Relationship of the Axillary Nerve to the Pectoralis Major Tendon Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Brian; Jazini, Ehsan; Robertson, Astor; Henn, R Frank; Hasan, S Ashfaq

    2017-05-01

    Axillary nerve injury is a risk of the deltopectoral approach to the proximal humerus. The anterior motor branch is potentially vulnerable during subdeltoid dissection. Insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is an easily identifiable landmark on the humerus. This anatomical study explored whether the superior aspect of the pectoralis major tendon is a useful landmark for localizing the anterior motor branch of the axillary nerve as it travels under the lateral and anterior deltoid muscle. A total of 30 fresh-frozen human bilateral cadaveric upper extremities were examined. A deltopectoral approach was used to expose the pectoralis major tendon insertion and the anterior motor branch of the nerve under the deltoid muscle. The distance between the nerve as it crossed the posterolateral humerus and superior border of the pectoralis major tendon was measured. The axillary nerve was a mean 3.2 mm (range, 0-8 mm) distal to the superior border of the pectoralis major tendon insertion. No significant differences were observed in this anatomical relationship with the shoulder in abduction or external rotation. The nerve was not proximal to the superior border of the pectoralis major tendon in any specimen. The superior border of the pectoralis major tendon insertion represents a reliable landmark for the anterior motor branch of the axillary nerve as it travels under the deltoid muscle. The nerve is located at the level of the proximal centimeter of the pectoralis major tendon. Appreciation of this relationship may decrease risk of injury to the nerve when using a deltopectoral approach. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e460-e464.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization for brachial plexus injury in children: a combined case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Eli, Ilyas M; Shah, Manish N; Bradley, Nadine; Stutz, Christopher M; Park, Tae Sung; Wellons, John C

    2014-11-01

    Axillary nerve palsy, isolated or as part of a more complex brachial plexus injury, can have profound effects on upper-extremity function. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization is a useful technique for regaining shoulder abduction with little compromise of other neurological function. A combined experience of this procedure used in children is reviewed. A retrospective review of the authors' experience across 3 tertiary care centers with brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury in children (younger than 18 years) revealed 7 cases involving patients with axillary nerve injury as part of an overall brachial plexus injury with persistent shoulder abduction deficits. Two surgical approaches to the region were used. Four infants (ages 0.6, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.6 years) and 3 older children (ages 8, 15, and 17 years) underwent surgical intervention. No patient had significant shoulder abduction past 15° preoperatively. In 3 cases, additional neurotization was performed in conjunction with the procedure of interest. Two surgical approaches were used: posterior and transaxillary. All patients displayed improvement in shoulder abduction. All were able to activate their deltoid muscle to raise their arm against gravity and 4 of 7 were able to abduct against resistance. The median duration of follow-up was 15 months (range 8 months to 5.9 years). Radial to axillary nerve neurotization improved shoulder abduction in this series of patients treated at 3 institutions. While rarely used in children, this neurotization procedure is an excellent option to restore deltoid function in children with brachial plexus injury due to birth or accidental trauma.

  6. [Proximal interlocking of humeral intramedullary nails and risk of axillary nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Rommens, P M

    2002-01-01

    Possible injuries to the axillary nerve are criticised in antegrade and retrograde endomedullary nailing of the humeral shaft during proximal interlocking. Clinical experience seems not to support the theory of a high risk of nerve injury. The real risk although remains unknown under anatomical-morphological aspects. Eight complete human cadaveric shoulder-arm regions with original soft-tissue coverage had been used. Four times the unreamed humeral nail (UHN) had been inserted retrograde, and four times antegrade, distributed in each pair. Antegrade interlocking was performed after skin incision and spreading of soft tissues through the aiming devices. This involved one oblique bolt from lateral to medial. Retrograde proximal interlocking was performed under image intensifier. This involved triple interlocking, once dorso-ventrally and twice latero-medially. The incision paths have been marked. After preparation of the nerve stem in the lateral axillary portal the different branches have been searched and exposed. The spatial relations of bolts and nerve branches have been measured and the insertion path of the bolts has been revised, finally lesions of nerve structures have been documented. We found the latero-medially inserted bolt heads of the retrograde approach and the oblique bolt head of the antegrade approach being placed in a safe distance from the medio-dorsally positioned stem of the axillary nerve. On the other hand the dorsoventrally inserted bolt head (retrograde approach) showed in most cases a very tight relation to the nerve stem. Exploring the axillary nerve and its branches showed in no case a direct nerve lesion. We suggest to perform only a sharp cutaneous incision and then to prepare the muscle only by careful spreading until touching bone, with tissue retraction during drilling. In retrograde nailing the dorso-ventral bolt should only be used in extreme proximal fractures.

  7. Nerve Transfer versus Interpositional Nerve Graft Reconstruction for Posttraumatic, Isolated Axillary Nerve Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, John C; Agrawal, Nikhil A; Seruya, Mitchel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes between nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures in the setting of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries. A systematic review was performed using the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases to identify all cases of isolated, posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries in patients aged 18 years or older. Patients who underwent axillary nerve reconstruction were included and categorized by technique: graft or transfer. Demographics were recorded, including age, time to operation, and presence of concomitant injuries. Functional outcomes were evaluated, including British Medical Research Council strength and range of motion for shoulder abduction. Ten retrospective studies met criteria, for a total of 66 patients (20 nerve grafts and 46 nerve transfers). Median time from injury to operation was equivalent across the nerve graft and nerve transfer groups (8.0 months versus 7.0 months; p = 0.41). Postoperative follow-up was 24.0 months for nerve grafting versus 18.5 months for nerve transfer (p = 0.13). Clinically useful shoulder abduction, defined as British Medical Research Council grade M3 or greater, was obtained in 100 percent of nerve graft patients versus 87 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.09). Grade M4 or better strength was obtained in 85 percent of nerve graft patients and 73.9 percent of nerve transfer patients (p = 0.32). Significant differences in functional outcomes between nerve graft and transfer procedures for posttraumatic axillary nerve injuries are not apparent at this time. Prospective outcomes studies are needed to better elucidate whether functional differences do exist. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. The role of sonography in patients with breast cancer presenting as an axillary mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Lee, Kyong Sik; Park, Byeong Woo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    To compare sonography and mammography in terms of their diagnostic value in breast cancer cases which initially presented as an axillary mass without a palpable mass or other clinical symptoms. Seven patients with enlarged axillary lymph nodes who first presented with no evidence of palpable breast lesions and who underwent both mammography and sonography were enrolled in this study. In six of the seven, the presence of metastatic adenocarcinoma was confirmed preoperatively by axillary needle aspiration biopsy; in four, subsequent sonographically guided breast core biopsy performed after careful examination of the primary site indicated that primary breast cancer was present. In each case, the radiologic findings were evaluated by both breast sonography and mammography. Breast lesions were detected mammographically in four of seven cases (57%); in three of the four, the lesion presented as a mass, and in one as microcalcification. In three of these four detected cases, fatty or scattered fibroglandular breast parenchyma was present; in one, the parenchyma was dense. In the three cases in which lesions were not detected, mammography revealed the presence of heterogeneously dense parenchyma. Breast sonography showed that lesions were present in six of seven cases (86%); in the remaining patient, malignant microcalcification was detected at mammography. Final pathologic examination indicated that all breast lesions except one, which was a ductal carcinoma in situ, with microinvasion, were infiltrating ductal carcinomas whose size ranged from microscopic to greater than 3 cm. At the time of this study, all seven patients were alive and well, having been disease free for up to 61 months after surgery. In women with a palpable axillary mass confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma, breast sonography may be a valuable adjunct to mammography.

  9. Is daily shaving of axillary and pubic hair a feature of suicide in the Muslim community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Deniz, Idris

    2008-12-01

    In the Islamic context, "fitrah" refers to humanity's innate disposition toward virtue and the ability to differentiate between right and wrong. A common quote regarding fitrah, from the Prophet is "The fitrah consists of 5 things: circumcision, trimming the moustache, cutting the nails, plucking the armpit hairs, and shaving the pubic hairs."In this study, our aim was to determine the status of axillary and pubic shaving in medicolegal death cases that took place in the Konya Province of Turkey and to evaluate the relationship with the origin of suicide. Of 2850 medicolegal death cases, 206 (7.2%) were of suicidal origin. It was observed that the average age in the cases of suicidal origin was 36.76 +/- 17.72 years, and 146 of 206 cases (70.9%) were men. As a method of suicide, hanging was the chosen method in 100 cases (48.5%), whereas firearm injuries occurred in 54 cases (26.2%), and intoxication was involved in 37 cases (18.0%). Daily axillary and pubic shaving was observed in 26 of 2644 (1.0%) death cases that occurred with nonsuicidal reasons, but in 65 of 206 were (31.6%) suicidal cases. Because suicidal notes were present in 25 (12.1%) of all of the suicidal cases, the ratio of daily axillary and pubic shaving was significantly higher than that of the suicidal notes.In investigating the cases of suicidal origin for medicolegal purposes, evidence showing that this action was committed by the victim, the presence of a suicide note at the death scene and, a history of a previous suicidal attempt, it was thought that the presence of daily axillary and pubic shaving on external examination of the victim's body, when of Muslim faith, could also be considered a feature of suicide.

  10. The YPLGVG sequence of the Nipah virus matrix protein is required for budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lianying

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV is a recently emerged paramyxovirus capable of causing fatal disease in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Together with Hendra virus (HeV, they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Recombinant expression systems have played a crucial role in studying the cell biology of these Biosafety Level-4 restricted viruses. Henipavirus assembly and budding occurs at the plasma membrane, although the details of this process remain poorly understood. Multivesicular body (MVB proteins have been found to play a role in the budding of several enveloped viruses, including some paramyxoviruses, and the recruitment of MVB proteins by viral proteins possessing late budding domains (L-domains has become an important concept in the viral budding process. Previously we developed a system for producing NiV virus-like particles (VLPs and demonstrated that the matrix (M protein possessed an intrinsic budding ability and played a major role in assembly. Here, we have used this system to further explore the budding process by analyzing elements within the M protein that are critical for particle release. Results Using rationally targeted site-directed mutagenesis we show that a NiV M sequence YPLGVG is required for M budding and that mutation or deletion of the sequence abrogates budding ability. Replacement of the native and overlapping Ebola VP40 L-domains with the NiV sequence failed to rescue VP40 budding; however, it did induce the cellular morphology of extensive filamentous projection consistent with wild-type VP40-expressing cells. Cells expressing wild-type NiV M also displayed this morphology, which was dependent on the YPLGVG sequence, and deletion of the sequence also resulted in nuclear localization of M. Dominant-negative VPS4 proteins had no effect on NiV M budding, suggesting that unlike other viruses such as Ebola, NiV M accomplishes budding independent of MVB cellular proteins

  11. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  12. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POSITIVE PREOPERATIVE AXILLARY ULTRASOUND SCANNING IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lona Jalini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Axillary lymph node status is the most important breast cancer prognostic factor. Preoperative axillary ultrasound examination (PAUS is used to triage patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND. We assessed the detection rate of lymph node metastases by PAUS in a screening unit and evaluated associations between clinicopathological factors and PAUS positivity. Patients and Methods: This was a single-centre retrospective analysis of data extracted from a hospital breast cancer database and clinical records. Clinical, radiological, and pathological and prognostic indices were compared between PAUS-positive and PAUS-negative patients subsequently found to have lymph node metastases on histopathological analysis. Results: Two hundred and two patients were eligible for analysis. 50.5% of lymph node-positive patients were correctly identified as PAUS positive. Patients with PAUS-positive lymph nodes had less favorable disease characteristics, namely clinically palpable lymph nodes, higher Nottingham prognostic (NPI index, high lymph node burden according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO group classification, and larger, grade 3 tumors with lymphovascular invasion and extranodal spread. Moreover, PAUS-positive patients had more macrometastases and lymph node involvement than PAUS-negative patients. Conclusion: PAUS-positive patients and PAUS-negative (SLNB-positive patients have different clinicopathological characteristics. The presence of LVI, extranodal spread, grade 3 histology, or large tumors with poor prognostic indices in PAUS-negative patients should be regarded with caution and perhaps prompt second-look ultrasound examination.

  13. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  14. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Origin and distribution of the axillary nerve in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla

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    Daniela Cristina de Oliveira Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, a mammal belonging to the order Xenarthra and family Myrmecophagidae, is an endangered species. For this reason, additional knowledge about its anatomy is of interest, especially the forelimb, which plays important roles in feeding and defense. The goal of this study was to learn more about the origin and distribution of the axillary nerve of Myrmecophaga tridactyla by studying two individuals (one male and one female that belong to the Research Laboratory of Wild Animals (UFU. The study material consisted of corpses fixed and preserved in 10% aqueous formalin solution. Dissection of the material followed standard procedures. In both animals, the axillary nerve was found in the ventral branch of the sixth cervical (C6 and seventh (C7 spinal nerve. This nerve showed symmetry in relation to its position in the two specimens and branched into the teres major, teres minor and deltoid muscles. In both specimens the axillary nerve originated in the cranial cutaneous branch of the lower leg.

  16. Axillary hyperhidrosis: A review of the extent of the problem and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Davis, Harriet; Wilson, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the extent of the problem of axillary hyperhidrosis and treatment modalities available. The benefits and disadvantages of various treatments are reflected on with the hope of providing a starting point to investigate new ways of treating hyperhidrosis. A literature search was conducted using various databases and search criteria. Current treatments include aluminium chloride antiperspirants, iontophoresis, botox injections and endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. Botox therapy is usually the most effective treatment, without surgery or unpleasant side effects. However it has to be administered by a skilled clinician and involves around 20 injections to treat axillary hyperhidrosis. Other ways of giving Botox are being developed, the most promising one being the use of microneedles which are able to penetrate the skin and deliver drugs to the target area of the dermis without causing pain. In comparison to the temporary effects of microneedles, laser and microwave therapies are also assessed as they offer the hope of permanent relief from hyperhidrosis. There is a considerable dearth in the literature on the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. Further study in larger populations with longer follow up times is critical to access the long term effects of treatment. Microneedles could be the future treatment of choice with the potential to deliver drugs in a safe and pain free way. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Triceps motor branch transfer for isolated traumatic pediatric axillary nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Harvey; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of the triceps motor branch has been used for treatment of isolated axillary nerve palsy in the adult population. However, there are no published data on the effectiveness of this procedure in the pediatric population with traumatic injuries. The authors reviewed demographics and outcomes in their series of pediatric patients who underwent this procedure. Six patients ranging in age from 10 to 17 years underwent triceps motor branch transfer for the treatment of isolated axillary nerve injuries between 4 and 8 months after the inciting injury. Deltoid muscle strength was evaluated using the modified British Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Shoulder abduction at last follow-up was measured. The mean duration of follow-up was 38 months. The average postoperative MRC grading of deltoid muscle strength was 3.6 ± 1.3. The median MRC grade was 4. One patient who did not achieve an MRC grade of 3 suffered multiple injuries from high-velocity trauma. Unlike in the adult population, age, body mass index of the patient, and delay from injury to surgery were not significant factors affecting the outcome of the procedure. In the pediatric population with traumatic injuries, isolated axillary nerve injury treated with triceps motor branch transfer can result in good outcomes.

  18. A Nonpalpable Nodule in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: Consider Phyllodes Tumor

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    Eva Ruvalcaba-Limón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign and malignant pathology can develop in ectopic axillary breast tissue, such as fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, and breast cancer. We present a rare case of an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with an axillary nodule which was identified during screening mammography within ectopic axillary breast tissue, initially considered as a suspicious lymph node. Radiologic studies were considered as Breast Imaging-Reporting Data System (BI-RADS 4. A hyperdense, lobular, and well-circumscribed nodule was identified in mammogram while the nodule by ultrasound (US was hypoechoic with indistinct microlobular margins, without vascularity by Doppler, and measuring 1.26×1 cm. Core-needle biopsy reported a fibroepithelial neoplasm. The patient was submitted to local wide-needle excision located in intraoperative radiography of the surgical specimen and margin evaluation. Final histopathological study reported a 1.8×1.2 cm benign phyllodes tumor, with irregular, pushing, and clear wide margins within normal ectopic breast tissue. The patient without surgical complications continued annual screening without recurrence during a follow-up that took place 24 months later.

  19. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-09

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell kinetic study on the relation between irradiation hypogeusia and taste buds in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Hideharu; Furumoto, Keiichi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of hypogeusia caused by irradiation. X-ray treatment at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was given to the maxillofacial region including the tongue in rats, and the involvement of taste bud for hypogeusia was investigated. In addition, cytological kinetics were immunohistologically studied using bromodeoxyuridine in the taste bud and in the lingual mucosal epithelium. The following results were obtained: In the 10 Gy group, the number of taste bud become less after the exposure, but no hypogeusia was observed during the experimental period. In the 20 Gy group, any labeled taste bud was not observed on the 7th day, and all taste buds disappeared by the 10th day. In the lingual mucosal epithelium, the number of basal cells decreased to the minimum, and the body weight and total water intake decreased coincidently in the 20 Gy group, which were few in the 10 Gy group. (author)

  1. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage media tested were: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), C. spinosa, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), and light milk. A real‑time cell analyzer system was used to evaluate cell viability. After seeding cell suspensions into the wells of the E‑plate 96, PDL cells were treated with each of tested media ...

  2. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  3. BudBurst Buddies: A New Tool for Engaging the Youngest Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) introduces elementary school age children to the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a new part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies newly developed resources. BudBurst Buddies is a part of Project BudBurst, a national citizen science program coordinated by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanic Garden. Funding for this resource was provided by NEON, NSF, NASA, and the National Geographic Education Foundation.

  4. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality.

  5. Identification of SUMO conjugation sites in the budding yeast proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Esteras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO is an important mechanism regulating protein function. Identification of SUMO conjugation sites on substrates is a challenging task. Here we employed a proteomic method to map SUMO acceptor lysines in budding yeast proteins. We report the identification of 257 lysine residues where SUMO is potentially attached. Amongst the hits, we identified already known SUMO substrates and sites, confirming the success of the approach. In addition, we tested several of the novel substrates using SUMO immunoprecipitation analysis and confirmed that the SUMO acceptor lysines identified in these proteins are indeed bona fide SUMOylation sites. We believe that the collection of SUMO sites presented here is an important resource for future functional studies of SUMOylation in yeast.

  6. Guillaume Budé, l’humaniste et le prince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Le Clech-Charton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grande figure de la Renaissance des lettres et des arts en France, tout à la fois écrivain, traducteur, ambassadeur, créateur du dépôt légal et fondateur du Collège de France, maître de la librairie du roi à Fontainebleau, Guillaume Budé (1468-1540 est essentiellement connu pour le rôle de conseiller politique et culturel qu’il joua auprès de François Ier, dont il fut le secrétaire. Il a été surtout étudié du point de vue de sa production littéraire savante, mais non sous l’angle de son mili...

  7. Genetic bypass of essential RNA repair enzymes in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Patrick D; White, Laura K; York, Kerri; Hesselberth, Jay R

    2018-03-01

    RNA repair enzymes catalyze rejoining of an RNA molecule after cleavage of phosphodiester linkages. RNA repair in budding yeast is catalyzed by two separate enzymes that process tRNA exons during their splicing and HAC1 mRNA exons during activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The RNA ligase Trl1 joins 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl RNA fragments, creating a phosphodiester linkage with a 2'-phosphate at the junction. The 2'-phosphate is removed by the 2'-phosphotransferase Tpt1. We bypassed the essential functions of TRL1 and TPT1 in budding yeast by expressing "prespliced," intronless versions of the 10 normally intron-containing tRNAs, indicating this repair pathway does not have additional essential functions. Consistent with previous studies, expression of intronless tRNAs failed to rescue the growth of cells with deletions in components of the SEN complex, implying an additional essential role for the splicing endonuclease. The trl1 Δ and tpt1 Δ mutants accumulate tRNA and HAC1 splicing intermediates indicative of RNA repair defects and are hypersensitive to drugs that inhibit translation. Failure to induce the unfolded protein response in trl1 Δ cells grown with tunicamycin is lethal owing to their inability to ligate HAC1 after its cleavage by Ire1. In contrast, tpt1 Δ mutants grow in the presence of tunicamycin despite reduced accumulation of spliced HAC1 mRNA. We optimized a PCR-based method to detect RNA 2'-phosphate modifications and show they are present on ligated HAC1 mRNA. These RNA repair mutants enable new studies of the role of RNA repair in cellular physiology. © 2018 Cherry et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lu, Min; Echeverri, Fernando; Laita, Bianca; Kalabat, Dalia; Williams, Mark E; Hevezi, Peter; Zlotnik, Albert; Moyer, Bryan D

    2009-03-12

    Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  9. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarri AJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Almir José Sarri,1 Rogério Dias,2 Carla Elaine Laurienzo,1 Mônica Carboni Pereira Gonçalves,3 Daniel Spadoto Dias,2 Sonia Marta Moriguchi4 1Department of Physical Therapy, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Mastology, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 4Department of Tropical Diseases and Diagnostic Imaging, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using lymphoscintigraphy (LS.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images. For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%.Results: There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01 and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01 in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004, while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan

  10. A comparison of axillary and tympanic membrane to rectal temperatures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Paramita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Core body temperature measurement is not commonly done in pediatric populations because it is invasive and difficult to perform. Therefore, axillary and tympanic membrane temperature measurements are preferable, but their accuracy is still debatable. Objective To compare the accuracy of axillary and tympanic temperatures to rectal temperature in children with fever, and to measure the cut-off point for fever based on each temperature measurement method. Methods A diagnostic study was conducted among feverish children aged 6 months to 5 years who were consecutively selected from the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic, Pediatric Emergency Unit, and the inpatient ward in the Department of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH, from December 2014 to January 2015. Subjects underwent three measurements within a two minute span, namely, the axillary, tympanic membrane, and rectal temperature measurements. The values obtained from the examination were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results The cut-off for fever on axilla was 37.4oC and on tympanic membrane was  37.4oC, with sensitivity 96% (95%CI 0.88 to 0.98 and 93% (95%CI 0.84 to 0.97, respectively; specificity 50% (95%CI 0.47 to 0.84 and 50% (95%CI 0.31 to 0.69, respectively; positive predictive value/PPV 90% (95%CI 0.81 to 0.95 and 85% (95%CI 0.75 to 0.91, respectively; and negative predictive value/NPV 83% (95%CI 0.61 to 0.94 and 69% (95%CI 0.44 to 0.86, respectively. The optimal cut-off of tympanic membrane and axilla temperature was 37.8oC (AUC 0.903 and 0.903, respectively. Conclusion Axillary temperature measurement is as good as tympanic membrane temperature measurement and can be used in daily clinical practice or at home. By increasing the optimum fever cut-off point for axillary and tympanic membrane temperature to 37.8oC, we find sensitivity 81% and 88%, specificity 86% and 73%, PPV 95% and 91%, and NPV 95% and 91%, respectively.

  11. The risk of suprascapular and axillary nerve injury in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: An anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschinger, Tim; Hackl, Michael; Buess, Eduard; Lappen, Sebastian; Scaal, Martin; Müller, Lars Peter; Wegmann, Kilian

    2017-10-01

    Implantation of a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) places the axillary and suprascapular nerves at risk. The aim of this anatomic study was to digitally analyse the location of these nerves in relation to bony landmarks in order to predict their path and thereby help to reduce the risk of neurological complications during the procedure. A total of 22 human cadaveric shoulder specimens were used in this study. The axillary and suprascapular nerves were dissected, and radiopaque threads were sutured onto the nerves without mobilizing the nerves from their native paths. Then, 3D X-ray scans of the specimens were performed, and the distance of the nerves to bony landmarks at the humerus and the glenoid were measured. The distance of the inferior glenoid rim to the axillary nerve averaged 13.6mm (5.8-27.0mm, ±5.1mm). In the anteroposterior direction, the distance between the axillary nerve and the humeral metaphysis averaged 8.1mm (0.6-21.3mm, ±6.5mm). The distance of the glenoid centre to the suprascapular nerve passing point under the transverse scapular ligament measured 28.4mm (18.9-35.1mm, ±3.8mm) in the mediolateral direction and 10.8mm (-4.8 to 25.3mm, ±6.1mm) in the anteroposterior direction. The distance to the spinoglenoid notch was 16.6mm (11.1-24.9mm, ±3.4mm) in the mediolateral direction and -11.8mm posterior (-19.3 to -4.7mm, ±4.7mm) in the anteroposterior direction. Implantation of rTSA components endangers the axillary nerve because of its proximity to the humeral metaphysis and the inferior glenoid rim. Posterior and superior drilling and extraosseous screw placement during glenoid baseplate implantation in rTSA place the suprascapular nerve at risk, with safe zones to the nerve passing the spinoglenoid notch of 11mm and to the suprascapular notch of 19mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A modified deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization for proximal humeral fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Choi, Ho Sung; Kim, Min Bom; Pyo, Sung Hee; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The deltopectoral and the deltoid splitting approach are commonly used for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. While the deltopectoral approach requires massive soft tissue devascularization, the deltoid splitting approach needs an additional skipped incision to avoid axillary nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to describe a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures and to assess its radiologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-two consecutive patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis by using a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization. The patients were divided into two groups: 10 patients of Neer type 2 or 3 fractures vs. 12 patients of Neer type 4 fractures. The mean age of the study population was 63.5 years (range: 30-80 years). Six patients had valgus impacted fractures, and nine had fractures with medial comminution. Fracture union was achieved in all cases. The mean time to union was 8.6 weeks (range: 6-12 weeks). Major complications, such as avascular necrosis of the humeral head and varus collapse at the fracture site, were not observed. No patients had clinically detectable sensory deficits in the axillary nerve distribution or paralysis of the anterior deltoid muscle. The mean neck-shaft angle at the final follow-up was 136.9° (range, 115°-159°). The mean visual analog score for patient satisfaction was 9.1 (range, 6-10), and the mean Neer scores were 93.5 (range, 84-100). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to radiologic and clinical outcomes except Neer scores: 95.8 (range: 86-100) in Neer type 2 or 3 fractures and 91.7 (range: 84-99) in Neer type 4 fractures. The use of a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral

  13. Viability analysis in biological evaluations: Concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; John R. Squires

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection strategies often rely on environmental impact assessments. As part of the assessment process biologists are routinely asked to evaluate the effects of management actions on plants and animals. This evaluation often requires that biologists make judgments about the viability of affected populations. However, population viability...

  14. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Fernández, P.S.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to

  15. Immobilization of plant protoplasts: Viability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsefors, L; Brodelius, P

    1985-02-01

    Protoplasts of Daucus carota Ca68 and Catharanthus roseus have been immobilized by entrapment in gelforming polysaccharides (kappa-carrageenan, agarose and alginate). Uniform spherical beads of carrageenan and agarose containing the protoplasts have been prepared by utilizing an inert hydrophobic phase (vegetable oil). The entrapped protoplasts are viable and stabilized towards osmotic shock by the polymeric backbone. Standard methods have been used to study the viability and integrity of the entrapped protoplasts. Upon incubation in a relatively simple medium the immobilized protoplasts show a much higher viability after 14 days as compared to free protoplasts under the same conditions. The viability of D. carota protoplasts has also been monitored by an enzyme activity present in the cells (digitoxigenin 58-hydroxylase).

  16. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo J. Lahtinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

  17. Comparison of only T3 and T3-T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuncu, Gökhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gökhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3-T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3-T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3-T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P=0.56), gender (P=0.81), duration of the surgery (P=0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P=0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3-T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P=0.008). T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3-T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients' reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up.

  18. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional radiotherapy versus an axillary lymph node dissection after lumpectomy: a safe alternative for an axillary lymph node dissection in a clinically uninvolved axilla in breast cancer. A case control study with 10 years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elferink Marloes AG

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard treatment of the axilla in breast cancer used to be an axillary lymph node dissection. An axillary lymph node dissection is known to give substantial risks of morbidity. In recent years the sentinel node biopsy has become common practice. Future randomized study results will determine whether the expected decrease in morbidity can be proven. Methods Before the introduction of the sentinel node biopsy, we conducted a study in which 180 women of 50 years and older with T1/T2 cN0 breast cancer were treated with breast conserving therapy. Instead of an axillary lymph node dissection regional radiotherapy was given in combination with tamoxifen (RT-group. The study group was compared with 341 patients, with the same patient and tumour characteristics, treated with an axillary lymph node dissection (S-group. Results The treatment groups were comparable, except for age. The RT-group was significantly older than the S-group. The median follow up was 7.2 years. The regional relapse rates were low and equal in both treatment groups, 1.1% in RT-group versus 1.5% in S-group at 5 years. The overall survival was similar; the disease free survival was significant better in the RT-group. Conclusion Regional recurrence rates after regional radiotherapy are very low and equal to an axillary lymphnode dissection.

  20. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  1. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbrini Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5, the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5, the duration of bud formation (subproc1 and bud maturation (subproc2 eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs. These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set

  2. The Viability of "Roe v. Wade."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Examines four issues involved in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services:" (1) the preamble to the 1986 Missouri statute on abortion, (2) prohibiting public employees from performing abortions, (3) public funds for encouraging abortion, and (4) gestational age and viability provision. Focuses on the effects on the continuing vitality of…

  3. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic viability and marketing strategies of periwinkle species in twelve major markets across Rivers State Nigeria were investigated using structured questionnaires. The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), to wholesalers (those who purchase in small quantities ...

  4. Pollen morphology and viability in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVERTON H. SOUZA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pollen morphology characterization is important in taxonomy, conservation and plant breeding, and pollen viability studies can support breeding programs. This study investigated pollen morphology and male fertility in 18 species of Bromeliaceae with ornamental potential. For morphological characterization, pollen grains were acetolyzed and characterization of exine was done using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pollen viability was investigated by in vitro germination and histochemical tests. Species belonging to Aechmea and Ananas genera presented medium size pollen, except for Ae. fasciata, with large pollen. Al. nahoumii, P. sagenarius and the Vriesea species analyzed showed large pollen, except for V. carinata, with very large pollen. Pollen of Aechmea, Ananas and P. sagenarius presented bilateral symmetry, diporate, exine varying from tectate to semitectate. Al. nahoumii and Vriesea species presented pollen with bilateral symmetry, monocolpate; exine was semitectate, reticulate and heterobrochate. Germination percentage and tube growth were greater in SM and BKM media. Histochemical tests showed pollen viability above 70% for all species, except for Ananas sp. (40%. Pollen morphology is important for the identification of species, especially in this family, which contains a large number of species. High rates of viability favor fertilization and seed production, essential for efficient hybrid production and conservation.

  5. Pollen morphology and viability in Bromeliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Everton H; Souza, Fernanda V D; Rossi, Mônica L; Packer, Renan M; Cruz-Barros, Maria Amelia V; Martinelli, Adriana P

    2017-01-01

    Pollen morphology characterization is important in taxonomy, conservation and plant breeding, and pollen viability studies can support breeding programs. This study investigated pollen morphology and male fertility in 18 species of Bromeliaceae with ornamental potential. For morphological characterization, pollen grains were acetolyzed and characterization of exine was done using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pollen viability was investigated by in vitro germination and histochemical tests. Species belonging to Aechmea and Ananas genera presented medium size pollen, except for Ae. fasciata, with large pollen. Al. nahoumii, P. sagenarius and the Vriesea species analyzed showed large pollen, except for V. carinata, with very large pollen. Pollen of Aechmea, Ananas and P. sagenarius presented bilateral symmetry, diporate, exine varying from tectate to semitectate. Al. nahoumii and Vriesea species presented pollen with bilateral symmetry, monocolpate; exine was semitectate, reticulate and heterobrochate. Germination percentage and tube growth were greater in SM and BKM media. Histochemical tests showed pollen viability above 70% for all species, except for Ananas sp. (40%). Pollen morphology is important for the identification of species, especially in this family, which contains a large number of species. High rates of viability favor fertilization and seed production, essential for efficient hybrid production and conservation.

  6. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  7. Optimal optical trap for bacterial viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, Utkur; Timp, Winston; Timp, Kaethe; Mir, Mustafa; Matsudaira, Paul; Timp, Gregory

    2008-08-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool for the micromanipulation of living cells—especially bacteria—but photodamage induced by the laser beam can adversely affect viability. We have explored optical trapping conditions in the near infrared (840-930nm) that preserve the viability of E. coli, as measured by gene expression of green fluorescent protein. We have found that time-sharing the optical traps, i.e., dwelling only 10μs-1ms on the cell, improves viability relative to continuous wave (CW) exposure for the same exposure time. We have also observed that similar to CW traps the photodamage in a time-shared trap depends weakly on wavelength, but linearly on peak power, implying an effect induced by single photon absorption. Taken altogether, integrating the exposure time and peak power, the data indicate that there is a lethal energy dose of about 5J for E. coli. Thus a single parameter—the energy—can be used to describe the limitation on viability.

  8. Preoperative axillary imaging with percutaneous lymph node biopsy is valuable in the contemporary management of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieken, Tina J; Trull, Brent C; Boughey, Judy C; Jones, Katie N; Reynolds, Carol A; Shah, Sejal S; Glazebrook, Katrina N

    2013-10-01

    ACOSOG Z11 and other studies showing little benefit to axillary dissection (ALND) for early-stage breast cancers with limited nodal disease have led to questioning the value of preoperative axillary imaging ± ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (USNB). Data are lacking on the value of this approach in identifying cases that fall outside Z11 guidelines. We studied 988 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancers who underwent operation including axillary surgery in 2010-2011. Preoperative axillary ultrasonography (AUS) was performed in 92% and breast/axillary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 51%; 82 (33.5%) of 245 patients with suspicious lymph nodes (LN) were USNB-positive. Regarding nodal status, AUS, MRI, and USNB had negative and positive predictive values of 78%, 76%, 70% and 54%, 58%, 100%, respectively. AUS/MRI visualization of one versus multiple abnormal LNs visualized predicted >2LN+ on final pathology (13.5%/15.1% % vs 30.8%/32.6%, P 2LN+, P = .001. In our contemporary series, preoperative AUS±USNB streamlined surgical care for 29% of node-positive patients. Two-thirds of T1/T2 USNB-LN+ patients with multiple AUS-suspicious LNs had >2LN+, suggesting they should undergo ALND without SLNB. AUS±USNB helps identify node-positive breast cancer patients who fall outside Z11 guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of focal axillary hyperhidrosis using a long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser at hair reduction settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letada, Philip R; Landers, John T; Uebelhoer, Nathan S; Shumaker, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis is a rather common idiopathic disorder of the eccrine sweat glands, which can interfere with daily activities and cause significant social distress. The effects of 1064 nm laser hair reduction on sweat production in a pilot study in patients with focal axillary hyperhidrosis are described. In a prospective, case-controlled, randomized pilot study, one axilla from six different subjects with axillary hyperhidrosis was treated with monthly laser hair reduction sessions using the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser at typical settings. The contralateral axilla acted as a control. Subjects were asked to subjectively classify improvement of axillary sweating using a Global Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ) weekly after each treatment. Qualitative evaluation of sweating was also performed using a modified starch iodine test monthly after each treatment. In addition, prior to the first treatment and at one month following the final treatment, a punch biopsy was performed on the treatment axilla to assess for histologic changes to the eccrine gland and surrounding structures. Statistically significant improvements in subjective ratings of sweating using the GAQ compared to baseline were observed. Objective improvements in sweating with modified starch iodine testing comparing treated versus non-treated axillae were also seen for at least nine months in selected subjects. No significant differences in pre- and post-treatment biopsies were noted on routine histology. Laser hair reduction using the 1064 nm Nd:YAG at laser hair removal settings provides subjective and objective improvements in patients with focal axillary hyperhidrosis.

  10. A novel technique of axillary vein puncture involving peripherally inserted central venous catheters for a small basilic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Fumito; Odaka, Yoshinobu; Mutoh, Mitsuhisa; Katayose, Yu; Tokumura, Hiromi

    2018-03-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters are some of the most useful devices for vascular access used globally. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters have a low rate of fatal mechanical complications when compared to non-tunnel central venous catheters. However, as peripherally inserted central venous catheter access requires a smaller vein, there is a high risk of thrombosis. The axillary vein (confluence of the basilic and brachial veins) can serve as an access for cannulation. Moreover, as this vein is larger than the basilic or brachial vein, it might be a superior option for preventing thrombosis. The risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection should be considered when the puncture site is at the axillary fossa. The aim of this study was to present our new protocol involving peripherally inserted central venous catheters (non-tunneled/tunneled) and a tunneling technique and assess its feasibility and safety for improving cannulation and preventing thrombosis and infection. The study included 20 patients. The axillary vein in the upper arm was used for peripherally inserted central venous catheters in patients with a small-diameter basilic vein (venous catheter. The observed catheter duration was 645 days (median ± standard deviation, 26 ± 22.22 days). Catheterization was successful in all cases, however, two accidental dislodgements were identified. No fatal or serious complications were observed after catheterization. Our new protocol for axillary peripherally inserted central venous catheters/tunneled axillary peripherally inserted central venous catheters use for a small-diameter basilic vein is safe and feasible.

  11. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Brown, S.; Porter, G.; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R.; Holgate, C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  12. Sustained Benefit Lasting One Year from T4 Instead of T3-T4 Sympathectomy for Isolated Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Marco Antonio S.; Wolosker, Nelson; Kaufmann, Paulo; de Campos, José Ribas Milanes; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Level T4 video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy proved superior to T3-T4 treatment for controlling axillary hyperhidrosis at the initial and six-month follow-ups of these patients. OBJECTIVE To compare the results of two levels of sympathectomy (T3-T4 vs. T4) for treating axillary sudoresis over one year of follow-up. METHODS Sixty-four patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were randomized to denervation of T3-T4 or T4 alone and followed prospectively. All patients were examined preoperatively and were followed postoperatively for one year. Axillary hyperhidrosis treatment was evaluated, along with the presence, location, and severity of compensatory hyperhidrosis and self-reported quality of life. RESULTS According to patient reports after one year, all cases of axillary hyperhidrosis were successfully treated by surgery. There were no instances of treatment failure. After six months, compensatory hyperhidrosis was present in 27 patients of the T3-T4 group (87.1%) and in 16 patients of the T4 group (48.5%). After one year, all T3-T4 patients experienced some degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis, compared to only 14 patients in the T4 group (42.4%). In addition, compensatory hyperhidrosis was less severe in the T4 patients (p hyperhidrosis, but the T4 group showed milder compensatory hyperhidrosis and greater patient satisfaction at the one-year follow-up. PMID:19060999

  13. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  14. Nerve Stimulator Guided Axillary Block in Painless Reduction of Distal Radius Fractures; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Alimohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the high prevalence of upper extremity fractures and increasing need to perform painless reduction in the emergency departments, the use of analgesic methods with fewer complications and more satisfaction appears to be essential. The aim of this study is comparison the nerve stimulator guided axillary block (NSAB with intravenous sedation in induction of analgesia for painless reduction of distal radius fractures. Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 60 patients (18-70 years of age suffered from distal radius fractures, were divided into two equal groups. One group received axillary nerve block by nerve stimulator guidance and the other procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA using midazolam/fentanyl. Onset of analgesia, duration of analgesic effect, total procedure time and pain scores were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS and the outcomes were compared. Chi-squared and student t test were performed to evaluate differences between two groups. Results: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups (83.3% male. The mean age of patients was 31 ±0.7 years. While the onset of analgesia was significantly longer in the NSAB group, the mean total time of procedure was shorter than PSA (p<0.001. The NSAB group needed a shorter post-operative observation time (P<0.001. Both groups experienced equal pain relief before, during and after procedure (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that shorter post-operative monitoring time and consequently lesser total time of procedure, make nerve stimulator guided axillary block as an appropriate alternative for procedural sedation and analgesia in painless reduction of distal radius fractures in emergency department. 

  15. Factors affecting outcome of triceps motor branch transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yup; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2012-11-01

    Triceps motor branch transfer has been used in upper brachial plexus injury and is potentially effective for isolated axillary nerve injury in lieu of sural nerve grafting. We evaluated the functional outcome of this procedure and determined factors that influenced the outcome. A retrospective chart review was performed of 21 patients (mean age, 38 y; range, 16-79 y) who underwent triceps motor branch transfer for the treatment of isolated axillary nerve injury. Deltoid muscle strength was evaluated using the modified British Medical Research Council grading at the last follow-up (mean, 21 mo; range, 12-41 mo). The following variables were analyzed to determine whether they affected the outcome of the nerve transfer: the age and sex of the patient, delay from injury to surgery, body mass index (BMI), severity of trauma, and presence of rotator cuff lesions. The Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were performed for statistical analysis. The average Medical Research Council grade of deltoid muscle strength was 3.5 ± 1.1. Deltoid muscle strength correlated with the age of the patient, delay from injury to surgery, and BMI of the patient. Five patients failed to achieve more than M3 grade. Among them, 4 patients were older than 50 years and 1 was treated 14 months after injury. In the multiple linear regression model, the delay from injury to surgery, age of the patient, and BMI of the patient were the important factors, in that order, that affected the outcome of this procedure. Isolated axillary nerve injury can be treated successfully with triceps motor branch transfer. However, outstanding outcomes are not universal, with one fourth failing to achieve M3 strength. The outcome of this procedure is affected by the delay from injury to surgery and the age and BMI of the patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy: feasibility and safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H; Loibl, S; Peccatori, F A; Gheysens, O; Sangalli, C A; Nekljudova, V; Steffensen, K Dahl; Mhallem Gziri, M; Schröder, C P; Lok, C A R; Verest, A; Neven, P; Smeets, A; Pruneri, G; Cremonesi, M; Gentilini, O

    2017-12-12

    Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. We identified 145 women with clinically N0 disease who underwent SLN during pregnancy. The SLN detection techniques were as follows: 99m Tc-labeled albumin nanocolloid only (n = 96; 66.2%), blue dye only (n = 14; 9.7%), combined technique (n = 15; 10.3%), or unknown (n = 20; 13.8%). Mapping was unsuccessful in one patient (0.7%) and she underwent an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Mean number of SLNs was 3.2 (interquartile range 1-3; missing n = 15). Positive SLNs were found in 43 (29.7%) patients and 34 subsequently underwent ALND. After a median follow-up of 48 months (range 1-177), 123 (84.8%) patients were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during pregnancy were reported. SLN biopsy during pregnancy has a comparably low axillary recurrence rate as in nonpregnant women. Therefore, this method can be considered during pregnancy instead of standard ALND for early-stage, clinically node-negative breast cancer.

  17. Bud development, flowering and fruit set of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish Tree as affected by various irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintin Ernst Muhl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is becoming increasingly popular as an industrial crop due to its multitude of useful attributes as water purifier, nutritional supplement and biofuel feedstock. Given its tolerance to sub-optimal growing conditions, most of the current and anticipated cultivation areas are in medium to low rainfall areas. This study aimed to assess the effect of various irrigation levels on floral initiation, flowering and fruit set. Three treatments namely, a 900 mm (900IT, 600 mm (600IT and 300 mm (300IT per annum irrigation treatment were administered through drip irrigation, simulating three total annual rainfall amounts. Individual inflorescences from each treatment were tagged during floral initiation and monitored throughout until fruit set. Flower bud initiation was highest at the 300IT and lowest at the 900IT for two consecutive growing seasons. Fruit set on the other hand, decreased with the decrease in irrigation treatment. Floral abortion, reduced pollen viability as well as moisture stress in the style were contributing factors to the reduction in fruiting/yield observed at the 300IT. Moderate water stress prior to floral initiation could stimulate flower initiation, however, this should be followed by sufficient irrigation to ensure good pollination, fruit set and yield.

  18. Arf3p GTPase is a key regulator of Bud2p activation for invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jia-Wei; Lee, Fang-Jen S

    2013-08-01

    The regulation and signaling pathways involved in the invasive growth of yeast have been studied extensively because of their general applicability to fungal pathogenesis. Bud2p, which functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Bud1p/Rsr1p, is required for appropriate budding patterns and filamentous growth. The regulatory mechanisms leading to Bud2p activation, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we report that ADP-ribosylation factor 3p (Arf3p) acts as a regulator of Bud2p activation during invasive growth. Arf3p binds directly to the N-terminal region of Bud2p and promotes its GAP activity both in vitro and in vivo. Genetic analysis shows that deletion of BUD1 suppresses the defect of invasive growth in arf3Δ or bud2Δ cells. Lack of Arf3p, like that of Bud2p, causes the intracellular accumulation of Bud1p-GTP. The Arf3p-Bud2p interaction is important for invasive growth and facilitates the Bud2p-Bud1p association in vivo. Finally, we show that under glucose depletion-induced invasion conditions in yeast, more Arf3p is activated to the GTP-bound state, and the activation is independent of Arf3p guanine nucleotide-exchange factor Yel1p. Thus we demonstrate that a novel spatial activation of Arf3p plays a role in regulating Bud2p activation during glucose depletion-induced invasive growth.

  19. Comparison of ultrasound and ultrasound plus nerve stimulator guidance axillary plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirelli, G.; Baskan, S.; Karabeyoglu, I.; Aytac, I.; Omek, D.H.; Erdogmus, A.; Baydar, M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of axillary plexus blockade applied using ultrasound only and using ultrasound together with nerve stimulator in patients undergoing planned forearm, wrist or hand surgery. Methods: This randomised, prospective, double-blinded, single-centre study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from November 2014 to August 2015, and comprised patients undergoing forearm, wrist or hand surgery. Participants were separated into 2 groups. In Group 1, the nerve roots required for the surgical site were located one by one and local anaesthetic was applied separately to each nerve for the block. In Group 2, the vascular nerve bundle was located under ultrasound guidance and a total block was achieved by administering all the local anaesthetic within the nerve sheath. In the operating room, standard monitorisation was applied. Following preparation of the skin, the axillary region nerve roots and branches and vascular structures were observed by examination with a high-frequency ultrasound probe. In both groups, a 22-gauge, 5cm block needle was entered to the axillary region with visualisation of the whole needle on ultrasound and 20ml local anaesthetic of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 60 participants, there were 30(50%) in each group. The mean age was 39.1+-15 years in the group 1 which was the ultrasound nerve stimulation group, and 41.5+-14.3 years in group 2. The duration of the procedure was longer in group I than in group 2 (p<0.05). Patient satisfaction values during the procedure were higher in group 2(p<0.05). In the ulnar sensory examination, the values of the patients in group 1 were higher at 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes (p<0.05). In the median, radial and ulnar motor examination, the values of the patients in group 1were higher at 15 and 20 minutes (p<0.05). Conclusion: Brachial plexus blockade via axillary approach guided by ultrasound offered

  20. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis [General Hospital, PET/CT Unit, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  1. Prevention of vascular access hand ischemia using the axillary artery as inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, William; Brown, Robert; Blebea, John; Taubman, Kevin; Messiner, Ryan

    2013-11-01

    Avoiding dialysis access-associated ischemic steal syndrome (DASS) in patients with upper extremity peripheral vascular occlusive disease while creating a functional hemodialysis vascular access may be challenging. We constructed an autogenous access with primary proximalization of the arterial inflow to prevent hand ischemia in patients at high risk for this complication. Patients requiring hemodialysis access with physical findings suggesting a high risk of access-related hand ischemia (absent radial, ulnar, and brachial palpable pulses associated with small calcified vessels by ultrasound examination) underwent a primary arteriovenous fistula transposition procedure utilizing the axillary artery for inflow. The arteriovenous fistula was either a reversed flow basilic vein transposition supplemented by valvulotomy (n = 22); a translocated reversed basilic vein (n = 4); a cephalic vein harvested into the forearm and placed in a loop configuration for axillary artery inflow (n = 3); or a translocated reversed saphenous vein (n = 1). Thirty patients with a mean age of 60 years (range, 31-83 years) underwent successful primary axillary artery inflow procedures during a 3-year period. Of these, 23 (77%) were female and 25 (83%) were diabetic. Twenty-one (70%) had previous vascular access procedures and 10 (33%) were obese. No patient developed postoperative ischemia. Three individuals died 2, 14, and 19 months following surgery, none related to vascular access. Three accesses failed after 1, 5, and 7 months and could not be salvaged. Life-table primary, primary assisted, and cumulative patency rates were 57%, 78%, and 87% respectively at 1 year with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range, 1-25 months). Cephalic vein outflow was associated with fewer access failures, fewer interventions postoperatively, and lower rates of arm swelling (P vascular access utilizing axillary artery inflow is a good option for patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. It offers a high

  2. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Ścieszka; Dagmara Urbańska‑Krawiec; Maciej Kajor; Leszek Stefański

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66‑year‑old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X‑ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The di‑ agnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination o...

  3. Tuberculosis axillary lymph node coexistent breast cancer in adjuvant treatment: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Silvio Eduardo; Amaral, Paulo Gustavo Tenório do

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is rare. In most cases, involvement by tuberculosis occurs in axillary lymph nodes. We report a case of a 43-years-old patient who had undergone adenomastectomy and left sentinel lymph node biopsy due to a triple negative ductal carcinoma. At the end of adjuvant treatment, the patient had an atypical lymph node in the left axilla. Lymph node was excised, and after laboratory analysis, the diagnosis was ganglion tuberculosis. The patient underwent treatment for primary tuberculosis. The development of these two pathologies can lead to problems in diagnosis and treatment. An accurate diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

  4. A Case Report of Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome Treated with Carotid to Axillary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Al-Jundi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome results from atherosclerotic disease of the proximal subclavian artery causing reversal of flow in an internal mammary artery used as conduit for coronary artery bypass. This rare complication of cardiac revascularisation leads to recurrence of myocardial ischaemia. When feasible, subclavian angioplasty and/or stent placement can provide acceptable result for these patients. Vascular reconstruction through carotid to subclavian artery bypass has been the standard procedure of choice. Other interventions in literature include axilloaxillary bypass and subclavian carotid transposition. This case report describes the use of carotid axillary artery bypass for the treatment of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome.

  5. Anatomy of Axillary Nerve and Its Clinical Importance: A Cadaveric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppasad, Saniya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Axillary nerve is one of the terminal branches of posterior cord of brachial plexus, which is most commonly injured during numerous orthopaedic surgeries, during shoulder dislocation & rotator cuff tear. All these possible iatrogenic injuries are because of lack of awareness of anatomical variations of the nerve. Therefore, it is very much necessary to explore its possible variations and guide the surgeons to enhance the better clinical outcome by reducing the risk and complications. Materials and Methods: Twenty five cadavers (20 Males & 05 Females) making 50 specimens including both right and left sides were dissected as per standard dissection methods to find the origin, course, branches, distribution & exact location of the nerve beneath the deltoid muscle from important landmarks like: posterolateral aspect of acromion process, anteromedial aspect of tip of coracoid process, midpoint of deltoid muscle insertion (deltoid tuberosity of humerus) and from the midpoint of vertical length of deltoid muscle. The measurements were recorded and tabulated. Statistical Analysis: The measurements were entered in Microsoft excel and mean, proportion, standard deviation were calculated by using SPSS 16th version. Results: The axillary nerve was found to take origin from the posterior cord of brachial plexus (100%) dividing into anterior & posterior branches in Quadrangular space (88%) and supply deltoid muscle mainly. It also gave branches to teres minor muscle, shoulder joint capsule & superolateral brachial cutaneous nerve (100%). This study concluded that the mean distance of axillary nerve from the – anteromedial aspect of tip of coracoid process, posterolateral aspect of acromion process, midpoint of deltoid insertion & from the midpoint of vertical length of deltoid muscle measured to be (in cm) as 3.56±0.51, 7.4±0.99, 6.7±0.47 & 2.45±0.48 respectively. The mean vertical distance of entering point of axillary nerve from the anterior upper, mid

  6. The value of level III clearance in patients with axillary and sentinel node positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, Mary F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of level III axillary clearance is contentious, with great variance worldwide in the extent and levels of clearance performed. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of level III positivity in patients undergoing level I-III axillary clearance, and identify which patients are at highest risk of involved level III nodes. METHODS: From a database of 2850 patients derived from symptomatic and population-based screening service, 1179 patients who underwent level I-III clearance between the years 1999-2007 were identified. The pathology, surgical details, and prior sentinel nodes biopsies of patients were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven hundred seventy nine patients had level I-III axillary clearance. Of the patients, 63% (n = 747) were node positive. Of patients with node positive disease, 23% (n = 168) were level II positive and 19% (n = 141) were level III positive. Two hundred fifty patients had positive sentinel node biopsies prior to axillary clearance. Of these, 12% (n = 30) and 9% (n = 22) were level II and level III positive, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of level III involvement in patients with node positive disease were tumor size (P < 0.001, OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), invasive lobular disease (P < 0.001, OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9-6.95), extranodal extension (P < 0.001, OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.4), and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.04, OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-1). Lobular invasive disease (P = 0.049, OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1-16.8), extranodal spread (P = 0.003, OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.06-0.57), and having more than one positive sentinel node (P = 0.009, OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-16.1) were predictive of level III involvement in patients with sentinel node positive disease. CONCLUSION: Level III clearance has a selective but definite role to play in patients who have node positive breast carcinoma. Pathological characteristics of the primary tumor are of particular use in identifying those who are at various risk of level III nodal

  7. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  8. Axillary lymph node metastases in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A rare finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, D; Mitsopoulos, G; Kaptanis, S; Halkias, C

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm that has a good prognosis and represents less than 1% of all breast cancers. It is a triple negative carcinoma that presents as a painful mass. The mean age at the time of diagnosis is 50-60 years old. The solid variant of this type of tumour with basaloid features and presence of nodal metastases is very rare and considered to have a more aggressive clinical course. We present a case with presence of axillary lymph node metastases that was successfully treated with no evidence of recurrence one year after the diagnosis and review the literature.

  9. Tattoo pigment in axillary lymph node mimicking calcification of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsika, Admire; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Gray, Janet Meryl; Galbraith, Christine Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A tattoo is defined as the intentional or accidental deposit of pigment into the skin. The phenomenon of skin tattooing is on the rise worldwide and complications of tattooing are increasingly being recognised in diagnostic and clinical medicine. We describe a case of calcification-like changes on mammography resembling that of breast malignancy as a result of tattoo pigment deposition in an axillary lymph node. Recognition of such changes in routine breast screening is crucial to avoid further unnecessary invasive investigations and surgery in such patients. PMID:23929611

  10. Treatment results of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with positive axillary nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Soo [College of Medicine, Pochon CHA Univ, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Between January 1983 and December 1988, 218 female patients with known breast cancer and positive axillary nodes were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy following radical mastectomy. Treatment results were retrospectively analysed at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University of College of Medicine. The patients were classified into 3 groups; group 1 included 80 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy alone; in group 2, 52 patients treated with radiotherapy alone; and in group 3, 86 patients treated with combined chemo-radiotherapy. The mean age was 44 years and ranged from 27 to 70. The median follow-up time was 51 months. Seven-year relapse free and overall survival rates were 56% and 67%; in group 1, 50% and 56%; in group 2, 51% and 65%; and in group 3, 62% and 75% respectively. This difference was not statistically significant(p<0.05). The loco-regional failure rates were 13% and distant failure rates were 33%. There was less risk of loco-regional failure in group 2 and 3 which included radiotherapy (.0<0.05). But there was no significant y difference in the rates of distant failure(p>0.05). By univariate analysis, the only significant prognostic factor affecting relapse-free survival was the percentage of positive axillary nodes; and the overall survival significantly correlated with the primary tumor size, the number or percentage of positive axillary nodes, and stage. But in multivariate analysis, the only significant prognostic factor was treatment modality. By univariate analysis of prognostic factors affecting the rates of overall failure and distant failure, the significant prognostic factors was the percentage of positive axillary nodes; and the risk of the loco-regional failure significantly correlated with the treatment modality. In conclusion, these results suggest a potential for decreasing the risk of loco-regional failure with the addition of postoperative radiotherapy to chemotherapy in the

  11. Para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach in torticollis: tips and tricks in the surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Baran; Karacay, Safak; Arda, Surhan; Alici, Umut

    2015-04-01

    An obvious scar on the neck may appear following the open surgery for congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). The cosmetic result may displease the patient and the family. In this study, we describe a minimally invasive technique, para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach (PASEA) in CMT. A total of 11 children (seven girls and four boys with the age range between 1 and 15 years) were operated for torticollis by PASEA. All patients had facial asymmetry and head and neck postural abnormality. Following an incision at the ipsilateral para-axillary region, a subcutaneous cavernous working space is formed toward sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. The muscle and fascia are cut by cautery under endoscopic vision. The patients had postoperative 2nd-week and 3rd-month visits. The incision scar, inspection, and palpation findings of the region, head posture, and shoulder position of the affected side were considered in evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion of the head and neck were compared for functional outcome. We preferred single incision surgery in our last two patients; the rest had double para-axillary incision for port insertion. Incomplete transection of the muscle was not observed. There was no serious complication. Postoperatively, head posture and shoulder elevation were corrected significantly. Range of motion of the head was improved. Postoperatively, all the patients had rotation capacity with more than 30 degrees. The range of postoperative flexion and extension movements was between 45 and 60 degrees. The open surgery techniques of CMT causes visible lifelong incision scar on the neck. PASEA leaves a cosmetically hidden scar in the axillary region. A single incision surgery is also possible. A well-formed cavernous working space is needed. External manual palpation, delicate dissection, and cutting of SCM muscle with cautery are the important components of the procedure. Surgeons having experience in pediatric

  12. Karyotypic Determinants of Chromosome Instability in Aneuploid Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, William D.; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in cancer cells and budding yeast demonstrated that aneuploidy, the state of having abnormal chromosome numbers, correlates with elevated chromosome instability (CIN), i.e. the propensity of gaining and losing chromosomes at a high frequency. Here we have investigated ploidy- and chromosome-specific determinants underlying aneuploidy-induced CIN by observing karyotype dynamics in fully isogenic aneuploid yeast strains with ploidies between 1N and 2N obtained through a random meiotic process. The aneuploid strains exhibited various levels of whole-chromosome instability (i.e. chromosome gains and losses). CIN correlates with cellular ploidy in an unexpected way: cells with a chromosomal content close to the haploid state are significantly more stable than cells displaying an apparent ploidy between 1.5 and 2N. We propose that the capacity for accurate chromosome segregation by the mitotic system does not scale continuously with an increasing number of chromosomes, but may occur via discrete steps each time a full set of chromosomes is added to the genome. On top of such general ploidy-related effect, CIN is also associated with the presence of specific aneuploid chromosomes as well as dosage imbalance between specific chromosome pairs. Our findings potentially help reconcile the divide between gene-centric versus genome-centric theories in cancer evolution. PMID:22615582

  13. Timing robustness in the budding and fission yeast cell cycles.

    KAUST Repository

    Mangla, Karan

    2010-02-01

    Robustness of biological models has emerged as an important principle in systems biology. Many past analyses of Boolean models update all pending changes in signals simultaneously (i.e., synchronously), making it impossible to consider robustness to variations in timing that result from noise and different environmental conditions. We checked previously published mathematical models of the cell cycles of budding and fission yeast for robustness to timing variations by constructing Boolean models and analyzing them using model-checking software for the property of speed independence. Surprisingly, the models are nearly, but not totally, speed-independent. In some cases, examination of timing problems discovered in the analysis exposes apparent inaccuracies in the model. Biologically justified revisions to the model eliminate the timing problems. Furthermore, in silico random mutations in the regulatory interactions of a speed-independent Boolean model are shown to be unlikely to preserve speed independence, even in models that are otherwise functional, providing evidence for selection pressure to maintain timing robustness. Multiple cell cycle models exhibit strong robustness to timing variation, apparently due to evolutionary pressure. Thus, timing robustness can be a basis for generating testable hypotheses and can focus attention on aspects of a model that may need refinement.

  14. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  15. Ustawa budżetowa na 2016 rok – problematyka prawna

    OpenAIRE

    Borodo, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Ustawa budżetowa na 2016 r. ustala roczne dochody, wydatki, przychody, rozchody, koszty, wynagrodzenia, stawki należności, odpisy na fundusze. Ustalenia te dotyczą gospodarki finansowej rządu i innych części gospodarki finansowej państwa. Ustawa budżetowa zawiera postanowienia wynikające z wielu ustaw. Jest rozwinięciem lub wykonaniem uregulowań ujętych w całym ustawodawstwie. Ustawa budżetowa na 2016 r. zawiera trzy wymagane przez ustawę o finansach publicznych części: budżet, załączniki, in...

  16. Transcriptome analysis of female and male flower buds of Idesia polycarpa Maxim. var. vestita Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanju Mei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This work provides the first detailed transcriptome analysis of female and male flower of I. polycarpa and lays foundations for future studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying flower bud development of I. polycarpa.

  17. Retained Cotton Bud-induced Severe Otitis Externa That Mimics Malignant Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chae Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential complications of cotton bud use are not well known in the elderly population. Here, we presented a case of cotton bud misuse. An elderly man who had long-standing diabetes mellitus, chronic otorrhea, and right-sided otalgia was poorly responsive to empirical treatment at a primary hospital. He was misdiagnosed with malignant otitis externa and referred to a tertiary hospital. On treatment Day 7 at the tertiary hospital, when the swollen ear canal was somewhat resolved, a retained cotton swab was found in his ear canal. His symptoms rapidly resolved after removing the retained foreign body. A cotton bud can be retained as a foreign body in the ear canal. The guidance of health professionals is needed to clean the ear canal using cotton buds, especially for elderly patients with other chronic diseases.

  18. Identification of New Genes that Regulate Telomerase and Telomere Length in Budding Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otero, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In budding yeast, Cdc13 has both an essential function in chromosome end protection as well as a non-essential role in telomere replication, by mediating recruitment of telomerase to the chromosome end...

  19. Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique on monitoring flower bud differentiation of tulip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Haojun; Yang Hongguang; Han Hongbin; Sun Xiaomei

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for observing morphogenesis process in the living specimen situation of tulip flower buds. Through a comparison of different MRI imaging formation technique (longitudinal relaxation-T1WI, transverse relaxation time weighted imaging-T2WI, proton density weighted imaging-PDWI), seeking for an accurate and practical MRI technique to observe tulip bulb and differentiation period of flower bud. The results showed that in the demonstration of the morphological characters as well as morphogenesis process of flower bud differentiation, the T1WI was completely consistent with the results of rough slice, PDWI and T1WI also had obviously higher map quality than the T2WI (P<0.05). It is indicated that the magnetic resonance imaging technique could monitor the development of flower bud differentiation in vivo. (authors)

  20. [No need to spare the arm after axillary dissection: the prohibition on interventions such as venepuncture is obsolete].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Ragna L A; van Bebber, Ignas P T; Bosscha, Koop; Bessems, Maud

    2015-01-01

    Annually, around 11,500 patients are treated surgically for breast cancer. In the past, 5-25% of these underwent an axillary dissection. This procedure can entail complications such as lymphoedema. Known risk factors are obesity and infections or wounds in the arm concerned. There is a traditional assumption that interventions on this arm, such as venepuncture, infusion or measurement of blood pressure, may induce lymphoedema. This assumption has been queried in recent years. Based on our analysis of the current literature, we believe that the above-mentioned interventions after non-complicated axillary dissection do not increase the risk of lymphoedema or other complications. We recommend changing the policy that prohibits interventions such as venepuncture after axillary dissection.

  1. Solitary axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian Cancer: Case report and brief literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji In; Kim, Soo Jin; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Hee Sung

    2014-01-01

    Axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer is rare. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman proven as ovarian serous papillary carcinoma and metastatic papillary carcinoma of the omentum on surgical diagnostic laparoscopy. In addition, a hypermetabolic lymph node was detected in left axilla and was considered a reactive benign lesion. Mammography and ultrasonography showed no focal lesion in both breasts, but ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the lymph node revealed metastatic serous papillary carcinoma from ovarian origin. Even with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer and only marginally elevated standardized uptake value in positron emission tomography, the possibility of metastasis at axillary lymph node in patients with known primary ovarian cancer must be considered.

  2. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT Findings in a Breast Cancer Patient with Concomitant Tuberculous Axillary Lymphadenitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won [Jeju National Univ. Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Mi [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hyuck [Jeju National Univ. School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Although {sup 18F} fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18F} FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive modality for detecting a malignant lesion, increased {sup 18F} FDG uptake is also seen in infected or inflammatory processes. Here, we report the case of a a breast cancer patient with concomitant tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis that showed increased {sup 18F} FDG uptake. A 39 year old woman underwent preoperative {sup 18F} FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) as a part of the work up for right breast cancer. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT images showed a malignant lesion in the right breast with moderate {sup 18F} FDG uptake, and multiple enlarged right axillary lymph nodes with intense {sup 18F} FDG uptake. Subsequently, the patient underwent right mastectomy and right axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination confirmed breast cancer and tuberculous lymphadenitis, and the patient was treated concomitantly with anti tuberculous therapy.

  3. Axillary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass with an externally stented graft: a technical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Loris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the proliferation of minimally invasive cardiac surgery a number of alternative inflow sites for coronary artery bypass grafting have been utilized, especially in higher risk patients. The use of axillary-coronary artery bypass is a safe and effective alternative especially in the case of patients requiring redo coronary revascularization. However, the length and convoluted course of the axillary-coronary vein graft makes is susceptible to twisting, trauma and neointimal hyperplasia. We therefore report a case of an axillary-coronary artery bypass in a high risk patient in which a Dacron conduit was used to externally support and protect the vein graft to the left anterior descending artery. Surgical technique and considerations are presented and discussed.

  4. Solitary axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian Cancer: Case report and brief literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji In; Kim, Soo Jin; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Hee Sung [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer is rare. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman proven as ovarian serous papillary carcinoma and metastatic papillary carcinoma of the omentum on surgical diagnostic laparoscopy. In addition, a hypermetabolic lymph node was detected in left axilla and was considered a reactive benign lesion. Mammography and ultrasonography showed no focal lesion in both breasts, but ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the lymph node revealed metastatic serous papillary carcinoma from ovarian origin. Even with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer and only marginally elevated standardized uptake value in positron emission tomography, the possibility of metastasis at axillary lymph node in patients with known primary ovarian cancer must be considered.

  5. No. 347-Obstetric Management at Borderline Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Noor Niyar N; Chari, Radha S; Dunn, Michael S; Jones, Griffith; Shah, Prakesh; Barrett, Jon F R

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective of this guideline was to develop consensus statements to guide clinical practice and recommendations for obstetric management of a pregnancy at borderline viability, currently defined as prior to 25+6 weeks. Clinicians involved in the obstetric management of women whose fetus is at the borderline of viability. Women presenting for possible birth at borderline viability. This document presents a summary of the literature and a general consensus on the management of pregnancies at borderline viability, including maternal transfer and consultation, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate, fetal heart rate monitoring, and considerations in mode of delivery. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: extreme prematurity, borderline viability, preterm, pregnancy, antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery. The results were then studied, and relevant articles were reviewed. The references of the reviewed studies were also searched, as were documents citing pertinent studies. The evidence was then presented at a consensus meeting, and statements were developed. The content and recommendations were developed by the consensus group from the fields of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Neonatology, Perinatal Nursing, Patient Advocacy, and Ethics. The quality of evidence was rated using criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology framework (reference 1). The Board of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved the final draft for publication. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology framework. The interpretation of strong and weak recommendations is described later. The Summary of Findings is available upon request. A multidisciplinary approach should be used in counselling women and families at borderline

  6. Axillary artery injury after an anterior shoulder fracture dislocation and “periosteal sleeve avulsion of the rotator cuff” (SARC. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Chehata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the rare complication of an axillary artery injury associated with an anterior dislocation of the humerus and what we believe to be the first reported periosteal sleeve avulsion of the entire rotator cuff (SARC. We review the literature and discuss the cause of this unusual injury pattern. Keywords: Axillary artery, Shoulder fracture dislocation, Periosteal sleeve avulsion, SARC

  7. Short-term morbidity of the upper limb after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection for stage I or II breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Geertzen, J.H.; Baas, P.; de Vries, J; Dolsma, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Hoekstra, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The goals of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are to improve axillary staging and reduce unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND), thereby reducing treatment-related upper-limb morbidity. In the current prospective study, short-term upper-limb morbidity was assessed after SLNB

  8. Effect of apical dominance on bud take in Citrus vegetative propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mataa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the grafting method, which will have a higher success rate of scion development. The study was conducted at Mount Makulu Central Research station in Chilanga, Zambia (15o33’S / 28o11’E from April 2010 to November 2011. The study had 4 vegetative propagation methods that varied in the treatment of the rootstock and scion. The four methods were Standard T- budding (STB; Modified TBudding with decapitation (TBD; T- budding with scion bending (TBB; Crown grafting (CG. Bud take, shoot growth, leaf emergence and Leaf area index were measured up to 11 weeks after treatment (WAT. With CG there was 100 % bud take. STB had a bud take of 58.3 %. TBD had a bud take of 50 %. The lowest bud take percentage was recorded in TBB, which had a bud take of 41.7 %. At 5 weeks the STB and TBB treatment had shoot length of 0.7 and 1.0 cm respectively which were the shortest; this was followed by the CG treatment at 15.3 cm and the modified TBD with apical shoot decapitation (21.7 cm. STB shoots did not start growing until about 5 weeks, which was 2 weeks after the rootstock was cut off. At 5 weeks, the TBB and STB were yet to form leaves. The CG had close to 20 leaves and the TBD had almost 15.2 leaves. At the end of 11 weeks, the TBB had the highest number of leaves. Across the grafting methods; the Leaf area exhibited a pattern similar to leaf number; it kept on doubling every 2 weeks to until the 9th week after which the increase was negligible. At 11 weeks, the highest leaf area was in the TBD followed by the STB and lowest in the CG treatment.

  9. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs

  10. Arthroscopic perspective of the axillary nerve in relation to the glenoid and arm position: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Chul; Kim, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Seok Hyun

    2007-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the morphologic features of the axillary nerve and its relation to the glenoid under an arthroscopic setup, and to determine the changes in nerve position according to different arm positions. Twenty-three fresh-frozen fore-quarter cadaveric shoulder specimens were used for evaluations in an arthroscopic setup with the lateral decubitus position. The main trunk of the axillary nerve with or without some of its branches was exposed after careful arthroscopic dissection. Morphologic features and the course of the axillary nerve from the anterior and posterior portals were documented. The closest distances from the glenoid rim were measured with a probe by use of a distance range system. The changes in nerve position were determined in 4 different arm positions. At the end of arthroscopic examination, the nerves were marked and verified by open dissections. The axillary nerve appeared in the joint near the inferior edge of the subscapularis muscle. With reference to the inferior glenoid rim horizontally, the nerve had a mean running angle of 23 degrees (range, 14 degrees to 41 degrees; SD, 8 degrees ). The closest points from the glenoid were between the 5:30- and 6:00-o'clock position (right) or 6:00- and 6:30-o'clock position (left). The closest distance range varied from 10 to 25 mm in the neutral arm position. The abduction-neutral position resulted in the greatest distance between the inferior glenoid and the nerve. The abduction-neutral rotation position was the optimal position for minimizing axillary nerve injuries, because it resulted in the greatest distance between the inferior glenoid and the nerve. Knowledge of the anatomy of the axillary nerve aids the shoulder surgeon in avoiding nerve injury during arthroscopic procedures. Abduction-neutral rotation may be more helpful for arthroscopic surgeons performing procedures in the anteroinferior glenoid with the nerve being farther away from the working field.

  11. Axillary nerve injury in young adults--an overlooked diagnosis? Early results of nerve reconstruction and nerve transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Lars B; Cöster, Marcus; Björkman, Anders; Backman, Clas

    2012-09-01

    An injury to the axillary nerve from a shoulder trauma can easily be overlooked. Spontaneous functional recovery may occur, but occasionally reconstructive surgery is required. The time frame for nerve reconstruction procedures is from a neurobiological view crucial for a good functional outcome. This study presents a group of operatively and non-operatively treated young adults with axillary nerve injuries caused by motorcycle accidents, where the diagnosis was set late. Ten young men (median age at trauma 13 years, range 9-24) with an axillary nerve injury were diagnosed by examination of shoulder function and electromyography (EMG). The patients had either a nerve reconstruction procedure or were treated conservatively and their recovery was monitored. The axillary nerve was explored and reconstructed at a median of 8 months (range 1-22 months) after trauma in 8/10 patients. Two patients were treated non-operatively. In 4/8 cases, a reconstruction with sural nerve graft was performed and in 1/8 case only exploration of the nerve was made (minor neuroma). In 3/8 cases a radial nerve branch transfer to the axillary nerve was chosen as the procedure. The shoulder was mobilised after 3 weeks with physiotherapy and the patients were monitored regularly. Functional recovery was observed in 9/10 cases (median follow up 11 months, range 7-64) with EMG signs of reinnervation in seven patients. Axillary nerve function should not be overlooked in young patients with a minor shoulder trauma. Nerve reconstruction can successfully recreate function.

  12. Human axillary skin condition is improved following incorporation of glycerol into the stratum corneum from an antiperspirant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard L; Turner, Graham A; Bates, Susan; Robinson, Teresa; Arnold, David; Marriott, Robert E; Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Green, Darren

    2017-11-01

    The study objectives were to demonstrate that glycerol, when topically applied from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, can be delivered directly to human skin ex vivo and the axillary stratum corneum (SC) in vivo, and to assess whether it improves the quality of the axillary skin barrier. Ex vivo human skin absorption of glycerol was measured following application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% 13 C 3 -glycerol. Skin distribution of 13 C 3 -glycerol over 24 h was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo axillary SC penetration was measured by confocal Raman spectroscopy and multivariate curve-resolution software 1 h after topical application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 8% deuterated glycerol (d 5 -glycerol). A clinical study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% glycerol in reducing shaving-induced visual irritation and in increasing axillary-skin hydration. Ex vivo skin absorption studies indicated that the formulation delivered 13 C 3 -glycerol into the SC at all timepoints over the 24-h period. In vivo Raman measurements (1 h after application) demonstrated that d 5 -glycerol was detectable to a depth of at least 10 μm in the axillary SC. Application of 4% glycerol from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation to the axilla was associated with significantly less visible irritation and greater skin hydration than observed with the control (glycerol-free) product. These studies demonstrate that glycerol, incorporated in a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, is delivered directly and rapidly to all depths of the axillary SC, and results in improvements in visible irritation and hydration in the axilla.

  13. Injury to the axillary and suprascapular nerves in rotator cuff arthropathy and after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective electromyographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiz, Yaiza; Rodriguez-González, Alberto; Martín-Albarrán, Susana; Marcelo, Hector; García-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Fernando

    2018-02-20

    Neurologic pre- and postoperative injuries to the axillary and/or suprascapular nerve (SSN) have a higher incidence than expected and may lead to significantly decreased functional outcomes and increased risk of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) failure. Patients who underwent a RSA for rotator cuff tear arthropathy (RCTA) were included from December 2014 to December 2015. This study focused on the clinical (Constant score), radiographic, and pre- and postoperative electromyographic evaluations at 3 and 6 months. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. One was lost to follow-up. Preoperatively, 15 patients showed changes on electromyography (9 SSN and 15 axillary nerve lesions); all of them were chronic and disuse injuries. The mean preoperative relative Constant score (rCS) of all included patients was 39 ± 9 (range, 19-64). At 3 months postsurgery, the prevalence of acute injuries for both nerves was 31.5%. At 6 months postsurgery, 2 axillary nerve injuries and 6 SSN injuries remain unchanged, and the rest improved or normalized. The mean postsurgery rCS of the entire cohort at 6-month follow-up was 78 ± 6.5. Mean postoperative rCS for acute postoperative nerve injury was 71 ± 3 for the axillary nerve and 64 ± 5 for SSN. Axillary and SSN injuries in RCTA have a much higher incidence than expected. Most of these axillary lesions are transient, with an almost complete recovery seen on electromyography at 6 months and with scarce functional impact. However, SSN lesions appear to behave differently, with poor functional results and having a lower potential for a complete recovery. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Shyian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common.

  15. Novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate histone protein levels in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3

  16. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cell morphology, budding propensity and cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at high hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Lewis, Jeffrey; Kumar, Pradeep

    A large biomass on earth thrives in extremes of physical and chemical conditions including high pressure and temperature. Budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, is a eukaryotic model organism due to its amenability to molecular biology tools. To understand the effects of hydrostatic pressure on a eukaryotic cell, we have performed quantitative experiments of the growth, the propensity of budding, and cell death of S. cerevisiae in a wide range of pressures. An automated image analysis method for the quantification of the budding index was developed and applied along with a continuum model of budding to investigate the effects of pressure on cell division and cell morphology. We find that the growth, the budding propensity, the average cell size, and the ellipticity of the cells decrease with increasing pressure. Furthermore, large hydrostatic pressure led to the small but finite probability of cell death. Our experiments suggest that the decrease of budding propensity arises from cellular arrest at the cell cycle checkpoints during different stages of cell division.

  18. In vivo and ex vivo methods of growing a liver bud through tissue connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Koichi; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Enosawa, Shin; Tamura, Tadashi; Yoshimaru, Koichiro; Matsuura, Toshiharu; Hayashida, Makoto; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2017-10-26

    Cell-based therapy has been proposed as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. The novel transplantation of an in vitro-generated liver bud might have therapeutic potential. In vivo and ex vivo methods for growing a liver bud are essential for paving the way for the clinical translation of liver bud transplantation. We herein report a novel transplantation method for liver buds that are grown in vivo involving orthotopic transplantation on the transected parenchyma of the liver, which showed long engraftment and marked growth in comparison to heterotopic transplantation. Furthermore, this study demonstrates a method for rapidly fabricating scalable liver-like tissue by fusing hundreds of liver bud-like spheroids using a 3D bioprinter. Its system to fix the shape of the 3D tissue with the needle-array system enabled the fabrication of elaborate geometry and the immediate execution of culture circulation after 3D printing-thereby avoiding an ischemic environment ex vivo. The ex vivo-fabricated human liver-like tissue exhibited self-tissue organization ex vivo and engraftment on the liver of nude rats. These achievements conclusively show both in vivo and ex vivo methods for growing in vitro-generated liver buds. These methods provide a new approach for in vitro-generated liver organoids transplantation.

  19. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  20. Influence of the bud neck on nuclear envelope fission in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia G; Rose, Mark D

    2017-09-15

    Studies have shown that nuclear envelope fission (karyokinesis) in budding yeast depends on cytokinesis, but not distinguished whether this was a direct requirement, indirect, because of cell cycle arrest, or due to bud neck-localized proteins impacting both processes. To determine the requirements for karyokinesis, we examined mutants conditionally defective for bud emergence and/or nuclear migration. The common mutant phenotype was completion of the nuclear division cycle within the mother cell, but karyokinesis did not occur. In the cdc24 swe1 mutant, at the non-permissive temperature, multiple nuclei accumulated within the unbudded cell, with connected nuclear envelopes. Upon return to the permissive temperature, the cdc24 swe1 mutant initiated bud emergence, but only the nucleus spanning the neck underwent fission suggesting that the bud neck region is important for fission initiation. The neck may be critical for either mechanical reasons, as the contractile ring might facilitate fission, or for regulatory reasons, as the site of a protein network regulating nuclear envelope fission, mitotic exit, and cytokinesis. We also found that 77-85% of pairs of septin mutant nuclei completed nuclear envelope fission. In addition, 27% of myo1Δ mutant nuclei completed karyokinesis. These data suggested that fission is not dependent on mechanical contraction at the bud neck, but was instead controlled by regulatory proteins there. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of the fate of developing tooth buds on the fracture line of mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suei, Yoshikazu; Mallick, Parimal Chandra; Nagasaki, Toshikazu; Taguchi, Akira; Fujita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    The goal was to suggest guidelines for the treatment of developing tooth buds located on the fracture line of mandibular fractures. The long-term radiographic follow-up records of 28 patients with mandibular fractures involving 66 tooth buds were examined for the occurrence of abnormalities in development or eruption. The fates of the involved teeth were compared according to the fracture conditions and other factors, and the cause of the abnormalities was surveyed. Abnormal findings were observed in 30 of 66 developing teeth (45%); these included deficient root formation, abnormal bend of the root, nodule formation on the root, partial obliteration of the pulp cavity, impaction, growth arrest, and external resorption. No relationship was found between the presence of abnormalities and the condition of the fracture or the developmental stage of the tooth buds. However, infection, rotation of the tooth bud, and a surgical wire passing through the follicular space were associated with arrested growth and impaction. The tooth buds present on the fracture line should be preserved except in cases of infection, and careful attention should be paid to avoiding further injury to the tooth bud and the soft tissues of the follicle at the time of surgery.

  2. Axillary artery injury combined with delayed brachial plexus palsy due to compressive hematoma in a young patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajima Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Axillary artery injury in the shoulder region following blunt trauma without association with either shoulder dislocation or fracture of the humeral neck has been previously reported. Axillary artery injury might also be accompanied with brachial plexus injury. However, delayed onset of brachial plexus palsy caused by a compressive hematoma associated with axillary injury after blunt trauma in the shoulder region has been rarely reported. In previous reports, this condition only occurred in old patients with sclerotic vessels. We present a case of a young patient who suffered axillary artery injury associated with brachial plexus palsy that occurred tardily due to compressive hematoma after blunt trauma in the shoulder region without association of either shoulder dislocation or humeral neck fracture. Case presentation A 16-year-old male injured his right shoulder in a motorbike accident. On initial physical evaluation, the pulses on the radial and ulnar arteries in the affected arm were palpable. Paralysis developed later from 2 days after the injury. Functions in the right arm became significantly impaired. Angiography showed complete occlusion of the axillary artery. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass measuring 4 × 5 cm that was suspected to be a hematoma compressing the brachial plexus in a space between the subscapular muscle and the pectoralis minor muscle. Surgery was performed on the third day after injury. In intraoperative observations, the axillary artery was occluded with thrombus along 5 cm; a subscapular artery was ruptured; the brachial plexus was compressed by the hematoma. After evacuation of the hematoma, neurolysis of the brachial plexus, and revascularization of the axillary artery, the patient had an excellent functional recovery of the affected upper limb, postoperatively. Conclusion Surgeons should be aware that axillary artery injuries may even occur in young people after severe blunt

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Anatomy of the Proximal Humerus Muscle Attachments and the Axillary Nerve: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatshe, Gilbert; Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Chahla, Jorge; Ferrari, Márcio B; Sanchez, George; Lebus, George F; Brady, Alex W; Frank, Rachel M; LaPrade, Robert F; Provencher, Matthew T

    2018-03-01

    To provide a quantitative and qualitative anatomic analysis of the pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi on the humerus, as well as the deltoid tendinous attachments on the proximal humerus and acromion, and to quantitatively characterize the humeral course of the axillary nerve. Ten nonpaired, fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. A portable coordinate-measuring device quantified the location of bony landmarks and tendon attachment areas. The tendon footprints were recorded by tracing their outlines and center points. The footprint areas of the tendons, the distances between the footprint areas and pertinent osseous and soft-tissue landmarks, and the distance between where the axillary nerve courses across the humerus relative to the acromion and greater tuberosity were measured. Of the 10 specimens, 9 (90%) had 5 distinct tendinous bands attaching the deltoid to the acromion; 1 specimen had 4 bands. The distances between the center of the deltoid footprint on the humerus and the centers of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and teres major tendon footprints on the humerus were 43.5 mm, 58.5 mm, and 49.4 mm, respectively. The shortest distances from the perimeter of the pectoralis major to the latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon footprints were 3.9 mm and 9.5 mm, respectively. The distance from the superior aspect of the greater tuberosity to the axillary nerve on the humeral shaft was 50.3 mm (95% confidence interval, 47.0-53.5 mm). The distance from the lateral acromion to the axillary nerve was 69.3 mm (95% confidence interval, 64.1-74.5 mm). The deltoid muscle had 4 to 5 tendinous insertions on the acromion, and the axillary nerve was 50.3 mm from the tip of the greater tuberosity. The distance between the lower border of the pectoralis major and the axillary nerve was 9.4 mm. Knowledge of the quantitative anatomy of the tendons of the proximal humerus and axillary nerve can aid in identifying structures of

  4. Impact on regional recurrence and survival of axillary surgery in women with node-negative primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, C K; Düring, M; Christiansen, P M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined whether axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with removal of many normal lymph nodes resulted in a reduced rate of axillary recurrence and better survival, as reported in recent studies. METHODS: The follow-up analyses were based on 8657 patients with node...... metastases (from 15.0 to 10.3 per cent; P treatment has decreased significantly during the past decade. The findings...... leave the concept of the sentinel node biopsy intact, as a highly specific procedure compared to ALND....

  5. Myocardial viability assessment using nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Hisada, Kinichi; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial assessment continues to be an issue in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Nuclear imaging has long played an important role in this field. In particular, PET imaging using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose is regarded as the metabolic gold standard of tissue viability, which has been supported by a wide clinical experience. Viability assessment using SPECT techniques has gained more wide-spread clinical acceptance than PET, because it is more widely available at lower cost. Moreover, technical advances in SPECT technology such as gated-SPECT further improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. However, other imaging techniques such as dobutamine echocardiography have recently emerged as competitors to nuclear imaging. It is also important to note that they sometimes may work in a complementary fashion to nuclear imaging, indicating that an appropriate use of these techniques may significantly improve their overall accuracy. In keeping these circumstances in mind, further efforts are necessary to further improve the diagnostic performance of nuclear imaging as a reliable viability test. (author) 107 refs

  6. Consequences of repeated defoliation on belowground bud banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation.

  7. Comparison of onabotulinumtoxinA and rimabotulinumtoxinB for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Soo; Hyun Won, Chong; Si Han, Ji; Park, Hyun Sun; Seo, Kyle K

    2015-08-01

    Recently, rimabotulinumtoxinB has been increasingly used as an off-label treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis (PAH). However, the optimal conversion ratios for onabotulinumtoxinA and rimabotulinumtoxinB remain to be determined. To compare effectiveness, satisfaction level, and safety of rimabotulinumtoxinB with onabotulinumtoxinA at a conversion ratio of 1:30 for the treatment of PAH. Adults with PAH were enrolled in this bilaterally paired single-subject study. Each patient was randomly treated with 1,500 U rimabotulinumtoxinB on 1 axilla and 50 U onabotulinumtoxinA contralaterally. Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale was assessed before and after treatment up to 20 weeks. A 10-cm visual analog scale representing improvement of hidrotic symptom and starch-iodine test were also used to assess therapeutic efficacy. Twenty-four patients completed the study. Both groups showed comparable and efficacious anhidrotic effects through 20 weeks for any variable. There were no significant differences in terms of the onset of action or mean duration of action between the 2 groups. Overall satisfaction with the treatment was equally high in both groups. Both toxins showed comparable anhidrotic effect for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis at a conversion ratio of 1:30.

  8. [Axillary ectopic breast tissue fibroadenoma: report of three cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2012-02-01

    Ninety-five percent of women have mammary tissue at the axilla. However, the fibroadenoma seldom occur in this area and there are only isolated case reports of this tumor. This paper presents a series of three cases of this rare entity. Three women came to our hospital by axillary lumps. The patients had a median age of 36 +/- 9-years-old with an average time of evolution of 34 +/- 53 months. One patient had the history of a breast phyllodes tumor previously excised, and two were nulliparous. In two cases, neither ultrasound nor mammogram gave useful information for its diagnosis. Mammary glands of all cases were normal. The tumors were firm and movable, similar to a lymphadenopathy, and one was evident. The mean tumor size was 28 +/- 18 mm; all were oval and with white appearance. Histological diagnosis for all cases was fibroadenoma. Our findings match with literature reports. The axillary fibroadenomas may occur in women aged 30 to 50-years-old, mimicking a lymphadenopathy. Finally, the ultrasound and the mammography are not useful tools for its diagnosis.

  9. Axillary apocrine adenocarcinoma in a young male suspected initially on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas are a rare entity, with only a few case reports so far. Many of these carcinomas are slow-growing with a high recurrence rate. A distinct cytological diagnosis can be made, and metastatic adenocarcinomas are always considered as a differential diagnosis on cytology. Our case was a 35-year-old male who presented with a discharging axillary sinus and swelling for the past 1 year. A clinical suspicion of tuberculous sinus was raised that however, remained unsupported by laboratory investigations. There was quite a high suspicion of apocrine adenocarcinoma on cytological examination that was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was successfully treated with total excision and a wide margin. We report this case in view of its rarity and its occurrence in a 35-year-old young male, and emphasize that an initial cytological suspicion should be raised for primary apocrine adenocarcinoma in case of an axillary tumor, especially keeping in consideration the poor prognosis of the same and chances of early metastasis.

  10. Axillary silicone lymphadenopathy presenting with a lump and altered sensation in the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Simon T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Silicone lymphadenopathy is a rare but recognised complication of procedures involving the use of silicone. It has a poorly understood mechanism but is thought to occur following the transportation of silicone particles from silicone-containing prostheses to lymph nodes by macrophages. Case presentation We report of a case involving a 35-year-old woman who presented to the breast clinic with a breast lump and altered sensation below her left nipple 5 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentations. A small lump was detected inferior to the nipple but clinical examination and initial ultrasound investigation showed both implants to be intact. However, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging of both breasts revealed both intracapsular and extracapsular rupture of the left breast prosthesis. The patient went on to develop a flu-like illness and tender lumps in the left axilla and right mastoid regions. An excision biopsy of the left axillary lesion and replacement of the ruptured implant was performed. Subsequent histological analysis showed that the axillary lump was a lymph node containing large amounts of silicone. Conclusion The exclusion of malignancy remains the priority when dealing with lumps in the breast or axilla. Silicone lymphadenopathy should however be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients in whom silicone prostheses are present.

  11. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50 mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50 mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects.

  12. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary nerve and its role in the diagnosis of traumatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H; Peer, S; Gruber, L; Loescher, W; Bauer, T; Loizides, A

    2014-08-01

    The axillary nerve (AN) is frequently injured during shoulder trauma and imaging is required to define the site and extent of nerve injury. However, the AN has a rather complex course through several soft tissue compartments of the shoulder and axilla. Therefore, imaging of the nerve with MRI and sonography is troublesome. Thus detection and sonographic assessment bases on thorough knowledge of local topography. This investigation aimed at defining reliable anatomical landmarks for AN-sonography in 5 volunteers and later validating the proposed sonographic examination protocol in 10 unselected patients. With strict adherence to the proposed examination algorithm, sonography of the AN was feasible in all volunteers and patients. Furthermore, sonographic findings correlated nicely with the golden standard "surgical exploration" concerning severity and topography of neural impairment. Based on our study results we propose our algorithm for AN-sonography as the first-line imaging tool for the assessment of axillary nerve trauma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Effect of patient positioning in axillary nerve safety during arthroscopic inferior glenohumeral ligament plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Adrián; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Heredia, Jorge Díaz; Cuéllar, Asier; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the risk of injuring the axillary nerve during an inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) plication and finding out whether shoulder position (either beach chair position or lateral decubitus position) has any effect in this risk. The axillary nerve (AN) was identified through a 3-cm posterior incision in 12 cadaveric shoulders. Under arthroscopic visualization, a curved indirect suture-passing device was placed through the posterior and anterior bands of the IGHL. The distances between the device and the AN were measured with the shoulder specimen placed at simulated lateral decubitus position and beach chair position. There were no cases of nerve injury nor the suture-passing device came closer than 10 mm to the nerve. There was an increase in the injury risk to the AN when inserting the device at the posterior band of the IGHL in the beach chair position [median 13 mm (range 10-21 mm)] compared to the risk in the lateral decubitus position [22.5 mm (20-26 mm), significant differences, p nerve to the IGHL and to highlight that the risk of nerve injury during capsular plication might be reduced in the lateral decubitus position.

  14. Usefulness of dynamic MR mammography for diagnosis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enya, Mayumi; Goto, Hiroo; Nandate, Yuka; Kiryu, Takuji; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate whether dynamic MR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer. Thirty-five patients with breast cancer were scanned and 147 lymph nodes were detected and compared with pathological nodal status. The parameters were the long axis dimension, the short axis dimension, the long-to-short axis (L/S) ratio, the shape, the contrast enhancement ratio (CER), the CER of lymph node-to-primary tumor (L/P) ratio. All parameters had significant differences between metastatic and normal nodes and there was a positive correlation between the CER of primary breast tumors and metastatic nodes. Multivariate analysis identified three parameters: the shape, the CER (1st phase), the L/P ratio (1st phase). ROC analysis revealed the shape and CER are superior in diagnostic performance to L/P ratio. If the shape and CER (1st phase) 60% and above are employed as criteria, the sensitivity, the specificity, the accuracy and the positive and negative predictive value were 86.0%, 78.4%, 81.0%, 67.2% and 91.6%, respectively. This method gives us useful information about the evaluation of axillary lymph node status preoperatively. (author)

  15. The cellular robustness by genetic redundancy in budding yeast.

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    Jingjing Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequent dispensability of duplicated genes in budding yeast is heralded as a hallmark of genetic robustness contributed by genetic redundancy. However, theoretical predictions suggest such backup by redundancy is evolutionarily unstable, and the extent of genetic robustness contributed from redundancy remains controversial. It is anticipated that, to achieve mutual buffering, the duplicated paralogs must at least share some functional overlap. However, counter-intuitively, several recent studies reported little functional redundancy between these buffering duplicates. The large yeast genetic interactions released recently allowed us to address these issues on a genome-wide scale. We herein characterized the synthetic genetic interactions for ∼500 pairs of yeast duplicated genes originated from either whole-genome duplication (WGD or small-scale duplication (SSD events. We established that functional redundancy between duplicates is a pre-requisite and thus is highly predictive of their backup capacity. This observation was particularly pronounced with the use of a newly introduced metric in scoring functional overlap between paralogs on the basis of gene ontology annotations. Even though mutual buffering was observed to be prevalent among duplicated genes, we showed that the observed backup capacity is largely an evolutionarily transient state. The loss of backup capacity generally follows a neutral mode, with the buffering strength decreasing in proportion to divergence time, and the vast majority of the paralogs have already lost their backup capacity. These observations validated previous theoretic predictions about instability of genetic redundancy. However, departing from the general neutral mode, intriguingly, our analysis revealed the presence of natural selection in stabilizing functional overlap between SSD pairs. These selected pairs, both WGD and SSD, tend to have decelerated functional evolution, have higher propensities of co

  16. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  17. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  18. Functional interchangeability of late domains, late domain cofactors and ubiquitin in viral budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zhadina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The membrane scission event that separates nascent enveloped virions from host cell membranes often requires the ESCRT pathway, which can be engaged through the action of peptide motifs, termed late (L- domains, in viral proteins. Viral PTAP and YPDL-like L-domains bind directly to the ESCRT-I and ALIX components of the ESCRT pathway, while PPxY motifs bind Nedd4-like, HECT-domain containing, ubiquitin ligases (e.g. WWP1. It has been unclear precisely how ubiquitin ligase recruitment ultimately leads to particle release. Here, using a lysine-free viral Gag protein derived from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV, where attachment of ubiquitin to Gag can be controlled, we show that several different HECT domains can replace the WWP1 HECT domain in chimeric ubiquitin ligases and drive budding. Moreover, artificial recruitment of isolated HECT domains to Gag is sufficient to stimulate budding. Conversely, the HECT domain becomes dispensable if the other domains of WWP1 are directly fused to an ESCRT-1 protein. In each case where budding is driven by a HECT domain, its catalytic activity is essential, but Gag ubiquitination is dispensable, suggesting that ubiquitin ligation to trans-acting proteins drives budding. Paradoxically, however, we also demonstrate that direct fusion of a ubiquitin moiety to the C-terminus of PFV Gag can also promote budding, suggesting that ubiquitination of Gag can substitute for ubiquitination of trans-acting proteins. Depletion of Tsg101 and ALIX inhibits budding that is dependent on ubiquitin that is fused to Gag, or ligated to trans-acting proteins through the action of a PPxY motif. These studies underscore the flexibility in the ways that the ESCRT pathway can be engaged, and suggest a model in which the identity of the protein to which ubiquitin is attached is not critical for subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding components of the ESCRT pathway and viral budding to proceed.

  19. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  20. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001-2003 and 2008-2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011-2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908-2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north-south direction and for the period 1877-2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north-west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3-4 days over a 100-year period.

  1. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001–2003 and 2008–2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011–2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908–2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north–south direction and for the period 1877–2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north–west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3–4 days over a 100-year period. PMID:25798141

  2. 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality... scores Data detail Data name 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality...or-capping method, the sequence quality score generated by the Phred software, and links to SGD, dbEST and U...es. FASTA format. Quality Phred's quality score About This Database Database Desc...g yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Five-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes treated with no lymph node dissection or axillary clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Daigo Yamamoto,1 Kanji Tanaka,2 Yu T subota,1 Noriko Sueoka,1 Tetsuji Shoji,3 Kayoko Kuwana,1 A-Hon Kwon11Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, 2Ribon-Rose Tanaka Kanji Breast Clinic, 3Shoji Clinic, Osaka, JapanBackground: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has steadily replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for staging clinically node-negative breast cancer. However, ALND remains standard management of the axilla when a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node is identified.Methods: We identified 460 patients with breast cancer (clinically T1/T2N0M0 from the database for 1999–2004. Patient age ranged from 26 to 81 (median 50 years. Patients who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with or without ALND were compared for regional recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival.Results: Patients with ALND (n = 308 were compared with the no ALND group (n = 152. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were not significantly different between the two groups, while there was a significant difference between them for regional recurrence. Of the 152 patients who did not undergo axillary dissection, four developed ipsilateral axillary disease, most of whom were rescued by delayed axillary dissection. Further, the criterion for identifying lymphedema was used, ie, a 2 cm circumferential change at any measured location. As a result, the incidence of lymphedema in the ALND group was 12.7%, while it was not seen in the non ALND group.Conclusion: There is a possibility that ALND may be omitted for cT1/T2N0M0 breast cancer through a combination of hormone therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy.Keywords: breast cancer, axillary lymph node dissection

  4. The efficacy of physiotherapy upon shoulder function following axillary dissection in breast cancer, a randomized controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, C.H.G.; Uden, C. van; Strobbe, L.J.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Wobbes, Th.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients suffer from severe shoulder complaints after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. Physiotherapy has been clinically observed to improve treatment of these patients. However, it is not a standard treatment regime. The purpose of this study is to

  5. Procedural pain of an ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: a comparison of axillary and infraclavicular approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Benedikte Skøtt; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Jacobsen, R B

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) blocks have similar effectiveness. Therefore, limiting procedural pain may help to choose a standard approach. The primary aims of this randomized study were to assess patient's pain during the block and to recognize its cause....

  6. [Surgical treatment of suppurative axillary hidradenitis: value of a musculocutaneous island flap of the latissimus dorsi. Apropos of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, D; Tropet, Y; Balmat, P

    1990-01-01

    We report our experience of the surgical management of severe, extensive, medically intractable axillary Hidradenitis suppurativa in three male patients. Under general anaesthesia, all patients underwent large, deep and full excision of the disease prone areas, i. e. zones of apocrine sweat gland distribution and not only of the skin involved at the time of surgery, for the best possible prevention of recurrence. The operation was bilateral in two patients and unilateral in one. In all cases closure was achieved using the latissimus dorsi flap technique. In the two patients with bilateral lesions surgery was carried out in two steps at about two months' interval. At present, after a follow-up of about two years, none of the patients have relapsed and their shoulder mobility is perfectly preserved with a normal abduction allowed by the total absence of axillary scar contracture. The latissimus dorsi flap technique consists of transplanting into the recipient's axillary defect the pedicellated lateral margin of the latissimus dorsi muscle with (2 patients) or without (1 patient) a cover of attached skin palette vascularized by the underlying muscle tissue. Mainly used hitherto for reconstructive mammary surgery, this technique perfectly fits axillary diseases, such as Hidradenitis suppurativa, which can only be cured by creating wide surgical skin defects. It is particularly reliable: covering of the defect is easy and the immediate muscle interposition effectively protects the otherwise widely exposed neurovascular pedicle. The need for a skin palette cover associated with the latissimus dorsi flap is discussed.

  7. Coexistence of metastatic breast carcinoma and primary tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes: a report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujani, Mukta; Khan, Sabina; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Jetley, Sujata; Raina, Prabhat Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant breast cancer metastasis and tubercular lymphadenitis in axillary lymph node is an extremely rare occurrence. Axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important factor in the staging of breast carcinoma and the number of axillary nodes showing metastases alters the stage. As tuberculosis also produces nodal enlargement, this can mimic or complicate the staging of malignant disease. Dual pathology in an organ can lead to difficulties in interpretation and inappropriate treatment of tuberculosis as well as carcinoma breast. Moreover, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from such cases may be misleading if only one of the diseases is picked up. Therefore, the need for multiple attempts at FNAC should be stressed upon for all palpable lumps. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma breast in a 45-year-old female where tuberculosis was discovered in axillary lymph nodes in addition to metastases. As the present case led to incidental discovery of tuberculosis with tumor metastasis, it reinforces the possibility of a coexistent lesion in the pathologists' mind, especially in regions endemic for tuberculosis.

  8. The number of histologically examined axillary lymph nodes can improve the prediction of individual prognosis of primary breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, M; Otter, R; E De Vries, E G; A Van der Graaf, W T; Vries, de Jakob; B Willemse, P H

    2004-01-01

    558 Background: A minimal number of histologically examined nodes has been associated with improved survival in both node-negative and node-positive patients. Following a retrospective audit of quality of axillary staging, the prognostic effect of variation in the number of histologically examined

  9. Observation of the Primo Vessel Approaching the Axillary Lymph Node with the Fluorescent Dye, DiI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Youn Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS floating in lymph fluid has mostly been observed in large caliber ducts around the caudal vena cava and the thoracic duct of rabbits, rats, and mice. But the PVS has not been traced up to the lymph nodes. It has not been established whether the PVS leaves the lymph vessel through the lymph vessel wall or it enters the lymph nodes. Therefore, observing the PVS entering a lymph node, for example, the axillary node, is desirable. In the current work, we traced the PVS approaching up to the surface of axillary node of a rat. The method used for this study was based upon a method that was recently developed to detect the PVS in the lymph duct from the inguinal to the axillary nodes in the skin of a rat by injecting Alcian blue into the inguinal node. However, the Alcian blue blurred near the lymph nodes and tracing the PVS up to the lymph nodes has not been possible. The current method clearly showed the PVS approaching the axillary node.

  10. Axillary Artery Injury Associated with Proximal Humeral Fractures: Review of Long-Term Vascular, Orthopedic, and Neurologic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Andrew Jin-Hean; Arora, Varun; Tang, Howard Ho-Fung; Treseder, Thomas; Jain, Arvind; Wagner, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Fracture and dislocation of the proximal humerus is common. It is associated with a number of vascular, neurologic, and orthopedic complications; these include brachial plexopathy and avascular necrosis (AVN) of the humeral head. These complications are rare but can potentially cause severe disability to patients; however, they remain poorly described in the literature. To describe vascular, orthopedic, and neurologic outcomes after axillary artery repair, in patients with proximal humeral fractures or dislocations. We conducted a retrospective review of patients admitted to 2 tertiary trauma centers in Victoria, Australia, with fracture or dislocation of the proximal humerus and associated axillary artery injury. Patients were selected according to guidelines for trauma call or alert and the presence of high-risk mechanism of injury. Data on vascular, orthopedic, and neurologic complications were collected. Twenty-one patients were identified. Injury to the first part of the axillary artery was noted in 11 patients (52%). Brachial plexus exploration was performed in 17 patients (81%). Four patients (19%) underwent nerve repair. Long-term neurologic recovery was universally poor. Major orthopedic complications included AVN of the humeral head, delayed union, and the need for prosthesis or arthrodesis. Eleven patients (52%) received upper limb fasciotomy. Five patients (24%) underwent delayed secondary upper limb amputation. There was an unusually high rate of injuries to the first part of the axillary artery. Close clinical observation is recommended for such patients. AVN of the humeral head and brachial plexopathy remain significant and debilitating complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of axillary lymph node dissection on prevalence and intensity of chronic and phantom pain after breast cancer surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegers, M.A.H.; Wolters, B.; Evers, A.W.; Strobbe, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and is expected to increase in the coming years because of an increased prevalence of breast cancer coupled with better survival. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer is associated with nerve damage. The

  12. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  13. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  14. Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminates bacteria of alcoholic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobre, Thais de Paula

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products, in reduction of cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when in mixed culture of yeast and active and treated bacteria. Also was to evaluated an alternative medium (MCC) for the cultivation of bacteria and yeast, constituted of sugarcane juice diluted to 5 deg Brix and supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Y-904) for 72 h on 32 deg C, under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. cerevisiae, the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture were determined from 0, 24, 48 e 72 h of mixed culture. Also were determined the initial and final of microorganism population across the pour plate method, in traditional culture medium (PCA for Bacillus, MRS-agar for Lactobacillus and YEPD-agar for yeast S. cerevisiae) and in medium constituted of sugarcane juice. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization (120 deg C for 20 minutes), antibacterial agent (Kamoran HJ in concentration 3,0 ppm) or irradiation (radiation gamma, with doses of 5,0 kGy for Lactobacillus and 15,0 kGy for Bacillus). The results of the present research showed that just the culture mediums more acids (with higher concentrations of total and volatile acidity, and smaller values of pH), contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused reduction on yeast cellular viability. Except the bacteria B. subtilis treated with radiation, the others bacteria treated by different procedures (heat, radiation e antibacterial) did not cause reduction on yeast cellular viability and population, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of theses bacteria was not enough to reduce the

  15. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  16. BUD31 and Lipid Metabolism: A New Potential Therapeutic Entry Point for Myc-Driven Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0039 TITLE: BUD31 and Lipid Metabolism : A New Potential Therapeutic Entry Point for Myc-Driven Breast Cancer...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER BUD31 and Lipid Metabolism : A New Potential Therapeutic Entry Point for Myc-Driven Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT...To directly test the hypothesis above, we propose the following specific aims. AIM1: To determine if BUD31 interactions with lipid metabolism

  17. Side effects, complications and outcome of thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis in 406 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pedro M; Freixinet, Jorge L; Hussein, Mohamed; Valencia, Jose M; Gil, Rita M; Herrero, Jorge; Caballero-Hidalgo, Araceli

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic sympathectomy (TS) is the treatment of choice for severe primary hyperhidrosis. However, complications, side effects and satisfaction have not been well defined. To analyze the complications, side effects, satisfaction degree and quality of life of patients after TS for primary upper limb hyperhidrosis. One-year follow-up after 406 consecutive TS for primary upper limb hyperhidrosis. Bilateral TS was completed in all patients. Complications arose in 23 cases (5.6%), with pneumothorax being the most frequent. The success rate after discharge, 6 and 12 months was respectively, 100%, 98.1% and 96.5% for palmo-axillary hyperhidrosis; 100%, 99.3% and 97.8% for isolated palmar hyperhidrosis and 100%, 85.7% and 71.4% for isolated axillary hyperhidrosis. No persistence of hyperhidrosis was observed. Global recurrence was 3.7% (28.5% axillary hyperhidrosis group). Compensatory sweating (CS) appeared in 55% and was not related to the extension of the TS. Being female was a predisposing factor of CS (p<0.004). Excessive dryness appeared at 9% and was associated with extensive TS (P<0.001). Plantar hyperhidrosis improved at 33.6%, worsened at 10% and remained stable during the follow-up. Satisfaction degree decreased with the passage of time and was associated with recurrence. Quality of life was excellent at discharge, 6 and 12 month in 100%, 100% and 97%, respectively. Pneumothorax is the most frequent complication of TS. CS is the main and undesirable side effect, appears with the passage of time, and is not related to the extension of TS. Being female is the only predictor factor of suffering CS. Plantar hyperhidrosis improves initially, although tends to reappear. Excessive dryness appears in extensive TS and does not improve over time. Postoperative satisfaction degree is high but decreases over time owing to the appearance of recurrence. Effectiveness and the absence of CS determine an excellent quality of life. Six percent of the patients regret the surgery

  18. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and

  19. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer′s disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL, 2 (400 μg/mL, 3 (600 μg/mL of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract. A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy. Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours

  20. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Farzan, Ali; Shiri, Niloufar; Shokri, Dariush; Fatemi, Syed Ali

    2013-10-01

    Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL), 2 (400 μg/mL), 3 (600 μg/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy). The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P sage extract sticks (P sage extract of 200, 400, or 600

  1. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Fulciniti, Franco; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Tommaselli, Antonio; Marone, Ugo; Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa; Pezzullo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  2. Reactivation from latency displays HIV particle budding at plasma membrane, accompanying CD44 upregulation and recruitment

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    Sano Kouichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been accepted that HIV buds from the cell surface in T lymphocytes, whereas in macrophages it buds into intracellular endosomes. Recent studies, on the other hand, suggest that HIV preferentially buds from the cell surface even in monocytic cells. However, most studies are based on observations in acutely infected cells and little is known about HIV budding concomitant with reactivation from latency. Such studies would provide a better understanding of a reservoir for HIV. Results We observed HIV budding in latently infected T lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines following TNF-α stimulation and examined the upregulation of host factors that may be involved in particle production. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that reactivation of latently infected J1.1 cells (latently infected Jurkat cells with HIV-1 and U1 cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1 displayed HIV particle budding predominantly at the plasma membrane, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acutely infected Jurkat and U937 cells. When mRNA expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR, we found that particle production from reactivated J1.1 and U1 cells was accompanied by CD44 upregulation. This upregulation was similarly observed when Jurkat and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1 but not when just stimulated with TNF-α, suggesting that CD44 upregulation was linked with HIV production but not with cell stimulation. The molecules in endocytic pathways such as CD63 and HRS were also upregulated when U1 cells were reactivated and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1. Confocal microscopy revealed that these upregulated host molecules were recruited to and accumulated at the sites where mature particles were formed at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our study indicates that HIV particles are budded at the plasma membrane upon reactivation from latency, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acute

  3. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  4. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

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    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  5. Cytokinins and Abscisic Acid Act Antagonistically in the Regulation of the Bud Outgrowth Pattern by Light Intensity

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    Adrien Corot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bud outgrowth is a key process in the elaboration of yield and visual quality in rose crops. Although light intensity is well known to affect bud outgrowth, little is known on the mechanisms involved in this regulation. The objective of this work was to test if the control of bud outgrowth pattern along the stem by photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD is mediated by sugars, cytokinins and/or abscisic acid in intact rose plants. Rooted cuttings of Rosa hybrida ‘Radrazz’ were grown in growth chambers under high PPFD (530 μmol m-2 s-1 until the floral bud visible stage. Plants were then either placed under low PPFD (90 μmol m-2 s-1 or maintained under high PPFD. Bud outgrowth inhibition by low PPFD was associated with lower cytokinin and sugar contents and a higher abscisic acid content in the stem. Interestingly, cytokinin supply to the stem restored bud outgrowth under low PPFD. On the other hand, abscisic acid supply inhibited outgrowth under high PPFD and antagonized bud outgrowth stimulation by cytokinins under low PPFD. In contrast, application of sugars did not restore bud outgrowth under low PPFD. These results suggest that PPFD regulation of bud outgrowth in rose involves a signaling pathway in which cytokinins and abscisic acid play antagonistic roles. Sugars can act as nutritional and signaling compounds and may be involved too, but do not appear as the main regulator of the response to PPFD.

  6. The sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging in breast cancer: comparison of invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topps, A; Clay, V; Absar, M; Howe, M; Lim, Y; Johnson, R; Bundred, N

    2014-07-01

    Axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of abnormal lymph nodes is important for pre-operative staging and planning the surgical management of the axilla. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) metastases are thought to be difficult to detect because the cells are small and on cytology resemble lymphocytes. To investigate this we directly compared the sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging between ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Consecutive patients that presented in a single breast unit with pure IDC between April 2005 and December 2006 and pure ILC between January 2008 and December 2012 were retrospectively identified from pathology records. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound and FNA biopsy results were compared with post-operative histopathology from the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). A total of 275 and 142 axillae were identified in the IDC and ILC groups respectively. In the node positive patients there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of AUS (IDC vs. ILC; 58.7% vs. 52.8%). However, there was a significant difference in the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of abnormal nodes (IDC vs. ILC; 98.4% vs. 53.6%; p < 0.001). AUS has comparative sensitivities between IDC and ILC populations. In contrast, FNA biopsy of abnormal axillary nodes is clearly less sensitive in the ILC group. In these patients, who have abnormal AUS, we suggest that a core biopsy is required to improve the pre-operative staging and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomechanical contributions of posterior deltoid and teres minor in the context of axillary nerve injury: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dustin L; Plate, Johannes F; Li, Zhongyu; Saul, Katherine R

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether transfer to only the anterior branch of the axillary nerve will restore useful function after axillary nerve injury with persistent posterior deltoid and teres minor paralysis. We used a computational musculoskeletal model of the upper limb to determine the relative contributions of posterior deltoid and teres minor to maximum joint moment generated during a simulated static strength assessment and to joint moments during 3 submaximal shoulder movements. Movement simulations were performed with and without simulated posterior deltoid and teres minor paralysis to identify muscles that may compensate for their paralysis. In the unimpaired limb model, teres minor and posterior deltoid accounted for 16% and 14% of the total isometric shoulder extension and external rotation joint moments, respectively. During the 3 movement simulations, posterior deltoid produced as much as 20% of the mean shoulder extension moment, whereas teres minor accounted for less than 5% of the mean joint moment in all directions of movement. When we paralyzed posterior deltoid and teres minor, the mean extension moments generated by the supraspinatus, long head of triceps, latissimus dorsi, and middle deltoid increased to compensate. Compensatory muscles were not fully activated during movement simulations when posterior deltoid and teres minor were paralyzed. Reconstruction of the anterior branch of the axillary nerve only is an appropriate technique for restoring shoulder abduction strength after isolated axillary nerve injury. When shoulder extension strength is compromised by extensive neuromuscular shoulder injury, reconstruction of both the anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve should be considered. By quantifying the biomechanical role of muscles during submaximal movement, in addition to quantifying muscle contributions to maximal shoulder strength, we can inform preoperative planning and permit more accurate predictions of functional outcomes

  8. Massive and Reproducible Production of Liver Buds Entirely from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Takanori Takebe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Organoid technology provides a revolutionary paradigm toward therapy but has yet to be applied in humans, mainly because of reproducibility and scalability challenges. Here, we overcome these limitations by evolving a scalable organ bud production platform entirely from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. By conducting massive “reverse” screen experiments, we identified three progenitor populations that can effectively generate liver buds in a highly reproducible manner: hepatic endoderm, endothelium, and septum mesenchyme. Furthermore, we achieved human scalability by developing an omni-well-array culture platform for mass producing homogeneous and miniaturized liver buds on a clinically relevant large scale (>108. Vascularized and functional liver tissues generated entirely from iPSCs significantly improved subsequent hepatic functionalization potentiated by stage-matched developmental progenitor interactions, enabling functional rescue against acute liver failure via transplantation. Overall, our study provides a stringent manufacturing platform for multicellular organoid supply, thus facilitating clinical and pharmaceutical applications especially for the treatment of liver diseases through multi-industrial collaborations. : With the goal of clinical translation of liver bud transplant therapy, Takebe et al. established a massive organoid production platform from endoderm, endothelial, and mesenchymal progenitor populations specified entirely from human iPSCs, reproducibly demonstrating functionality both in vitro and in vivo. Keywords: iPSC, liver bud, organoid, transplantation, self-organization, endothelial, mesenchymal, liver failure, clinical grade

  9. Expression of Podoplanin in the Mouse Tooth Germ and Apical Bud Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Yoshihiko; Iwasawa, Kana; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of cells expressing podoplanin in the mouse tooth bud. Podoplanin expression was detected in enamel epithelia of the cervical loop at cell-cell contacts strongly, and weakly on the loosely aggregated stellate reticulum in the center and the neighboring stratum intermedium. Odontoblasts exhibited intense podoplanin expression at the junction with predentin while no expression was detected in the enamel organ containing ameloblasts. These results suggest that proliferating inner and outer enamel epithelia express podoplanin but that the expression is suppressed in the differentiated epithelia containing ameloblasts. On the other hand the podoplanin expression occurs in the differentiating odontoblasts and the expression is sustained in differentiated odontoblasts, indicating that odontoblasts have the strong ability to express podoplanin. In cultured apical bud cells podoplanin was detected at cell-cell contacts. In real-time PCR analysis the amount of podoplanin mRNA of the apical buds was 2-fold compared with the amount of kidney used as a positive control. These findings indicate that apical bud cells have the strong ability to express the podoplanin gene. Podoplanin is a mucin-type glycoprotein negatively charged by extensive O-glycosylation and a high content of sialic acid, which expresses the adhesive property. The podoplanin may contribute to form odontoblastic fiber or function as the anchorage to the tooth development and in proliferating epithelial cells of cervical loop and apical bud. PMID:18989465

  10. Effects of the F-actin inhibitor latrunculin A on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecká, Marie; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kawamoto, Susumu

    2015-07-01

    Our basic cell biology research was aimed at investigating the effect on eukaryotic cells of the sudden loss of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Cells treated with latrunculin A (LA) in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium were examined using phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopy, freeze-substitution, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, counted using a Bürker chamber and their absorbance measured. The cells responded to the presence of LA, an F-actin inhibitor, with the disappearance of actin patches, actin cables and actin rings. This resulted in the formation of larger spherical cells with irregular morphology in the cell walls and ultrastructural disorder of the cell organelles and secretory vesicles. Instead of buds, LA-inhibited cells formed only 'table-mountain-like' wide flattened swellings without apical growth with a thinner glucan cell-wall layer containing β-1,3-glucan microfibrils. The LA-inhibited cells lysed. Actin cables and patches were required for bud formation and bud growth. In addition, actin patches were required for the formation of β-1,3-glucan microfibrils in the bud cell wall. LA has fungistatic, fungicidal and fungilytic effects on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

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    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  12. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  13. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.

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    Małgorzata Żołna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The material comprised infected inflorescence buds collected from nine newly bred taxa and one botanical species of rhododendron. 596 colonies of fungi belonging to 31 species were isolated from infected rhododendron inflorescence buds. The dominant species were: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Truncatella truncata, Alternaria alternata, Phialophora asteris, and Trichoderma viride, which constituted almost 74% of the isolated fungi population. Boeremia exigua var. exigua, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium poae, Mammaria echinobotryoides, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phoma eupyrena, Talaromyces wortmannii, Umbelopsis isabellina, and other fungi were isolated in a lower number. The results of mycological analysis confirm the diversity of species colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron. .

  14. Autophagic dedifferentiation induced by cooperation between TOR inhibitor and retinoic acid signals in budding tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kaz; Yoshida, Takuto; Sekida, Satoko

    2018-01-15

    Asexual bud development in the budding tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis involves transdifferentiation of multipotent epithelial cells, which is triggered by retinoic acid (RA), and thrives under starvation after bud isolation from the parent. This study aimed to determine cell and molecular mechanisms of dedifferentiation that occur during the early stage of transdifferentiation. During dedifferentiation, the numbers of autophagosomes, lysosomes, and secondary lysosomes increased remarkably. Mitochondrial degradation and exosome discharge also occurred in the atrial epithelium. Autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) and lysosomal proton pump A gene (PumpA) were activated during the dedifferentiation stage. When target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor was administered to growing buds without isolating them from the parent, phagosomes and secondary lysosomes became prominent. TOR inhibitor induced Atg7 only in the presence of RA. In contrast, when growing buds were treated with RA, lysosomes, secondary lysosomes, and mitochondrial degradation were prematurely induced. RA significantly activated PumpA in a retinoid X receptor-dependent manner. Our results indicate that in P. misakiensis, TOR inhibition and RA signals act in synergy to accomplish cytoplasmic clearance for dedifferentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  16. Transcriptome and Metabolite Changes during Hydrogen Cyanamide-Induced Floral Bud Break in Sweet Cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Irina A.; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Burow, Meike; Bayo-Canha, Almudena; Junge, Alexander; Gericke, Oliver; Møller, Birger L.; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial woody plants is a temperature-dependent process and thus flowering in these species is heavily affected by climate change. The lack of cold winters in temperate growing regions often results in reduced flowering and low fruit yields. This is likely to decrease the availability of fruits and nuts of the Prunus spp. in the near future. In order to maintain high yields, it is crucial to gain detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling the release of bud dormancy. Here, we studied these mechanisms using sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), a crop where the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is routinely used to compensate for the lack of cold winter temperatures and to induce flower opening. In this work, dormant flower buds were sprayed with hydrogen cyanamide followed by deep RNA sequencing, identifying three main expression patterns in response to HC. These transcript level results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and supported further by phytohormone profiling (ABA, SA, IAA, CK, ethylene, JA). Using these approaches, we identified the most up-regulated pathways: the cytokinin pathway, as well as the jasmonate and the hydrogen cyanide pathway. Our results strongly suggest an inductive effect of these metabolites in bud dormancy release and provide a stepping stone for the characterization of key genes in bud dormancy release. PMID:28769948

  17. Bud break responds more strongly to daytime than night-time temperature under asymmetric experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Global warming is diurnally asymmetric, leading to a less cold, rather than warmer, climate. We investigated the effects of asymmetric experimental warming on plant phenology by testing the hypothesis that daytime warming is more effective in advancing bud break than night-time warming. Bud break was monitored daily in Picea mariana seedlings belonging to 20 provenances from Eastern Canada and subjected to daytime and night-time warming in growth chambers at temperatures varying between 8 and 16 °C. The higher advancements of bud break and shorter times required to complete the phenological phases occurred with daytime warming. Seedlings responded to night-time warming, but still with less advancement of bud break than under daytime warming. No advancement was observed when night-time warming was associated with a daytime cooling. The effect of the treatments was uniform across provenances. Our observations realized under controlled conditions allowed to experimentally demonstrate that bud break can advance under night-time warming, but to a lesser extent than under daytime warming. Prediction models using daily timescales could neglect the diverging influence of asymmetric warming and should be recalibrated for higher temporal resolutions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relationship between sensitivity to ultraviolet light and budding in yeast cells of different culture ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsuta, J.; Okajima, S.

    1976-01-01

    Subpopulations of yeast cells, consisting of cells of different sizes and different percentages of budding cells, were prepared by centrifugation through sucrose solutions with linear density gradients of cultures at different phases of the growth cycle. Ultraviolet survival of these cells was determined by colony counting, and the survival rate was compared with the cells' respiratory rates. Individual budding cells and interdivisional cells, and also mother cells and daughter cells derived from irradiated budding cells, were isolated by the micromanipulation technique. The number of divisions in each cell was measured during a 21-hr incubation period immediately after irradiation. In the population in the logarithmic phase consisting of homogeneous cells of middle size, no difference in uv sensitivity was observed between mother cells and daughter cells, irrespective of mutual adhesion. Budding cell resistance was observed in the population in the transitional phase; this was due to the lesser uv sensitivity of daughter cells in the fresh medium. In the stationary phase, daughter cells were rather more sensitive than mother cells or interdivisional cells, so there was little difference in uv sensitivity between budding cells and interdivisional cells

  19. Viability of human adenovirus from hospital fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganime, Ana Carolina; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Santos, Marisa; Costa Filho, Rubens; Leite, José Paulo G; Miagostovich, Marize P

    2014-12-01

    The monitoring of environmental microbial contamination in healthcare facilities may be a valuable tool to determine pathogens transmission in those settings; however, such procedure is limited to bacterial indicators. Viruses are found commonly in those environments and are rarely used for these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess distribution and viability of a human DNA virus on fomites in an Adult Intensive Care Unit of a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) were investigated in 141 fomites by scraping the surface area and screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using TaqMan® System (Carlsbad, CA). Ten positive samples were selected for virus isolation in A549 and/or HEp2c cell lines. A total of 63 samples (44.7%) were positive and presented viral load ranging from 2.48 × 10(1) to 2.1 × 10(3) genomic copies per millilitre (gc/ml). The viability was demonstrated by integrated cell culture/nested-PCR in 5 out of 10 samples. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed all samples as HAdV and characterized one of them as specie B, serotype 3 (HAdV-3). The results indicate the risk of nosocomial transmission via contaminated fomites and point out the use of HAdV as biomarkers of environmental contamination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.