WorldWideScience

Sample records for axillary bud viability

  1. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L β-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 μmol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants.

  2. Regeneration of Blue Honeysuckle via Dormant Axillary Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Guiqin; HUANG Longshuang; HUO Junwei

    2008-01-01

    The optimum medium for dormant axillary buds culture of blue honeysuckle was screened according to the growth rate and elongation rate by inoculating the buds on culture medium with various 6-BA and iron-salt concentration. About 35 days, the stretched stem buds were divided into strong root system after inoculated on 1/2 MS+1.0 mg·L-1 IBA rooting medium. Amount of qualified tissue-cultured young plants could be obtained by the stretched stem buds reproduction.

  3. Florigen is involved in axillary bud development at multiple stages in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Masaki; Endo, Motomu; Araki, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    The wide variety of plant architectures is largely based on diverse and flexible modes of axillary shoot development. In Arabidopsis, floral transition (flowering) stimulates axillary bud development. The mechanism that links flowering and axillary bud development is, however, largely unknown. We recently showed that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, which acts as florigen, promotes the phase transition of axillary meristems, whereas BRANCHED1 (BRC1) antagonizes the florigen action in axillary buds. Here, we present evidences for another possible role of florigen in axillary bud development. Ectopic overexpression of FT or another florigen gene TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) with LEAFY (LFY) induces ectopic buds at cotyledonary axils, confirming the previous proposal that these genes are involved in formation of axillary buds. Taken together with our previous report that florigen promotes axillary shoot elongation, we propose that florigen regulates axillary bud development at multiple stages to coordinate it with flowering in Arabidopsis.

  4. Axillary Bud Proliferation Approach for Plant Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration

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    F. Ngezahayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to mainly human population pressure and activities, global biodiversity is getting reduced and particularly plant biodiversity is becoming at high risk of extinction. Consequently, many efforts have been deployed to develop conservation methods. Because it does not involve cell dedifferentiation of differentiated cells but rather the development and growth of new shoots from preexisting meristems, the axillary bud proliferation approach is the method offering least risk of genetic instability. Indeed, meristems are more resistant to genetic changes than disorganized tissues. The present review explored through the scientific literature the axillary bud proliferation approach and the possible somaclonal variation that could arise from it. Almost genetic stability or low level of genetic variation is often reported. On the contrary, in a few cases studied to date, DNA methylation alterations often appeared in the progenies, showing epigenetic variations in the regenerated plants from axillary bud culture. Fortunately, epigenetic changes are often temporary and plants may revert to the normal phenotype. Thus, in the absence of genetic variations and the existence of reverting epigenetic changes over time, axillary bud culture can be adopted as an alternative nonconventional way of conserving and restoring of plant biodiversity.

  5. Florigen is involved in axillary bud development at multiple stages in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Masaki; Endo, Motomu; Araki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The wide variety of plant architectures is largely based on diverse and flexible modes of axillary shoot development. In Arabidopsis, floral transition (flowering) stimulates axillary bud development. The mechanism that links flowering and axillary bud development is, however, largely unknown. We recently showed that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, which acts as florigen, promotes the phase transition of axillary meristems, whereas BRANCHED1 (BRC1) antagonizes the florigen action in axillary ...

  6. Factors influencing axillary shoot proliferation and adventitious budding in cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Ollero, Javier; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2005-04-01

    We developed procedures for in vitro cloning of Cedrus atlantica Manetti and C. libani A. Rich explants from juvenile and mature plants. Explant size was one determinant of the frequency of axillary bud break in both species. Shoot tips and nodal explants mainly developed calli, whereas bud sprouting occurred in defoliated microcuttings cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. Isolation and continuous subculture of sprouted buds on the same medium allowed cloning of microcuttings from C. atlantica and C. libani seedlings and bicentennial C. libani trees, thus providing a desirable alternative for multiplying mature trees that have demonstrated superior characteristics. We also report adventitious bud differentiation from isolated embryos of C. atlantica. Neither auxin treatments nor other methods tested, including infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were effective in inducing root initiation.

  7. Initiation of Begonia erythrophylla L. vitroculture from axillary buds

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    Julieta - Emilia ROMOCEA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In our aim was to establish a short-term in vitro culture of Begonia erythrophylla L., different culture media compositions were tested: complex variants added with growth regulators and simplified modified media with Heller microelements and MS macroelements. Adventitious shoots elongating over 13 mm in length were efficiently obtained from axillary bud segments of the strain of begonia Begonia erythrophylla L. on MS basic mineral medium culture containing different concentration of growth regulators, in order to identify optimal culture conditions, which would facilitate the achievement of a vitroculture, allowing the in vitro culture of this studied species. On complex regeneration variant V1 – mineral basic medium culture MB - MS supplemented with 1 mg/l BA, the rooting process was absent, but according to this carried out research, plantlets were obtained by rooting the elongated shoots on Murashige-Skoog (1962 basic mineral media containing 1 mg/l IBA, respectively a basic mineral medium culture without growth regulators, producing a much better organogenesis, where the phenomenon was greater in rooting process.

  8. Assessment of factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration from axillary bud explant of Camptotheca acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-Mei; ZU Yuan-Gang; DONG Feng-Li; ZHAO Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Axillary buds from 3-yr.-old seedlings of Camptotheca acuminata in the greenhouse were cultured on the different basal media with different concentrations of growth regulators for shoot regeneration for studying the effects of different basal media, different concentrations of growth regulators (BA or TDZ), sucrose, agar and pH value on shoot regeneration from axillary bud. The results showed that B5 and WPM media were the optimal basal media and the optimal phyotohormone was BA of 1.0 mg/L or TDZ of 0.1mg/L; The concentrations of sucrose of 30g/L and agar of 6g/L were most suitable for the shoot regeneration; pH value from 5.8 to 6.6 were broadly effective, but the best at pH 5.8.

  9. Epistatic natural allelic variation reveals a function of AGAMOUS-LIKE6 in axillary bud formation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Effgen, S.; Meyer, R.C.; Theres, K.; Koornneef, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis Multiparent Recombinant Inbred Line mapping population, a limited number of plants were detected that lacked axillary buds in most of the axils of the cauline (stem) leaves, but formed such buds in almost all rosette axils. Genetic analysis showed that polymorphisms in at least th

  10. Micropropagation of paradise tree (Melia azedarach) by in vitro culture of axillary buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroginski, Luis A; Rey, Hebe Y

    2013-01-01

    Paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.) is a multipurpose ornamental and timber tree, and its extracts are used to make insecticides and fungicides. Conventional propagation is done by seeds; however, sexual reproduction results in wide genetic variability. Therefore, clonal propagation is desirable to reduce genetic variation. This chapter describes a protocol for in vitro propagation of paradise tree by axillary buds. There are major steps for this protocol. Firstly, shoot induction by in vitro culture of axillary buds, excised from potted plants obtained by rooting of cuttings of 10-15-year-old adult trees. The initiation medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (benzylaminopurine), 0.1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid), and 0.1 mg/L GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Secondly, multiplication of the regenerated shoots on MS medium amended with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L GA(3). Thirdly, rooting of the regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA. Fully well-developed plants were transferred to pots containing sand, peat moss, and perlite (1:1:1), and maintained initially in the greenhouse or plastic tunnels.

  11. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP i cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Grandio, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose M.; Tarancon, Carlos; Immink, Richard G.H.; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally themost important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out

  12. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

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    T. Raghavendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine, Napthalene acetic acid (NAA and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimatization were 12.8 days. This protocol was used in Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transformation was carried out using the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 harboring npt II as selectable marker and GUS as reporter gene.

  13. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine, Napthalene acetic acid (NAA and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimatization were 12.8 days. This protocol was used in Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transformation was carried out using the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 harboring npt II as selectable marker and GUS as reporter gene.

  14. 彰武松腋芽诱导研究%Axillary Bud Induction in Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范岳霞; 袁文华; 孔冬梅

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨彰武松组培快繁的可行性,以彰武松封顶芽为外植体进行培养,研究灭菌方法、培养基成分以及植物生长调节物质等对其腋芽诱导的影响。结果表明:外植体用70%的乙醇处理30 s 后用0.1%的 HgCl2灭菌5 min,在添加 BA 2~5 mg/L 和蔗糖30 g/L 的 WPM 培养基上,腋芽诱导率达50%~70%,NAA对腋芽诱导无促进作用。通过在添加和不添加植物生长调节物质(PGR)的WPM培养基中交替继代培养可以实现芽丛伸长与增殖。%In order to explore the feasibility of propagating Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis by tissue culture, the dormant shoot buds of the species were used as explants to investigate the influence of sterilization methods, medium composition and plant growth regulators on axillary bud induction. The results showed that:the most effective sterilization treatment was rinsing the explants in 70% ethanol for 30 s following with 0.1%HgCl2 for 5 min. The optimal medium for axillary bud induction was WPM containing 2-5 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose (shoot induction 50%-70% ). NAA didn’t promote axillary bud induction. The new axillary shoots alternately subcultured in WPM with and without PGR elongated and proliferated well.

  15. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species

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    B Appezzato-da-Glória

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers.

  16. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Silva, J M; Soares, M K M; Soares, A N; Martins, A R

    2015-08-01

    The species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers.

  17. An efficient regeneration and rapid micropropagation protocol for Almond using dormant axillary buds as explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ravish; Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Kailash Chandra

    2015-07-01

    An efficient in vitro protocol was standardized for Almond (Prunus dulcis) propagation using dormant axillary buds as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentration/combination(s) of phytohormones. MS basal medium showed lowest shoot induction and took longest duration for shoot initiation. Multiple shoots were induced in MS medium supplemented with the combination of BAP (0.5 mgL(-1)). Cultures showed poor response for rooting in all combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and took 90 days for initiation. Rooting was higher in half strength of MS than in full-strength. The highest root induction (33.33%) was recorded in half MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) followed by full strength of MS medium (20%) supplemented with IBA (0.1 mgL(-1)). α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was less effective for rooting than IBA. The highest root induction (25%) was found in half strength of MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA followed by full strength of MS medium (20%). The protocol developed would be of use in mass propagation of almond and also support in vitro conservation.

  18. Induction of callus from axillary buds of taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta, Araceae) and subsequent plantlet regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Young, J L; Fan, K P; Arditti, J

    1990-12-01

    Axillary buds of taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta, Araceae) cultured on half strength Murashige-Skoog medium (HMS) containing taro extract (HMSTE) and 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid produce a compact, hard, slow growing callus which is not very active morphogenetically and produces only a few plantlets. When cultured on HMSTE plus 5 mg 1(-1) each of naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyl adenine (HMSNB) the buds produce a fast growing, friable and morphogenetically active callus. Meristematic regions form on the friable callus after 30 days on HMSNB. If transferred to HMSTE at this point the callus gives rise to plantlets. Addition of taro extract to the media is required for the culture of buds, induction of callus and plantlet regeneration.

  19. Axillary budbreak in a cut rose crop as influenced by light intensity and red:far-red ratio at bud level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2014-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut rose (Rosa ·hybrida) are harvested, a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Earlier experiments indicated that light reaching the bud affected the number of budbreaks. In all these studies, whole p

  20. In vitro micropropagation of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC (Fam-Fabaceae): a medicinal legume through axillary bud multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Puspashree; Rath, Shiba Prasad

    2012-05-15

    Medicinal plants possess unlimited and untapped wealth of chemical compounds with high drug potential which make these plants useful as sources of biomedicines. The rising demand for herbal medicines in the organized manufacturing sector has ruthlessly exploited the wild growing plant population those have bulk use. So for high rate multiplication of different medicinal plants, it is necessary to standardize the protocol for high regeneration. The efficiency of any regeneration is primarily depends on factors like type of explants used, composition of the medium and type of genotype. Here, we have developed a regeneration protocol of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC (Salparni, Fam- Fabaceae) a medicinal plant through axillary bud multiplication. Nodal explants from Desmodium gangeticum plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium with Kn or BA at different concentrations. 0.5 mg L(-1) BA in the medium, showed shoot multiplication. Regenerated shoots measuring 3 cm or more were excised and planted on semi solid basal medium supplemented with varying concentrations of either IAA or IBA for induction of rooting. IBA treatment at 1.0 mg L(-1) was the best eliciting 100% rooting response. The in vitro propagation protocol standardized can be highly useful in raising quality planting materials of Desmodium gangeticum for commercial plantation programmes and germplasm conservation.

  1. Conservation of an important montane bamboo Thamnocalamus falconeri, Hook.f. ex Munro through axillary bud proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meena Bakshi; Chandrakant Tiwari; Sajad Razvi

    2015-01-01

    Thamnocalamus falconeri, Hook.f. ex Munro., an important bamboo species belonging to the family Po-aceae, locally known as Ringal, occurs in the hills of Ut-tarakhand, India. This species has been traditionally exploited by local communities to support their livelihoods. Increasing needs of the hill villages impose unsustainable pressure on natural stands of Ringal in the Uttarakhand hills and forests have been degraded. The long history of excessive cutting of Ringal from natural forests and the lack of replanting threaten villager livelihoods. Replanting is required to conserve the species. We propose a protocol for generation of planting material through axillary bud proliferation for multiplication and conservation of this species. We collected offsets/rhizomes from a natural stand of T. falconeri in the Chopta Mandal areas (Chamoli dis-trict, India). These were planted at sites of varied elevation and fresh single nodal segments were collected from them as explants. Different sterilization treatments were assessed to combat contamination. Among these, treatment of 0.1%HgCl2 followed by 5% NaOCl, proved best. Among two cytokinin treatments, viz. BAP and Kinetin, singly or in combination, BAP alone (5 mg L-1) proved superior and resulted in 100% bud break. BAP-supplemented MS media yielded maximum vigorous shoot formation (90%) and maximum number of shoots (8.9). Subculturing of shoots on the same medium with similar BAP treatment (5 mg L-1 BAP) enabled continuous production of healthy shoots at similar frequency. Maximum rooting (100%) was recorded on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 IBA. Micropropagated plants were hard-ened and acclimatized in soil mixture (2:1:1) and then transplanted to field sites (Magra, Uttarakhand, 1,834 m). Eight to ten months after field transplantation we recorded 100% survival of transplanted material. This microprop-agation protocol could be used successfully for raising a stock of genetically homogenous plant

  2. SUBSTRATES UTILIZATION TO ASSESS ROOTEDNESS CAPACITY AND VIABILITY BUDS AT SOME GRAPE VARIETIES

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    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is a fruit crop of enormous economic importance with over eight million hectares planted in vineyards worldwide. Table grapes and wines represent a considerable share of the economy in many grape and wine-producing countries. During the dormant, due to low temperatures and how to prepare grape for entrance in winter time, wood annual increases and buds may be adversely affected. The way how the vines passed by dormant period can affect the buds and wood viability and rooting ability of vine cuttings. In this study were tested on different culture substrates vine cuttings belonging to a noble variety and a hybrid vines: Merlot and Isabella. Noble grapes are a term used to describe the international variety of grapes that are most recognizable for the top quality wine they produce. In this paper was determinate total dry matter of vine cuttings, humidity of biological material, vine cuttings rooting capacity and viability status buds cuttings placed on three nutritional substrates.

  3. MicroRNA393 is involved in nitrogen-promoted rice tillering through regulation of auxin signal transduction in axillary buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Xia, Kuaifei; Liang, Zhen; Chen, Kunling; Gao, Caixia; Zhang, Mingyong

    2016-08-01

    Rice tillering has an important influence on grain yield, and is promoted by nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Several genes controlling rice tillering, which are regulated by poor N supply, have been identified. However, the molecular mechanism associated with the regulation of tillering based on N supply is poorly understood. Here, we report that rice microRNA393 (OsmiR393) is involved in N-mediated tillering by decreasing auxin signal sensitivity in axillary buds. Expression analysis showed that N fertilizer causes up-regulation of OsmiR393, but down-regulation of two target genes (OsAFB2 and OsTB1). In situ expression analysis showed that OsmiR393 is highly expressed in the lateral axillary meristem. OsmiR393 overexpression mimicked N-mediated tillering in wild type Zhonghua 11 (ZH11). Mutation of OsMIR393 in ZH11 repressed N-promoted tillering, which simulated the effects of limited N, and this could not be restored by supplying N fertilizer. Western blot analysis showed that OsIAA6 was accumulated in both OsmiR393-overexpressing lines and N-treated wild type rice, but was reduced in the OsMIR393 mutant. Therefore, we deduced that N-induced OsmiR393 accumulation reduces the expression of OsTIR1 and OsAFB2, which alleviates sensitivity to auxin in the axillary buds and stabilizes OsIAA6, thereby promoting rice tillering.

  4. Micropropagação de sucupira-preta por meio de gemas axilares Sucupira-preta micropropagation through axillary buds

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    Luciana Coelho de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de reguladores de crescimento, aditivos antioxidantes, tipo de explantes e intensidade de cobertura de mudas aclimatizadas, na micropropagação de sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides por meio de gemas axilares. Os explantes foram cultivados para a multiplicação em meio de cultura básico WPM, suplementado com concentrações de benzilaminopurina (BAP. No alongamento, os tratamentos foram combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e BAP adicionadas ao meio. Para o enraizamento, as brotações foram colocadas em meio com concentrações de ácido indolbutírico, ou em meio com combinações dos aditivos polivinilpirrolidona e carvão ativado, em diferentes concentrações de ANA. As plantas foram transplantadas para copos de plástico, com substrato, e cobertas com saco de polietileno. Posteriormente, esses sacos foram retirados, ou perfurados, ou não retirados, o que constituiu os tratamentos de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A aclimatização ex vitro foi realizada após o período de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A sucupira-preta apresentou melhor micropropagação com emprego de: segmentos cotiledonares e 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP, na multiplicação; 0,3 mg L-1 de ANA e 0,03 mg L-1 de BAP, no alongamento; e carvão ativado (2,0 mg L-1, no enraizamento e na pré-aclimatização in vitro, com uso de cobertura de plástico transparente em torno da muda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of growth regulators, antioxidant additives, type of explants, and coverage intensity of acclimatized seedlings in the micropropagation of sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides through axillary buds. Explants were cultured for multiplication on WPM medium, supplemented with concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP. In the elongation phase, treatments consisted of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and BAP combinations added to the medium. For rooting, shoots were inoculated in medium containing

  5. 蝴蝶兰快速经济有效繁殖技术的研究%A Reliable Protocol for Plant Regeneration from Pedicel Axillary Bud of Phalaenopsis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬文; 明凤; 叶鸣明; 董玉光; 梁斌; 陈龙英; 沈大棱

    2004-01-01

    以蝴蝶兰(Phalaenopsis)花梗腋芽为外植体,研究出一种高效、简便的诱导原球茎(Protocorm)的方法.在不含其他有机添加物,只添加BA (3 mg/L)+NAA (0.1 mg/L)的MS培养基中,原球茎诱导效率达80%. 相同培养基继代,4周内即可发育成幼苗.在含有IAA(0.1 mg/L)的MS培养基中,40%的幼苗可以诱导生根,并移植成功.由于此方法简便、经济有效,可应用于工厂化生产,而且获得的优质原球茎也为进一步的遗传改良提供材料.%An efficient and simple method of high frequency protocorm regeneration from pedicel axillary bud of Phalaenopsis is described. Pedicel axillary buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium (MS) with combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) (2-3 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0.1-0.5 mg/L). Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA in combination with 0.1 mg/LNAA produced the best response in protocorm occurrence(80%) without addition of any organic material. On subculture to the same medium, protocorm produced the shoots within 4 weeks of culture and well developing shoots were obtained separately. 40% of developed shoots produced root on medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L IAA and the plants were transferred to moss for growth. Because of the simplicity for culture medium ingredient, it is a reliable protocol for plant regeneration of Phalaenopsis factory production in developing country and is also useful to genetic improvement programs.

  6. Effects of concentration and treatment time of colchicine on growth and development of axillary buds of Jasminum sambac%秋水仙素浓度和处理时间对茉莉腋芽生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓衍明; 孙晓波; 贾新平; 梁丽建; 苏家乐

    2016-01-01

    处理指数与细胞异常率呈极显著负相关。研究结果表明:秋水仙素浓度和处理时间对茉莉腋芽的生长发育有一定影响;综合考虑各生物学效应指标,茉莉腋芽适宜的诱导条件为用500 mg·L-1秋水仙素溶液处理3~5 mm腋芽24 h。此外,建议将处理指数作为秋水仙素对茉莉腋芽细胞减数分裂影响效应的评价指标之一。%In order to understand the effect of colchicine treatment on growth and development of axillary buds of Jasminum sambac (Linn.) Aiton, taking axillary buds with length of 0 (un-germinated), 3-5 and 8-10 mm as experimental materials, growth status of axillary buds and growth and development status of sprouting branches and leaves were analyzed after treated by 500 , 1 000 , and 2 000 mg · L-1 colchicine solution for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Meanwhile, meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells of different treatment groups was observed. On this basis, analysis on correlation among different biological effect indexes of axillary buds and sprouting branches of J. sambac after treated by colchicine was carried out. The results show that after treated by colchicine, growth rate and treatment index of axillary buds,length of sprouting branches, length of the longest internode, length of the largest leaf, width of the largest leaf, floral bud number, floral budding rate, length of the largest floral bud, width of the largest floral bud and flowering rate of different treatment groups are generally significantly ( P<0 . 05 ) lower than those of the control group ( un-germinated axillary buds treated by water for 48 h) , while inhibition rate and mortality of axillary buds are significantly higher than those of the control group. Overall, with increasing of mass concentration of colchicine, growth rate and treatment index of axillary buds decrease, while inhibition rate and mortality increase, lengths of sprouting branches and the longest internode shorten, flowering rate

  7. Multiplicação in vitro de gemas axilares de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. In vitro multiplication of black watlle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. axillary buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Borges Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. é uma espécie de difícil micropropagação devido à pequena capacidade de multiplicação e desenvolvimento de gemas. O presente estudo visou determinar a influência de diferentes citocininas na proliferação de gemas axilares em segmentos nodais de A. mearnsii. Plântulas germinadas in vitro forneceram explantes que foram inoculadas em meio básico B5 (GAMBORG et al., 1968. Testaram-se as citocininas: BAP (6-benzilaminopurina, BA (6-benziladenosina, 2iP (gama,gama-isopenteniladenina e cinetina (6-furfuralamino-purina. Diferentes concentrações desses reguladores de crescimento foram empregadas: 1 mgL-1, 2 mgL-1 e 3 mgL-1. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial, com seis repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. As avaliações foram feitas aos 30 dias, através da contagem de gemas alongadas e da presença de calos. A utilização de BAP a 2 mgL-1 promoveu a maior taxa de multiplicação de gemas (3,5 brotos/explante.Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii de Wild. is difficult to micropropagate due to the low ability of multiplication and development of shoots. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the influence of various cytokinins on axillary bud proliferation in nodal segments of A. mearnsii. Explants from in vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated on B5 (Gamborg et al., 1968 basal medium. BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, BA (6-benzyladenine, 2iP (gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino-purine and Kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine were tested at the concentrations 1 mgL-1, 2 mgL-1, and 3 mgL-1. A randomized block design, in factorial arrangement with 6 replications, and 5 plants per plot was used. The assessments were made after 30 days, by counting the elongated shoots and the presence of callus. The use of BAP at 2 mgL-1 promoted the highest rate of bud multiplication (3,5 shoots/explant.

  8. 富贵籽茎段诱导腋芽增殖与试管苗培育研究%The Experimental Studies on Induced Growth and Proliferation of Axillary Buds of Different Stem Segments and Plantlet Culture of Ardisia Ccrenata Sims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥海; 邱丰艳; 丁力; 陈小红

    2015-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is important ornamental and medicinal plants. The experimental effect research of the different combinations of plant hormones on induced growth and proliferation axillary buds of aseptic stems, yearly germinating shoots stems and one-year-old stem of perennial plants were carried out. The results were as follows:The medium formula of MS+NAA 0.1 mg· L-1( the same as below) + BA 0. 50 was suitable for induced growth and proliferation axillary buds of aseptic stems and yearly germinating shoots stems, while the medium formula of MS + NAA 0.10 + BA 1.50 was suitable for induced growth and proliferation axillary buds of 1-year old stems. The combination formula of 1/2 MS + NAA 0.50 +IBA 0.30 had best effect for adventitious bud rooting and the cultivation of test tube plantlets.%以不同植物激素组合和不同发育阶段的茎段为实验因子,开展富贵籽茎段诱导腋芽生长及其增殖和试管苗培育的实验研究。结果:(1) MS + NAA 0�1 mg·L-1+ BA 0�50 mg·L-1的培养基配方较适合于从富贵籽无菌苗和当年萌发的嫩枝茎段诱导腋芽生长与增殖;(2) MS+NAA 0�1 mg·L-1+BA 1�50 mg·L-1的组合配方能较好的诱导富贵籽1年生茎段腋芽生长与增殖。(3)1/2MS+ NAA 0�50 mg·L-1+IBA 0�30 mg·L-11的组合配方用于不定芽体诱导生根和培育试管苗的效果最好。

  9. Indução de brotações em gema apical e axilar do porta-enxerto de macieira 'EM-9' cultivadas in vitro Shoots induction in apical and axillary buds of the apple rootstack 'EM-9' cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou comparar dois tipos de explantes (gema apical e gema axilar do porta-enxerto de macieira 'EM-9' e o tempo de permanência destes explantes no meio de cultura de indução (20, 30 e 40 dias, na capacidade de regeneração in vitro de brotações. O meio de cultura de indução de regeneração constituiu-se dos sais de MS, suplementado com mio-inositol (100 mg.L-1, sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (6,0 g.L-1, BAP (4,44 µM e ANA (0,54 µM. Transcorrido o tempo de permanência no meio de cultura de indução de regeneração, os explantes foram transferidos para meio de cultura de multiplicação, de constituição semelhante ao meio de indução, porém sem a presença de auxina. A partir dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que as gemas apicais e axilares do porta-enxerto de macieira 'EM-9', não diferem quanto à capacidade de regeneração in vitro de brotações e, o tempo de permanência das gemas no meio de indução de regeneração, apenas mostrou diferenças para o comprimento médio das brotações, obtendo-se o maior valor com 30 dias.The aim of this study was to compare two explants types (apical and axillary buds of apple rootstock 'EM-9' and, their incubation period on induction medium (20, 30 and 40 days, in the capacity of in vitro regeneration of shoots. The induction medium was MS, suplemented with myo-inositol (100 mg.L-1, sucrose (30 g.L-1, agar (6.0 g.L-1, BAP (4.44 mM and NAA (0.54 mM. Elapsed the time of permanence in the induction medium, the explants were transferred to multiplication medium without auxin. It was concluded that apical and axillary buds of the rootstock 'EM-9', did not differ in in vitro regeneration of shoots and, the incubation period of buds on regeneration induction medium, only shown differences for the average length of shoots, the highest value was obtained in 30 days.

  10. Damaged axillary nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditions associated with axillary nerve dysfunction include fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone), pressure from casts or splints, and improper use of crutches. Other causes include systemic disorders that cause neuritis (inflammation of ...

  11. Arenavirus Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzo Urata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  12. Cultivo inicial in vitro de gemas axilares de Ananas comosus (L. Merr., em meio líquido/sólido, na presença/ausência de luz In nitial in vitro culture of axillary buds of Ananas comosus (L. Merr. in liquid/semi-solid culture medium, in the presence/absence of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brandão Santa Cruz Barboza

    2009-01-01

    evaluated in four replications per treatment. More buds were obtained in liquid medium without filter paper bridge, where 80.0% of explants differentiated new shoots. In treatments cultivated in the dark, 68.8% to 87.5% of the explants did not regenerate new shoots. Explants cultivated in volumes of 2.5 mL and 5.0 mL of medium, in the presence of light, were more efficient in the induction and formation of shoots. The cultivation of axillary buds of lateral pineapple sprouts in 2.5 mL or 5.0 mL of MS liquid medium, supplemented with 0.63 μM NAA and 2.5 μM BAP, in the presence of light, represents an adequate protocol for establishing new pineapple shoots for use in subsequent phases of micropropagation.

  13. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    , originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (dark pink were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V2 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream. Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V2 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named ‘Magali’ was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar.

  14. Photosynthetic leaf area modulates tiller bud outgrowth in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Mullet, John E

    2015-08-01

    Shoot branches or tillers develop from axillary buds. The dormancy versus outgrowth fates of buds depends on genetic, environmental and hormonal signals. Defoliation inhibits bud outgrowth indicating the role of leaf-derived metabolic factors such as sucrose in bud outgrowth. In this study, the sensitivity of bud outgrowth to selective defoliation was investigated. At 6 d after planting (6 DAP), the first two leaves of sorghum were fully expanded and the third was partially emerged. Therefore, the leaves were selectively defoliated at 6 DAP and the length of the bud in the first leaf axil was measured at 8 DAP. Bud outgrowth was inhibited by defoliation of only 2 cm from the tip of the second leaf blade. The expression of dormancy and sucrose-starvation marker genes was up-regulated and cell cycle and sucrose-inducible genes was down-regulated during the first 24 h post-defoliation of the second leaf. At 48 h, the expression of these genes was similar to controls as the defoliated plant recovers. Our results demonstrate that small changes in photosynthetic leaf area affect the propensity of tiller buds for outgrowth. Therefore, variation in leaf area and photosynthetic activity should be included when integrating sucrose into models of shoot branching.

  15. Four Hypotheses to Explain Axillary Budbreak after Removal of Flower Shoots in a Cut-rose Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Okello, R.C.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2013-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut-rose (Rosa ×hybrida) are harvested (removed), a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Besides removing within-shoot correlative inhibition, it is hypothesized that shoot removal leads to 1) increas

  16. Axillary breast: Navigating uncharted terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha A Bhave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Axillary breast is a common condition that leads to discomfort and cosmetic problems. Liposuction alone and open excision are two techniques used for treatment. Materials and Methods: This study assesses the results of treatment in 24 consecutive patients, operated between 2005 and 2015.All patients had Kajava class IV masses. Three were treated by liposuction alone, while 21 were treated by open axillaplasty with limited liposuction. Results: One patient treated by liposuction alone had to be re-operated for a residual lump, while with axillaplasty, no major complications were observed and the results were uniformly good. Discussion: Certain points of technique emerged as major determinants in obtaining the best results. In brief, these are: a limited skin excision; b placing elliptical incisions within the most lax, apical axillary skin, irrespective of the location of the lump; c raising skin flaps at the level of superficial fascia; dmeticulous dissection and preservation of the nerves, especially the second intercostobrachial; f judicious liposuction for eliminating dog ears and axillary sculpting only; g avoiding drains. Conclusion: Open axillaplasty with limited liposuction is the best way to minimise complications and produce good results.

  17. Axillary and rectal temperature measurements in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, C J; Hewson, P H; Thornton, A. J.; Cole, T J

    1992-01-01

    Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured during the daytime in 281 infants seen randomly at home and 656 at hospital under 6 months old, using mercury-in-glass thermometers. The normal temperature range derived from the babies at home was 36.7-37.9 degrees C for rectal temperature and 35.6-37.2 degrees C for axillary temperature. Rectal temperature was higher than axillary in 98% of the measurements. The mean (SD) difference between rectal and axillary temperatures was 0.7 (0.5) degrees...

  18. [Axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinium A toxin treatment: Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerico, C; Fernandez, J; Camuzard, O; Chignon-Sicard, B; Ihrai, T

    2016-02-01

    Injection of type A botulinum toxin in the armpits is a temporary treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. This technique described in 1996 by Bushara et al., is known to be efficient and safe. The purpose of this article was to review the data concerning the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A, and discuss the other treatment modalities for this socially disabling entity.

  19. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  20. Establishment of a Rapid Plant Regeneration System in Physalis angulata L. through Axillary Meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An optimal plant propagation method of Physalis angulata L., a medicinally important herbaceous plant species has been developed using axillary meristem explants. Shoot bud proliferation was initiated from axillary meristem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 0.5-2.5mg/L/(BAP/(Zeatin/(KIN. The maximum in vitro response of shooting frequency of explants (88.1% and shoots per explant (42 was achieved with medium containing 1.0mg/L BAP. Multiple shoot culture was established by repeated subculturing of the shoot buds of axillary meristems on shoot multiplication medium. Among the subculture media BAP in combination with 1.5mg/L (IAA+0.25mg/L(GA3 produced maximum shoots per explant (128±0.29 after two weeks of culture. Effective in vitro shoot elongation and rooting was achieved on 1.0mg/L(GA3 and 1.0mg/L(IBA, respectively. Most of the generated shoots were successfully transferred to soil under field conditions. The survival percentage of the transferred plants on soil was found to be 90 per cent.  This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies.

  1. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  2. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  3. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  4. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  5. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  6. Midterm Experience of Ipsilateral Axillary-Axillary Arteriovenous Loop Graft as Tertiary Access for Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To present a series of ipsilateral axillary artery to axillary vein loop arm grafts as an alternative vascular access procedure for haemodialysis in patients with difficult access. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Patients who underwent an axillary loop arteriovenous graft from September 2009 to September 2012 were included. Preoperative venous imaging to exclude central venous stenosis and to image arm/axillary veins was performed. A cuffed PTFE graft was anastomosed to the distal axillary artery and axillary vein and looped on the arm. Results. 25 procedures were performed on 22 patients. Median age was 51 years, with 9 males and 13 females. Median number of previous access procedures was 3 (range 0–7. Median followup was 16.4 months (range 1–35. At 3 months and 1 year, the primary and secondary patency rates were 70% and 72% and 36% and 37%, respectively. There were 11 radiological interventions in 6 grafts including 5 angioplasties and 6 thrombectomies. There were 19 surgical procedures in 10 grafts, including thrombectomy, revision, repair for bleeding, and excision. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that the axillary loop arm graft yields acceptable early patency rates in a complex group of patients but to maintain graft patency required high rates of surgical and radiological intervention, in particular graft thrombectomy.

  7. Ulnar nerve palsy due to axillary crutch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendrakumar M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A young lady with residual polio, using axillary crutch since early childhood, presented with tingling, numbness and weakness in ulnar nerve distribution of five months duration. Ulnar motor conduction study revealed proximal conduction block near the axilla, at the point of pressure by the crutch while walking. Distal ulnar sensory conduction studies were normal but proximal ulnar sensory conduction studies showed absence of Erb′s point potential. These findings suggested the presence of conduction block in sensory fibers as well. Proper use and change of axillary crutch resulted in clinical recovery and resolution of motor and sensory conduction block.

  8. Establishment of a Rapid Plant Regeneration System in Physalis angulata L. through Axillary Meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An optimal plant propagation method of Physalis angulata L., a medicinally important herbaceous plant species has been developed using axillary meristem explants. Shoot bud proliferation was initiated from axillary meristem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 0.5-2.5mg/L/(BAP/(Zeatin/(KIN. The maximum in vitro response of shooting frequency of explants (88.1% and shoots per explant (42 was achieved with medium containing 1.0mg/L BAP. Multiple shoot culture was established by repeated subculturing of the shoot buds of axillary meristems on shoot multiplication medium. Among the subculture media BAP in combination with 1.5mg/L (IAA+0.25mg/L(GA3 produced maximum shoots per explant (128±0.29 after two weeks of culture. Effective in vitro shoot elongation and rooting was achieved on 1.0mg/L(GA3 and 1.0mg/L(IBA, respectively. Most of the generated shoots were successfully transferred to soil under field conditions. The survival percentage of the transferred plants on soil was found to be 90 per cent.  This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies.

  9. BRANCHED1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to repress the floral transition of the axillary meristems in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Masaki; Daimon, Yasufumi; Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Higo, Asuka; Pruneda-Paz, José L; Breton, Ghislain; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Kay, Steve A; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Endo, Motomu; Araki, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Plant architecture shows a large degree of developmental plasticity. Some of the key determinants are the timing of the floral transition induced by a systemic flowering signal (florigen) and the branching pattern regulated by key factors such as BRANCHED1 (BRC1). Here, we report that BRC1 interacts with the florigen proteins FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) but not with TERMINAL FLOWER1, a floral repressor. FT protein induced in leaves moves into the subtended bud, suggesting that FT protein also plays a role in promotion of the floral transition in the axillary meristem (AM). The brc1-2 mutant shows an earlier floral transition in the axillary shoots compared with the wild type, suggesting that BRC1 plays a role in delaying the floral transition of the AMs. Genetic and gene expression analyses suggest that BRC1 interferes with florigen (FT and TSF) function in the AMs. Consistent with this, BRC1 ectopically expressed in the shoot apical meristem delays the floral transition in the main shoot. These results taken together suggest that BRC1 protein interacts with FT and TSF proteins and modulates florigen activity in the axillary buds to prevent premature floral transition of the AMs.

  10. Axillary dissection versus no axillary dissection in patients with sentinel-node micrometastases (IBCSG 23-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galimberti, Viviana; Cole, Bernard F; Zurrida, Stefano;

    2013-01-01

    For patients with breast cancer and metastases in the sentinel nodes, axillary dissection has been standard treatment. However, for patients with limited sentinel-node involvement, axillary dissection might be overtreatment. We designed IBCSG trial 23-01 to determine whether no axillary dissectio...

  11. Programmed cell death during terminal bud senescence in a sympodial branching tree,Eucommia ulmoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wenjie; Kalima-N'Koma MWANGE; CUI Keming

    2004-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a typical sympodial branching tree. The apical bud of the branch ages and dies every year, replaced by the nearby axillary bud in the second year. Structural assays and a series of biochemical analyses were performed to analyze the senescence mechanism in the apical bud. It was revealed that most cells of the apical bud underwent the programmed cell death (PCD) during the senescence: the chromosomes were congregated and the nuclear contents were condensed, as shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescence. DNA fragmentation was detected during senescence using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end in situ labeling (TUNEL) method, coincident with the appearance of a DNA ladder. Moreover, a 20 kD DNase related to fragmentation was found. PCD was initiated first in the young leaves, leaf primordia and peripheral zone cells, then in the central mother cells and initial layer cells in the apical meristem. The terminal buds remain in vegetative growth during senescence, in contrast to buds of many annual plants.

  12. Hormonal control of the outgrowth of axillary buds in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We study apical dominance in Alstroemeria, a plant with an architecture very different from the model species used in research on apical dominance. The standard explant was a rhizome with a tip and two vertically growing shoots from which the larger part had been excised leaving ca. 1 cm stem. The a

  13. Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Yalcin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture.

  14. The Clinical Value of Axillary Ultrasonogra- phy for Detection of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Cases with Breast Cancer

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    Sedigheh Tahmasebi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The axillary lymph node stage is one of the single most important determinants in the prognosis of breast cancer patients. The disadvantages of the two previous methods used for evaluating axillary node metastasis, i.e., axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy, have directed researchers to investigate new techniques for this purpose. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of axillary ultrasonography in detecting axillary metastasis. Methods: This study was conducted during a 12-month period. The breast cancer cases included in this study were all clinically diagnosed as stages I and II, with no prior treatment to the axillary region by surgery and/or chemo-radiotherapy. Excluded from the study group were patients with palpable axillary lymph nodes, those who had major organ failure or concomitant malignancy. All included patients with non-palpable axillary lymph nodes underwent axillary ultrasound examination. An ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy was performed on patients with suspected metastasis. Results: There were 125 female patients with a mean age of 49.6 years included in this study. From these, 16 (12.8% cases had positive axillary sonographic findings. Pathologic evaluation of tissue specimens (taken by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in 10 (62.5% out of 16 patients were positive, and in the patient group of 6 (37.5% cases, studies were negative. Axillary ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 35.7%, specificity of 93.8%, positive predictive value of 62.5%, and negative predictive value of 83.5%. Conclusion: The axillary ultrasonogram is a reliable technique in the determination of axillary nodal metastatic involvement in breast cancer patients. By use of this method a significant amount of complications and costs related to the previous techniques can be avoided.

  15. Axillary nerve conduction changes in hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ring Haim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To prove the possibility of axillary nerve conduction changes following shoulder subluxation due to hemiplegia, in order to investigate the usefulness of screening nerve conduction studies in patients with hemiplegia for finding peripheral neuropathy. Methods Forty-four shoulders of twenty-two patients with a first-time stroke having flaccid hemiplegia were tested, 43 ± 12 days after stroke onset. Wasting and weakness of the deltoid were present in the involved side. Motor nerve conduction latency and compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude were measured along the axillary nerve, comparing the paralyzed to the sound shoulder. The stimulation was done at the Erb's point whilst the recording needle electrode was inserted into the deltoid muscle 4 cm directly beneath the lateral border of the acromion. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the motor conduction between the sound and the paralytic shoulder. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between plegic and sound shoulder in each side. Results Mean motor nerve conduction latency time to the deltoid muscle was 8.49, SD 4.36 ms in the paralyzed shoulder and 5.17, SD 1.35 ms in the sound shoulder (p Mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude was 2.83, SD 2.50 mV in the paralyzed shoulder and was 7.44, SD 5.47 mV in the sound shoulder (p p p = 0.003, 1-sided for amplitude, and patients with left paralyzed shoulder compared to patients with left sound shoulder (p = 0.011, 1-sided for latency, p = 0.001, 1-sided for amplitude, support the same outcomes. The electro-physiological changes in the axillary nerve may appear during the first six weeks after stroke breakout. Conclusion Continuous traction of the axillary nerve, as in hypotonic shoulder, may affect the electro-physiological properties of the nerve. It most probably results from subluxation of the head of the humerus, causing demyelinization and even axonopathy. Slowing of the conduction velocities of

  16. Micropropagation of Paulownia fortuneii through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B; Mukhopadhyay, J; Sreenivasan, E; Kumar, V M

    2001-06-01

    Primary cultures were established with nodal segments from juvenile shoots of two- year-old Paulownia fortuneii trees from a clonal plantation in Andhra Pradesh. A medium containing half-strength MS salts + RAP (1 mg/L) + sucrose (2%) produced optimum bud break in nodal explants. The same basal medium with reduced hormone level (0.5 mg/L) supported maximum multiplication of secondary cultures of P. fortuneii (1:6 in 6 weeks). Specific treatments were tested to enhance this rate of multiplication. In one approach, five to six week old in vitro grown shoots were ratooned (cutting the main shoot at the bottom leaving one node). The stumps (ratooned basal node) produced 2 to 3 axillary shoots, which grew into 4 to 5 nodes by 3 weeks; thus, providing additional shoots from the same explant. This provided 30% additional shoots in 4 cycles. Secondly, reducing the light intensity to 1200 lux resulted in higher shoot elongation, i.e, formation of 8 nodes in 5 weeks with healthier shoots than the normal intensity of 3000 lux under which only 6 nodes were produced in 6 weeks. In vitro-grown shoots could be successfully rooted ex vitro in vermiculite + cocopeat mixture (1:1 v/v) under 90% humidity, transferred to soil in polybags for hardening in the green house for 2 weeks and shifted to shade net for further hardening. After one month, the plants could be successfully transplanted to field with 95% survival. Micropropagated plants showed an excellent growth in the field attaining a height of 1.5 m and a collar diameter of 2.8 cm in 3 months.

  17. LANGER’S AXILLARY ARCH AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

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    Jyothi K C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The axillary arch muscle of Langer is the most common anatomical variant of axillary musculature which is of clinical and surgical importance. It may lead to neurovascular compression syndrome in the cervicoaxillary region and can be misinterpreted while examining axilla and also impairs movements of shoulder joint. Observation: During routine dissection of axilla for undergraduate teaching, an unusual muscular slip in the left axilla was observed .The muscular slip was extending from lattisimus dorsi muscle to undersurface of pectoralis major muscle, arching over axillary vessels and cords of brachial plexus. Conclusion: The axillary arch may cause obstruction to axillary vessels and nerves and may be involved in thoracic outlet syndrome and shoulder instability. The knowledge of this muscular variant could help to minimize intraoperative complications related to surgeries in or nearby axilla such as mastectomy, breast reconstruction and axillary lymphadenectomy or lymph node biopsy.

  18. Automated quantification of budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel image cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Daniel J; Kury, Alexandria L; Kuksin, Dmitry; Pirani, Alnoor; Flanagan, Kevin; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The measurements of concentration, viability, and budding percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are performed on a routine basis in the brewing and biofuel industries. Generation of these parameters is of great importance in a manufacturing setting, where they can aid in the estimation of product quality, quantity, and fermentation time of the manufacturing process. Specifically, budding percentages can be used to estimate the reproduction rate of yeast populations, which directly correlates with metabolism of polysaccharides and bioethanol production, and can be monitored to maximize production of bioethanol during fermentation. The traditional method involves manual counting using a hemacytometer, but this is time-consuming and prone to human error. In this study, we developed a novel automated method for the quantification of yeast budding percentages using Cellometer image cytometry. The automated method utilizes a dual-fluorescent nucleic acid dye to specifically stain live cells for imaging analysis of unique morphological characteristics of budding yeast. In addition, cell cycle analysis is performed as an alternative method for budding analysis. We were able to show comparable yeast budding percentages between manual and automated counting, as well as cell cycle analysis. The automated image cytometry method is used to analyze and characterize corn mash samples directly from fermenters during standard fermentation. Since concentration, viability, and budding percentages can be obtained simultaneously, the automated method can be integrated into the fermentation quality assurance protocol, which may improve the quality and efficiency of beer and bioethanol production processes.

  19. Axillary reverse mapping in axillary surgery for breast cancer: an update of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Martinus A; Gobardhan, Paul D; Schoenmaeckers, Ernst J P; Klompenhouwer, Elisabeth G; Rutten, Harm J T; Voogd, Adri C; Luiten, Ernest J T

    2016-08-01

    Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a technique by which the lymphatic drainage of the upper extremity that traverses the axillary region can be differentiated from the lymphatic drainage of the breast during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Adding this procedure to ALND may reduce upper extremity lymphedema by preserving upper extremity drainage. This review of the current literature on the ARM procedure discusses the feasibility, safety and relevance of this technique. A PubMed literature search was performed until 12 August 2015. A total of 31 studies were included in this review. The studies indicated that the ARM procedure adequately identifies the upper extremity lymph nodes and lymphatics in the axillary basin using blue dye or fluorescence. Preservation of ARM lymph nodes and corresponding lymphatics was proven to be oncologically safe in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients with metastatic lymph node involvement in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) who are advised to undergo a completion ALND. The ARM procedure is technically feasible with a high visualisation rate using blue dye or fluorescence. ALND combined with ARM can be regarded as a promising surgical refinement in order to reduce the incidence of upper extremity lymphedema in selected groups of patients.

  20. [Acute axillary eczema caused by mercury compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippen, H

    1979-01-01

    Not every axillary dermatitis is caused by an allergy against corresponding cosmetics (deodorants or anti-perspirants). This is shown in a 24-year-old man with an acute contact dermatitis in the left axilla. Sensitization probably developed against mercury salts due to the regular use of thermometers which were kept in a disinfecting solution containing phenylmercuric borate. The patient was in two hospitals for a check up before heart surgery and temperature was regularly measured in the left axilla. In both clincis phenylmercuric borate was used for desinfection of the thermometers. The sensitivity was proofed by positive patch tests.

  1. Effect of shaving on axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, V P J; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Paterson, S E; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V

    2003-08-01

    Removal of underarm hair is an intrinsic part of the care regimen for the majority of female consumers, with most using a wet shave with a disposable razor. However, little is known of the impact of shaving on axillary skin, and it is a particularly neglected area of research. To investigate this, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of shaving ultrastructurally, biochemically and functionally. A forearm patch test protocol was devised for antiperspirant (AP) product screening, which involved a pre-shave of the test site with a dry razor just prior to patching. Comparison of the irritation caused by a series of AP products confirmed that shaving leads to increased irritation consistent with enhanced sensitivity. The effect of regular shaving in the axilla was assessed in a 4-week in-use study with shaving either once a week or once a day, both combined with the application of an AP. Expert visual assessment of skin condition showed that more frequent shaving promoted a higher level of visible irritation. However, indirect measurement using corneosurfametry indicated no significant changes to the lipid barrier over the study period irrespective of shaving frequency. Nevertheless, digital images of the axillary skin after dry shaving show distinct opaque lines because of uplifting skin flakes with a corresponding increase in scaliness parameter. Moreover, histamine iontophoresis to assess skin sensitivity demonstrated a significant enhancement of histamine-induced itch and neurogenic flare.

  2. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  3. The use of pectoralis major flaps during axillary dissection for bulky axillary lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Mohan, Savtaj Singh Brar, Jason T Rich, Frances Wright, Kevin Higgins Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: There are a multitude of flaps and advanced techniques employed in reconstructive surgery during axillary dissections. The pectoralis major flap has proven, in our experience, to be favored as it provides excellent access to level three of the axilla and vessel coverage. Keywords: lymphadenopathy, free flap, pectoralis major

  4. Adventitial cystic disease of the axillary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, Eric A; Hewlett, Stanley; DeRienzo, Damian P; Donovan, Sean; Georgia, Jeff; Yavorski, Chester C

    2002-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) is an extremely rare cause of arterial and venous insufficiency, with only 317 reported cases in the world literature. These lesions have been previously described in the popliteal fossa, external iliac artery, and distal brachial, radial, and ulnar arteries as well as in the proximal saphenous vein at the ankle. We describe here the first reported case of this disease in a proximal vessel, the axillary artery. A 33-year-old man was evaluated for upper extremity arterial insufficiency and was diagnosed with ACD on the basis of physical examination and radiographic findings, which was confirmed by pathological assessment. The patient was treated by excision of the lesion and interposition vein bypass. As this represents the first case of ACD in the proximal vasculature, it demonstrates that these lesions can occur in axial blood vessels.

  5. Presentation of Axillary Metastases from Occult Breast Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Axillary presentation from occult breast cancer is uncommon and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians.Once the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma metastatic to an axillary lymph node has been confirmed,a preoperative workup should be done.The current experience is based on several relatively small retrospective reviews and case reports.It is difficult to determine the best management of occult breast cancer.However,treatmenl of axillary Iymph node dissection is recommended for local control and complete staging information.Treatment of breast should be a choice between breast conservation with whole-breast radiotherapy and mastectomy.Adjuvant systemic treatment should be offered.

  6. Axillary artery injury as a complication of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J A; Light, R; Lustrin, I

    1998-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries and represent approximately 5% of all fractures. These fractures are infrequently associated with neurovascular injuries. Brachial plexus injuries are uncommon, whereas axillary artery injuries are rare. A review of 19 previously reported cases of axillary artery injury after proximal humerus fracture revealed that 84% occurred in patients older than 50 years, 53% were associated with brachial plexus injury, and 21% resulted in upper extremity amputation. This study describes a case of axillary artery injury after proximal humerus fracture and, on the basis of a literature review, offers suggestions for the early diagnosis and effective treatment of this uncommon injury.

  7. Budding of Walnut ( Juglans regia L.

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    Majlind Kasmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The walnut is classified as a strategic species for human nutrition and is included in the FAO’s list of priority plants. Walnut, (Juglans regia L. propagation is more difficult, compared to most fruit species. Due to walnut heterozygosity, propagation by seeds does not lead to inheritance of all the characteristics of certain varieties. That is the reason why propagation technologies are being improved worldwide. The purpose of this experiment was to increase the success of inoculation of the walnut budding var. Franquete. Methods such as the patch budding and chip budding have been employed during the experiment. To establish the most appropriate season of inoculation, June budding on 28 June (with buds taken in the current season, autumn budding on 28 August (with buds taken in the current season and spring budding on 28 May (with buds collected from the winter dormant period, were tested. As rootstocks for the June and August budding, the seedlings of Juglans regia L. of the current year's growth have been employed. For the spring inoculation the one year old scions have been used. Patch budding resulted the most successful method for walnuts. However, the success of the method of patch budding depends on the season of inoculation. An 80 % of successful inoculation was achieved by June budding (on 28 June. Furthermore, cutting off the leaf 20 days before the buds being taken for budding, led to even higher results reaching 87% of successful inoculation. According to the results of the present study, the June budding of the patch method seems to be the best solution for the production of grafted young walnut trees.

  8. Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Yu; Takada, Tappei; Gomi, Tsuneaki; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the risk of axillary osmidrosis is governed by a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 538G>A in human ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11) gene. However, little data are available for the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands that produce apocrine sweat—a source of odor from the armpits. To determine the effect of the non-synonymous SNP ABCC11 538G>A (G180R) on the ABCC11 in vivo, we generated transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice with adenovirus vector, and examined the protein levels of each ABCC11 in the mice with immunoblotting using an anti-ABCC11 antibody we have generated in the present study. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands extracted from axillary osmidrosis patients carrying each ABCC11 genotype: 538GG, GA, and AA. Analyses of transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice showed that ABCC11 538G>A diminishes the ABCC11 protein levels in vivo. Consistently, ABCC11 protein was detected in the human axillary apocrine glands of the 538GG homozygote or 538GA heterozygote, not in the 538AA homozygote. These findings would contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of axillary osmidrosis. PMID:28212277

  9. Post-burn axillary contracture: A therapeutic challenge!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Karki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Axillary post-burn scar contracture is a challenging problem to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the wide range of abduction that should be achieved. The aim of this paper was to highlight the various options used in managing axillary contractures in our hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital-based study of axillary contractures managed at Safdarjung Hospital (a tertiary care hospital from 2009 to 2013.The study consisted of 44 patients from all age group and both sex included in it. Patients with a bilateral axillary contracture were excluded. Axillary contracture was released and resurfaced using split skin graft and/or with different types of flaps including the propeller flap, parascapular flap. All the reconstructed cases were followed-up for a period of 12 months. Assessment was done on the basis of functional and aesthetic outcome. Results: Forty-four patients consisting of 25 males and 19 females presented with axillary contractures that involved 44 axillae. The mean age of the study group was 17.1 years. Injuries involved the anterior axillary fold in 8 (18.18%, posterior fold in ten (22.72%, both folds and axillary fossa in 14 (31.81% and both folds plus part of the chest wall and arm (sparing the axillary fossa in 12 (27.27% axillae. Surgical treatment included split-thickness skin graft in 15 (34.1%, local skin flaps in 4 (9.1%, Z-plasties in 4 (9.1%, parascapular flaps in 3 (6.82%, while propeller flaps in 12 (27.27% and square flap were used in 6 (13.64% patients. The percentage of improvement in abduction had a mean of 156°. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The choice of surgical procedure for reconstruction of post-burn axillary contractures can be made according to the pattern of scar contracture and the state of the surrounding skin. The choice of a flap should have priority over the skin graft because of the superior functional and aesthetic results

  10. Intra-inflorescence pollen viability in accessions of Brachiaria ruziziensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Pinto de Paula

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the pollen viability is important to ensure success in controlled hybridizations and, consequently, support breeding programs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pollen viability in progenies of artificially induced tetraploid accessions of Brachiaria ruziziensis, and to verify if the position of the flower buds on the raceme affects the pollen viability rate. Staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen (Alexander’s technique was used to determine the viability of the pollen grains. Tetraploid accessions of B. ruziziensis plants had high pollen viability (x = 76.8% to x = 99.6%. Some of these plants had viability rates similar to diploid B. ruziziensis, showing that the induction of chromosome duplication by colchicine did not result in abnormalities in production and morphology of pollen grains. Pollen grains from middle and apical regions of the raceme presented higher viability rates (x = 97.9% and x = 97.7% respectively. The viability of pollen grains in artificially induced tetraploid accessions of B. ruziziensis plants was high, which may favor obtaining fertile descendants in possible crosses

  11. Fibroadenoma of axillary ectopic breast tissue: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary breast or polymastia is a well-documented anomaly of the breast and commonly presents along the embryonic milk line extending between the axilla and groin. Reported incidence of accessory breast is 0.4-6% in females. During 2 years period, we encountered only two cases out of twenty cases of axillary lumps. We present one case of fibroadenoma in ectopic breast tissue (EBT in axilla. Ectopic breast denotes breast tissue at more than two pectoral regions, which is mostly benign but at times can be malignant. EBT is at a greater risk of malignancy. Fibroadenoma of ectopic axillary breast tissue (EBT is quiet rare, but should always be kept in mind for differential diagnosis of an axillary mass.

  12. Cellular Factors Required for Lassa Virus Budding

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Shuzo; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Yasuda, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    It is known that Lassa virus Z protein is sufficient for the release of virus-like particles (VLPs) and that it has two L domains, PTAP and PPPY, in its C terminus. However, little is known about the cellular factor for Lassa virus budding. We examined which cellular factors are used in Lassa virus Z budding. We demonstrated that Lassa Z protein efficiently produces VLPs and uses cellular factors, Vps4A, Vps4B, and Tsg101, in budding, suggesting that Lassa virus budding uses the multivesicula...

  13. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  14. Bilateral axillary artery aneurysms after Bentall procedure in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kobayashi, Yurio

    2015-11-01

    A man with Marfan syndrome underwent a Bentall procedure for annuloaortic ectasia and severe aortic regurgitation at 43 years of age. Twenty-eight years after the Bentall procedure, he developed bilateral axillary artery aneurysms (length × diameter: right: 80 × 39 mm; left: 103 × 45 mm). Aneurysmectomy and reconstruction of the axillary artery were performed using an artificial vascular graft. Histological examination revealed cystic medial necrosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, but long-term follow-up is necessary.

  15. Anterior shoulder dislocation with axillary artery and nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razif, M A Mohamed; Rajasingam, V

    2002-12-01

    We report a rare case of left axillary artery injury associated with anterior dislocation of the left shoulder in a 25 yrs old male as a result of a road traffic accident. The shoulder dislocation was reduced. A left upper limb angiogram showed an obstructed left axillary artery. The obstructed segment was surgically reconstructed with a Dacron graft. Six months post operation in follow up, he was found to have good left shoulder function and no neurovascular deficit. This is an injury that could have been easily missed without a simple clinical examination.

  16. Axillary temperature measurement: a less stressful alternative for hospitalised cats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, M; Vandenheede, M; Farnir, F; Gommeren, K

    2016-02-20

    Rectal temperature measurement (RTM) can promote stress and defensive behaviour in hospitalised cats. The aim of this study was to assess if axillary temperature measurement (ATM) could be a reliable and less stressful alternative for these animals. In this prospective study, paired rectal and axillary temperatures were measured in 42 cats, either by a veterinarian or a student. To assess the impact of these procedures on the cat's stress state, their heart rate was checked and a cat stress score (CSS) was defined and graded from 1 (relaxed) to 5 (terrified). A moderate correlation was found between RTM and ATM (r=0.52; Pcats.

  17. Isolated axillary lymph node metastasis in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Vi Vien; Shirley, Rebecca; Duffy, John; Starley, Ian Francis

    2015-03-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the axilla is a rare occurrence. The authors present a case of a woman who developed an axillary metastasis from a completely excised oesophageal adenocarcinoma with no prior evidence of nodal disease. With aggressive local treatment, including multiple local operations and radiotherapy, she remains alive and disease-free 12 years after her diagnosis following surgical resection of her axillary metastasis with adjuvant radiotherapy. This case report suggests that there are occasions when aggressive local treatment of apparently isolated metastases can result in a cure.

  18. HIV Pol inhibits HIV budding and mediates the severe budding defect of Gag-Pol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gan

    Full Text Available The prevailing hypothesis of HIV budding posits that the viral Gag protein drives budding, and that the Gag p6 peptide plays an essential role by recruiting host-cell budding factors to sites of HIV assembly. HIV also expresses a second Gag protein, p160 Gag-Pol, which lacks p6 and fails to bud from cells, consistent with the prevailing hypothesis of HIV budding. However, we show here that the severe budding defect of Gag-Pol is not caused by the absence of p6, but rather, by the presence of Pol. Specifically, we show that (i the budding defect of Gag-Pol is unaffected by loss of HIV protease activity and is therefore an intrinsic property of the Gag-Pol polyprotein, (ii the N-terminal 433 amino acids of Gag and Gag-Pol are sufficient to drive virus budding even though they lack p6, (iii the severe budding defect of Gag-Pol is caused by a dominant, cis-acting inhibitor of budding in the HIV Pol domain, and (iv Gag-Pol inhibits Gag and virus budding in trans, even at normal levels of Gag and Gag-Pol expression. These and other data support an alternative hypothesis of HIV budding as a process that is mediated by the normal, non-viral pathway of exosome/microvesicle biogenesis.

  19. A predictive tool to estimate the risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative axillary ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, T J; Heikkilä, P S; Mansfield, A S;

    2014-01-01

    risk factors for axillary metastases. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to form a predictive model based on the risk factors. The predictive model was first validated internally in a patient series of 566 further patients and then externally in a patient series of 2,463 patients from...... of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative preoperative axillary ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 1,395 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and SNB formed the original patient series. A univariate analysis was conducted to assess...... of the primary tumor (P predictive model. Internal validation of the model produced an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.731 and external validation an AUC of 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: We present a predictive model to assess the patient-specific probability...

  20. Efficient transmission of Cassava brown streak disease viral pathogens by chip bud grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques to study plant viral diseases under controlled growth conditions are required to fully understand their biology and investigate host resistance. Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) presents a major threat to cassava production in East Africa. No infectious clones of the causal viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) or Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) are available, and mechanical transmission to cassava is not effective. An improved method for transmission of the viruses, both singly and as co-infections has been developed using bud grafts. Findings Axillary buds from CBSD symptomatic plants infected with virulent isolates of CBSV and UCBSV were excised and grafted onto 6–8 week old greenhouse-grown, disease-free cassava plants of cultivars Ebwanateraka, TME204 and 60444. Plants were assessed visually for development of CBSD symptoms and by RT-PCR for presence of the viruses in leaf and storage root tissues. Across replicated experiments, 70-100% of plants inoculated with CBSV developed CBSD leaf and stem symptoms 2–6 weeks after bud grafting. Infected plants showed typical, severe necrotic lesions in storage roots at harvest 12–14 weeks after graft inoculation. Sequential grafting of buds from plants infected with UCBSV followed 10–14 days later by buds carrying CBSV, onto the same test plant, resulted in 100% of the rootstocks becoming co-infected with both pathogens. This dual transmission rate was greater than that achieved by simultaneous grafting with UCBSV and CBSV (67%), or when grafting first with CBSV followed by UCBSV (17%). Conclusions The bud grafting method described presents an improved tool for screening cassava germplasm for resistance to CBSD causal viruses, and for studying pathogenicity of this important disease. Bud grafting provides new opportunities compared to previously reported top and side grafting systems. Test plants can be inoculated as young, uniform plants of a size easily handled in a

  1. Axillary recurrence rate 5 years after negative sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, Y.; de Boniface, J.; Jonsson, P. -E.; Ingvar, C.; Liljegren, G.; Bergkvist, L.; Frisell, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as the standard axillary staging procedure in breast cancer. Follow-up studies in SLN-negative women treated without ALND report low rates of axillary recurrence, but most studies have short follow-up, an

  2. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  3. Single incision thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Baram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs. It is a common disease (incidence 2.8% that causes intense discomfort for patients. In the last decade, advantages of Single-Incision Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy have become clear, particularly in decreasing morbidity of sympathectomy. Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, 39 patients (29 females and 10 males with primary palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis were treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The age ranged from 18 to 40 years with a mean of 26.28 years. We used single incision thoracoscopic electrocoagulation through 10 mm incision for thoracic sympathetic chain (T2–T4. Results: The mean follow-up was 23.6 ± 14.2 months (range = 4–24 months. A total of 97.42% of patients were satisfied with the results. A total of 72.5% of patients had cure, one patient (2.5% and another patient (2.5% presented with recurrent axillary hyperhidrosis. The morbidity was 10.2% with no mortality. Percentage of compensatory sweating and gustatory sweating were 5.1% (p = .353 and 2.5% (p = .552, respectively. The result of sympathectomy in patients with both palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis was significantly better (17, 43.58% compared to palmar type (14, 35.89% or axillary type (7, 17.94%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a simple, safe, and cost-effective therapy with good results and low complications.

  4. Strategies for morbidity control of axillary dissection for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bonnema (Jorien)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer accounts for one third of all cancers in females in the Netherlands I and the incidence has been increasing world-wide in the past decades 2.. For the majority of patients, surgery forms the primary treatment of choice 3. Dissection of the axillary lymph nodes has been part

  5. MISSING FLOWERS gene controls axillary meristems initiation in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Cionini, Giuliano; Bertini, Daniele; Michelotti, Vania; Conti, Alessio; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2003-05-01

    The initiation and growth of axillary meristems are fundamental components of plant architecture. Here, we describe the mutant missing flowers (mf) of Helianthus annuus characterized by the lack of axillary shoots. Decapitation experiments and histological analysis indicate that this phenotype is the result of a defect in axillary meristem initiation. In addition to shoot branching, mutation affects floral differentiation. The indeterminate inflorescence of sunflower (capitulum) is formed of a large flat meristem which produces floret primordia in multiple spirals. In wildtype plants a bisecting crease divides each primordium in two distinct bumps that adopt different fate. The peripheral (abaxial) part of the primordium becomes a small leaf-like bract and the adaxial part becomes a flower. In the mf mutant, the formation of flowers at the axil of bracts is precluded. Histological analyses show that in floret primordia of the mutant a clear subdivision in dyads is not established. The primordia progressively bend inside and only large involucral floral bracts are developed. The results suggest that the MISSING FLOWERS gene is essential to provide or perceive an appropriate signal to the initiation of axillary meristems during both vegetative and reproductive phases.

  6. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  7. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  8. Jugular-axillary vein bypass for salvage of arteriovenous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, K D; Hyde, G L

    1989-01-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the subclavian vein can cause incapacitating upper extremity swelling and venous hypertension in the patient with an arteriovenous (AV) access. A case of subclavian vein occlusion is reported that was treated with internal jugular-axillary vein bypass. This procedure resulted in salvage of the access and rapid resolution of the associated upper extremity swelling. It was concluded that jugular-axillary vein bypass should be considered in patients who have massive upper extremity edema resulting from a functioning AV access and ipsilateral subclavian vein occlusion. Patients undergoing creation of an AV access who have had previous temporary subclavian catheters or previous early failure of an AV access should have phlebography before surgery.

  9. Assessment of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon; Nguyen, Vy; Coder, David

    2013-01-01

    Cell viability may be judged by morphological changes or by changes in membrane permeability and/or physiological state inferred from the exclusion of certain dyes or the uptake and retention of others. This unit presents methods based on dye exclusion, esterase activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as protocols for determining the pre-fixation viability of fixed cells either before or after fixation with amine-reactive dyes suitable for a range of excitation wavelengths. Membrane-impermeable dead cell and live cell dyes as well as dye-exclusion procedures for microscopy are also included.

  10. Isolated Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis from Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old female with past medical history of stage IIIc serous ovarian cancer after cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy came to clinic for regular follow-up visit. Physical examination was completely normal except for an isolated left axillary lymph node enlargement. Patient's abdominal sonogram and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis did not show any other new metastasis. Surgical excisional biopsy of the lymph node was performed and pathology revealed features of metastatic serous ovarian carcinoma.

  11. Axillary lymph nodes and arm lymphatic drainage pathways are spared during routine complete axillary clearance in majority of women undergoing breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, A; Chachaj, Z; Koba-Wszedybylb, M; Hawro, R; Jasinski, R; Tarkowski, R; Szewczyk, K; Bebenek, M; Forgacz, J; Jodkowska, A; Jedrzejuk, D; Janczak, D; Mrozinska, M; Pilch, U; Wozniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in comparison to the preoperative status were evaluated using lymphoscintigraphy performed preoperatively and 1-6 weeks after surgery in 30 women with a new diagnosis of unilateral, invasive breast carcinoma. Analysis of lymphoscintigrams revealed that ALNs after surgery were present in 26 of 30 examined women. In comparison to preoperative status, they were visualized in the same location (12 women), in the same and additionally in different locations (9 women), or only in different locations (4 women). No lymph nodes were visualized in one woman and lymphocoele were in 4 women. Thus, after ALND, a variable number of axillary lymph nodes remain and were visualized on lymphoscintigraphy in the majority of women. The classical ALND, therefore, does not allow complete dissection and removal of axillary nodes with total disruption of axillary lymphatic pathways, accounting in part for the variable incidence and severity of lymphedema after the procedure.

  12. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  13. Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in preoperative staging of axillary lymph nodes in patients with invasive breast cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rafael Dahmer; Girardi, André Ricardo; Pinto, Renata Reis; de Freitas, Viviane Aguilera Rolim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose an algorithm to determine the necessity for ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) in preoperative axillary lymph node staging of patients with invasive breast cancer. Materials and Methods Prospective study developed at National Cancer Institute. The study sample included 100 female patients with breast cancer referred for axillary staging by US-FNA. Results The overall US-FNA sensitivity was set at 79.4%. The positive predictive value was calculated to be 100%, and the negative predictive value, 69.5%. The US-FNA sensitivity for lymph nodes with normal sonographic features was 0%, while for indeterminate lymph nodes it was 80% and, for suspicious lymph nodes, 90.5%. In the assessment of invasive breast tumors stages T1, T2 and T3, the sensitivity was respectively 69.6%, 83.7% and 100%. US-FNA could avoid sentinel node biopsy in 54% of cases. Conclusion Axillary ultrasonography should be included in the preoperative staging of all patients with invasive breast cancer. The addition of US-FNA in cases of lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy may prevent more than 50% of sentinel lymphadenectomies, significantly shortening the time interval to definitive therapy. PMID:26811550

  14. A Comparison of Tympanic, Oral, and Axillary Temperatures in Women During Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    temperature is the amount of heat present in the skin and tissues under the arm, high in the axillary area (Clemente, 1985; Kozier & Erb, 1989). Axillary...has been considered the "gold standard" of temperature measurement in many clinical areas (Erickson, 1980; Kozier & Erb, 1989; Luckmann & Sorenson...difference as described in many nursing references ( Kozier L Erb, 1989; Lewis & Timby, 1988; Lipsky, 1986). Correlation between oral-axillary

  15. Chyle leak following right axillary lymph node dissection: A case report and review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Daggett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the case of a chyle leak following a right axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. This presented as a sudden change in drainage character from a right axillary surgical drain from serous to milky white shortly after restarting a diet. The diagnosis of chyle leak was confirmed by laboratory testing of the fluid and managed with closed suction drainage. Chyle leak is a rare, but increasingly recognized complication following axillary clearance for breast cancer and melanoma.

  16. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ke Li; Juan-mei Yang; Yi-bo Huang; Dong-dong Ren; Fang-lu Chi

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well under-stood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of re-covery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantiifed and compared among groups. No signiifcant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, vol-umes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased signiifcantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  17. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  18. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent

  19. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy for primary palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚学权

    2004-01-01

    Objective:Open thoracic sympathectomy has been established as a routine treatment for patients with primary hyperhidrosis. Recently, thoracoscopic techniques have allowed surgeons to offer these patients a permanent solution with minimal surgical trauma. Methods:From June 1996 to July 2002, 78 thoracoscopic sympathectomies(TS) were performed. There were 28 males and 50 females with a mean age of 22.4 years (range, 14 to 48 years). The procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia using a double- lumen endotracheal tube. In palmar hyperhidrosis the second thoracic sympathetic oanglia are destroyed by electrocautery. In axillary hyperhidrosis the second to fourth oanglion are cut off. Each lung was reinflated on completion of the sympathectomy, and residual pneumothorax aspirated before closure of the incisions. No placement of chest tubes was performed in the operating. Results:All sympathectomies were completed thoracoscopically. The symptoms disappeared completely in all patients immediately after the operation. Their hands were dry and warm when they waked up from anaesthesia. There was no surgical mortality. Median operation time for a bilateral procedure is 28 min. (range, 8 - 90 min). The average hospital stay was 5.5 days. The mean follow- up time was 43.8 months (range, 3 - 73months). Compensatory hyperhidrosis was found in 41.03% (32/78) of patients, but the symptoms were not serve enough to interfere with lifestyle, and were not required further treatment. In all 78 patients had a satisfactory result, without recurrence of palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is the most effective and minimally invasive treatment for palmar and axillary hyperhydrosis.

  20. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  1. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  2. Modified axillary radiograph of the shoulder: a new position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Luís Filipe; Pires E Albuquerque, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining axillary radiographs of the shoulder in acute trauma is not always feasible. The authors present a new modification of this radiographic view, in order to assess the anatomic relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity. The incidence is performed with the patient sitting on X-ray table, with the affected limb supported thereon. The authors describe the case of a 28-year-old male who suffered an anterior glenohumeral dislocation that was clearly evidenced by this modified radiograph. The concentric relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity was also easily confirmed by obtaining such radiograph after the reduction maneuver.

  3. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  4. A comparative study of thoracoscopic sympathicotomy versus local surgical treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Erik; Licht, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 1.4% of the population. Medical management is often frustrating, and the response generally transient. Surgical methods include thoracoscopic sympathectomy or sympathicotomy and local axillary surgery such as suction-curettage or en-bloc skin resection...

  5. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  6. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  7. Mechanisms of frost adaptation and freeze damage in grapevine buds

    OpenAIRE

    Badulescu Valle, Radu Virgil

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms of frost hardening in compound (latent) buds of the grapevine cultivar ?Bacchus? were tested with different methods during three winters. The investigated parameters were LTE/HTE (low temperature exotherm/high temperature exotherm), water content, starch, sugar- and anions combination and bud histology. Water content from wood and buds was determined regularly every 2 weeks from March 1998 until Mai 2000. The lowest water content in wood and buds (about 40 %) was found ...

  8. Bipolar budding in yeasts - an electron microscope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1971-01-01

    Bud formation in yeasts with bipolar budding was studied by electron microscopy of thin sections. Budding in yeasts of the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Hanseniaspora valbyensis and Wickerhamia fluorescens resulted in concentric rings of scar ridges on the wall of the mother cell. The wall betwe

  9. [Traumatic lesion of the subclavian and axillary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Erba, M; Giuffrida, G F; Miani, S

    1997-05-01

    This study comprises 11 patients with traumatic vascular injuries of the subclavian and axillary vessels treated in the last 13 years at the Institute of General and Cardiovascular Surgery of Milan. Nine patients were male and two were female. In two patients the cause of injury was a penetrating trauma; blunt trauma occurred in nine patients. The majority of injuries were caused by motor vehicle accidents. Two patients suffered complete brachial plexus palsies with complete transection of the median nerve. Seven patients were affected by multiple bone injuries, while major venous injury was present in one case. Diagnosis was established by angiography performed in all stable patients. Vascular repair was performed in 10 patients; 4 patients were treated by primary repair, and 6 patients by interposition grafts. In one case we performed a transluminal percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) during angiographic examination, with a good result. There were no postoperative vascular complications and no patient died.

  10. Virtual lymph node analysis to evaluate axillary lymph node coverage provided by tangential breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Shin Hyung; Kim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, In Kyu [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    To investigate the coverage of axillary lymph node with tangential breast irradiation fields by using virtual lymph node (LN) analysis. Forty-eight women who were treated with whole breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were analyzed. The axillary and breast volumes were delineated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) contouring atlas. To generate virtual LN contours, preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans with identifiable LN were fused with the CT scans, and the virtual LN contour were delineated on the CT. The median level I and II axillary volume coverage percentages at the VD95% line were 33.5% (range, 5.3% to 90.4%) and 0.6% (range, 0.0% to 14.6%), respectively. Thirty-one LNs in 18 patients were delineated (26 in level I and 5 in level II). In the level I axilla, 84.6% of virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose line. In the level II axilla, by contrast, none of the virtual LNs were encompassed by the 95% isodose volumes. There was a substantial discrepancy between the RTOG contouring atlas-based axillary volume analysis and the virtual LN analysis, especially for the level I axillary coverage. The axillary volume coverage was associated with the body mass index (BMI) and breast volume. The tangential breast irradiation did not deliver adequate therapeutic doses to the axillary region, particularly those in the level II axilla. Patients with small breast volumes or lower BMI showed reduced axillary coverage from the tangential breast fields. For axillary LN irradiation, individualized anatomy-based radiation fields for patients would be necessary.

  11. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  12. Axillary artery thrombosis with anteroinferior shoulder dislocation:a rare case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil S Rangdal; Shashidhar B Kantharajanna; Daljit Singh; Vikas Bachhal; Nirmal Raj; Vibhu Krishnan; Vijay Goni; Mandeep Singh Dhillon

    2012-01-01

    A very rare and serious complication of shoulder dislocation is a lesion to the axillary artery in the elderly population,whose vascular structures have become less flexible.Axillary artery injury secondary to anteroinferior shoulder dislocation is much rarer,especially in the young people.Proper recognition and treatment of this entity offers a full recovery to the patient.Present report highlights the possibility of axillary artery injury with anteroinferior shoulder dislocation.A few case reports and small case series of this injury have been reviewed.And recommendations for management have been brought up to date,in line with current thinking.

  13. UNILATERAL VARIATION IN THE BRANCHING PATTERN OF RIGHT AXILLARY ARTERY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Manicka Vasuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Axillary artery and its branches are prone to have variations in their course. Knowledge about such variations are important for Radiologists in imaging techniques, Surgeons,Orthopedicians and Anesthetists in performing surgeries in the axilla and giving regional nerve blocks in the axilla.During dissection of a cadaver in the department of Anatomy, PSG IMS &R, Coimbatore, We observed a variation in the third part of right Axillary artery. From the common trunk, Subscapular artery, Anterior and Posterior circumflex humeral arteries and Profunda brachii artery arose. Third part of Axillary artery continued down as brachial artery. We are highlighting the variation in this study.

  14. Endosalpingiosis of Axillary Lymph Nodes: A Rare Histopathologic Pitfall with Clinical Relevance for Breast Cancer Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Nomani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of accurate axillary lymph node status is of essential importance in determining both prognosis and the potential need for adjuvant therapy in patients with invasive breast cancer. Axillary lymph node heterotopias can in some cases result in overdiagnosis of metastatic disease. Nodal endosalpingiosis is perhaps the least commonly reported type of axially lymph node heterotopia. We herein illustrate a case in which second opinion pathologic interpretation combined with ancillary immunohistochemical studies allowed for a specific diagnosis of axillary nodal müllerian-type inclusions, confirming ypN0 staging and resulting in appropriate disease management and prognostication.

  15. Endosalpingiosis of Axillary Lymph Nodes: A Rare Histopathologic Pitfall with Clinical Relevance for Breast Cancer Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomani, Laila; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Biscotti, Charles V.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Sturgis, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of accurate axillary lymph node status is of essential importance in determining both prognosis and the potential need for adjuvant therapy in patients with invasive breast cancer. Axillary lymph node heterotopias can in some cases result in overdiagnosis of metastatic disease. Nodal endosalpingiosis is perhaps the least commonly reported type of axially lymph node heterotopia. We herein illustrate a case in which second opinion pathologic interpretation combined with ancillary immunohistochemical studies allowed for a specific diagnosis of axillary nodal müllerian-type inclusions, confirming ypN0 staging and resulting in appropriate disease management and prognostication. PMID:27088025

  16. The surgical importance of an axillary arch in sentinel node biopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2011-03-01

    When Carl Langer described the aberrant axillary arch in 1846 its relevance in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) surgery could not have been contemplated. The authors define an incidence and elucidate relevance of the arch in SNB of the axilla.

  17. A comparison of axillary with rectal thermometry in under 5 children

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    B O Edelu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body temperature measurement is a crucial clinical assessment in the care of an acutely ill child, especially the under fives. Most temperature measurements in our hospital are done from the axilla. Objective: To study the relationship between temperatures taken in the axilla with those taken in the rectum in febrile and afebrile children less than 5 years. Materials and Methods: Rectal and axillary temperatures were taken concurrently in 400 febrile and 400 afebrile children aged less than 5 years using mercury-in-glass thermometers. Result: The rectal temperature measurements ranged from 38.0 to 41.4°C and 36.4 to 37.9°C in the febrile and afebrile groups of children respectively while the axillary temperatures ranged from 36.7 to 41.0°C and 35.9 to 37.5°C in the febrile and afebrile groups of children, respectively. There were significant differences between the temperatures measured at the two sites in all the age groups studied. There was good positive correlation between the rectal and axillary temperatures. A linear relationship between axillary and rectal temperatures was derived using the simple regression analysis. The equation is: rectal temperature = 0.94×axillary temperature+2.92. Conclusion: Although there′s good correlation between axillary and rectal temperatures, significant difference exits between them that cannot be explained by the addition of any single value or any particular equation.

  18. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  19. Axillary versus peripheral blood levels of sialic acid, ferritin, and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Gandini, R; Reggiani, A; Cunietti, E

    1990-12-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were measured both in tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood obtained from 121 breast cancer patients during surgery. No significant differences between mean values in peripheral and tumor draining blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, or between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases were found for any of the markers. Both ferritin and CEA levels were higher in axillary and peripheral blood from patients with central breast cancer versus other sites but the difference was significant only for CEA (p less than 0.05). CEA levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with greater than 2 cm diameter carcinomas versus T1 stage patients in axillary but not in peripheral blood. When the cephalic vein was clamped before the axillary sample was taken, ferritin showed a significant increase (p less than 0.05). We conclude that measurement of sialic acid, CEA, and ferritin in axillary venous blood in breast cancer patients is not of clinical benefit, although further data are needed to clarify whether other advantages can be derived.

  20. Mechanism of supercooling in flower bud of Camellia oleifea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维埃; 潘良文

    1995-01-01

    It is the first time for MRI to be used in the research of flower buds supercooling. Directobservation on freezing course of living flower buds of Camellia yuhsienensis by MRI and tissue browning test showed that freezing order of the flower organs is bud axis, scale, petal, pistil and stamen. It is coincident with the direction of ice development from bud axes to flower organs upwards. The corresponding results from MRI and freezing-fixation showed that the water translocation from flower organs to axes and scales is carried on in the course of bud freezing. ’H spectral measurement of NMR was used to follow the decrease of unfrozen water in the buds during the cooling.

  1. Identification of an amphipathic helix important for the formation of ectopic septin spirals and axial budding in yeast axial landmark protein Bud3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-03-08

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (∼1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1-858, 850-1220, and 1221-1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1-858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850-858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850-1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1-858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes.

  2. Axillary node metastatic carcinoma without definitive primary: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer R. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of unknown primary (CUP is the finding of a metastatic cancerous lesion without an established primary source localized within the body. CUP can be of any cancer cell type, however, adenocarcinoma is most often identified by histology. Up to 5% of all malignant diagnoses are classified as CUP. PET is an imaging modality often utilized to distinguish a primary source in the setting of CUP, yet often a primary is never identified. CUP can be further stratified using specific qualifiers as favorable and unfavorable, indicating the potential therapeutic response to treatment regimens. Treatment approach to CUP relies heavily on the cell type identified by histology, the location of the lesion, and the amount of spread within the body. In the typical setting and presentation, per current literature, CUP arises in the 7th decade of life in patients with multiple comorbidities, and often has a poor prognostic value. This case report identifies an atypical presentation of CUP, a 38-year-old Caucasian female with an axillary mobile mass, and no associated systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the node and immunohistochemical staining showed histology consistent with metastatic carcinoma. Mammography, MRI, and PET scan found no evidence of tumor primary or distant metastasis. Further staining confirmed metastatic carcinoma consistent with breast origin, without an established breast primary. As in this case, CUP may present in an atypical manner, warranting a thorough investigation aiming to identify the tumor primary to aid in identification of a proper treatment regimen and approach.

  3. Ex vivo MRI of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, Alain [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France)], E-mail: luciani@hmn.ap-hop-paris.fr; Pigneur, Frederic [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Ghozali, Faridah [Department of Pathology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Dao, Thu-Ha [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Cunin, Patrick [Unite de Recherche Clinique, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Meyblum, Evelyne [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); De Baecque-Fontaine, Cecile [Department of Pathology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Alamdari, Ali [Department of Plastic Surgery, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Maison, Patrick [Unite de Recherche Clinique, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Deux, Jean Francois [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Lagrange, Jean Leon [Department of Radiotherapy, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Lantieri, Laurent [Department of Plastic Surgery, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To provide a strategy for precise co-localization of lymph nodes on axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) specimens both on pathology and MR. To identify nodal features suggestive of metastatic involvement on a node-to-node basis. Materials and methods: National Institutional review-board approved this prospective study of 18 patients with breast cancer referred for ALND. Ex vivo T1 and inversion recovery (IR) T2 WI of ALND specimens tightly positioned within scaled plastic cranes was performed immediately after surgery. The correspondence of MR-based or pathologically based nodes location was assessed. The MR size and morphological presentation of metastatic and normal nodes were compared (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test). Quantitative variables were compared using Pearson coefficient. Results: 207 nodes were retrieved on pathology and 165 on MR. MR-pathological correlation of nodes location was high regarding MR-identified nodes (r = 0.755). An MR short axis threshold of 4 mm yielded the best predictive value for metastatic nodal involvement (Se = 78.6%; Sp = 62.3%). Irregular contours (Se = 35.7%; Sp = 96.7%), central nodal hyper-intensity on IR T2 WI (Se = 57.1%; Sp = 91.4%), and a cortical thickness above 3 mm (Se = 63.6%; Sp = 83.2%) were significantly associated with metastatic involvement. Conclusion: Ex vivo MR allows node-to-node correlation with pathology. Morphological MR criteria can suggest metastatic involvement.

  4. Characterization of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH genes in Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Czarnecki

    Full Text Available Strigolactones are a new class of plant hormones that play a key role in regulating shoot branching. Studies of branching mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, rice and petunia have identified several key genes involved in strigolactone biosynthesis or signaling pathway. In the model plant Arabidopsis, MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1, MAX2, MAX3 and MAX4 are four founding members of strigolactone pathway genes. However, little is known about the strigolactone pathway genes in the woody perennial plants.Here we report the identification of MAX homologues in the woody model plant Populus trichocarpa. We identified the sequence homologues for each MAX protein in P. trichocarpa. Gene expression analysis revealed that Populus MAX paralogous genes are differentially expressed across various tissues and organs. Furthermore, we showed that Populus MAX genes could complement or partially complement the shoot branching phenotypes of the corresponding Arabidopsis max mutants.This study provides genetic evidence that strigolactone pathway genes are likely conserved in the woody perennial plants and lays a foundation for further characterization of strigolactone pathway and its functions in the woody perennial plants.

  5. [Bilateral axillary nodes. 30-year-old patient, housewife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, R; Ramseier, E

    2007-11-14

    A 20-year old patient who had been adequately treated for lymph node tuberculosis 14 years ago presented 1 week after giving birth to a healthy daughter. She complained about painful lumps in both axillae. During pregnancy the patient suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, lost 6 kg of weight, and had night sweats. During the last three months of her pregnancy she had a deep vein thrombosis in her right lower leg. The clinical examination showed soft axillary lumps up to 3 cm. The lab showed the following pathological findings: blood sedimentation rate 51 mm/h, CRP 44.8 mg/l, LDH 221 U/l and INR 1.3 (indicating insufficient anticoagulation with phenprocoumon). The chest x-ray showed no infiltrate or indications of a past tuberculosis. A fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on an accessible node. Gram stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, as well as the bacteriological cultures were all negative. An ultrasound examination of the axilla showed a thickened subcutis without a mass. Cytology showed lobular epithelium, consistent wih ductal mamma epithelium without atypical cells. The diagnosis of an accessory mamma tissue in both axillae was made. During the course of the following weeks the glands decreased in size and the patient was free of symptoms.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Budding yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_L.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_NL.png Saccha...romyces_cerevisiae_S.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces...+cerevisiae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces...+cerevisiae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=216 ...

  7. Development Correlations of the Buds of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ROTARU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development characteristics of different buds of the grapevine are mainly related by stimulation and/or inhibition effects, the action of which is still inexplicable. The present study examines the development dynamics of the buds of a one-year old branch after excision of different buds and the application of ?-naphtyl acetic acid (ANA, as well as the growth capacity of each bud individually. We verified the effects of acrotony cited previously by various researchers. These effects are due to different developmental characteristics of which could to lay the groundwork for the improvement of different productions methods.

  8. Contribution of minute axillary lymph nodes to accurate staging for patients with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jun; HE Qing-qing; YANG Xin-hua; LIANG Yan; FAN Lin-jun; ZHANG Yi; GUO Mei-qin

    2007-01-01

    Background Axillary lymph node metastasis is a very important metastatic pathway in breast cancer and its accurate detection is important for staging tumour and guiding therapy. However, neither the accuracy of routine detection of lymph node in surgical specimens nor the significance of minute lymph node with metastases in breast cancer is clear. A modified method for conveniently detecting minute lymph node in specimens of axillary dissections in patients with breast cancer was used to analyze their influence on staging breast cancer.Methods Lymph nodes in fresh, unfixed, specimens of axillary dissections from 127 cases of breast cancer were detected routinely. Then the axillary fatty tissues were cut into 1 cm thick pieces, soaked in Carnoy's solution for 6 to 12 hours, taken out and put on a glass plate. Minute lymph nodes were detected by light of bottom lamp and examined by routine pathology.Results Lymph nodes (n= 2483, 19.6±8.0 per case) were found by routine method. A further 879 lymph nodes up to 6 mm (781 < 3 mm, 6.9±5.3 per case, increasing mean to 26.5±9.7) were found from the axillary tissues after soaking in Carnoy's solution. By detection of minute lymph nodes, the stages of lymph node metastasis in 7 cases were changed from pathological node (pN) stage pN0 to pN1 in 4 cases, from pN1 to pN2 in 2 and from pN2 to pN3 in 1.Conclusions The accurate staging of axillary lymph node metastasis can be obtained routinely with number of axillary lymph nodes in most cases of breast cancer. To avoid neglecting minute lymph nodes with metastases, small axillary nodes should be searched carefully in the cases of earlier breast cancer with no swollen axillary nodes. Treatment with Carnoy's solution can expediently detect minute axillary nodes and improve the accurate staging of lymph nodes in breast cancer.

  9. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  10. Molecular mechanism of arenavirus assembly and budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro

    2012-10-10

    Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzo Urata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2.

  12. Electrochemical regulation of budding yeast polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Haupt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs, which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization.

  13. A comparative clinical study of different hair removal procedures and their impact on axillary odor reduction in men

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzalaco, Anthony; Vanoosthuyze, Kristina; Stark, Cynthia; Swaile, David; Rocchetta, Heather; Spruell, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Axillary hair can influence the development of underarm odor in men. Objective To compare different hair removal procedures and their impact on the effectiveness of standard soap washing (SW) in reducing male axillary odor. Methods The axillae of healthy Caucasian males (N = 30; 18–48 years of age) were randomized in a noncrossover, split body design. Two of four axillary treatments were evaluated per subject: clipped with scissors; wet shaved with a razor; waxed; and untre...

  14. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  15. Meiotic behavior and pollen viability in Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) cultivated in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N; Mendes-Bonato, A B; Sales, J G C; Pagliarini, M S

    2011-01-01

    Although originally from India, Moringa oleifera is now cultivated throughout most of the tropics, including Brazil. Despite its multipurpose value for food and traditional medicine, little is known about the meiotic behavior and pollen viability of M. oleifera. We evaluated microsporogenesis and pollen viability in eleven plants grown in southern Brazil (Maringá, Paraná). Bud flowers were collected in different stages of development. All plants that we analyzed presented 2n = 28 chromosomes, as previously reported for this species. Chromosomes paired as bivalents. Meiotic abnormalities were rare and metaphase I was the most affected phase. Pollen viability was superior to 88%. Tripolar spindles in metaphase II, leading to the formation of unreduced gametes, were recorded in some plants at a low frequency.

  16. Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Dia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3 but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation.

  17. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  18. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Valencia CA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo Valencia,1 Carlos A Buitrago Villa,1 Jose A Chacon Cardona21Internal Medicine, Nephrology, 2Epidemiology, Caldas University, Manizales, ColombiaBackground: We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter.Methods: All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy, or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF, ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU, this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used.Results: Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012: 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found.Conclusion: The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the

  19. Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, P J; Nieweg, O E; Valdés Olmos, R A; Peterse, J L; Rutgers, E J Th; Hoefnagel, C A; Kroon, B B R

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of intratumoural administered patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. Histopathological examination of sentinel nodes included step-sectioning at six levels and immunohistochemical staining. A sentinel node outside level I or II of the axilla was found in 149 patients (27%): internal mammary sentinel nodes in 86 patients, other non-axillary sentinel nodes in 44 and both internal mammary and other non-axillary sentinel nodes in nineteen patients. The intra-operative identification rate was 80%. Internal mammary metastases were found in seventeen patients and metastases in other non-axillary sentinel nodes in ten patients. Staging improved in 13% of patients with non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes and their treatment strategy was changed in 17%. A small proportion of clinically node negative breast cancer patients can be staged more precisely by biopsy of sentinel nodes outside level I and II of the axilla, resulting in additional decision criteria for postoperative regional or systemic therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 705–710. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600359 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232750

  20. Percutaneous Intervention in Axillary Loop-Configured Arteriovenous Grafts for Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Beom Jin; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Sang Joon; Son, Ho Sung; Jo, Sang Kyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Rae [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fistulographic features of malfunctioning axillary loop-configured arteriovenous grafts and the efficacy of percutaneous interventions in failed axillary loop-configured arteriovenous grafts. Ten patients with axillary loop-configured arteriovenous grafts were referred for evaluation of graft patency or upper arm swelling. Fistulography and percutaneous intervention, including thrombolysis, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement, were performed. Statistical analysis of the procedure success rate and the primary and secondary patency rates was done. Four patients had graft related and subclavian venous stenosis, two patients had graft related stenosis and another four patients had subclavian venous stenosis only. Sixteen sessions of interventional procedures were performed in eight patients (average: 2 sessions / patient) until the end of follow-up. An interventional procedure was not done in two patients with central venous stenosis. The overall procedure success rate was 69% (11 of 16 sessions). The post-intervention primary and secondary patency rates were 50% and 63% at three months, 38% and 63% at six months and 25% and 63% at one year, respectively. Dysfunctional axillary loop-configured arteriovenous grafts almost always had subclavian venous and graft-related stenosis. Interventional treatments are helpful to overcome this and these treatments are expected to play a major role in restoring and maintaining the axillary loop-configured arteriovenous loop grafts

  1. Comparison of rectal, tympanic membrane and axillary temperature measurement methods in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, V; McBrearty, A R

    2013-11-30

    The aim of this study was to compare axillary and tympanic membrane (TM) temperature measurements to rectal temperature in a large group of clinical canine patients. We also sought to ascertain whether certain factors affected the differences between the measurements and to compare the ease of measurement. Axillary temperatures were easy to obtain but tended to be lower than rectal readings (median difference 0.6°C). In 54.7 per cent of dogs there was a difference of >0.5°C between the two readings. Weight, coat length, body condition score and breed size were significantly associated with the difference between the rectal and axillary temperature. TM temperatures were more similar to rectal temperatures (median difference 0°C) but in 25 per cent of dogs, there was a difference of >0.5°C between rectal and TM readings. TM measurements were less well tolerated than axillary measurements. None of the factors assessed were associated with the difference between the rectal and TM temperature. As a difference of >0.5°C has previously been described as unacceptable for different methods of temperature measurement, neither axillary nor TM temperatures are interchangeable with rectal temperatures for the measurement of body temperature.

  2. Local injection of botulinum toxin A: an alternative therapy for axillary osmidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Aiguo; Nie, Lanjun; Tan, Qian

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A for treating axillary osmidrosis. One hundred and fifty patients with axillary osmidrosis were randomly divided to receive botulinum toxin A injection treatment (50 U of botulinum toxin A was injected intracutaneously into 6-20 different sites within each axilla, n = 74) or surgical excision of the apocrine glands (n = 76). The patients were followed up for 1-3 months to analyze the therapeutic effect and complications of the two methods. The curative effect in patients with mild and moderate axillary osmidrosis was not significantly different between the botulinum toxin A injection group and operation group. However, for patients with severe axillary osmidrosis, surgery treatment seemed to be superior to botulinum toxin A treatment (P = 0.005). There was also no significant difference in the modified Dermatology Life Quality Index between the two treatments. Two cases showed complications related to hemorrhage and incision infection in the operation group. In conclusion, local injection of botulinum toxin A is a safe, fast and effective treatment for mild and moderate axillary osmidrosis, but the long-term effect remains to be further investigated.

  3. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  4. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  5. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  6. An extraordinary case of axillary contracture: trapped healthy skin and its adnexes under contracted scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisanci, Mustafa; Sahin, Ismail; Guzey, Serbulent

    2014-01-01

    Although striking improvements have been achieved in overall management of burn injury, postburn contractures are still an ongoing challenge to burn surgeons. Axillary adduction contracture is one of the most common types of these disabling postburn complications that usually result from suboptimal treatment after acute burns. An unusual and complicated case of axillary contracture in which the unburned, healthy axillary dome skin was trapped as a cystic mass under the scarred area was reconstructed by transfer of a big (17×13-cm) thoracodorsal artery perforator flap after contracture release. The result was satisfactory in terms of function and acceptable cosmetically. The underlying reasons for the inadequate treatment the patient received after surviving a severe electrical injury were discussed.

  7. [Ultrasonic guided cannulation of the axillary vein in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schregel, W; Höer, H; Radtke, J; Cunitz, G

    1994-10-01

    Cannulation of the axillary vein is claimed to be an effective and relatively safe access to the central venous (CV) system [2, 4, 5, 8]. However, anatomical landmarks recommended for venous location (Muskulus pectoralis minor, processus coracoideus) are probably hard to identify in the majority of intensive care (ICU) patients. This investigation evaluated unidirectional 8 MHz Doppler ultrasound (US) in locating the axillary vein. Success rates and complications of this CV access in ICU patients is analysed. METHODS. The experimental design was approved by the local ethical committee (RUB). In 50 patients from our ICU cannulation of the axillary vein was attempted; all were in need of a CV line. Other CV puncture sites (except for the subclavian vein) were associated with contraindications. Patients were placed in a 15 degrees Trendelenburg position (15 exceptions); the arm was abducted to 45 degrees [5, 8]. The course of the axillary vein was located by Doppler US and marked on the skin with a felt pen. Prior to puncture, US intensity was judged by a score ranging from 0 to 4. After skin desinfection, sterile draping, and local anaesthesia, puncture of the axillary vein was attempted. The puncture kit LeaderCath 11,515 (Vygon, Aachen, FRG) was used. When venous blood could be aspirated, the Seldinger guidewire was inserted and the definite catheter placed. The experimental design allowed up to ten punctures, slightly modified in angle and direction of the needle, if puncture of the axillary vein or guide-wire placement failed. The cannulation attempt was classified as unsuccessful in the following cases: malposition, axillary vein not encountered by the puncture needle, guide-wire placement unsuccessful, or if identification and cannulation of the vein lasted more than 20 min. The puncture attempts were evaluated in respect to success rate, time, relation of US intensity to puncture attempts and CV pressure, complications, and malposition. RESULTS. Of the 50

  8. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  9. The viability of perilabyrinthine osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2012-01-01

    Bone remodeling is highly inhibited around the inner ear space, most likely by the anti-resorptive action of the inner ear cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) entering perilabyrinthine bone through the lacuno-canalicular porosity (LCP). This extracellular signaling pathway depends on the viability of ...

  10. Axillary Versus Femoral Arterial Cannulation During Repair of Type A Aortic Dissection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, Sotiris C.; Gartner, Derek; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Lobdell, Kevin W.; Khabbaz, Kamal; Murphy, Edward; Hagberg, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare early postoperative outcomes and actuarial-free survival between patients who underwent repair of acute Type A aortic dissection with axillary or femoral artery cannulation. Methods A total of 305 patients from five academic medical centers underwent acute Type A aortic dissection repair via axillary (n = 107) or femoral (n = 198) artery cannulation between January 2000 and December 2010. Major morbidity, operative mortality, and 5-year actuarial survival were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of operative mortality, and Cox regression hazard ratios were calculated to determine predictors of long-term mortality. Results Operative mortality was not influenced by cannulation site (16% for axillary cannulation vs. 19% for femoral cannulation, p = 0.64). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, hemodynamic instability (p 200 min; p = 0.05) emerged as independent predictors of operative mortality. Stroke rates were comparable between the two techniques (14% for axillary and 17% for femoral cannulation, p = 0.52). Five-year actuarial survival was comparable between the groups (55.1% for axillary and 65.7% for femoral cannulation, p = 0.36). In Cox regression analysis, predictors of long-term mortality were: age (p < 0.001), stroke (p < 0.001), prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.001), hemodynamic instability (p = 0.002), and renal failure (p = 0.001). Conclusions The outcomes of femoral versus axillary arterial cannulation in patients with acute Type A aortic dissection are comparable. The choice of arterial cannulation site should be individualized based on different patient risk profiles. PMID:28097193

  11. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  12. Scintigraphic Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The identification of viable myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction is an issue of increasing clinical relevance in the current era of myocardial revascularization. There are at least two forms of reversible myocardial dysfunction. Early reperfusion does not always lead to immediate functional improvement; rather, the return of contractility in tissue salvaged by reperfusion is delayed for hours, days or even weeks, a phenomenon that has been termed {sup s}tunned myocardium{sup .} Some patients with coronary artery disease show myocardial dysfunction ar rest which are associated with reduced perfusion, and which disappear after revascularization; this phenomenon has been termed {sup h}ibernating myocardium{sup .} Recently, cardiac imaging techniques that evaluate myocardial viability on the basis of perfusion contraction mismatch and inotropic reserve have gained substantial popularity and clinical success. This review focus on the application of {sup 201}T1 and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI to address myocardial viability in patients with hibernating and stunned myocardium. It is clear that 4-hour redistribution images of {sup 201}T1 underestimate ischemia and overestimate scar. Delayed imaging and reinjection imaging have been developed for the assessment of viability. Among many protocols suggested, stress-redistribution-reinjection imaging gained most popularity. Although {sup 99m}Tc- MIBI could identify myocardial viability, {sup 201}T1 reinjection technique was regarded as superior to it. In conclusion, {sup 201}T1 stress, 4-hr rest redistribution, and reinjection imaging technique may be the most preferable method for evaluation of myocardial viability.

  13. Endovascular repair of traumatic arteriovenous fistula between axillary artery and vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Ansheng

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous fistula between the axillary artery and vein may present a difficult problem in treatment.There are few reports demonstrating the endovascular repair of this challenge.Herein,we present such a case of endovascular repair of traumatic arteriovenous fistula between the axillary artery and vein with false aneurysm formation.The patient was discharged 1 1 days after successful operation.Oral clopidogrel and aspirin were administerted for 18 months.At one year follow-up,the patient was in good condition and showed no evidence of neurological deficit in the left upper limb.

  14. Axillary artery counter-current aortography in the newborn with aortic arch obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.C.; Lo, R.N.S.; Leung, M.P.

    1989-08-01

    13 newborn infants with aortic coarctation were evaluated by counter-current aortographic technique. The right radial or brachial artery approach (2 cases in each group) did not give successful aortic arch imaging while the right axiallary artery approach resulted in adequate imaging in each of 9 cases investigated. In 2, the axillary artery was transiently weakened but returned to normal within 24 hours. No other complications were encountered. Axillary artery counter-current aortography is a safe and relatively non-invasive procedure which can be used to image the aortic arch in the newborn babies when other non-invasive diagnosis of aortic arch obstruction is tentative. (orig.).

  15. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Tetik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results.

  16. Axillary Irradiation as an Imperative Alternative to Axillary Dissection in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative but Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Mirko; Hermann, Robert

    2011-10-01

    At the moment, positive sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) of the axilla is followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard of care. Recent data proves that omitting ALND after positive SLND in clinically lymph node-negative early stage breast cancer patients is feasible with low recurrence rates. The well known effect of radiotherapy to destroy occult tumor cells highly contributes to these results as a large extent of level I and II lymph nodes are unavoidably included in standard tangential radiation treatment fields. Reviewing the up to date published data on axillary lymph node treatment with radiotherapy, we hypothesize that full dosage coverage of level I and II of the axilla in early stage breast cancer will improve outcome and should be further evaluated.

  17. Tumour location and axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer: a series of 3472 cases from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjer, J; Balldin, G; Garne, J P

    2004-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates the potential relation between breast cancer location and axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI). METHODS: Out of all cases with unilateral first-time diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in Malmö, Sweden, between 1961 and 1991, 3472 underwent axillary dissection. The .......19-2.18), and for central tumours 3.50 (2.32-5.28). CONCLUSIONS: Outer and central breast tumours are associated with a high risk of axillary lymph node involvement. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Aug......AIM: This study investigates the potential relation between breast cancer location and axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI). METHODS: Out of all cases with unilateral first-time diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in Malmö, Sweden, between 1961 and 1991, 3472 underwent axillary dissection...

  18. Axillary Irradiation as an Imperative Alternative to Axillary Dissection in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative but Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsche, Mirko; Hermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At the moment, positive sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) of the axilla is followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard of care. Recent data proves that omitting ALND after positive SLND in clinically lymph node-negative early stage breast cancer patients is feasible with low recurrence rates. The well known effect of radiotherapy to destroy occult tumor cells highly contributes to these results as a large extent of level I and II lymph nodes are unavoidably included in s...

  19. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  20. Pretreatment axillary ultrasonography and core biopsy in patients with suspected breast cancer: Diagnostic accuracy and impact on management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ortega, Maria Jose, E-mail: rserranogan@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Alvarez Benito, Marina, E-mail: marinaalvarezbenito@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Fuentes Vahamonde, Elena, E-mail: elena.fuentes.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Rioja Torres, Pilar, E-mail: priojat@yahoo.es [Clinical Management Unit, Department of General and Digestive Surgery, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Benitez Velasco, Ana, E-mail: abvelazco@yahoo.es [Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Martinez Paredes, Maria, E-mail: mariaparedes@uco.es [Radiology and Physical Medicine Area, University of Cordoba Medical School, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Preoperative diagnosis of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients enables treatment planning. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy, both alone and in combination, in detecting axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer and to assess the impact of these techniques on the patients' management. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients with suspected breast cancer examined between October 2006 and December 2008. The diagnosis of a primary tumor was histologically confirmed in all patients. All patients underwent axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous core biopsy (14G) of suspicious lymph nodes. We evaluated the morphological characteristics of the lymph nodes by ultrasonography. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography and of core biopsy, and assessed the impact of these techniques on patients' treatment. Results: We evaluated 675 axillary regions and performed 291 core biopsies of axillary lymph nodes in 662 patients. In 650 patients, breast cancer was histologically confirmed and in 12 patients malignant tumors in other locations were confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary ultrasonography were 63.2% and 88.7%, respectively. The absence of a fatty hilum within the lymph node was the ultrasonographic finding with the highest positive predictive value for malignancy (93.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of axillary core biopsy were 69.1% and 100%, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was avoided in 33% of initial candidates and immediate breast reconstruction was undertaken in 35.1% of the patients with mastectomy and negative axillary core biopsy. Conclusions: Ultrasonography and axillary core biopsy enable adequate pretreatment staging in patients with breast cancer and has a positive impact on their management.

  1. Influence of Different Factors on Axillary Bud Multiplication of Pugionium cornutum%不同因素对沙芥腋芽增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康立茹; 石岭; 潘璐; 张启莉; 张东辉; 郝梦洁

    2015-01-01

    采用无菌茎尖苗诱导腋芽作为外植体,研究培养基类型、细胞分裂素种类和浓度、生长素种类和质量浓度、6-BA(6-苄基嘌呤)和IBA(吲哚丁酸)不同质量浓度组合、AgNO3(硝酸银)质量浓度5个因素对沙芥腋芽增殖的影响.结果表明,MS(Murashige and Skoog)培养基中腋芽的增殖倍数最高达到5.27,最适宜沙芥腋芽增殖培养;3.0~5.0 mg/L的细胞分裂素6-BA是最适合沙芥腋芽增殖的细胞分裂素种类及质量浓度;0.1 mg/L IBA是最适宜腋芽增殖的生长素种类及质量浓度;在3.0 mg/L 6-BA和0.1 mg/L IBA质量浓度组合的MS培养基中,沙芥腋芽的增殖倍数高达7.43;AgNO3显著降低腋芽增殖倍数和丛生芽诱导率.

  2. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  3. Flower Bud Differentiation in Quercus suber L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Varela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cork oak (Quercus suber L. is one of the most important forest species growing in the Western Mediterranean region. This investigation intends to assess the timing of flowering differentiation of cork oak and contribute to the deepening of the knowledge about the process of the sexual reproduction of the species. Materials and Methods: In 2010 four trees were selected (9, 14, 24, 25 from a plot of 25 trees located at Quinta da Serra, Portugal. A total of 240 buds were collected from these four trees, on three days (8, 14 and 23 March, from 4 branches per tree and 5 positions per branch for the assessment of meristem differentiation. Results: Meristem differentiation analysed on the sampling days revealed there were only vegetative structures by 8 March; a few male and female primordia on 14 March; and fully differentiated reproductive structures on 23 March. Conclusions: Flowering sex determination of cork oak occurs about one month before the flowering onset.

  4. STIGMATIC RECEPTIVITY AND POLLEN VIABILITY OF Theobroma subincanum Mart.:FRUIT SPECIES FROM THE AMAZON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAICON DOUGLAS ARENAS-DE-SOUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Theobroma subincanum (cupuí is a fruit species native to the Amazon region. Fruits are enjoyed by local people and consumed both as fresh fruit such as juice, nectar or soft drinks. Reproductive biology studies provide contributions to conservation strategies and plant improvement. The present study aimed to analyze the stigmatic receptivity and pollen viability of T. subincanum. This study was developed in a forest fragment located in the urban perimeter of the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. In the flowering period, flower buds or flowers were collected in seven different times, as follows: 10 pm, 02 am, 06 am, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm, and 10 pm. Pollen viability was estimated by reactive Alexander (1969 and stigmatic receptivity using 3% hydrogen peroxide. Pollen viability averages were submitted to analysis of variance, while stigmatic receptivity was analyzed by average percentage in each interval. Four floral stages were characterized based on flower opening, and from 6 am, fully opened flowers have already been found (stage IV. The percentage of pollen viability was not affected by collection times. In the stigmatic receptivity analysis, it was observed that in all floral stages, stigma was receptive; however, the highest percentages of stigmatic receptivity were found from 2 am to 10 am of the same day, which is the most propitious time for fertilization. Pollen collection of T. subincanum may be performed in any of schedules evaluated in this study, since it is held with high viability percentage.

  5. Bioluminescence assay for cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, G Yu; Modestova, Yu A; Ugarova, N N

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical aspects of the adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay based on the use of the firefly luciferin-luciferase system are considered, as well as its application for assessing cell viability in microbiology, sanitation, medicine, and ecology. Various approaches for the analysis of individual or mixed cultures of microorganisms are presented, and capabilities of the method for investigation of biological processes in live cells including necrosis, apoptosis, as well as for investigation of the dynamics of metabolism are described.

  6. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  7. Apoptosis at inflection point in liquid culture of budding yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hagiwara

    Full Text Available Budding yeasts are highly suitable for aging studies, because the number of bud scars (stage proportionally correlates with age. Its maximum stages are known to reach at 20-30 stages on an isolated agar medium. However, their stage dynamics in a liquid culture is virtually unknown. We investigate the population dynamics by counting scars in each cell. Here one cell division produces one new cell and one bud scar. This simple rule leads to a conservation law: "The total number of bud scars is equal to the total number of cells." We find a large discrepancy: extremely fewer cells with over 5 scars than expected. Almost all cells with 6 or more scars disappear within a short period of time in the late log phase (corresponds to the inflection point. This discrepancy is confirmed directly by the microscopic observations of broken cells. This finding implies apoptosis in older cells (6 scars or more.

  8. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  9. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  10. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  11. Effect of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during static handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Mitchell, J H

    1991-01-01

    . Median handgrip force during the control study was 41 (range 24-68) N, which represented 10% of the initial maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and was 24 (18-36) N after axillary blockade (P less than 0.05), which represented 21% of the new MVC. During static handgrip, the rating of perceived exertion...

  12. Impacts of Choerospondias axillaris Growth on Acidity of Udic Ferrosols in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-Man; WANG Xing-Xiang; BI Shu-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Changes in acidity of Udic Ferrosols, caused by growth of Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill, in comparison to wild grass, were investigated for pH distribution in the soil profile, exchangeable acidity, and cation status in the soil leachate of a simulated leaching experiment. Soils were sampled in profiles at 5 cm intervals to a depth of 100 cm. In the15-60 cm layer the soils with 10-year old C. axillaris had significantly lower pH (P < 0.05), with the largest difference being 0.41; and in the 25-75 cm soil depths, especially in the 30-55 cm layer, the soils had a significantly higher exchangeable acidity, ranging 1.93 to 3.02 cmolc kg-1. There was also higher aluminum, potassium, and sodium contents in the soil leachate under C. axillaris than with wild grasses. This suggested that the growth of C. axillaris accelerated acidification of Udic Ferrosols and promoted soil clay mineral weathering.

  13. Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Asghar, S; Andersen, H L;

    2011-01-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a...... and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block....

  14. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  15. Axillary metastasis as first symptom of occult breast cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Fabrizio Maria; Carrara, Alessandro; Conte, Anna Maria; Pappalardo, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma is a rare occurrence. We report this condition in a 59-year-old woman who presented with a swelling in the right axilla. No breast mass was clinically evident. Mammography, ultrasonography and multiple random fine-needle breast biopsies yielded no pathological findings. No extramammary primary lesions were present. Axillary sampling was performed and histological examination revealed the presence of metastatic adenocarcinoma in three of the 12 dissected lymph nodes. Estrogen receptors were positive and immunohistochemistry pointed to a breast origin. All these data were suggestive of occult breast cancer. The patient refused any further treatment but accepted clinical and radiological follow-up. Eight years later mammography revealed in the same breast a 10-mm nodule containing microcalcifications, which was not evident at physical examination. The patient underwent a lumpectomy. Intraoperative histology was positive for breast carcinoma and complete axillary clearance was performed. Histological examination revealed a lobular invasive breast carcinoma and the presence of micrometastasis in one of the 23 removed lymph nodes. The patient was given radiotherapy to the breast and axilla and tamoxifen. At present, one year after the appearance of the primary tumor, she is free of disease. Based on this case report we suggest an eclectic approach in the management of patients with axillary metastasis from occult breast cancer, depending on the clinical, pathological and biological findings.

  16. Bilateral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia tumors in axillary male gynecomastia: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Roger M; Pechman, David; Ergonul, Burco; Gomez, Carmen; Moller, Mecker G

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferation of breast stromal cells with a complex pattern of interanastomosing spaces lined by myofibroblasts. The exact etiology is still unknown, but a proliferative response of myofibroblasts to hormonal stimuli has been postulated. PASH is a relatively common incidental finding in breast tissue removed for other reasons and rarely manifests as a localized mass. Fewer than 150 cases of tumoral PASH have been reported since it was first described in 1986. Although PASH tends to grow over time, most lesions are cured by surgical excision and the prognosis is excellent. We report an unusual case of bilateral axillary tumoral PASH in a 44-year-old man. Awareness of this disease is important when considering the differential diagnosis of axillary masses. To our knowledge, only one other case of unilateral axillary tumoral PASH in a male patient has been described in English and this is the first case of PASH occurring in male bilateral axillary gynecomastia.

  17. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement; Cancer du sein avec atteinte ganglionnaire axillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C. [Departement de radiotherapie, Unite fonctionnelle de Senologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I. [Service de radiotherapie Carcinologique, institut Salah-Azaiez, Tunis (Tunisia); Kanoun, S. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital Farhat-Hached, Sousse (Tunisia); Kallel, A. [dUnite de radiotherapie, clinique Ennasr (Tunisia); Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R. [Departement de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Marsiglia, H. [Universite de Florence (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  18. A buckling mechanism for ESCRT-III budding

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Martin; Joanny, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The ESCRT-III protein complex binds to the membrane of eukaryotic cells, causing it to bud into long tubes. Here we propose that this budding is akin to a buckling instability. We analyze the linear stability of flat ESCRT-III-dressed membranes and account for the formation of long tubes. We study strongly deformed dressed membranes and their bifurcation diagram numerically. Our mechanism is compatible with reasonable in vivo parameter values and we propose an experiment allowing its validation.

  19. Very superficial ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of axillary osmidrosis has been mainly concerned with surgical excision of glandular tissues and involved major surgical procedures with high morbidities and many complications. Search for a less invasive procedure for axillary osmidrosis resulted in the use of liposuction. However, there have been controversies over the efficacy of this method. The problem was that liposuction could not effectively remove the apocrine gland located in the dermis and dermosubcutaneous junction. A high rate of residual malodor and dissatisfaction were reported. The author used ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty (UAL) in the very superficial plane to remove the apocrine gland located in the dermis and dermosubcutaneous junction. The purpose of this study was to prove the efficacy of the very superficial UAL (VSUAL) for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. From December 1998 to December 1999, 21 consecutive patients underwent UAL in their axilla for axillary osmidrosis. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 12 months (mean: 8 months). UAL was performed in the very superficial plane with an amplitude of 40%. The very superficial UAL (VSUAL) was done mainly in a withdrawing manner with the tip of the cannula against the skin. The UAL (VSUAL) was done aggressively until the skin changed slightly erythematous. The results were assessed subjectively and objectively, and classified as excellent, good, fair, and poor. Nineteen patients were graded as excellent and one patient as good. The total satisfaction rate was 95.2%. One patient complained of residual malodor in her left axilla. There were no cases of skin necrosis, hematoma, or seroma. Histology showed partial removal of the subcutaneous layer and deep dermis, and degenerative epithelial changes in the apocrine glands in the residual deep dermis. These microscopic findings meant near-total functional ablation of the apocrine gland in the axilla comparable to "flap-to-graft conversion" or surgical excision of axillary skin. The

  20. Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Subcutaneous Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by an unpleasant odor, profuse sweating, andin some instances, staining of clothes that may socially and psychologically impair affectedindividuals. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of subcutaneouspulsed neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG laser treatment for the treatment ofaxillary osmidrosis.Methods Twenty-nine patients with axillary osmidrosis were included in this study. Patientswere categorized according to the results of an axillary malodor grading system, and asubcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser was applied to all patients. The treatment area for theappropriate distribution of laser energy was determined using the iodine starch test (Minor’stest against a grid pattern composed of 2×2 cm squares. The endpoint of exposure was300 to 500 J for each grid, depending on the preoperative evaluation results. The resultswere evaluated by measurement of axillary malodor both pre- and postoperatively using thegrading system and iodine starch test.Results The average follow-up period was 12.8 months. Nineteen patients had a fair-togoodresult and ten patients had poor results. The postoperative Minor’s test demonstratedthat there were remarkable improvements for patients with mild to moderate symptoms.Complications including superficial second degree burns (n=3 were treated in a conservativemanner. A deep second degree burn (n=1 was treated by a surgical procedure.Conclusions Subcutaneous pulsed Nd-YAG laser has many advantages and is an effectivenoninvasive treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  1. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  2. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  3. Unilateral axillary arch with two slips entrapping neurovascular bundle in axilla and its innervation by the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayaji SN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Axillary arch is an additional muscle bundle of various dimensions extending usually from the latissimus dorsi in the posterior fold of the axilla, to the pectoralis major or other neighboring muscles and bones. In the present case presence of such unusual axillary arch innervated by the median nerve has been reported. During routine dissection of axilla region in one of the upper limbs, the occurrence of axillary arch was observed. The muscle fibers were arising from the belly of latissimus dorsi and were getting inserted to the tendon of coracobrachilais and lateral lip of bicipital groove. As it passed through the axilla it divided into 2 slips, enclosing the axillary vessels and nerves related to them. The fleshy fibers of the axillary arch were innervated by 2 small twigs from the median nerve. Though the occurrence of the axillary arch is very common, axillary arch with 2 slips getting innervated by the median nerve is not been reported so far. Further, a detailed literature review was done and the surgical and clinical importance of the case was discussed.

  4. Developing a biomimetic tooth bud model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Weibo; Schiele, Nathan R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Kuo, Catherine K; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-01-08

    A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel. However, these tooth structures were small and formed within the pores of the scaffolds. The present study shows that dental cell-encapsulated GelMA constructs can support mineralized dental tissue formation of predictable size and shape. Individually encapsulated pDE or pDM cell GelMA constructs were analysed to identify formulas that supported pDE and pDM cell attachment, spreading, metabolic activity, and neo-vasculature formation with co-seeded endothelial cells (HUVECs). GelMa constructs consisting of pDE-HUVECS in 3% GelMA and pDM-HUVECs within 5% GelMA supported dental cell differentiation and vascular mineralized dental tissue formation in vivo. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of GelMA hydrogels to support the formation of post-natal dental progenitor cell-derived mineralized and functionally vascularized tissues of specified size and shape. These results introduce a novel three-dimensional biomimetic tooth bud model for eventual bioengineered tooth replacement teeth in humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 东北百里香组培再生体系的建立%The Establishment of the Adventitious Bud Regeneration System of Thymus mandschuricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 杨丽鹏; 张秀珍; 马喜娟

    2011-01-01

    以中国特有地被植物东北百里香为试材,研究了植物生长调节剂组合对腋芽萌发和茎段、叶片外植体愈伤诱导和不定芽分化的影响.结果表明:百里香茎段腋芽可直接诱导萌发,在MS+6-BA 0.5mg·L-1+NAA0.1 mg·L-1培养基上萌发率最高,达74%,在MS+6-BA0.5 mg·L-1+NAA0.1 mg·L-1的培养基上增殖倍数为36.43.由茎段萌发的组培苗在1/2MS+IBA 0.5 mg·L-1的培养基中20 d后生根率100%,移栽成活率76.7%.继代培养中叶片外植体可以诱导出愈伤组织,但是不能进一步分化成苗.茎段愈伤诱导的最适培养基为MS+6-BA0.5mg·L-1+2,4-D 1.0mg·L-1,再分化培养基为MS+6-BA(0.1~1.0)mg·L-1+GA3(0.1~0.5)mg·L-1,分化率为33.3%.%Understand the effect of different combinations of plant growth regulators on bud germination, callus growth induction of stem and leaves, and the regeneration of adventitious buds, by using different tissues of Thytnus mandschuricus Ronn., an endemic ground-cover species of China, as explants. The research results indicated that the axillary buds of Th. Mandschuricus can directly germinate in MS + 6-BA 0.5 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.1 mg · L-1 and the germination rate was 74%. The proliferation of axillary buds on MS medium containing 0.5 mg · L-1 6-BA and 0.01 mg · L-1 NAA was achieved to 36.43. The best medium for rooting was 1/2MS + IBA 0.5 mg · L-1. The rooting ratio was 100%. The survival rate reaches 76.7%. Callus can be inducted through the leaf in subculture but can not develop further. The optimizing medium for pedicels explants inducing callus is MS + 6-BA 0.5 mg · L-1 + 2,4-D 1.0 mg · L-1 and inducing multiple buds is MS + 6-BA (0.1-1.0) mg · L-1 + GA3 (0.1-0.5) mg · L-1 with the buds induction frequency of 33.3%.

  6. Impact on regional recurrence and survival of axillary surgery in women with node-negative primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, C K; Düring, M; Christiansen, P M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined whether axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with removal of many normal lymph nodes resulted in a reduced rate of axillary recurrence and better survival, as reported in recent studies. METHODS: The follow-up analyses were based on 8657 patients with node-negative...... primary breast cancer treated solely by surgery. Median follow-up was 9 years. RESULTS: The number of lymph nodes removed correlated with a reduction in the rate of subsequent axillary recurrence (from 2.1 to 0.4 per cent; P = 0.037), local recurrence (from 7.4 to 3.8 per cent; P

  7. Coexistence of tuberculous axillary lymphadenitis and giant borderline malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystosarcoma phyllodes are uncommon breast tumors which rarely metastasize to axillary lymph nodes. The tumor is similar to fibroadenoma in structure, but it is different histologically. Although surgery (excision vs. mastectomy is the mainstay of treatment, the need for adjuvant therapies such as radiotherapy for a malignant variety is unclear. Its association with ipsilateral tubercular axillary lymph nodes has not been reported in literature so far. We report a 35-year-old female that presented with a giant borderline malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast along with ipsilateral tubercular granulomatous axillary lymph nodes. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 114-117

  8. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  9. The budding yeast amphiphysin complex is required for contractile actin ring (CAR assembly and post-contraction GEF-independent accumulation of Rho1-GTP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Cundell

    Full Text Available The late events of the budding yeast cell division cycle, cytokinesis and cell separation, require the assembly of a contractile actomyosin ring (CAR, primary and secondary septum formation followed by enzymatic degradation of the primary septum. Here we present evidence that demonstrates a role for the budding yeast amphiphysin complex, a heterodimer comprising Rvs167 and Rvs161, in CAR assembly and cell separation. The iqg1-1 allele is synthetically lethal with both rvs167 and rvs161 null mutations. We show that both Iqg1 and the amphiphysin complex are required for CAR assembly in early anaphase but cells are able to complete assembly in late anaphase when these activities are, respectively, either compromised or absent. Amphiphysin dependent CAR assembly is dependent upon the Rvs167 SH3 domain, but this function is insufficient to explain the observed synthetic lethality. Dosage suppression of the iqg1-1 allele demonstrates that endocytosis is required for the default cell separation pathway in the absence of CAR contraction but is unlikely to be required to maintain viability. The amphiphysin complex is required for normal, post-mitotic, localization of Chs3 and the Rho1 GEF, Rom2, which are responsible for secondary septum deposition and the accumulation of GTP bound Rho1 at the bud neck. It is concluded that a failure of polarity establishment in the absence of CAR contraction and amphiphysin function leads to loss of viability as a result of the consequent cell separation defect.

  10. [Bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis in heterogeneous habitats of Northeast grassland, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To adapt ecological environment, typical clonal plants can occur continuously by means of buds. The changes in the bud bank and bud flow in the heterogeneous habitats become the foundation for deep understanding the characteristics of vegetative propagation. By sampling soil from the unit area, a comparative analysis was performed for rhizome bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis community in both meadow soil and saline-alkali soil habitats in meadow grassland of Northeast China. The one-age class rhizome buds formed in the current year were used as input, with the other age classes rhizome buds as output, counting the dormancy buds and death buds. The results showed that the storage, input, output, dormancy, death and the input rates of P. australis rhizome bud populations in meadow soil habitat were significantly higher than that in saline-alkali habitat. There was no significant difference in output rate between the two habitats. The dormant rate in saline-alkali habitat was significantly greater than that in meadow soil habitat. The death rates remained at relatively low levels in both, less than 2%. With the going of growing season, the input buds and input rate of bud bank increased in the two habitats, while the output buds remained relatively stable. The output rate increased first and decreased later, the dormancy buds and dormant rate decreased. Bud bank and bud flow were positively related to soil moisture, soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, they were negatively related to soil pH value and soil available phosphorus content. Bud bank and bud flow had a similar seasonal variation. Constantly for both habitats, P. australis populations generated new rhizome buds supplied to the bud bank and kept a stable output to maintain their vegetative propagation.

  11. The role of ultrasonography and FDG-PET in axillary lymph node staging of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jhii-Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Research Inst. of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: ejsonrd@yuhs.ac; Ryu, Young Hoon (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Research Inst. of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea)); Jeong, Joon (Dept. of General Surgery, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Research Inst. of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-10-15

    Background: The presence of axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor and an essential part of staging and prognosis of breast cancer. Purpose: To elucidate the usefulness and accuracy of ultrasonography (United States), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan, and combined analysis for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 250 consecutive breast cancer patients who had undergone US, FDG-PET, and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) before surgery from January 2005 to December 2006 were included in the study. If an axillary lymph node had a length to width ratio =1.5 or cortical thickening =3 mm or compression of the hilum on US, focal hot uptake (maximal standardized uptake value, SU V{sub max} =2.0) in the ipsilateral axilla on FDG-PET, it was considered to be a metastatic lymph node. In combined analysis of US and FDG-PET, the interpretation was considered positive if at least two of any of the criteria were met. Each imaging finding was compared with a pathologic report regarding the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, the number of metastatic lymph nodes, and the T stage of the breast mass. Results: Pathologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastasis was noted in 73 cases (29.2%). The mean number of metastatic lymph nodes in pathology was 3.1 +- 3.2, and the size of breast cancer was 2.0 +- 1.04 cm. In the detection of lymph node metastasis, the diagnostic accuracy of US was 78.8% and that of FDG-PET was 76.4%. On combined US and FDG-PET, accuracy was improved (91.6%). The number of metastatic lymph nodes on pathology was correlated with the positivity of US and FDG-PET (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Combined evaluation of US and FDG-PET was a sensitive and accurate method for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer

  12. Computed tomography image of the mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes in clinically sound Rottweilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Fonseca Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trough computed tomography (CT, it is possible to evaluate lymph nodes in detail and to detect changes in these structures earlier than with radiographs and ultrasound. Lack of information in the veterinary literature directed the focus of this report to normal aspects of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes of adult dogs on CT imaging. A CT scan of 15 normal adult male and female Rottweilers was done. To define them as clinically sound, anamnesis, physical examination, complete blood count, renal and hepatic biochemistry, ECG, and thoracic radiographs were performed. After the intravenous injection of hydrosoluble ionic iodine contrast medium contiguous 10mm in thickness thoracic transverse images were obtained with an axial scanner. In the obtained images mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes were sought and when found measured in their smallest diameter and their attenuation was compared to musculature. Mean and standard deviation of: age, weight, body length and the smallest diameter of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes were determined. Mean and standard deviation of parameters: age 3.87±2.03 years, weight 41.13±5.12, and body length 89.61±2.63cm. Axillary lymph nodes were seen in 60% of the animals, mean of the smallest diameter was 3.58mm with a standard deviation of 2.02 and a minimum value of 1mm and a maximum value of 7mm. From 13 observed lymph nodes 61.53% were hypopodense when compared with musculature, and 30.77% were isodense. Mediastinal lymph nodes were identified in 73.33% of the dogs; mean measure of the smallest diameter was 4.71mm with a standard deviation of 2.61mm and a minimum value of 1mm, and a maximum value of 8mm. From 14 observed lymph nodes 85.71% were isodense when compared with musculature and 14.28% were hypodense. The results show that it is possible to visualize axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes in adult clinically sound Rottweilers with CT using a slice thickness and interval of 10mm. The

  13. A 10-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in patients with early stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes treated with tangential breast irradiation following sentinel lymph node dissection or axillary clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, A Gabriella; Goodman, Robert L; Turner, Bruce C; Komarnicky, Lydia T; Curran, Walter J; Christos, Paul J; Khan, Imraan; Vandris, Katherine; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K S Clifford

    2011-02-01

    We compare long-term outcomes in patients with node negative early stage breast cancer treated with breast radiotherapy (RT) without the axillary RT field after sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We hypothesize that though tangential RT was delivered to the breast tissue, it at least partially sterilized occult axillary nodal metastases thus providing low nodal failure rates. Between 1995 and 2001, 265 patients with AJCC stages I-II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy and either SLND (cohort SLND) or SLND and ALND (cohort ALND). Median follow-up was 9.9 years (range 8.3-15.3 years). RT was administered to the whole breast to the median dose of 48.2 Gy (range 46.0-50.4 Gy) plus boost without axillary RT. Chi-square tests were employed in comparing outcomes of two groups for axillary and supraclavicular failure rates, ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), distant metastases (DM), and chronic complications. Progression-free survival (PFS) was compared using log-rank test. There were 136/265 (51%) and 129/265 (49%) patients in the SLND and ALND cohorts, respectively. The median number of axillary lymph nodes assessed was 2 (range 1-5) in cohort SLND and 18 (range 7-36) in cohort ALND (P breast RT and SLND alone, experience low AFR or SFR. Our findings, while awaiting mature long-term data from NSABP B-32, support that in patients with negative axillary nodal status such treatment provides excellent long-term cure rates while avoiding morbidities associated with ALND or addition of axillary RT field.

  14. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Welsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses.

  15. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A G

    2010-04-29

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a "submarine-like" budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular "rocket-like" protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses.

  16. Is Video-Assited Thoracoscopic Surgery Superior to Limited Axillary Thoracotomy in the Management of Spontaneous Pneumothorax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen J Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bullectomy and pleurectomy in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax (PNO using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, and to compare the outcome with that of the same procedure performed using limited axillary thoracotomy (LAT.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient value in differentiating metastatic form benign axillary lymph nodes in cancer breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Azeem Ismail

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Compared with lymph node size or routine magnetic resonance sequences, DWI and ADC are promising techniques for differentiating metastatic and non metastatic axillary lymph nodes in known breast cancer patients.

  18. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockage in Treatment of Upper Extremity Ischemic Disorder in Critically Ill Patient: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Ceylan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial catheterization, vasoactive agents, autonomic dysfunction and septic embolus may cause ischemia at distal ends of upper extremity in critically ill patients. Axillary brachial plexus blockage is highly reliable intervention when appropriate technique is used. Sympathetic blockage occurs after administration of local anesthetic drug and can resolve the circulatory disorder of extremity. We aimed to present two cases with ischemia of upper distal extremity that resolves after axillary brachial plexus blockage.

  19. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockage in Treatment of Upper Extremity Ischemic Disorder in Critically Ill Patient: A Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Ceylan; Nermin Kelebek Girgin; Mehmet Ali Kopan; Alp Gurbet

    2015-01-01

    Arterial catheterization, vasoactive agents, autonomic dysfunction and septic embolus may cause ischemia at distal ends of upper extremity in critically ill patients. Axillary brachial plexus blockage is highly reliable intervention when appropriate technique is used. Sympathetic blockage occurs after administration of local anesthetic drug and can resolve the circulatory disorder of extremity. We aimed to present two cases with ischemia of upper distal extremity that resolves after axillary ...

  20. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rachna Ram; Jasprit Singh; Eddie McCaig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients wi...

  1. Axillary fine needle aspiration cytology for pre-operative staging of patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of radiologically abnormal axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer can identify patients suitable for primary axillary clearance (AC) rather than sentinel node biopsy, enabling surgical axillary staging by a single operation. This study assessed the accuracy of FNAC in predicting positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: 161 patients with screen-detected invasive carcinoma and who had pre-operative FNAC of a radiologically abnormal axillary lymph node were identified from two screening units, The axillary FNAC reports were correlated with sentinel node biopsy and AC reports, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: FNAC had a moderate sensitivity (66.3%) and NPV (71.8%), and a high specificity (98.7%) and PPV (98.3%). Most patients (86%) had a single axillary operation. The sensitivity was highest in grade 3 (81.8%) and ductal type (77.8%) tumours. The sensitivity was lower in tumours of special type (34.8%), grade 1 tumours (50%) and those without lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (55.9%). The NPV was highest in pT1 (86.7%) and in grade 1 (84.5%) tumours, and lowest (44%) in tumours with LVI. The PPV was 100% in grade 1 and 3 tumours, stage pT2 and pT3 tumours and those without LVI, and was high (>96%) in all other groups. In lymph-node-positive patients, the mean number of lymph nodes involved was higher in the case of a positive (6.4) than negative FNAC (4.4). CONCLUSIONS: FNAC of ultrasonically abnormal axillary lymph nodes achieved surgical staging by a single operation in most patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma, with moderate sensitivity and high specificity.

  2. [Case report with multiple variations of blood vessels originating from the fossa axillaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanchev, V; Krustev, D; Krustev, N

    2003-01-01

    In the course of a dissection of a male's cadaver, fixed in formol carbol solution, we identified the following arterial variations: A) Regio axillaris dextra: a musculi teretis major (9 cm long); a. musculi subscapularis (of insignificant calibre and length); a. thoracica lateralis accessoria prima (10 cm long, with a course along the surface of m. subscapularis); a. thoracica lateralis accessoria secunda (25 cm long, with a course within the conjunctive tissue of the axilla); B) Regio axillaris sinistra: a musculi subcapularis prima et secunda (of insignificant calibre and length); a. musculi teretis major (9 cm long); a. thoracica lateralis accessoria secunda (20 cm long); a. thoracica lateralis accessoria tertia (25 cm long); All three additional arteria had a course along the surface of m. serratis anterior. We called the identified vessels after the name of the muscle blood-supplied by them. Only the vessels ending in m. serratus anterior did we call aa. thoracicae laterales accessoriae.

  3. Immunological Effects of Total Flavones from Leaves of Choerospondias axillaris on Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-yuan; YANG Yu-mei; HAN Feng; ZHANG Hao-nan; DU Jian-xi; HAO Xin-min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of total flavones from the leaves of Choerospondias axillaris (TFLCA) on the immune function of normal mice and to provide the experimental basis for the reasonable application of C.axillaris.Methods The carbon clearance method,cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity rcaction method,serum hemolysin method,and index of immune organs were used to study the effect of TFLCA on the immune function of mice.Results TFLCA could enhance the phagocytic function of mononuclear macrophage and the cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction of mice,and increase the content of hemolysin antibody and the thymus index in mice.Conclusion TFLCA could improve the celiac macrophage activity and specific immunity of mice,and TFLCA,consisting with the total flavones of Choerospondiatis Fructus (TFCF),has the effect on the immune function of mice.So both TFLCA and TFCF have the regulatory effects on the immune function of mice.

  4. Design And Development Of A Mammary And Axillary Region Positron Emission Tomography System (maxpet)

    CERN Document Server

    Doshi, N K

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of...

  5. Axillary artery transection and bilateral pulmonary embolism after anterior shoulder dislocation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Betty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior shoulder dislocation can be associated with vascular and neurological complications. However, axillary artery injury associated with shoulder dislocation is rare and extremely rare without bone fracture. An early diagnosis of these complications allows predicting long-term functional outcomes. Methods: This article reports the case of a 66-year-old patient who presented an anterior shoulder dislocation after a ski fall without any neurological dysfunction or pulse deficit. Results: The first reduction attempts were unsuccessful and during the new attempt, we observed a hematoma. A CT scan showed a disruption of the axillary artery and a bilateral pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Neurovascular injury must be systematically sought before and after reduction, and a multidisciplinary approach is always necessary.

  6. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  7. Asymptomatic Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: An Unusual Cause of Axillary Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Healy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian tube malignancy is considered a rare disease and is often mistaken histologically and clinically for ovarian cancer. The etiology is poorly understood, and it typically presents at an advanced disease stage, as symptoms are often absent in the initial period. As a result, primary fallopian tube cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presents with a 5-day history of left axillary swelling and a normal breast examination. Mammogram and biopsy of a lesion in the left breast revealed a fibroadenoma but no other abnormalities. Initial sampling of the axillary node was suspicious for a primary breast malignancy, but histology of the excised node refuted this. PET-CT showed an area of high uptake in the right pelvis, and a laparoscopy identified a tumor of the left fallopian tube which was subsequently excised and confirmed as a serous adenocarcinoma.

  8. A rare case of breast carcinoma co-existing with axillary mantle cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scally John

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a rare variety of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which originates from CD5+ B-cell population in the mantle zones of lymphoid follicles. Coexistence of such tumours in the axillary lymph nodes with invasive breast cancers without prior history of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has not been previously reported in literature. Case report We report a rare case of breast cancer co-existing with stage I mantle cell lymphoma of the ipsilateral axillary lymph node detected fortuitously by population screening. Conclusion Though some studies have tried to prove breast carcinomas and lymphomas to share a common molecular or viral link, more research needs to be done to establish whether such a link truly exists.

  9. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  10. Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Düger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

  11. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed.

  12. Malthus, Boserup and population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneuil, N

    1994-01-01

    The Malthus-Boserup explanatory framework is revisited from the point of view of viability theory. Instead of imposing a univocal relationship between population pressure and level of knowledge, the way technology will change is not determined, it is only constrained. This leads to regard any situation as associated to a set of reachable futures. When no possibility is left for systems to avoid extinction, systems are no longer viable. Hence, the control-phase space can be divided into regions corresponding to gradual danger or security. This point of view allows the introduction of ideas such as incentives to create or to use new knowledge, gives a role to the threatening power of Malthusian checks, and leaves space for a specific variety of behaviors. The Boserupian theme then appears indirectly, emerging from the constraints imposed by the inertia of technological change.

  13. The Mechanism of Budding of Retroviruses from Cell Membranes

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    Andrew Pincetic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses have evolved a mechanism for the release of particles from the cell membrane that appropriates cellular protein complexes, referred to as ESCRT-I, -II, -III, normally involved in the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies. Three different classes of late assembly (L domains encoded in Gag, with core sequences of PPXY, PTAP, and YPXL, recruit different components of the ESCRT machinery to form a budding complex for virus release. Here, we highlight recent progress in identifying the role of different ESCRT complexes in facilitating budding, ubiquitination, and membrane targeting of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV and human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1. These findings show that retroviruses may adopt parallel budding pathways by recruiting different host factors from common cellular machinery for particle release.

  14. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  15. Adventitious bud regeneration from the stigma of Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmas isolated from flower buds of 'Nakielska' variety of Sinapis alba were used to develop a micropropagation method suitable for breeding of new cultivars. The origin of adventitious bud regeneration was studied on MS medium, under stimulation by bezylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 2,4-D - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Histological analysis showed the structure of Sinapis stigma (composed from four types of tissue: papillae, transmitting tissue, parenchyma and vascular bundles and revealed that numerous meristematic centers developed from parenchyma cells in close vicinity of vascular bundles. Buds very quickly appeared on the surface of initial explants and later formed multiplantlets that were easily rooted in the soil.

  16. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Floral Buds on Chilling Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; GAO Dong-sheng; LI Ling; CHEN Xiu-de; XU Ai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Changes in main biochemical respiratory pathways in dormant nectarine floral buds were studied with nectarine trees (Prunus persica.var,nectariana cv.Shuguang) in order to determine the function of respiration in dormancy release.Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of respiratory pathways.Results showed that chilling deficiency blocked the transition of respiratory mode,and made buds stay in a state of high level pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and low level tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).The decline of PPP and activation of TCA occurred synchronously with the release of dormancy.In addition,the inhibition of PPP stimulated a respiration increase related with TCA.It could be concluded that the function of PPP activation in dormancy release might be limited and PPP declination inducing TCA activation might be part of respiration mode transition mechanism during bud sprouting.

  17. The budding yeast Dbf2 protein kinase localises to the centrosome and moves to the bud neck in late mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, L M; Lee, S E; Fesquet, D; Johnston, L H

    2000-10-01

    Dbf2 is a multifunctional protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that functions in transcription, the stress response and as part of a network of genes in exit from mitosis. By analogy with fission yeast it seemed likely that these mitotic exit genes would be involved in cytokinesis. As a preliminary investigation of this we have used Dbf2 tagged with GFP to examine intracellular localisation of the protein in living cells. Dbf2 is found on the centrosomes/spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and also at the bud neck where it forms a double ring. The localisation of Dbf2 is cell cycle regulated. It is on the SPBs for much of the cell cycle and migrates from there to the bud neck in late mitosis, consistent with a role in cytokinesis. Dbf2 partly co-localises with septins at the bud neck. A temperature-sensitive mutant of dbf2 also blocks progression of cytokinesis at 37 degrees C. Following cytokinesis some Dbf2 moves into the nascent bud. Localisation to the bud neck depends upon the septins and also the mitotic exit network proteins Mob1, Cdc5, Cdc14 and Cdc15. The above data are consistent with Dbf2 acting downstream in a pathway controlling cytokinesis.

  18. Proactive error analysis of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Owen

    2012-07-13

    Detailed description of the tasks anesthetists undertake during the performance of a complex procedure, such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, allows elements that are vulnerable to human error to be identified. We have applied 3 task analysis tools to one such procedure, namely, ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade, with the intention that the results may form a basis to enhance training and performance of the procedure.

  19. Treatment of Combined Injuries of the Axillary and Suprascapular Nerves with Scapulothoracic Dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old man suffered the combined axillary and suprascapular nerve palsies associated with scapulothoracic dissociation by motorcycle accident. The dislocated shoulder girdle was reduced and stabilized with osteosynthesis of the fractured clavicle and reattachment of the trapezius avulsed from the scapular spine for removal of continuous traction force to these damaged nerves. Because of no evidence of recovery on manual muscle test and electromyogram, exploration for these nerves was a...

  20. Axillary sentinel node identification in breast cancer patients: degree of radioactivity present at biopsy is critical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina R; Oturai, Peter S; Friis, Esbern;

    2011-01-01

    The radioactivity present in the patient (Act(rem) ) at sentinel node (SN) biopsy will depend on injected activity amount as well as on the time interval from tracer injection to biopsy, which both show great variations in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence...... of varying Act(rem) levels on the outcome of axillary SN biopsy in patients with breast cancer (BC)....

  1. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with liposuction equipment: risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Andrzej; Białynicki-Birula, Rafał; Baran, Wojciech; Kuniewska, Barbara; Okulewicz-Gojlik, Danuta; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2005-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis poses a serious problem to the affected patients. So far, the conservative measures employed seem to be disappointing, operations with axillary skin excision, undermining and/or skin reconstruction may cause secondary functional and cosmetic problems, whereas botulinum A toxin injections need to be repeated frequently. The aim of this study was to establish the safety, efficacy, and durability of subdermal (subcorial) suction sweat gland curettage in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. So far, the method seems to be devoid of possible risks and drawbacks. In the last 4.5 years, 15 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were operated on with the use of liposuction tools. First operations were performed in general anesthesia, then in tumescent anesthesia. The procedure of suction curettage was performed with the use of 3- to 4-mm wide liposuction cannulas. The patients were closely monitored during early stages of the healing process; then they were evaluated at 1 and 3 months, and finally at 1-4 years of the operation, when they were asked to assess the effects of the operation. Four patients had recurrence of the disease within 3 months; three of them were reoperated on, with good result. At 1-4 years of the operation, all our responders (ten of 15 patients) stated that the disease had completely subsided. The following complications were observed during the process of healing: hematomas, transient skin unevenness, and partial skin flap necrosis. In conclusion, subdermal suction curettage seems to be superior to botulinum A toxin injections by the effect durability, and to the surgical methods with skin excision and undermining by the probably lower complication rates.

  2. Incidental detection of filarial worm in metastatic axillary lymph node from ductal carcinoma breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a major disease of the tropics. Frequently, lymphatics of the lower limbs, retroperitoneal tissues, spermatic cord, epididymis, and mammary glands are involved. Simultaneous filariasis along with another underlying disease is rare. We present a rare case of filariasis of the axillary lymph node in a modified radical mastectomy specimen, which also showed metastatic deposits of ductal carcinoma breast. The case is presented due to its rarity.

  3. The Axillary Nodal Harvest in Breast Cancer Surgery Is Unchanged by Sentinel Node Biopsy or the Timing of Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Byrne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may undergo delayed completion axillary dissection. Where intraoperative analysis is available, immediate completion axillary dissection can be performed. Alternatively, patients may undergo primary axillary dissection for breast cancer, historically or when preoperative assessment suggests axillary metastases. This study aims to determine if there is a difference in the total number of lymph nodes or the number of metastatic nodes harvested between the 3 possible approaches. Methods. Three consecutive comparable groups of 50 consecutive patients who underwent axillary dissection in each of the above contexts were identified from the Portsmouth Breast Unit Database. Patient demographics, clinicopathological variables, and surgical treatment were recorded. The total pathological nodal count and the number of metastatic nodes were compared between the groups. Results. There were no differences in clinico-pathological features between the three groups for all features studied with the exception of breast surgical procedure (P<0.001. There were no differences in total nodal harvest (P=0.822 or in the number of positive nodes harvested (P=0.157 between the three groups. Conclusion. The three approaches to axillary clearance yield equivalent nodal harvests, suggesting oncological equivalence and robustness of surgical technique.

  4. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  5. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions.

  6. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  7. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Hilal Doğan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48±0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics.

  8. Origin and distribution of the axillary nerve in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina de Oliveira Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, a mammal belonging to the order Xenarthra and family Myrmecophagidae, is an endangered species. For this reason, additional knowledge about its anatomy is of interest, especially the forelimb, which plays important roles in feeding and defense. The goal of this study was to learn more about the origin and distribution of the axillary nerve of Myrmecophaga tridactyla by studying two individuals (one male and one female that belong to the Research Laboratory of Wild Animals (UFU. The study material consisted of corpses fixed and preserved in 10% aqueous formalin solution. Dissection of the material followed standard procedures. In both animals, the axillary nerve was found in the ventral branch of the sixth cervical (C6 and seventh (C7 spinal nerve. This nerve showed symmetry in relation to its position in the two specimens and branched into the teres major, teres minor and deltoid muscles. In both specimens the axillary nerve originated in the cranial cutaneous branch of the lower leg.

  9. A Nonpalpable Nodule in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: Consider Phyllodes Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio; Espejo-Fonseca, Ruby; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Benign and malignant pathology can develop in ectopic axillary breast tissue, such as fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, and breast cancer. We present a rare case of an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with an axillary nodule which was identified during screening mammography within ectopic axillary breast tissue, initially considered as a suspicious lymph node. Radiologic studies were considered as Breast Imaging-Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) 4. A hyperdense, lobular, and well-circumscribed nodule was identified in mammogram while the nodule by ultrasound (US) was hypoechoic with indistinct microlobular margins, without vascularity by Doppler, and measuring 1.26 × 1 cm. Core-needle biopsy reported a fibroepithelial neoplasm. The patient was submitted to local wide-needle excision located in intraoperative radiography of the surgical specimen and margin evaluation. Final histopathological study reported a 1.8 × 1.2 cm benign phyllodes tumor, with irregular, pushing, and clear wide margins within normal ectopic breast tissue. The patient without surgical complications continued annual screening without recurrence during a follow-up that took place 24 months later. PMID:28105378

  10. [Axillary-femoral by passes. Technic. Complications. Results (92 patients) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, J F; Kieffer, E; Maraval, M; Benhamou, A C; Natali, J

    1978-01-01

    Between January 1970 and October 1977, 95 operations of revascularisation of 124 lower limbs were carried out using the axillary artery in 92 patients. 84 patients had very severe ischemia, acute or chronic, which threatened the survival of the limb. In all, direct surgery was too dangerous (77 cases) or impossible owing to local or regional problems (7 cases). The results gave a mortality during the first two months of 13% in which infective complications of the technic accounted for 3.5%. The latter were frequent (12%) but a certain number of them could have been prevented (6%). 55 patients (65%) had a good result at two months (weight-bearing conserved) whilst 20%, i.e. 18 patients were amputated, of which five had a permeable by pass which permitted conservation of the knee. We observed the highest percentage of deaths (3/8 i.e. 37%) in bilateral emergency revascularisations for acute ischemia. We observed a very low percentage of early thrombosis (4%) in axillary bifemoral by pass performed for chronic ischemia. The operation is of great value when no other direct surgical technic is possible and only in these cases. 8 patients underwent an axillary by pass to treat infective complications of aorto-iliac surgery. 4 early deaths showed the severity of this complication (50%). Tactical aspects are discussed briefly.

  11. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  12. Comparison of Axillary and Tympanic Temperature Measurements in Children Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Hatice Hilal; Kırkgöz, Tarık; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute otitis media [AOM] may affect the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements. We aimed to compare tympanic temperature measurements in patients with AOM against control groups, as well as compare the tympanic temperatures with axillary thermometry. Methods. This is a prospective, observational study. Patients from pediatric outpatient and emergency clinics who were diagnosed as single-sided AOM were included consecutively in the study. Normal ears of patients and children having the same age and gender who were not diagnosed as AOM were also studied as controls. Results. In patients with AOM, infected ears had higher temperatures than normal ears with a mean of 0.48 ± 0.01°C. There was no significant difference between the right and left tympanic temperatures in control group. Compared with axillary temperature, the sensitivity of tympanic temperature in the infected ear was 91.7% and the specificity was 74.8%. Conclusion. Comparisons of axillary and tympanic temperatures in children with AOM during the active infection concluded higher tympanic temperatures in infected ears. We suggest that the higher tympanic temperatures, approximately 0.5°C in our study, in infected ears may aid in diagnosis of patients with fever without a source in pediatric clinics. PMID:27648079

  13. Extent of metastatic axillary involvement in 1446 cases of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, U; Luini, A; Galimberti, V; Marchini, S; Sacchini, V; Rilke, F

    1990-04-01

    One thousand, four hundred and forty-six patients with carcinoma of the breast treated with Halsted mastectomy (167), Patey mastectomy (732), and conservative surgery with axillary dissection, either at the same time (340), or separately (207), were evaluated with regard to the number and distribution of axillary lymph nodes. A total of 29,378 were removed and examined, on average 20.3 per patient. The average number of nodes was 13.5 at the first level, 4.5 at the second and 2.3 at the third. The same number of nodes were removed in patients treated with extensive surgery, such as Halsted mastectomy and limited surgery such as lumpectomy and in independent axillary dissection. In 839 cases metastases were found in the axilla. The average number of involved nodes was 6.4. Out of 839 patients, the first level was the site of metastases in 828, the second level in 364 and the third in 187. When a single lymph node was involved, it was nearly always at the first level. In only 11 cases, were the second and/or third levels invaded without metastases at the first level. Therefore, the percentage of cases with skipping metastases was very low (1.3%). It appears from the present data that the spread of breast cancer to the axilla follows a regular pattern; the first level is invaded first, whilst in most cases, the second and third levels are involved only when the first is substantially affected.

  14. Ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of axillary plexus block: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of real-time ultrasound (US guidance for axillary brachial plexus block (AXB through the success rate and the onset time. METHODS: The meta-analysis was carried out in the Anesthesiology Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane database from the years 2004 to 2014 was performed. The literature searches were carried out using medical subject headings and free-text word: "axilla", "axillary", "brachial plexus", "ultrasonography", "ultrasound", "ultrasonics". Two different reviewers carried out the search and evaluated studies independently. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials, one cohort study and three retrospective studies were included. A total of 2042 patients were identified. 1157 patients underwent AXB using US guidance (US group and the controlled group included 885 patients (246 patients using traditional approach (TRAD and 639 patients using nerve stimulation (NS. Our analysis showed that the success rate was higher in the US group compared to the controlled group (90.64% vs. 82.21%, p < 0.00001. The average time to perform the block and the onset of sensory time were shorter in the US group than the controlled group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the real-time ultrasound guidance for axillary brachial plexus block improves the success rate and reduce the mean time to onset of anesthesia and the time of block performance.

  15. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, DK; Sibi, Maj. E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods: A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2–4) in group US and 3 (2–5) in group NS (P =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. PMID:25624532

  16. Outcomes of a shoulder treatment flowchart in patients with axillary burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Darren C; Byrne, Martin; Kolmus, Alison; Law, Henrietta Y; Holland, Anne E; Cleland, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a structured shoulder treatment flowchart on range of motion (ROM) and function of the upper limb in patients at high and low risk of contracture after an axillary burn injury. Consecutive patients with axillary burns were managed according to a structured pathway based on risk of contracture. Those patients with deep partial- or full-thickness burns to more than one area of the axilla or requiring more than one split skin graft were classified as high risk; these patients underwent a more aggressive approach to splinting and exercise. Measurements of shoulder ROM and functional ability (upper extremity functional index) were made at admission, hospital discharge, and at 12 weeks postdischarge. Twenty patients (19 men) with an average age of 39 years and a median TBSA of 20% were recruited. Median length of stay was 18 days. Ten patients were classified as high risk. Both low-risk and high-risk patients showed good range of movement outcomes at discharge and 12 weeks, with no significant differences between risk groups (abduction at 12 weeks, mean [SD]: 168° [22°] vs 166° [28°], P = .60; flexion at 12 weeks, mean [SD]: 172° [20°] vs 167° [31°], P = .60, respectively). There were no differences in functional outcomes at 12 weeks postdischarge. Use of a shoulder treatment pathway was associated with good shoulder ROM and functional capacity in patients at high and low risk of axillary contracture.

  17. Defining viability in mammalian cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Susan M.; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A large number of assays are available to monitor viability in mammalian cell cultures with most defining loss of viability as a loss of plasma membrane integrity, a characteristic of necrotic cell death. However, the majority of cultured cells die by apoptosis and early apoptotic cells, although non-viable, maintain an intact plasma membrane and are thus ignored. Here we measure the viability of cultures of a number of common mammalian cell lines by assays that measure me...

  18. Dakin Solution Alters Macrophage Viability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-18

    crobial for wound care. DS has been shown to be toxic to host cells, but effects on immune cells are not well documented. Materials and methods: DS at 0.5...characterize the impact of DS on macrophage viability and function in vitro. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Cell lines and reagents Murine macrophages...strainer to separate conidia from mycelium , and stored in DMEM at 4C. 2.3. Cellular viability assays Effect of DS on cellular viability was

  19. Clinical significance of the negative lymph node count after the axillary dissection of breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Yao; Jinhai Tang; Jianwei Qin; Jianping Gong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the negative lymph node (LN) count on the survival of the breast cancer patients in early stage after the axillary dissection. Methods: The breast cancer patients with T1–2N0–1M0 stage between January 2001 and December 2005 in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, who underwent the axillary LNs dissection, were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the data of these patients including information of follow-up and postop-erative pathological results. All patients were divided into two groups according to the axillary LN status and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the negative LN count. Cox regression analysis was performed to screen the patho-logical factor including the negative LN count on the survival and to compare the different negative LN count on the survival. Results: COX proportional hazard regression model showed that the survival of the breast cancer was significantly associ-ated with the negative LN count. In T1–2N0 group, when the negative LN count was 3 or less, 4 to 5, 6 to 9 and 10 or more, the median survival time was (82.6 ± 4.1) months, (101.5 ± 1.3) months, (104.7 ± 1.0) months, and (110.5 ± 0.9) months respectively (P < 0.05). In T1–2N1 group, when the negative LN count was 6 or less, 7 to 8, 9 to 10 and 11 or more, the median survival time was (95.4 ± 1.9) months, (101.8 ± 1.1) months, (104.9 ± 1.0) months, and (106.5 ± 0.9) months respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The negative LN count can reflect the adequacy of the axillary dissection. Increasing negative LN count is independently associated with improved survival in pT1–2N0M0 or pT1–2N1M0 staging breast cancer patients. The negative LN count should be considered for incorporation into staging for breast cancer with the axillary LN dissection.

  20. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  1. 微孔引流在皮下修剪术治疗腋臭中的作用%Performance of drainage through micropores in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis with subcutaneous trimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴叶芹; 许爱娥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of drainage through micropores in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis with subcutaneous trimming.Methods Forty-eight patients with axillary osmidrosis were enrolled in this study,and treated by subcutaneous trimming.After removal of apocrine sweat glands and hair follicles,a scalpel was used to cut several micropores (measuring 3 mm in length) along dermal ridges in skin flaps.Then,drainage was carried out through the micropores.Subsequently,the incisions were sewed up with 3-0 sutures followed by compression bandaging with elastic bandages.Dressings were changed and incisions were examined at 24 hours after operation,and bandages were taken off and skin flap viability was evaluated at 10 days.All the patients were followed for 3 months.Results After treatment,sweating was decreased and axillary odor disappeared in all the patients with a return to normal social activities.No obvious scar formed.Conclusion Drainage through micropores performs well in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis with subcutaneous trimming.%目的 探讨微孔引流在皮下修剪术治疗腋臭中的作用.方法 48例腋臭患者采用皮下修剪术治疗腋臭,去除大汗腺及毛囊后在皮瓣上用尖刀片沿皮纹戳数个长约3 mm的微孔进行引流,闭合切口后用弹力绷带包扎压迫手术区敷料.术后24 h换药观察伤口,10d拆绷带并观察皮瓣成活情况,术后3个月随访.结果 48例患者术后腋部汗臭均消失,出汗减少,社交正常.皮肤瘢痕不明显.结论 微孔引流可作为皮下修剪术治疗腋臭的有效引流方法.

  2. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  3. Quantitative resistance to peanut bud necrosis tospovirus in groudnut.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiel, A.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative resistance to peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV) is expressed as a reduced disease incidence (percentage of infected plants) in the groundnut crop. An increased plant density reduced this incidence, but the number of infected plants per unit area increased, maintaining high levels of PBNV

  4. A New Compound from the Bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new bicyclic spiroketone was isolated from the bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.The chemical structure was elucidated as (1R, 9S, 10S)-10-hydroxyl-8 (2', 4'-diynehexylidene)-9-isovaleryloxy-2, 7-dioxaspiro [5, 4] decane based on the X-ray crystallography.

  5. Regulation of homologous recombination at telomeres in budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is suppressed at normal length telomere sequences. In contrast, telomere recombination is allowed when telomeres erode in the absence of telomerase activity or as a consequence of nucleolytic degradation or incomplete replication. Here, we review the mechanisms...... that contribute to regulating mitotic homologous recombination at telomeres and the role of these mechanisms in signalling short telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  6. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  7. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: NoD.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_bud [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  16. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid composit

  17. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure.

  18. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasprit; McCaig, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure. PMID:25383226

  19. Nerve Stimulator Guided Axillary Block in Painless Reduction of Distal Radius Fractures; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Alimohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the high prevalence of upper extremity fractures and increasing need to perform painless reduction in the emergency departments, the use of analgesic methods with fewer complications and more satisfaction appears to be essential. The aim of this study is comparison the nerve stimulator guided axillary block (NSAB with intravenous sedation in induction of analgesia for painless reduction of distal radius fractures. Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 60 patients (18-70 years of age suffered from distal radius fractures, were divided into two equal groups. One group received axillary nerve block by nerve stimulator guidance and the other procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA using midazolam/fentanyl. Onset of analgesia, duration of analgesic effect, total procedure time and pain scores were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS and the outcomes were compared. Chi-squared and student t test were performed to evaluate differences between two groups. Results: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups (83.3% male. The mean age of patients was 31 ±0.7 years. While the onset of analgesia was significantly longer in the NSAB group, the mean total time of procedure was shorter than PSA (p<0.001. The NSAB group needed a shorter post-operative observation time (P<0.001. Both groups experienced equal pain relief before, during and after procedure (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that shorter post-operative monitoring time and consequently lesser total time of procedure, make nerve stimulator guided axillary block as an appropriate alternative for procedural sedation and analgesia in painless reduction of distal radius fractures in emergency department. 

  20. The value of level III clearance in patients with axillary and sentinel node positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, Mary F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of level III axillary clearance is contentious, with great variance worldwide in the extent and levels of clearance performed. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of level III positivity in patients undergoing level I-III axillary clearance, and identify which patients are at highest risk of involved level III nodes. METHODS: From a database of 2850 patients derived from symptomatic and population-based screening service, 1179 patients who underwent level I-III clearance between the years 1999-2007 were identified. The pathology, surgical details, and prior sentinel nodes biopsies of patients were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven hundred seventy nine patients had level I-III axillary clearance. Of the patients, 63% (n = 747) were node positive. Of patients with node positive disease, 23% (n = 168) were level II positive and 19% (n = 141) were level III positive. Two hundred fifty patients had positive sentinel node biopsies prior to axillary clearance. Of these, 12% (n = 30) and 9% (n = 22) were level II and level III positive, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of level III involvement in patients with node positive disease were tumor size (P < 0.001, OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), invasive lobular disease (P < 0.001, OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9-6.95), extranodal extension (P < 0.001, OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.4), and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.04, OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-1). Lobular invasive disease (P = 0.049, OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1-16.8), extranodal spread (P = 0.003, OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.06-0.57), and having more than one positive sentinel node (P = 0.009, OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-16.1) were predictive of level III involvement in patients with sentinel node positive disease. CONCLUSION: Level III clearance has a selective but definite role to play in patients who have node positive breast carcinoma. Pathological characteristics of the primary tumor are of particular use in identifying those who are at various risk of level III nodal

  1. Reconstruction of bilateral axillary post burn contracture in a 3 year old: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishna kumar. A; SUN Bing-wei

    2010-01-01

    A 2 year old male child was admitted with history of accidental pouring by boiling water all over the body resulting in 51% surface area burns involving the posterior and lateral thoracic region, both the upper limbs in the proximal regions near the shoulder, anterior and posterior abdomen and pubic region with second and third degree severe burns. After correcting the dehydration a series of procedures were performed including anti-shock, wound debridement under GA, etc. At 20 days post-burn, after making sure the wound was healthy a partial thickness skin grafting was done. During rehabilitation, bilateral axillary suffered contracture with hypertrophic scar(Fig 1).

  2. Using a Pressure Mapping System to Evaluate Contact Pressure on Hands During Use of Axillary Crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo C; Medola, Fausto O; Bonfim, Gabriel H C; Paschoarelli, Luis C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different handles used in axillary crutches with a Pressure Mapping System. The Grip Versatek system from Tekscan Inc. was used to measure the levels and the distribution of contact pressure in the hands during a simulated activity of ambulation with crutches. The sample included ten able-bodied subjects: five men and five women. The results show that the different models of handles appear to have influenced the pressure levels measured during the activity. Therefore, the measurement equipment provides parameters that allow the comparison among different designs and assess their contribution to the comprehension of the demands of ergonomic handles.

  3. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis [General Hospital, PET/CT Unit, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  4. Persistent mediastinal and axillary lymph node tuberculosis in a renal transplant patient with successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Y; Yilmaz, M I; Eyileten, T; Caglar, K; Yenicesu, M; Kaya, A; Tasar, M; Saglam, M; Doganci, L; Gulec, B; Oner, K; Oktenli, C; Vural, A

    2006-06-01

    Tuberculosis is an opportunistic infection that carries substantial morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. We report here about a 21 year-old man with a living related renal transplant from his mother who developed persistent extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The disease showed aggressive invasion to the axillary and mediastinal regions with abscess formations, despite standard antituberculosis treatment. During the course of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy was stopped, and the patient received extraordinary doses of multiple antituberculosis drugs. The patient then showed an uneventful course with good clinical and radiological responses.

  5. Membrane-elasticity model of Coatless vesicle budding induced by ESCRT complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Różycki

    Full Text Available The formation of vesicles is essential for many biological processes, in particular for the trafficking of membrane proteins within cells. The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT directs membrane budding away from the cytosol. Unlike other vesicle formation pathways, the ESCRT-mediated budding occurs without a protein coat. Here, we propose a minimal model of ESCRT-induced vesicle budding. Our model is based on recent experimental observations from direct fluorescence microscopy imaging that show ESCRT proteins colocalized only in the neck region of membrane buds. The model, cast in the framework of membrane elasticity theory, reproduces the experimentally observed vesicle morphologies with physically meaningful parameters. In this parameter range, the minimum energy configurations of the membrane are coatless buds with ESCRTs localized in the bud neck, consistent with experiment. The minimum energy configurations agree with those seen in the fluorescence images, with respect to both bud shapes and ESCRT protein localization. On the basis of our model, we identify distinct mechanistic pathways for the ESCRT-mediated budding process. The bud size is determined by membrane material parameters, explaining the narrow yet different bud size distributions in vitro and in vivo. Our membrane elasticity model thus sheds light on the energetics and possible mechanisms of ESCRT-induced membrane budding.

  6. Tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate; Li-Chang, Hector H; Kalloger, Steven E; Peixoto, Renata D; Webber, Douglas L; Owen, David A; Driman, David K; Kirsch, Richard; Serra, Stefano; Scudamore, Charles H; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-04-01

    Tumor budding is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, the significance and diagnostic reproducibility of budding in pancreatic carcinoma requires further study. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of tumor budding in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, determine its relationship with other clinicopathologic features, and assess interobserver variability in its diagnosis. Tumor budding was assessed in 192 archival cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections; tumor buds were defined as single cells or nonglandular clusters composed of <5 cells. The presence of budding was determined through assessment of all tumor-containing slides, and associations with clinicopathologic features and outcomes were analyzed. Six gastrointestinal pathologists participated in an interobserver variability study of 120 images of consecutive tumor slides stained with H&E and cytokeratin. Budding was present in 168 of 192 cases and was associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.001). On multivariable analysis, tumor budding was prognostically significantly independent of stage, grade, tumor size, nodal status, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. There was substantial agreement among pathologists in assessing the presence of tumor budding using both H&E (K=0.63) and cytokeratin (K=0.63) stains. The presence of tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. The assessment of budding with H&E is reliable and could be used to better risk stratify patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  7. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  8. Solitary axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian Cancer: Case report and brief literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji In; Kim, Soo Jin; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Hee Sung [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer is rare. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman proven as ovarian serous papillary carcinoma and metastatic papillary carcinoma of the omentum on surgical diagnostic laparoscopy. In addition, a hypermetabolic lymph node was detected in left axilla and was considered a reactive benign lesion. Mammography and ultrasonography showed no focal lesion in both breasts, but ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the lymph node revealed metastatic serous papillary carcinoma from ovarian origin. Even with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis without breast involvement from ovarian cancer and only marginally elevated standardized uptake value in positron emission tomography, the possibility of metastasis at axillary lymph node in patients with known primary ovarian cancer must be considered.

  9. Budding Transition of Asymmetric Two-component Lipid Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Jean; Andelman, David

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams containing fully budded, dimpled, and flat states as a function of the two leaflet compositions. The global phase behavior is analyzed, and depending on system parameters, the phase diagrams include one-phase, two-phase and three-phase regions. In particular, we predict various phase coexistence regions between different morphologies of domains, which may be observed in multi-component membranes or ves...

  10. How to halve ploidy: lessons from budding yeast meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Gary William; Sarkar, Sourav; Arumugam, Prakash

    2012-09-01

    Maintenance of ploidy in sexually reproducing organisms requires a specialized form of cell division called meiosis that generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Meiotic cells halve their ploidy by undergoing two rounds of nuclear division (meiosis I and II) after a single round of DNA replication. Research in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has shown that four major deviations from the mitotic cell cycle during meiosis are essential for halving ploidy. The deviations are (1) formation of a link between homologous chromosomes by crossover, (2) monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I, (3) protection of centromeric cohesion during meiosis I, and (4) suppression of DNA replication following exit from meiosis I. In this review we present the current understanding of the above four processes in budding yeast and examine the possible conservation of molecular mechanisms from yeast to humans.

  11. Tumor budding is a strong and reproducible prognostic marker in T3N0 colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Lai Mun

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor budding along the advancing front of colorectal adenocarcinoma is an early event in the metastatic process. A reproducible, prognostic budding scoring system based on outcomes in early stage colorectal cancer has not been established. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-eight T3N0M0 colorectal carcinoma patients with known outcome were identified. Tumor budding was defined as isolated tumor cells or clusters of <5 cells at the invasive tumor front. Tumor bud counts were generated in 5 regions at 200x by 2 pathologists (conventional bud count method). The median bud count per case was used to divide cases into low (median=0) and high budding (median > or =1) groups. Forty cases were reevaluated to assess reproducibility using the conventional and a novel rapid bud count method. RESULTS: Fifty-seven (45%) carcinomas had high and 71 (55%) had low budding scores. High budding was associated with an infiltrative growth pattern (P<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.005). Five-year cancer-specific survival was significantly poorer in high compared with low budding groups: 63% versus 91%, respectively, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor budding to be independently prognostic (hazard ratio=4.76, P<0.001). Interobserver agreement was at least equivalent comparing the conventional to the rapid bud count methods: 87.5% agreement (kappa=0.75) versus 92.5% agreement (kappa=0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor budding is a strong, reproducible, and independent prognostic marker of outcome that is easily assessed on hematoxylin and eosin slides. This may be useful for identifying the subset of T3N0M0 patients at high risk of recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  12. Endogenous peripheral neuromodulators of the mammalian taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin

    2010-10-01

    The sensitivity of the mammalian taste system displays a degree of plasticity based on short-term nutritional requirements. Deficiency in a particular substance may lead to a perceived increase in palatability of this substance, providing an additional drive to redress this nutritional imbalance through modification of intake. This alteration occurs not only in the brain but also, before any higher level processing has occurred, in the taste buds themselves. A brief review of recent advances is offered.

  13. Spiking Neural P Systems with Neuron Division and Budding

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Linqiang; Paun, Gheorghe; Pérez Jiménez, Mario de Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance the e±ciency of spiking neural P systems, we introduce the features of neuron division and neuron budding, which are processes inspired by neural stem cell division. As expected (as it is the case for P systems with active membranes), in this way we get the possibility to solve computationally hard problems in polynomial time. We illustrate this possibility with SAT problem.

  14. Bud dormancy in apple trees after thermal fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat waves on the evolution of bud dormancy, in apple trees with contrasting chilling requirements. Twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' were collected in orchards in Papanduva, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were exposed to constant (3°C or alternating (3 and 15°C for 12/12 hours temperature, combined with zero, one or two days a week at 25°C. Two additional treatments were evaluated: constant temperature (3°C, with a heat wave of seven days at 25°C, in the beginning or in the middle of the experimental period. Periodically, part of the twigs was transferred to 25°C for daily budburst evaluation of apical and lateral buds. Endodormancy (dormancy induced by cold was overcome with less than 330 chilling hours (CH of constant cold in 'Castel Gala' and less than 618 CH in 'Royal Gala'. A daily 15°C-temperature cycle did not affect the endodormancy process. Heat waves during endodormancy resulted in an increased CH to achieve bud requirements. The negative effect of high temperature depended on the lasting of this condition. Chilling was partly cancelled during dormancy when the heat wave lasted 36 continuous hours or more. Therefore, budburst prediction models need adjustments, mainly for regions with mild and irregular winters, such as those of Southern Brazil.

  15. Arenavirus budding: a common pathway with mechanistic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Svenja; Ebihara, Hideki; Groseth, Allison

    2013-01-31

    The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that includes several agents responsible for important human diseases. Despite the importance of this family for public health, particularly in Africa and South America, much of its biology remains poorly understood. However, in recent years significant progress has been made in this regard, particularly relating to the formation and release of new enveloped virions, which is an essential step in the viral lifecycle. While this process is mediated chiefly by the viral matrix protein Z, recent evidence suggests that for some viruses the nucleoprotein (NP) is also required to enhance the budding process. Here we highlight and compare the distinct budding mechanisms of different arenaviruses, concentrating on the role of the matrix protein Z, its known late domain sequences, and the involvement of cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway components. Finally we address the recently described roles for the nucleoprotein NP in budding and ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) incorporation, as well as discussing possible mechanisms related to its involvement.

  16. Arenavirus Budding: A Common Pathway with Mechanistic Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that includes several agents responsible for important human diseases. Despite the importance of this family for public health, particularly in Africa and South America, much of its biology remains poorly understood. However, in recent years significant progress has been made in this regard, particularly relating to the formation and release of new enveloped virions, which is an essential step in the viral lifecycle. While this process is mediated chiefly by the viral matrix protein Z, recent evidence suggests that for some viruses the nucleoprotein (NP is also required to enhance the budding process. Here we highlight and compare the distinct budding mechanisms of different arenaviruses, concentrating on the role of the matrix protein Z, its known late domain sequences, and the involvement of cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT pathway components. Finally we address the recently described roles for the nucleoprotein NP in budding and ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP incorporation, as well as discussing possible mechanisms related to its involvement.

  17. International multicenter tool to predict the risk of four or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel node macrometastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, Tuomo J; Audisio, R A; Heikkilä, P S;

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many centers have omitted routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after metastatic sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer due to a growing body of literature. However, existing guidelines of adjuvant treatment planning are strongly based on axillary nodal stage. In this study, we a...

  18. Axillary artery injury combined with delayed brachial plexus palsy due to compressive hematoma in a young patient: a case report

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    Yajima Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Axillary artery injury in the shoulder region following blunt trauma without association with either shoulder dislocation or fracture of the humeral neck has been previously reported. Axillary artery injury might also be accompanied with brachial plexus injury. However, delayed onset of brachial plexus palsy caused by a compressive hematoma associated with axillary injury after blunt trauma in the shoulder region has been rarely reported. In previous reports, this condition only occurred in old patients with sclerotic vessels. We present a case of a young patient who suffered axillary artery injury associated with brachial plexus palsy that occurred tardily due to compressive hematoma after blunt trauma in the shoulder region without association of either shoulder dislocation or humeral neck fracture. Case presentation A 16-year-old male injured his right shoulder in a motorbike accident. On initial physical evaluation, the pulses on the radial and ulnar arteries in the affected arm were palpable. Paralysis developed later from 2 days after the injury. Functions in the right arm became significantly impaired. Angiography showed complete occlusion of the axillary artery. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass measuring 4 × 5 cm that was suspected to be a hematoma compressing the brachial plexus in a space between the subscapular muscle and the pectoralis minor muscle. Surgery was performed on the third day after injury. In intraoperative observations, the axillary artery was occluded with thrombus along 5 cm; a subscapular artery was ruptured; the brachial plexus was compressed by the hematoma. After evacuation of the hematoma, neurolysis of the brachial plexus, and revascularization of the axillary artery, the patient had an excellent functional recovery of the affected upper limb, postoperatively. Conclusion Surgeons should be aware that axillary artery injuries may even occur in young people after severe blunt

  19. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  20. Effects of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during dynamic hand contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Payne, G;

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at orbitomeatal (OM) plane +5.0 and +9.0 cm in 10 subjects at rest and during dynamic hand contractions before and after axillary blockade. Handgrip strength was significantly reduced, and rating of perceived exertion increased after blockade. During...... hand contractions before blockade, contralateral hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) at OM +9.0 increased from a resting value of 58 (49-75) to 63 (52-82) ml.100 g-1.min-1; contralateral motor sensory rCBF at OM +9 from 58 (50-77) to 71 (64-84); motor sensory rCBF at OM +5 from 67 (54-76) to 77 (64......-87) and 70 (62-84) contralaterally and ipsilaterally, respectively; and supplementary motor area (SM) rCBF from 64 (53-69) to 75 (67-88) ml.100 g-1.min-1. During dynamic hand contractions after axillary blockade, CBF did not increase at OM +5 or in the SM. Furthermore, contralateral motor sensory rCBF at OM...

  1. In situ cephalic vein bypasses from axillary to the brachial artery after catheterization injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-07-01

    The need to bypass to the brachial artery is rare. Over a five-year period, 16 patients had suffered iatrogenic post-catheterization injuries of the upper extremity. We have performed 16 bypasses, in 16 patients, mean age was 65 years (range 47-75), to the brachial artery originating from an artery proximal to the shoulder joint. In all cases, the axillary artery was the donor artery. All bypasses were created by using the cephalic vein with the in situ technique and distal anastomoses were made to a distance-free section of brachial artery. No operative mortality, neurological complications or major upper-extremity amputation was associated with the procedure. Life-long-conduit analysis showed 75% patency in the five-year period. After iatrogenic post-catheterization trauma of arterial system of upper extremity, bypasses from axillary to brachial artery with the cephalic vein with the in situ technique is a safe operation with satisfactory long-term patency.

  2. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block?

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    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50 mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50 mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects.

  3. Treatment of Combined Injuries of the Axillary and Suprascapular Nerves with Scapulothoracic Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    A 20-year-old man suffered the combined axillary and suprascapular nerve palsies associated with scapulothoracic dissociation by motorcycle accident. The dislocated shoulder girdle was reduced and stabilized with osteosynthesis of the fractured clavicle and reattachment of the trapezius avulsed from the scapular spine for removal of continuous traction force to these damaged nerves. Because of no evidence of recovery on manual muscle test and electromyogram, exploration for these nerves was administered 6 weeks after injury. Although neurolysis of both nerves revealed neural continuity, excessive tension still existed on the suprascapular nerve. It was thought that previous operation in which the shoulder girdle had been reduced and stabilized as much as possible could not achieve complete anatomical reduction of the scapula. As an additional treatment, medial walls of the suprascapular and spinoglenoid notches were shaven to relax the suprascapular nerve. After a year, complete recovery of both the axillary and suprascapular nerve was identified. Although scapulothoracic dissociation is commonly recognized as massive injury of the shoulder girdle with poor prognosis because of existence of accompanied severe neurovascular injuries, there are more than a few cases in which partial damage on the infraclavicular brachial plexus is only accompanied. In case of them, there is the possibility of lesions in continuity of the nerves in which good prognosis might be expected with surgical intervention including early reduction of the shoulder girdle for removal of excessive tension to the damaged nerve.

  4. Ultrasonografic changes in the axillary vein of patients with lymphedema after mastectomy

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    Gilberto Ferreira de Abreu Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sonographic abnormalities (SA in the axillary vein of patients with and without post-mastectomy lymphedema. METHODS: We studied a sample of 80 women, divided into two equal groups, with and without lymphedema, with B mode ultrasound, color and pulsed Doppler. The primary variable, SA, is defined as change in the venous diameter, parietal thickening, intraluminal images, compressibility, parietal collapse at inspiration and feature of the axillary venous flow on the operated side. Secondary variables were: stage of lymphedema, surgical technique, number of radio and chemotherapy sessions, limb volume, weight and age. The differences between the proportions in the groups were determined using the Chi-square test and / or Fisher's test. For continuous variables, we used the Mann-Whitney Test. To estimate the magnitude of the associations, we used the prevalence rate of SA in both groups as a measure of frequency, and as a measure of association, the prevalence ratio (PR obtained as a function of relative risk (RR and estimated by the test Mantel-Haenszel homogeneity test. We adopted the statistical significance level of 5% (p < 0.05. RESULTS: only the criterion "parietal thickening" was strongly associated with the lymphedema group (p = 0.001. The prevalence of SA was 55% in patients with lymphedema and 17.5% in the group without it, with difference in prevalence of 37.5%. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of SA was higher in patients undergoing mastectomy with lymphedema than in those without lymphedema.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Axillary Lymph Node Micrometastases and Microvessel Count in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RuiHui; FengyunZhao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of axillary lymph node micrometastases and the microvessel count on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. METHODS Forty-eight patients with breast cancer, who had no tumor cells in their regional lymph nodes based on conventional histopathologic examination, were re-examined with immunohistochemical LSAB techniques. H&E, anti-EMA, CK 19 and FVlII factor staining was used to identify tumor cells in both lymph nodes and tumor tissues and to count the microvessels. A total of 882 lymph nodes were examined. RESULTS Immunostaining-positive tumor cells were found in 9.0 %(79/882) of the dissected lymph nodes. The positive rates were not significantly different between a surviving group and a deceased group (P>0.05). The microvessel count was significantly higher in group that had died (P<0.001). CONCLUSION The lymph node micrometastases did not show any correlation with patients'survival, but the microvessel density had a negative correlation with the survival period in breast cancer patients who had negative axillary lymph nodes.

  6. Axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer utilizing Harmonic Focus®

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    Moldrem Amy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer, performance of a complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND is the standard approach. Due to the rich lymphatic network in the axilla, it is necessary to carefully dissect and identify all lymphatic channels. Traditionally, these lymphatics are sealed with titanium clips or individually sutured. Recently, the Harmonic Focus®, a hand-held ultrasonic dissector, allows lymphatics to be sealed without the utilization of clips or ties. We hypothesize that ALND performed with the Harmonic Focus® will decrease operative time and reduce post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review identified all patients who underwent ALND at a teaching hospital between January of 2005 and December of 2009. Patient demographics, presenting pathology, treatment course, operative time, days to drain removal, and surgical complications were recorded. Comparisons were made to a selected control group of patients who underwent similar surgical procedures along with an ALND performed utilizing hemostatic clips and electrocautery. A total of 41 patients were included in this study. Results Operative time was not improved with the use of ultrasonic dissection, however, there was a decrease in the total number of days that closed suction drainage was required, although this was not statistically significant. Complication rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion In this case-matched retrospective review, there were fewer required days of closed suction drainage when ALND was performed with ultrasonic dissection versus clips and electrocautery.

  7. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound

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    Alexandre Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90 of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. METHODS: Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous. The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability or the same concentration (0.9 probability. Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4 h after the blockade. RESULTS: MEC90 was 0.241% [R 2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4 h. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations.

  8. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  9. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Maruo

    Full Text Available Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors.

  10. Temperature Characteristics of Dormancy Development of Terminal and Lateral Buds in Paulownia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhen; LIGuangtao; WANGYanmei; JIANGXiaoping

    2004-01-01

    In order to probe the death reason of terminal buds and carry out trunk extension by using lateral buds, the temperature characteristics of dormancy development of terminal and lateral buds in Paulownia tomentosa xp. fortunei 33 were investigated by raising cutting branches on different date at 25℃ and 15℃. The results were as follows:①The death reason of terminal buds and the first pair of lateral buds was itselfe cological adapting strategy, not the injury of early frost and freezing; ② The lateral buds 2, 3 and 4 had obtained the feature of winter dormancy, and could survive from cold winter, and widen its possible temperature range of sprouting to lower temperature by experiencing winter chilling; ③The lateral buds 2, 3 and 4 could sprout at the same time in spring, but it was difficult to sprout for other lateral buds; ④ The sprouting of upper lateral buds could restrict the sprouting of lower lateral buds at 25℃, but not at 15℃.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

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    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  12. Distribution of apocrine sweat glands in axillary region of patients with axillary osmidrosis%腋臭患者腋区顶泌汗腺的分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢卫斌; 刘文芳; 赵子申; 彭军; 李兴文; 马玉枝; 王娜

    2014-01-01

    目的 检测腋臭患者腋区顶泌汗腺在深度、广度的分布,探讨其范围内的分布差异性.方法 2010年9-12月间的15例腋臭患者,行直视下顶泌汗腺剪除术,切取切口处宽约2 mm的全层皮肤,深度达腋浅筋膜浅层,用于判明顶泌汗腺分布的深度.留取腋中心(点1)、距腋中心1 cm(点2)、距腋毛边缘内1cm(点3)、腋毛边缘(点4)、距腋毛边缘外1 cm(点5)共5个标记点对应的皮下暗红色粗大的颗粒状组织,用于判明顶泌汗腺的分布范围及分布规律.结果 顶泌汗腺分泌部主要分布于真皮网状层和皮下脂肪浅层,表皮层、真皮乳头层及腋浅筋膜浅层均无顶泌汗腺分布.顶泌汗腺广度分布与腋毛范围基本一致,腋中心部可见大量顶泌汗腺组织,腋毛边缘处仍有少量顶泌汗腺分布,腋毛边缘外1.0 cm处已无顶泌汗腺分布.5个点顶泌汗腺面积占整块组织面积的百分比平均值分别为74.1%、46.6%、25.3%、2.1%和0,相邻两点进行t检验,点1、2之间f=29.78,P< 0.01;点2、3之间t=9.76,P< 0.01;点3、4之间t=20.83,P< 0.01;点4、5之间t=1.96,P> 0.05.结论 手术治疗腋臭时,清除范围深度达真皮网状层和浅层脂肪层,广度到腋毛范围即可,没有必要过度扩大清除范围.%Objective To determine the distribution profile of apocrine sweat glands in axillary region of patients with axillary osmidrosis,and to compare their distribution at different sites.Methods Fifteen patients with axillary osmidrosis were enrolled in this study from September to December 2010.All the patients underwent surgical removal of apocrine sweat glands under direct vision.Full-thickness skin tissue measuring 2 mm in width was excised down to the axillary superficial fascia at the incisional surgical sites from five patients.Five points,which were at the center of axillary region (point 1),1 cm away from the center of axillary region (point 2),1 cm inside the edge of axillary

  13. Observation of the Primo Vessel Approaching the Axillary Lymph Node with the Fluorescent Dye, DiI

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    Su Youn Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS floating in lymph fluid has mostly been observed in large caliber ducts around the caudal vena cava and the thoracic duct of rabbits, rats, and mice. But the PVS has not been traced up to the lymph nodes. It has not been established whether the PVS leaves the lymph vessel through the lymph vessel wall or it enters the lymph nodes. Therefore, observing the PVS entering a lymph node, for example, the axillary node, is desirable. In the current work, we traced the PVS approaching up to the surface of axillary node of a rat. The method used for this study was based upon a method that was recently developed to detect the PVS in the lymph duct from the inguinal to the axillary nodes in the skin of a rat by injecting Alcian blue into the inguinal node. However, the Alcian blue blurred near the lymph nodes and tracing the PVS up to the lymph nodes has not been possible. The current method clearly showed the PVS approaching the axillary node.

  14. The efficacy of a microwave device for treating axillary hyperhidrosis and osmidrosis in Asians: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Chang, Ka-Yeun; Suh, Dong-Hye; Song, Kye-Yong; Ryu, Hwa Jung

    2013-10-01

    A microwave-based device has been developed to treat axillary hyperhidrosis by selectively heating the interface between the skin and underlying fat in the axilla. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of microwave-based devices for axillary hyperhidrosis and osmidrosis in Asians. Eleven patients (8 females and 3 males, age range 20-52 years, mean age 37.6 years) with axillary hyperhidrosis or osmidrosis were enrolled, treated with the microwave-based device, and followed up for 7 months. Procedure efficacy, patient satisfaction, and treatment safety were assessed. The clinical records were reviewed and the patients were interviewed individually at follow-up visits or via telephone. Evaluation of sweating showed at least a 2-point drop or greater in hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS) in 83.3% subjects (10/12 axillae) as measured at the 7-month follow-up. Of 16 axillae with osmidrosis, 93.8% (15/16 axillae) showed good to excellent results. Histologic findings also showed destruction of eccrine and apocrine glands that were replaced with fibrosis. Regarding safety, altered sensation of arms developed in one case that resolved after 3 months. This novel microwave-based treatment appears to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and osmidrosis in Asians.

  15. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

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    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer′s disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL, 2 (400 μg/mL, 3 (600 μg/mL of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract. A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy. Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours

  16. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-07-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.

  17. Membrane tension is a key determinant of bud morphology in clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    CERN Document Server

    Hassinger, Julian E; Drubin, David G; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), clathrin and various adaptor proteins coat a patch of the plasma membrane, which is reshaped to form a budded vesicle. Experimental studies have demonstrated that elevated membrane tension can inhibit bud formation by a clathrin coat. In this study, we investigate the impact of membrane tension on the mechanics of membrane budding by simulating clathrin coats that either grow in area or progressively induce greater curvature. At low membrane tension, progressively increasing the area of a curvature-generating coat causes the membrane to smoothly evolve from a flat to budded morphology, whereas the membrane remains essentially flat at high membrane tensions. Interestingly, at physiologically relevant, intermediate membrane tensions, the shape evolution of the membrane undergoes a snapthrough instability in which increasing coat area causes the membrane to "snap" from an open, U-shaped bud to a closed, $\\Omega$-shaped bud. This instability is accompanied by a large energy...

  18. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar.

  19. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Fernández, P.S.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to ga

  20. Viability Kernel for Ecosystem Management Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anaya, Eladio Ocana; Oliveros--Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We consider sustainable management issues formulated within the framework of control theory. The problem is one of controlling a discrete--time dynamical system (e.g. population model) in the presence of state and control constraints, representing conflicting economic and ecological issues for instance. The viability kernel is known to play a basic role for the analysis of such problems and the design of viable control feedbacks, but its computation is not an easy task in general. We study the viability of nonlinear generic ecosystem models under preservation and production constraints. Under simple conditions on the growth rates at the boundary constraints, we provide an explicit description of the viability kernel. A numerical illustration is given for the hake--anchovy couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem.

  1. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  2. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies and European silver fir (Abies alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eDhuli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species and Abies alba (temperate species to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle over a nine week period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids. Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  3. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  4. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition.

  5. UXO Detection and Characterization using new Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, E.; Morrison, H. F.; Smith, J. T.; Becker, A.

    2006-05-01

    An optimally designed active electromagnetic system (AEM), Berkeley UXO Discriminator, BUD, has been developed for detection and characterization of UXO in the 20 mm to 150 mm size range. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters, and eight pairs of differenced receivers. The transmitter-receiver assembly together with the acquisition box, as well as the battery power and GPS receiver, is mounted on a small cart to assure system mobility. BUD not only detects the object itself but also quantitatively determines its size, shape, orientation, and metal content (ferrous or non-ferrous, mixed metals). Moreover, the principal polarizabilities and size of a metallic target can be determined from a single position of the BUD platform. The search for UXO is a two-step process. The object must first be detected and its location determined then the parameters of the object must be defined. A satisfactory classification scheme is one that determines the principal dipole polarizabilities of a target. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability (principal moment) coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, the scrap metal has all three principal moments entirely different. This description of the inherent polarizabilities of a target is a major advance in discriminating UXO from irregular scrap metal. Our results clearly show that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of a target and that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal. Target properties are determined by an inversion algorithm, which at any given time inverts the response to yield the location (x, y, z) of the target, its attitude and its principal polarizabilities (yielding an apparent aspect ratio). Signal-to-noise estimates (or measurements) are interpreted in this inversion to yield error estimates on the location, attitude and polarizabilities. This inversion at a succession of times provides

  6. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Liu; Yi-Feng Zhou; Peng Yang; Yan-Sha Gao; Gui-Ru Zhao; Shi-Yan Ren; Xian-Lun Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein,which is often accompanied by high complication rate.The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique.Methods:A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly.Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded.Results:The overall success rate (95.7% vs.96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs.66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups.In the subclavian vein group,pneumothorax occurred in three patients.The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead.In contrast,there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group.In the patient follow-ups,two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement.The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122),respectively (x2=5.813,P =0.016).Conclusion:Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement.

  7. FDG PET evaluation of early axillary lymph node response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, Caroline [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, IRCNA, Nuclear Medicine Department, Saint Herblain (France); Nantes University, INSERM UMR 892, Cancer Research Center CRCNA, Nantes (France); Centre Rene Gauducheau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Saint Herblain Cedex (France); Devillers, Anne [Eugene Marquis Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Campone, Mario [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, Medical Oncology Department, Saint Herblain (France); Campion, Loic [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, Statistic Department, Saint Herblain (France); Ferrer, Ludovic [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, Medical Physics Department, Saint Herblain (France); Sagan, Christine [University Hospital, Pathology Department, Nantes (France); Ricaud, Myriam [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, Radiology Department, Saint Herblain (France); Bridji, Boumediene [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, IRCNA, Nuclear Medicine Department, Saint Herblain (France); Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise [Comprehensive Cancer Center Rene Gauducheau, IRCNA, Nuclear Medicine Department, Saint Herblain (France); Nantes University, INSERM UMR 892, Cancer Research Center CRCNA, Nantes (France)

    2011-06-15

    Regional axillary lymph node status has remained the single most independent variable to predict prognosis both in terms of disease recurrence and survival. This study aimed to prospectively assess sequential [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) findings as early predictors of axillary lymph node response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III breast cancer patients. Images were acquired with a PET/CT scanner in 52 patients after administration of FDG (5 MBq/kg) at baseline and after the first, second, third and sixth course of chemotherapy before surgery. Clinical examination and ultrasound (US) were used to assess the size of axillary nodes. Decrease in the standardized uptake value (SUV) with PET corrected or not for partial volume effects was compared to the pathological response. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of axillary node staging was higher with PET (75, 87 and 80%) than with US (50, 83 and 65%), and even more so when PET images were corrected for partial volume effects (86, 83 and 84%). While FDG uptake did not vary much in non-responders, as confirmed by histopathological analysis, it markedly decreased to baseline levels in responders (p < 10{sup -5}). Fifty per cent of baseline SUV was considered the best cutoff value to distinguish responders from non-responders. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy of FDG PET after one course of chemotherapy were, respectively, 96, 75, 95 and 84%. The pathological status of regional axillary lymph nodes in stage II and III breast cancer patients could be accurately predicted after one course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on FDG PET images. (orig.)

  8. Serious axillary nerve injury caused by subscapular artery compression resulting from use of backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninec, Pavel; Mencl, Libor; Bačinský, Peter; Kaiser, Radek

    2013-12-01

    A palsy of the brachial plexus elements caused by carrying a heavy backpack is a very rare injury usually occurring in soldiers or hikers, and recovery is usually spontaneous. We describe here the case of male civilian presenting with an isolated serious axillary nerve palsy associated with chronic backpack use. During the surgery, a dumbbell-shaped neuroma-in-continuity was found which was caused by direct pressure from the subscapular artery. After resection of the neuroma, a nerve graft from the sural nerve was used to reconstruct the nerve. Reinnervation was successful and the patient was able to abduct his arm to its full range, with full muscle strength, within 24 months.

  9. Successful closure of feline axillary wounds by reconstruction of the elbow skin fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, C H

    2007-02-01

    This report describes the successful closure of five chronic feline axillary wounds. The aetiology was known to be forelimb entrapment in a neck collar in three cases and was suspected in the others. Each cat underwent a single surgical procedure during which the wound was debrided, the normal structure of the elbow skin fold was restored and the remaining skin defect was closed primarily. None of the cats had undergone any previous reconstruction attempts. No postoperative complications were observed and the wounds healed uneventfully. Cats have well-developed elbow skin folds, allowing a wide range of limb motion to occur. Having a forelimb trapped in a neck collar not only creates a wound in the axilla but also disrupts the normal anatomy of the skin fold. This report demonstrates that restoring the elbow skin fold before closing the wound may improve the chances of a successful reconstruction at the first surgical intervention.

  10. A mechanistic breast cancer survival modelling through the axillary lymph node chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobre, Juliana; Castro Perdoná, Gleici S; Peria, Fernanda M; Louzada, Francisco

    2013-04-30

    In this paper, we proposed a mechanistic breast cancer survival model based on the axillary lymph node chain structure, considering lymph nodes as a potential dissemination arrangement. We assume a naive breast cancer treatment protocol consisting of exposing patients first to a chemotherapy treatment on r intervals at k-cycles separated by equal time intervals, and then they proceed to surgery. Our model, different from former ones, accommodates a quantity of contaminated lymph nodes, which is observed during surgery. We assume a generalised negative binomial survival distribution for the unknown number of contaminated lymph nodes after surgery, which, during an unknown period, may potentially propagate the disease. Estimation is based on a maximum likelihood approach. A simulation study assesses the coverage probability of asymptotic confidence intervals when small or moderate samples are considered. A Brazilian breast cancer data illustrate the applicability of our modelling.

  11. Staging of women with breast cancer after introduction of sentinel node guided axillary dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg

    2012-01-01

    Today, sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard procedure for staging of the axilla in the treatment of breast cancer. SLND can accurately stage the axilla by removing on average only two lymph nodes. Only in case of metastatic spread...... to sentinel nodes an ALND is offered. Removing fewer nodes has made more extensive histopathological examinations of the lymph nodes possible and as a consequence more metastases are found. This has resulted in stage migration. Based on data from the nationwide Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG.......8%, when estimated using today´s criteria for risk-allocation, because nodal status is now less important in risk-allocation. In general, only 15-20% of patients with micrometastases and 10-15% of patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel node have further metastatic spread to non-sentinel nodes...

  12. Primo Vascular System in the Lymph Vessel from the Inguinal to the Axillary Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS in a lymph system was observed mostly in large caliber ducts around the caudal vena cava of rabbits, rats, and mice. This required a severe surgery with laparectomy and massive removal of fat tissues in the abdomen to expose the lymph vessel. In the current brief report, we presented a new method to evade these shortcomings by observing the PVS in a less large caliber duct in the skin, that is, the lymph vessel from the inguinal to the axillary nodes. The Alcian blue injection into the inguinal node revealed the desired primo vessel in the target lymph vessel. This opened a new perspective for the investigation of the lymphatic PVS without severe damage to subject animals and for monitoring of the PVS in a long period of time.

  13. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  14. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative differences between taste buds of the rat and mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huazhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous electrophysiological, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical studies on rodent taste buds have been carried out on rat taste buds. In recent years, however, the mouse has become the species of choice for molecular and other studies on sensory transduction in taste buds. Do rat and mouse taste buds have the same cell types, sensory transduction markers and synaptic proteins? In the present study we have used antisera directed against PLCβ2, α-gustducin, serotonin (5-HT, PGP 9.5 and synaptobrevin-2 to determine the percentages of taste cells expressing these markers in taste buds in both rodent species. We also determined the numbers of taste cells in the taste buds as well as taste bud volume. Results There are significant differences (p 3 is smaller than a rat taste bud (64,200 μm3. The numerical density of taste cells in mouse circumvallate taste buds (2.1 cells/1000 μm3 is significantly higher than that in the rat (1.2 cells/1000 μm3. Conclusion These results suggest that rats and mice differ significantly in the percentages of taste cells expressing signaling molecules. We speculate that these observed dissimilarities may reflect differences in their gustatory processing.

  16. Is it necessary to do axillary dissection in old women with breast cancer?A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Le; Tian Jin-hui; Gu Jing; Yang Ke-hu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of axillary dissection in old women with breast cancer.Methods All randomized controlled trials on axillary dissection in old woman were retrieved in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. Meta-analyses were completed using RevMan 5.1.Results Three eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 5337 patients were involved. There were weak evidences in favor of axillary dissection in old woman. The meta-analysis showed that the overall survival (OS) in 1, 3, 5 and 7 years and the disease-free survival (DFS) in 1, 3 and 5 years were not statistically different between axillary dissection patients and non-axillary dissection patients. However there was a statistical difference in 7-year DFS.Conclusions Axillary dissection does not show a survival benefit in the old women with breast cancer. Therefore it is not well-founded to do axillary dissection in old women with breast cancer.

  17. Comparison of intraoperative frozen section analysis of sentinel node with preoperative positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Seok-Jin; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Kim, Byung-Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Seung; Jung, Sung-Hoo

    2001-01-01

    Although axillary lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and axillary dissection is regarded as the gold standard for staging, it requires radical surgery which is accompanied by considerable postoperative problems such as lymphedema. This study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) and intraoperative frozen biopsy of sentinel lymphadenectomy (SLND) in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis. We studied 18 patients who had preoperative PET and SLND for breast cancer in the Department of Surgery at Samsung Medical Center. They all had preoperative PET with a radiolabeled glucose analogue ([{sup 18}F]FDG) to visualize primary tumors and metastatic nodes. Isosulphan blue dye was used for intraoperative SLND. Frozen and permanent biopsies were then compared after full axillary dissection. In 18 cases, six had positive metastatic nodes in the permanent biopsy of full axillary dissection but were negative in three cases by preoperative PET. There was one false negative result by frozen biopsy of SLND which was later shown to be positive by permanent biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of SLND and PET for detecting axillary node metastasis were 83, 100% and 50, 100%, respectively. Although both methods are good for axillary nodal status, the intraoperative frozen biopsy result of SLND was superior to preoperative PET in our preliminary study. (author)

  18. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  19. The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize ramosa pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Long, Jeff A; Stanfield, Sharon; Yang, Xiang; Jackson, David; Vollbrecht, Erik; Schmidt, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Plant axillary meristems are composed of highly organized, self-renewing stem cells that produce indeterminate branches or terminate in differentiated structures, such as the flowers. These opposite fates, dictated by both genetic and environmental factors, determine interspecific differences in the architecture of plants. The Cys(2)-His(2) zinc-finger transcription factor RAMOSA1 (RA1) regulates the fate of most axillary meristems during the early development of maize inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and has been implicated in the evolution of grass architecture. Mutations in RA1 or any other known members of the ramosa pathway, RAMOSA2 and RAMOSA3, generate highly branched inflorescences. Here, we report a genetic screen for the enhancement of maize inflorescence branching and the discovery of a new regulator of meristem fate: the RAMOSA1 ENHANCER LOCUS2 (REL2) gene. rel2 mutants dramatically increase the formation of long branches in ears of both ra1 and ra2 mutants. REL2 encodes a transcriptional co-repressor similar to the TOPLESS protein of Arabidopsis, which is known to maintain apical-basal polarity during embryogenesis. REL2 is capable of rescuing the embryonic defects of the Arabidopsis topless-1 mutant, suggesting that REL2 also functions as a transcriptional co-repressor throughout development. We show by genetic and molecular analyses that REL2 physically interacts with RA1, indicating that the REL2/RA1 transcriptional repressor complex antagonizes the formation of indeterminate branches during maize inflorescence development. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of meristem fate and the architecture of plants.

  20. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  1. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  2. A computational clonal analysis of the developing mouse limb bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcon

    Full Text Available A comprehensive spatio-temporal description of the tissue movements underlying organogenesis would be an extremely useful resource to developmental biology. Clonal analysis and fate mappings are popular experiments to study tissue movement during morphogenesis. Such experiments allow cell populations to be labeled at an early stage of development and to follow their spatial evolution over time. However, disentangling the cumulative effects of the multiple events responsible for the expansion of the labeled cell population is not always straightforward. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel computational method that combines accurate quantification of 2D limb bud morphologies and growth modeling to analyze mouse clonal data of early limb development. Firstly, we explore various tissue movements that match experimental limb bud shape changes. Secondly, by comparing computational clones with newly generated mouse clonal data we are able to choose and characterize the tissue movement map that better matches experimental data. Our computational analysis produces for the first time a two dimensional model of limb growth based on experimental data that can be used to better characterize limb tissue movement in space and time. The model shows that the distribution and shapes of clones can be described as a combination of anisotropic growth with isotropic cell mixing, without the need for lineage compartmentalization along the AP and PD axis. Lastly, we show that this comprehensive description can be used to reassess spatio-temporal gene regulations taking tissue movement into account and to investigate PD patterning hypothesis.

  3. Green Synthesis of Novel Jasmine Bud-Shaped Copper Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi Sampath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel jasmine bud-shaped copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a green chemical reduction method using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as a capping agent, L-ascorbic acid (AA as a reducing agent as well as antioxidant agent, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH as a reducing agent, and water as a solvent at 60–70°C (pH-7 in the presence of air. The UV-Vis absorption maximum obtained is 573 nm. The crystal lattice (fcc structure of Cu Nps was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The novel jasmine bud shape was visualized in a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The height of single copper nanobud was 6.41 nm as measured by atomic force microscope (AFM. The average particle size 6.95 nm is obtained by XRD results. Antibacterial activity of the Cu nanobuds was evaluated by testing against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  4. Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition in Polyspora axillaris Community in Maluan Mountain of Shenzhen%深圳马峦山大头茶(Polyspora axillaris)群落种内与种间竞争研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦新; 廖国新; 徐晓晖

    2013-01-01

    The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity in Polyspora axillaris in Maluan Mountain of Shenzhen City were quantitatively analyzed using Hegyi single tree competition index model. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity in P. axillaris was decreased gradually with the increase of forest tree diameter class, and the interspecific competition in P. axillaris was more intensive than that in associated tree species. The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity in P. axillaris was: P. axillaris > Toxicodendron verniciflua >Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongtfolia >Schima superba >Microcos paniculata >Sapium sebiferum>Litsea cubeba>Sapium discolor. There was significantly negative correlation between the competition intensity and the individual size of objective tree, and the relationship of the competition intensity between the competitive tree and the objective tree and the individual size of objective tree obeyed power function rule. When the diameter at breast height of P. axillaris reached 15 cm, the competition intensity inconspicuously changed into stable situation.%采用Hegyi的单木竞争指数模型对马峦山的大头茶群落种内、种间的竞争强度进行定量分析.结果表明,大头茶种内竞争强度随着植株径级的增大而具减小趋势,种内竞争显著大于种间竞争,对象木种内、种间竞争强度的顺序为:大头茶>漆树>豺皮樟>荷木>布渣叶>乌桕>山苍子>山乌桕.竞争木对对象木的竞争强度与对象木的个体大小服从幂函数关系,竞争强度和对象木个体的大小呈极显著的负相关关系,当大头茶胸径达到15 cm后,竞争强度趋于稳定.

  5. The relationship between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mary K. Samplaski; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D.; Mullen, Brendan; Garbens, Alaina; Jarvi, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Background In humans, sperm DNA fragmentation rates have been correlated with sperm viability rates. Reduced sperm viability is associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation, while conversely high sperm viability is associated with low rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Both elevated DNA fragmentation rates and poor viability are correlated with impaired male fertility, with a DNA fragmentation rate of > 30% indicating subfertility. We postulated that in some men, the sperm viability assay coul...

  6. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  7. Viability of nonminimally coupled f (R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    In this work we explore the viability of nonminimally coupled matter-curvature gravity theories, namely the conditions required for the absence of tachyon instabilities and ghost degrees of freedom. We contrast our finds with recent claims of a pathological behaviour of this class of models, which resorted to, in our view, an incorrect analogy with k-essence.

  8. The Viability of "Roe v. Wade."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Examines four issues involved in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services:" (1) the preamble to the 1986 Missouri statute on abortion, (2) prohibiting public employees from performing abortions, (3) public funds for encouraging abortion, and (4) gestational age and viability provision. Focuses on the effects on the continuing vitality of…

  9. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierson, J.C.; Beissinger, S.R.; Bragg, J.G.; Coates, D.J.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Sunnucks, P.; Schumaker, N.H.; Trotter, M.V.; Young, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand

  10. Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath Ali

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  11. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  12. Storage and Viability of Hedychium Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium species generally flower in the summer and fall, but some bloom in winter and spring times. The different flowering times of the species implies that there is a need to find a way for storing and conserving viable pollen. The maintenance of pollen viability depends on several factors, incl...

  13. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  14. A fate map of the murine pancreas buds reveals a multipotent ventral foregut organ progenitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Angelo

    Full Text Available The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2-4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS. The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL. Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification.

  15. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  16. GATA6 is a crucial regulator of Shh in the limb bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kozhemyakina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh, a signaling molecule secreted by the "Zone of Polarizing Activity", an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6(fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh.

  17. GATA6 is a crucial regulator of Shh in the limb bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the "Zone of Polarizing Activity", an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6(fl/fl) mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh.

  18. An actin-binding protein, CAP, is expressed in a subset of rat taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Y; Yasuoka, A; Asano-Miyoshi, M; Abe, K; Emori, Y

    2001-02-12

    Single cell cDNA libraries were constructed from taste bud cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Using three steps of screening, including differential hybridization, sequence analyses and in situ hybridization, a clone encoding a rat homolog of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was identified to be highly expressed in a subset of taste bud cells.

  19. Alternaria alternata, causal agent of dead (dormant) flower bud disease of pear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, L.T.; Bruggen, van A.S.; Vink, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dead (dormant) flower buds of pear are an important phenomenon in pear production in the Netherlands. Vigourous or unbalanced tree growth and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae are mentioned as likely causes of dead flower buds. Several tree growth control treatments including ethephon, Regalis (Proh

  20. Key stages in mammary gland development: the mammary end bud as a motile organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Lindsay; Silberstein, Gary B

    2005-01-01

    In the rodent, epithelial end buds define the tips of elongating mammary ducts. These highly motile structures undergo repeated dichotomous branching as they aggressively advance through fatty stroma and, turning to avoid other ducts, they finally cease growth leaving behind the open, tree-like framework on which secretory alveoli develop during pregnancy. This review identifies the motility of end buds as a unique developmental marker that represents the successful integration of systemic and local mammotrophic influences, and covers relevant advances in ductal growth regulation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and cell adhesion in the inner end bud. An unexpected growth-promoting synergy between insulin-like growth factor-1 and progesterone, in which ducts elongate without forming new end buds, is described as well as evidence strongly supporting self-inhibition of ductal elongation by end-bud-secreted transforming growth factor-beta acting on stromal targets. The influence of the matrix metalloproteinase ECM-remodeling enzymes, notably matrix metalloproteinase-2, on end bud growth is discussed in the broader context of enzymes that regulate the polysaccharide-rich glycosaminoglycan elements of the ECM. Finally, a critical, motility-enabling role for the cellular architecture of the end bud is identified and the contribution of cadherins, the netrin/neogenin system, and ErbB2 to the structure and motility of end buds is discussed.

  1. Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

    2007-08-01

    To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation.

  2. Proteomic study of 'Moncada' mandarin buds from on- versus off-crop trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Lisón, Purificación; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of buds from mandarin trees with contrasting fruit load (on- and off-crop trees) was carried out during the onset of low-temperature induction. The aim of the study was to find out more about the molecular mechanism relating to alternate bearing in Citrus and its relationship with flowering. The 'Moncada' variety (Clementine 'Oroval'x'Kara' mandarin), displaying remarkable behaviour in alternate production, was used in this study. From 2D DIGE gel, 192 spots were isolated: 97 showed increased expression in the off-crop buds as compared to the on-crop buds, while 95 exhibited enhanced expression in the on-crop buds versus the off-crop buds. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the off-crop buds were the proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the proteins expressed in response to stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the on-crop buds were related to primary metabolism, oxidative stress and defence responses. Depending on their function, some of these proteins can stimulate the flowering, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase or leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase, while others can inhibit it, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Twenty-two other proteins with unknown functions were up-expressed in the on- or off-crop buds.

  3. Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, J M; Heldwein, E E

    2017-01-01

    Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape.

  4. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Merlini

    Full Text Available The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC. This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  5. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Laura; Fraschini, Roberta; Boettcher, Barbara; Barral, Yves; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  6. Lgr5 Identifies Progenitor Cells Capable of Taste Bud Regeneration after Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Takeda

    Full Text Available Taste buds are composed of a variety of taste receptor cell types that develop from tongue epithelium and are regularly replenished under normal homeostatic conditions as well as after injury. The characteristics of cells that give rise to regenerating taste buds are poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested that Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 identifies taste bud stem cells that contribute to homeostatic regeneration in adult circumvallate and foliate taste papillae, which are located in the posterior region of the tongue. Taste papillae in the adult anterior region of the tongue do not express Lgr5. Here, we confirm and extend these studies by demonstrating that Lgr5 cells give rise to both anterior and posterior taste buds during development, and are capable of regenerating posterior taste buds after injury induced by glossopharyngeal nerve transection.

  7. Cell kinetic study on the relation between irradiation hypogeusia and taste buds in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Hideharu; Furumoto, Keiichi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of hypogeusia caused by irradiation. X-ray treatment at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was given to the maxillofacial region including the tongue in rats, and the involvement of taste bud for hypogeusia was investigated. In addition, cytological kinetics were immunohistologically studied using bromodeoxyuridine in the taste bud and in the lingual mucosal epithelium. The following results were obtained: In the 10 Gy group, the number of taste bud become less after the exposure, but no hypogeusia was observed during the experimental period. In the 20 Gy group, any labeled taste bud was not observed on the 7th day, and all taste buds disappeared by the 10th day. In the lingual mucosal epithelium, the number of basal cells decreased to the minimum, and the body weight and total water intake decreased coincidently in the 20 Gy group, which were few in the 10 Gy group. (author)

  8. The ureteric bud epithelium: morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K; Yu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components, the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium, that differentiate from two different tissues -the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively-of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return, the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is physiologically divided along the corticomedullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here, we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortico-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney.

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic value of FDG-PET/CT and axillary ultrasound for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Carolin; Heusner, Till A. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)], E-mail: Heusner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Koeninger, Angela; Kimmig, Rainer [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Essen (Germany); Hartung, Verena; Bockisch, Andreas [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Otterbach, Friedrich [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Background. FDG-PET/CT is increasingly being used for breast cancer staging. Its diagnostic accuracy in comparison to ultrasound as the standard non-invasive imaging modality for the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes has yet not been evaluated. Purpose. To retrospectively compare the diagnostic value of full-dose, intravenously contrast-enhanced FDG-PET/CT and ultrasound for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients. Material and Methods. Ninety patients (one patient with a bilateral carcinoma) (89 women, one man; mean age, 55.5 {+-} 16.6 years) suffering from primary breast cancer underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT and axillary ultrasound. The ipsilateral axillary fossa (n = 91) was evaluated for metastatic spread. The sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of both methods were calculated. The sensitivity and accuracy were statistically compared using the McNemar Test (P <0.05). Analyses were made on a patient basis. The number of patients with extra-axillary locoregional lymph node metastases exclusively detected by FDG-PET/CT was evaluated. For axillary lymph node metastases histopathology served as the reference standard. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases were 54%, 89%, 77%, 74%, and 75%, respectively. For ultrasound it was 38%, 78%, 54%, 65%, and 62%, respectively. FDG-PET/CT was significantly more accurate than ultrasound for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases (P = 0.019). There was no statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of both modalities (P = 0.0578). FDG-PET/CT detected extra-axillary locoregional lymph node metastases in seven patients (8%) that had not been detected by another imaging modality. Conclusion. Though more accurate compared to ultrasound for evaluating the axillary lymph node status FDG-PET/CT is only as sensitive as

  10. Dose to level I and II axillary lymph nodes and lung by tangential field radiation in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiation with tissue expander reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo James K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To define the dosimetric coverage of level I/II axillary volumes and the lung volume irradiated in postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT following tissue expander placement. Methods and Materials Twenty-three patients were identified who had undergone postmastectomy radiotherapy with tangent only fields. All patients had pre-radiation tissue expander placement and expansion. Thirteen patients had bilateral expander reconstruction. The level I/II axillary volumes were contoured using the RTOG contouring atlas. The patient-specific variables of expander volume, superior-to-inferior location of expander, distance between expanders, expander angle and axillary volume were analyzed to determine their relationship to the axillary volume and lung volume dose. Results The mean coverage of the level I/II axillary volume by the 95% isodose line (VD95% was 23.9% (range 0.3 - 65.4%. The mean Ipsilateral Lung VD50% was 8.8% (2.2-20.9. Ipsilateral and contralateral expander volume correlated to Axillary VD95% in patients with bilateral reconstruction (p = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively but not those with ipsilateral only reconstruction (p = 0.60. Ipsilateral Lung VD50% correlated with angle of the expander from midline (p = 0.05. Conclusions In patients undergoing PMRT with tissue expanders, incidental doses delivered by tangents to the axilla, as defined by the RTOG contouring atlas, do not provide adequate coverage. The posterior-superior region of level I and II is the region most commonly underdosed. Axillary volume coverage increased with increasing expander volumes in patients with bilateral reconstruction. Lung dose increased with increasing expander angle from midline. This information should be considered both when placing expanders and when designing PMRT tangent only treatment plans by contouring and targeting the axilla volume when axillary treatment is indicated.

  11. Dose to level I and II axillary lymph nodes and lung by tangential field radiation in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiation with tissue expander reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To define the dosimetric coverage of level I/II axillary volumes and the lung volume irradiated in postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) following tissue expander placement. Methods and Materials Twenty-three patients were identified who had undergone postmastectomy radiotherapy with tangent only fields. All patients had pre-radiation tissue expander placement and expansion. Thirteen patients had bilateral expander reconstruction. The level I/II axillary volumes were contoured using the RTOG contouring atlas. The patient-specific variables of expander volume, superior-to-inferior location of expander, distance between expanders, expander angle and axillary volume were analyzed to determine their relationship to the axillary volume and lung volume dose. Results The mean coverage of the level I/II axillary volume by the 95% isodose line (VD95%) was 23.9% (range 0.3 - 65.4%). The mean Ipsilateral Lung VD50% was 8.8% (2.2-20.9). Ipsilateral and contralateral expander volume correlated to Axillary VD95% in patients with bilateral reconstruction (p = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively) but not those with ipsilateral only reconstruction (p = 0.60). Ipsilateral Lung VD50% correlated with angle of the expander from midline (p = 0.05). Conclusions In patients undergoing PMRT with tissue expanders, incidental doses delivered by tangents to the axilla, as defined by the RTOG contouring atlas, do not provide adequate coverage. The posterior-superior region of level I and II is the region most commonly underdosed. Axillary volume coverage increased with increasing expander volumes in patients with bilateral reconstruction. Lung dose increased with increasing expander angle from midline. This information should be considered both when placing expanders and when designing PMRT tangent only treatment plans by contouring and targeting the axilla volume when axillary treatment is indicated. PMID:22204504

  12. BudBurst Buddies: A New Tool for Engaging the Youngest Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) introduces elementary school age children to the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a new part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies newly developed resources. BudBurst Buddies is a part of Project BudBurst, a national citizen science program coordinated by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanic Garden. Funding for this resource was provided by NEON, NSF, NASA, and the National Geographic Education Foundation.

  13. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  14. Tumescent suction curettage vs. curettage only for treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis evaluated by subjective and new objective methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstad, Christian; Helsing, Per; Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Grimnes, Sverre; Krogstad, Anne Lene

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the 2 minimally invasive surgical techniques for treating axillary hyperhidrosis: superficial tumescent suction curettage and curettage only. A total of 22 patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis received one type of treatment at each side, randomized. Examinations were performed pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months following treatment. Sweating was measured by gravimetry and a new skin conductance method. Subjective rating of sweating was assessed by a visual analogue scale. Skin conductance was recorded during a stress-test including acoustic, mental and physical stressors. Five patients withdrew or did not meet for any follow-up examination, giving 17 subjects in total for data analysis. Significant reduction in sweating after surgery lasting at least 12 months was found based on skin conductance, gravimetry and visual analogue scale scoring. Comparison between types of treatment revealed a significantly better effect of tumescent suction curettage than curettage only.

  15. The Terminal End Bud: the Little Engine that Could.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Ingrid S; Lewis, Michael T

    2017-02-06

    The mammary gland is one of the most regenerative organs in the body, with the majority of development occurring postnatally and in the adult mammal. Formation of the ductal tree is orchestrated by a specialized structure called the terminal end bud (TEB). The TEB is responsible for the production of mature cell types leading to the elongation of the subtending duct. The TEB is also the regulatory control point for basement membrane deposition, branching, angiogenesis, and pattern formation. While the hormonal control of TEB growth is well characterized, the local regulatory factors are less well understood. Recent studies of pubertal outgrowth and ductal elongation have yielded surprising details in regards to ongoing processes in the TEB. Here we summarize the current understanding of TEB biology, discuss areas of future study, and discuss the use of the TEB as a model for the study of breast cancer.

  16. Guillaume Budé, l’humaniste et le prince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Le Clech-Charton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grande figure de la Renaissance des lettres et des arts en France, tout à la fois écrivain, traducteur, ambassadeur, créateur du dépôt légal et fondateur du Collège de France, maître de la librairie du roi à Fontainebleau, Guillaume Budé (1468-1540 est essentiellement connu pour le rôle de conseiller politique et culturel qu’il joua auprès de François Ier, dont il fut le secrétaire. Il a été surtout étudié du point de vue de sa production littéraire savante, mais non sous l’angle de son mili...

  17. Dynamical Analysis of Protein Regulatory Network in Budding Yeast Nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-Ting; JIA Xun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recent progresses in the protein regulatory network of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided a global picture of its protein network for further dynamical research. We simplify and modularize the protein regulatory networks in yeast nucleus, and study the dynamical properties of the core 37-node network by a Boolean network model, especially the evolution steps and final fixed points. Our simulation results show that the number of fixed points N(k) for a given size of the attraction basin k obeys a power-law distribution N(k)∝k-2.024. The yeast network is more similar to a scale-free network than a random network in the above dynamical properties.

  18. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  19. Quantum dots in axillary lymph node mapping: Biodistribution study in healthy mice

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    Guillemin François

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cause of cancer death among women and its incidence doubled in the last two decades. Several approaches for the treatment of these cancers have been developed. The axillary lymph node dissection (ALND leads to numerous morbidity complications and is now advantageously replaced by the dissection and the biopsy of the sentinel lymph node. Although this approach has strong advantages, it has its own limitations which are manipulation of radioactive products and possible anaphylactic reactions to the dye. As recently proposed, these limitations could in principle be by-passed if semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs were used as fluorescent contrast agents for the in vivo imaging of SLN. QDs are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique optical properties like strong resistance to photobleaching, size dependent emission wavelength, large molar extinction coefficient, and good quantum yield. Methods CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs emitting around 655 nm were used in our studies. 20 μL of 1 μM (20 pmol QDs solution were injected subcutaneously in the anterior paw of healthy nude mice and the axillary lymph node (ALN was identified visually after injection of a blue dye. In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on ALN before the mice were sacrificed at 5, 15, 30, 60 min and 24 h after QDs injection. ALN and all other organs were removed, cryosectioned and observed in fluorescence microscopy. The organs were then chemically made soluble to extract QDs. Plasmatic, urinary and fecal fluorescence levels were measured. Results QDs were detected in ALN as soon as 5 min and up to 24 h after the injection. The maximum amount of QDs in the ALN was detected 60 min after the injection and corresponds to 2.42% of the injected dose. Most of the injected QDs remained at the injection site. No QDs were detected in other tissues, plasma, urine and feces. Conclusion Effective and rapid (few minutes detection of

  20. Infrared micro-spectral imaging: distinction of tissue types in axillary lymph node histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Nicholas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histopathologic evaluation of surgical specimens is a well established technique for disease identification, and has remained relatively unchanged since its clinical introduction. Although it is essential for clinical investigation, histopathologic identification of tissues remains a time consuming and subjective technique, with unsatisfactory levels of inter- and intra-observer discrepancy. A novel approach for histological recognition is to use Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR micro-spectroscopy. This non-destructive optical technique can provide a rapid measurement of sample biochemistry and identify variations that occur between healthy and diseased tissues. The advantage of this method is that it is objective and provides reproducible diagnosis, independent of fatigue, experience and inter-observer variability. Methods We report a method for analysing excised lymph nodes that is based on spectral pathology. In spectral pathology, an unstained (fixed or snap frozen tissue section is interrogated by a beam of infrared light that samples pixels of 25 μm × 25 μm in size. This beam is rastered over the sample, and up to 100,000 complete infrared spectra are acquired for a given tissue sample. These spectra are subsequently analysed by a diagnostic computer algorithm that is trained by correlating spectral and histopathological features. Results We illustrate the ability of infrared micro-spectral imaging, coupled with completely unsupervised methods of multivariate statistical analysis, to accurately reproduce the histological architecture of axillary lymph nodes. By correlating spectral and histopathological features, a diagnostic algorithm was trained that allowed both accurate and rapid classification of benign and malignant tissues composed within different lymph nodes. This approach was successfully applied to both deparaffinised and frozen tissues and indicates that both intra-operative and more conventional

  1. The formation of premuscle masses during chick wing bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C; Solursh, M

    1990-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of chick limb buds is derived from somitic cells that migrate into the somatopleure of the future limb regions. These cells become organized into the earliest muscle primordia, the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, prior to myogenic differentiation. Therefore, skeletal-muscle specific markers cannot be used to observe myogenic cells during the process of premuscle mass formation. In this study, an alternative marking method was used to determine the specific stages during which this process occurs. Quail somite strips were fluorescently labeled and implanted into chick hosts. Paraffin sections of the resulting chimeric wing buds were stained with the monoclonal antibody QH1 in order to identify graft-derived endothelium. Non-endothelial graft-derived cells present in the wing mesenchyme were assumed to be myogenic. At Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20, myogenic cells were distributed throughout the central region of the limb, including the future dorsal and ventral premuscle mass regions and the prechondrogenic core region. By stage 21, the myogenic cells were present at greater density in dorsal and ventral regions than in the core. By stage 23, nearly all myogenic cells were located in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses. Therefore, the two premuscle masses become established by stage 21 and premuscle mass formation is not complete until stage 23 or later. Premuscle mass formation occurs concurrently with early chondrogenic events, as observed with the marker peanut agglutinin. To facilitate the investigation of possible underlying mechanisms of premuscle mass formation, the micromass culture system was evaluated, to determine whether or not it can serve as an accurate in vitro model system. The initially randomly distributed myogenic cells were observed to segregate from prechondrogenic regions prior to myogenic differentiation. This is similar to myogenic patterning in vivo.

  2. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Michael B; Iversen, Edwin S; Hartemink, Alexander J

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or 'size control' appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1 Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growth and division has commonly been analysed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyse both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (i) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (ii) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and (iii) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modellers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.

  3. Proofreading market viability for Native English Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lamson, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Author or authors Cody Lamson Year of entry 2007 Title of report Proofreading market viability in for Native English Solutions Number of pages and appendices 47 Teacher(s) or supervisor(s) Mervi Riikonen The research was conducted in order to discover what needs to be done in order to succeed in the proofreading and editing market. If it is worth the time and money to enter the market, what should be done in order to be successful? The reseach was do...

  4. Breast MRI in clinically and mammographically occult breast cancer presenting with an axillary metastasis: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bresser, J; De Vos, B.; van der Ent, F.; Hulsewé, K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Axillary metastatic lymphadenopathy with no primary tumour identified in the breast on physical examination, mammography or ultrasound is referred to as occult breast cancer. The goal of this systematic review is to give an overview of the value and additional considerations of using breast MRI in occult breast cancer. Methods The databases of Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library were searched for studies addressing th...

  5. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  6. Horizontal right axillary minithoracotomy: aesthetic and effective option for atrial and ventricular septal defect repair in infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana da Fonseca da Silva; José Pedro da Silva; Turquetto,Aida L R; Sonia Meiken Franchi; Cascudo,Cybelle M; Rodrigo Moreira Castro; Walter José Gomes; Christian Schreiber

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Congenital heart defects treatment shows progressive reduction in morbidity and mortality, however, the scar, resulting from ventricular (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD) repair, may cause discomfort. Right axillary minithoracotomy approach, by avoiding the breast growth region, is an option for correction of these defects that may provide better aesthetic results at low cost. Since October 2011, we have been using this technique for repairing VSD and ASD defects as well as as...

  7. Correlation of primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with tumor suppressor gene p53 in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topić Brano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation of standard path morphological prognostic parameters, primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with new prognostic factor in breast carcinoma: tumor suppressor gene p53 was analyzed. The studied sample included 65 women who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma at the Surgical Clinic of Clinical Center Banja Luka, from January 1st 1997 till January 1st 1999. Statistical data analysis was performed and correlation of prognostic factors was determined. The majority of authors in this field agree that the primary tumor size and axillary nodal status are the two most important prognostic factors. These factors are the best predictors of prognosis and survival of women who had the tumor and were operated on. Tumor markers were immunohistochemically determined in the last ten years and, according to the majority of authors, are still considered the additional or relative prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Their prognostic value and significance increase almost daily. Most frequently determined tumor markers are bcl-2, pS2, Ki-67 and p53. There was a positive, directly proportional relationship between primary tumor size and tumor suppressor gene p53, but there was no positive correlation between the axillary nodal status and tumor suppressor gene p53. Significance of determination of new tumor markers as the prognostic factors was emphasized. These markers represent a powerful tool in the early detection and prevention of breast carcinoma.

  8. Using quantitative image analysis to classify axillary lymph nodes on breast MRI: A new application for the Z 0011 Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, David V., E-mail: dschacht@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Pak, Iris, E-mail: irisgpak@gmail.com; Abe, Hiroyuki, E-mail: habe@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L., E-mail: m-giger@uchicago.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis showed promise in evaluating axillary lymph nodes. •13 of 28 features performed better than guessing at metastatic status. •When all features were used in together, a considerably higher AUC was obtained. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the performance of computer extracted feature analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) of axillary lymph nodes. To determine which quantitative features best predict nodal metastasis. Methods: This institutional board-approved HIPAA compliant study, in which informed patient consent was waived, collected enhanced T1 images of the axilla from patients with breast cancer. Lesion segmentation and feature analysis were performed on 192 nodes using a laboratory-developed quantitative image analysis (QIA) workstation. The importance of 28 features were assessed. Classification used the features as input to a neural net classifier in a leave-one-case-out cross-validation and evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for features in the task of distinguishing between positive and negative nodes ranged from just over 0.50 to 0.70. Five features yielded AUCs greater than 0.65: two morphological and three textural features. In cross-validation, the neural net classifier obtained an AUC of 0.88 (SE 0.03) for the task of distinguishing between positive and negative nodes. Conclusion: QIA of DCE MRI demonstrated promising performance in discriminating between positive and negative axillary nodes.

  9. False-positive axillary lymph node on F-18 FDG PET/CT due to moxibustion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent total thyroidectomy and high-dose radioiodine ablation. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for recurrence detection of thyroid carcinoma was performed at 3 years after total thyroidectomy. Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy using moxa or the mugwort herb. Moxibustion is the burning of a small, thimble-sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves such as moxa or mugwort on the skin at an acupuncture point. Acupuncture and moxibustion induce hyperemia and a local inflammatory reaction. Complications associated with moxibustion such as skin bums or infection of the site have been reported previously. False-positive FDG uptake in PET may result from inflammation, infection, and variations in physiological uptake. In the present case, the hypermetabolic axillary lymph node disappeared without any treatment. Well-known of false-positive FDG uptake in axillary lymph noes such as arthritis of the upper extremity, extravasation of injected FDG, and vaccination were not found. Thus, left axillary lymph node uptake was

  10. Botulinum toxin type A and B improve quality of life in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Karolina; Hymnelius, Kristina; Swartling, Carl

    2013-05-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common disorder that may have a severe impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of two novel botulinum toxins, Xeomin®, a type A botulinum toxin, and Neuro-bloc®, a type B botulinum toxin, in the treatment of axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis. A total of 84 patients, 58 with axillary and 26 with palmar hyperhidrosis, were included in this open study. Axillae were injected with 107 ± 22 U Xeomin® and palms were injected with 213 ± 19 U Xeomin® and 264 ± 60 U Neurobloc® over the thenar eminences to avoid muscle weakness. At follow-up 3 weeks post-treatment, all patients treated for axillary hyperhidrosis reported satisfaction in self-ranking, evaporation decreased > 40%, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score improved from 12.0 to 1.7 (p 50% and DLQI score improved from 10.3 to 1.2 (p hyperhidrosis and in combination with Neurobloc® on palmar hyperhidrosis. Neurobloc® may be an option for use in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis in order to minimize muscular side-effects.

  11. Radical Surgical Excision and Use of Lateral Thoracic Flap for Intractable Axillary Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lin Teo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS include prolonged courses of antibiotics,retinoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Severe cases that are resistant to prolongedmedical treatment pose a therapeutic challenge. We propose radical excision and lateral thoracicflap reconstruction as a treatment option for such cases. In our experience with two patients,good aesthetic and functional outcomes were achieved, with a high level of patient satisfaction.The availability of suitable flap coverage allows for wide resection of all of the hair-bearing skin,leading to a low incidence of residual disease and subsequent recurrence. Following excisionof the affected tissue, the ideal reconstructive method in the axilla provides suitable coveragewithout unacceptable donor site morbidity and also avoids axillary contractures. A long lateralthoracic flap with delay has excellent coverage with minimal donor tissue sacrifice. With asuitable flap coverage option, the management paradigm of intractable HS should shift fromprolonged medical treatment to allow decisive radical excision, which will improve the qualityof life for patients.

  12. Correlation between bacterial population and axillary and plantar bromidrosis: study of 30 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, G; Zampetti, A; Aballain-Colloc, M L

    2000-01-01

    Although studies on the chemistry of odors are expanding to identify the chemical structures of odorous substances, there are no universal standards as yet to measure odor and intensity of bromidrosis. Clinical evaluation can be made on a subjective scoring from 0 to 3 prior to prescription of an antiseptic soap. In order to appreciate the correlation between the intensity of bromidrosis (BI) and bacterial activity, a study was carried out with both clinical and bacterial assessment in thirty patients with axillary or plantar BI. Odor intensity was evaluated by two physicians using a score from 0 to 3 (i.e. absent, minor, moderate, major), meanwhile bacterial composition and density were assessed before and after 10 days of hygiene using an antiseptic detergent (trichlocarbanilide) provided on the first visit. Baseline count of diphtheroids/cm2 was 35.104 and baseline micrococci average was 32.104/cm2. At the end of the study, the reduction of odor intensity was observed in 20 patients (67%) without any change in sweat production. The clinical improvement correlated with a reduction of both micrococci (70%) or diphtheroids (73%) as compared with initial data. In patients presenting persistant bromidrosis, the bacterial count/cm2 did not significantly decrease and remained above 104 diphtheroids/cm2. Thus, this study suggests that body odor may be at least indirectly correlated to microbia counts with a bacteria threshold of BI ranging around and above 104.

  13. Elbow moment and forces at the hands during swing-through axillary crutch gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, M; Burdett, R G; Simon, S R; Norkin, C

    1985-05-01

    We investigated swing-through axillary crutch gait (nonweight bearing on the left lower extremity) to determine the effects of gait speed, crutch length, and handle position on the forces exerted at the hands and on the moments exerted about the elbow joints. Ten healthy subjects, skilled in swing-through crutch gait, walked at three speeds using fitted crutches, at a fixed speed with four different crutch lengths, and at a fixed speed with four different handle positions. We collected ground reaction forces that exerted simultaneously on the right crutch and motion data with a force plate and three high-speed movie cameras. A biomechanical model was developed to calculate the forces exerted at the right hand and the moments exerted about the right elbow joint. Changing gait speed from slow to the normal gait of the subject showed statistically significant effects (p less than .05) on the forces at the hand. When we changed crutch heights for the subjects, we found no significant effects on the forces at the subjects' hands. Changing handle position significantly affected the moment at the elbow. Increasing the elbow-flexion angle above 30 degrees by raising the crutch handle 1 to 2 in resulted in a 100 percent increase in elbow-extension moment. We found a correlation of .82 between actual average elbow-flexion angle and elbow-extension moment. Changing gait speed or crutch length did not affect elbow moment.

  14. Acute Truncal Lymphedema Secondary to Axillary Metastatic Melanoma Presenting Like Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Benjamin Y.; Chou, Shaun; Wakade, Deepal; Carlino, Matteo S.; Fernandez-Penas, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    There are reported cases of diphencyprone used in treating cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Here, we report a patient with previous primary melanoma on his left back treated with surgical excision and lymphadenectomy, followed by radiotherapy for the recurrent tumor on the primary site. Despite radiotherapy and treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib, in-transit metastases have developed and topical diphencyprone was applied to these metastases. Six weeks later, the patient developed fever and a spreading erythematous tender indurated plaque covering the left side of the body including axillae, back, and flank, clinically suggestive of cellulitis. Systemic antibiotic therapy did not improve the condition and a biopsy showed sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. With the diagnosis of possible acute lymphedema, a CT scan was requested that showed significant axillary lymph node metastasis. The fever was considered secondary to dabrafenib and trametinib therapy. This case highlights that, in patients with lymphadenectomy, atypical forms of lymphedema on the body may appear. Truncal lymphedema is an infrequent event. PMID:28182109

  15. Axillary Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma with Ipsilateral Pectoral Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC with triple negative (ER−/PR−/Her2− phenotype, concurrent with multifocal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of ipsilateral pectoral breast (ER+/PR+/Her2− in a 60-year-old woman. The two tumors demonstrate different morphology, immunophenotype, and opposite response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxol, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide. Methylation analysis of human androgen receptor (HUMARA on X-chromosome identified monoclonal pattern of X-chromosome inactivation in MBC and mosaic pattern in the IDC. Stem cell origin of MBC is suggested in this case. Clinicopathological features, imaging findings, biological markers, chemoradiation management, and prognosis of MBC are reviewed in comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our case and literature review suggest that traditional chemotherapy applicable to IDC is less effective towards MBC. However, new chemotherapy protocols targeting stem cell and multimodality management of MBC are promising. Recognition of unusual presentation of MBC will help tailor therapy towards tumor with worse prognosis.

  16. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  17. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Keying; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Xiao; Pang, Zhaofei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Du, Jiajun; Shen, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS) was statistically analyzed. Results Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145) of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186) and 16.9% (50) of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, Ptumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (PTumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis.

  18. Sugars are under light control during bud burst in Rosa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Tiffanie; Abidi, Farouk; Sigogne, Monique; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Boumaza, Rachid; Sakr, Soulaiman; Leduc, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    Bud burst in certain species is conditioned by the luminous environment. With roses, the requirement for light is absolute, and darkness totally inhibits bud burst. Few studies have looked into understanding the action of light on the physiological bud burst processes. Here, we show the impact of light on certain components of glucidic metabolism during bud burst. Measurements were taken on decapitated plants of Rosa hybrida L. 'Radrazz' exposed either to darkness, white, blue or R light. Results show that a mobilization of bud and the carrying stem sucrose reserves only takes place in light and accompanies the bud burst. Furthermore, the activity of the RhVI vacuolar acid invertase which contributes to the breakdown of sucrose in the buds, as well as the transcription of the RhVI gene, is reduced in darkness, although it is strongly stimulated by light. The same analysis concerning the RhNAD-SDH gene, coding an NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, shows, on the contrary, a strong induction of its transcription in darkness that could reflect the use of survival mechanisms in this condition.

  19. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Kristin; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC.

  20. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Boggs

    Full Text Available Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC. Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5 and young postnatal (P1-10 mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1 P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2 Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3 Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC.

  1. Limb patterning genes and heterochronic development of the emu wing bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forelimb of the flightless emu is a vestigial structure, with greatly reduced wing elements and digit loss. To explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the evolution of vestigial wings and loss of flight in the emu, key limb patterning genes were examined in developing embryos. Methods Limb development was compared in emu versus chicken embryos. Immunostaining for cell proliferation markers was used to analyze growth of the emu forelimb and hindlimb buds. Expression patterns of limb patterning genes were studied, using whole-mount in situ hybridization (for mRNA localization and RNA-seq (for mRNA expression levels. Results The forelimb of the emu embryo showed heterochronic development compared to that in the chicken, with the forelimb bud being retarded in its development. Early outgrowth of the emu forelimb bud is characterized by a lower level of cell proliferation compared the hindlimb bud, as assessed by PH3 immunostaining. In contrast, there were no obvious differences in apoptosis in forelimb versus hindlimb buds (cleaved caspase 3 staining. Most key patterning genes were expressed in emu forelimb buds similarly to that observed in the chicken, but with smaller expression domains. However, expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh mRNA, which is central to anterior–posterior axis development, was delayed in the emu forelimb bud relative to other patterning genes. Regulators of Shh expression, Gli3 and HoxD13, also showed altered expression levels in the emu forelimb bud. Conclusions These data reveal heterochronic but otherwise normal expression of most patterning genes in the emu vestigial forelimb. Delayed Shh expression may be related to the small and vestigial structure of the emu forelimb bud. However, the genetic mechanism driving retarded emu wing development is likely to rest within the forelimb field of the lateral plate mesoderm, predating the expression of patterning genes.

  2. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807... Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of biological material that is capable of... term of deposit. Viability may be tested by the depository. The test must conclude only that...

  3. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbrini Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5, the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5, the duration of bud formation (subproc1 and bud maturation (subproc2 eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs. These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set

  4. [Nicotinamide influence on pancreatic cells viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchmerovs'ka, T M; Donchenko, H V; Tykhonenko, T M; Huzyk, M M; Stavniĭchuk, R V; Ianits'ka, L V; Stepanenko, S P; Klymenko, A P

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the modulating effect of nicotinamide (NAm) in different concentrations and under different glucose concentrations on the viability and oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 5 mmol/l) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 micromol/l) on isolated rat pancreatic cells of the Langerhans islets in vitro. Cell viability did not depend on the concentration of glucose in the range of 5-20 mmol/l, and in subsequent studies we used glucose in concentration of 10 mmol/l to protect cells against its hypo- and hyperglycemic action. Cytoprotective effect of NAm in concentrations from 5 to 20 mmol/l on cells survival was the same. It was found that the destructive action of STZ and H2O2 during 24 hours on isolated cells of the pancreas resulted in the significant cell death. It was revealed that NAm in concentration of 5 mmol/l not only had cytoprotective effects against STZ and H2O2 but also partially reduced the level of oxidative stress in the investigated cells induced by these compounds. High concentration of NAm, 35 mmol/l, causes cytotoxic effect on the viability of pancreatic islet cells and increase of oxidative stress induced by STZ and H2O2. Most likely these effects could be associated with direct modulatory action of NAm on important effector mechanisms involved in cell death, including PARP-dependent processes, or/and indirectly, through metabolic and antioxidant effects of the compound.

  5. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  6. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  7. Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (ΔΨm) sensing probe.

  8. Bud development, flowering and fruit set of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish Tree as affected by various irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintin Ernst Muhl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is becoming increasingly popular as an industrial crop due to its multitude of useful attributes as water purifier, nutritional supplement and biofuel feedstock. Given its tolerance to sub-optimal growing conditions, most of the current and anticipated cultivation areas are in medium to low rainfall areas. This study aimed to assess the effect of various irrigation levels on floral initiation, flowering and fruit set. Three treatments namely, a 900 mm (900IT, 600 mm (600IT and 300 mm (300IT per annum irrigation treatment were administered through drip irrigation, simulating three total annual rainfall amounts. Individual inflorescences from each treatment were tagged during floral initiation and monitored throughout until fruit set. Flower bud initiation was highest at the 300IT and lowest at the 900IT for two consecutive growing seasons. Fruit set on the other hand, decreased with the decrease in irrigation treatment. Floral abortion, reduced pollen viability as well as moisture stress in the style were contributing factors to the reduction in fruiting/yield observed at the 300IT. Moderate water stress prior to floral initiation could stimulate flower initiation, however, this should be followed by sufficient irrigation to ensure good pollination, fruit set and yield.

  9. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  10. Impact of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node identification rate in patients with early stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelosi, Ettore [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, S.C.D.U. Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy); Universita Torino, Dottorato di Ricerca Radioimmunolocalizzazione dei Tumori Umani, Turin (Italy); Ala, Ada; Bussone, Riccardo [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, Reparto di Chirurgia Oncologica 10, Turin (Italy); Bello, Marilena; Douroukas, Anastasios; Varetto, Teresio [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, S.C.D.U. Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy); Migliaretti, Giuseppe [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Microbiologia, Turin (Italy); Berardengo, Ester [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, Servizio di Anatomia Patologica 4, Turin (Italy); Bisi, Gianni [Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, S.C.D.U. Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, SCDU Medicina Nucleare 2, Turin (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the impact of the presence of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate in patients with early breast cancer. Two hundred and forty-six lymphatic mapping procedures were performed with both labelled nanocolloid and blue dye, followed by SLN biopsy and/or complete axillary dissection. The following parameters were recorded: patient's age, tumour laterality and location, tumour size, tumour histology, tumour stage, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, radiotracer injection site (subdermal-peritumoural/peri-areolar), SLN visualisation at lymphoscintigraphy, SLN metastases (presence/absence, size) and other axillary metastases (presence/absence, number). Discriminant analysis was used to analyse the data. SLNs were identified by labelled nanocolloid alone in 94.7% of tumours, by blue dye alone in 93.5% and by the combined technique in 99.2%. Discriminant analysis showed the gamma probe SLN identification rate to be significantly limited by the presence of axillary nodal metastases. In particular, the size of SLN metastases and the number of other axillary metastases were the most important variables in reducing the gamma probe SLN identification rate (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). On the other hand, high tumour grade was the only parameter limiting the blue dye SLN identification rate. The accuracy of lymphatic mapping with labelled nanocolloid is limited by the presence of axillary nodal metastases, and particularly by the degree of SLN tumoural invasion and the presence and number of other axillary nodal metastases. Neither of these elements seems to interfere with the blue dye identification rate. The combination of the two tracers maximises the SLN identification rate. (orig.)

  11. Nicotine Concentration in Leaves of Flue-cured Tobacco Plants as Affected by Removal of the Shoot Apex and Lateral Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Sheng Wang; Qiu-Mei Shi; Wen-Qing Li; Jun-Fang Niu; Chun-Jian Li; Fu-Suo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the nicotine concentration in tobacco is closely correlated with the amount of nitrogen (N) supplied.On the other hand,N uptake mainly occurs at the early growth stage,whereas nicotine concentration increases at the late growth stage,especially after removing the shoot apex.To identify the causes of the increased nicotine concentration in tobacco plants,and to compare the effects of different ways of mechanical wounding on nicotine concentration,field experiments were carried out in Fuzhou,Fujian Province in 2003 and 2004.Excision of the shoot apex had almost no influence on N content in the plant;however,it caused dramatic increases in nicotine concentration in leaves,especially in the middle and upper leaves.An additional increase of the nicotine concentration was obtained by removal of axillary buds.The wounding caused by routine leaf harvests,however,did not change the leaf nicotine concentration,and neither did reducing leaf harvest times.The present results revealed no direct relationship between N supply and nicotine concentration in tobacco leaves,and indicate that not all kinds of mechanical wounding were capable of stimulating nicotine synthesis in tobacco plants.Since nicotine production is highly dependent on the removal of apical meristems and hence on the major sources of auxin in the plant,and application of 1-naphthylacetic acid onto the cut surface of the stem after removing the shoot apex markedly decreased the nicotine concentration in different leaves and the total nicotine content in the plant,the results suggest that decreased auxin supply caused by removal of the shoot apex as a kind of mechanical wounding might regulate nicotine synthesis in the roots of tobacco plants.

  12. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  13. Timing robustness in the budding and fission yeast cell cycles.

    KAUST Repository

    Mangla, Karan

    2010-02-01

    Robustness of biological models has emerged as an important principle in systems biology. Many past analyses of Boolean models update all pending changes in signals simultaneously (i.e., synchronously), making it impossible to consider robustness to variations in timing that result from noise and different environmental conditions. We checked previously published mathematical models of the cell cycles of budding and fission yeast for robustness to timing variations by constructing Boolean models and analyzing them using model-checking software for the property of speed independence. Surprisingly, the models are nearly, but not totally, speed-independent. In some cases, examination of timing problems discovered in the analysis exposes apparent inaccuracies in the model. Biologically justified revisions to the model eliminate the timing problems. Furthermore, in silico random mutations in the regulatory interactions of a speed-independent Boolean model are shown to be unlikely to preserve speed independence, even in models that are otherwise functional, providing evidence for selection pressure to maintain timing robustness. Multiple cell cycle models exhibit strong robustness to timing variation, apparently due to evolutionary pressure. Thus, timing robustness can be a basis for generating testable hypotheses and can focus attention on aspects of a model that may need refinement.

  14. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  15. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  16. Axillary block duration and related hemodynamic changes: high versus low dose Adrenaline addition to Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariat Moharari R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Axillary block is used for inducing anesthesia in outpatient hand and forearm surgeries. Few researches have studied hemodynamic and blockade effects of low doses of Epinephrine. The aim of the present study was to compare the duration of analgesia and hemodynamic changes following the injection of high/low epinephrine doses in such surgeries. "nMethods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on healthy individuals (ASA I-II who were candidates for hand and forearm surgeries. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first two groups were allocated to receive lidocaine with low (0.6µg/cc and high (5µg/cc doses of epinephrine whereas lidocaine plus normal saline was injected in the third group. The hemodynamic changes (Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate and the occurance of any side-effects along with the duration of analgesia and motor block were recorded. "nResults: From among the total of 75 patients, 15 cases were excluded due to incomplete blockade or failure needing general anesthesia. The duration of analgesia and the motor block were longer in the high dose epinephrine group, the difference, however, was not statistically significant. Heart rate changes within the groups was significant in the 4th-7th and 10th minutes. Mean arterial blood pressure changes was only significant in the 4th minute, within the groups. "nConclusions: Administering low doses of epinephrine plus lidocaine as a local anesthetic not only provides acceptable analgesia compared to higher doses of the medication, but also is associated with fewer side effects.

  17. Efficient Axillary Shoot Proliferation and in Vitro Rooting of Apple cv. ‘Topaz’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snjezana KERESA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Topaz’ is a modern Czech apple cultivar well accepted by consumers and scab-resistant, providing reasons for the significant spreadof cv. ‘Topaz’ in European orchards, especially in the organic fruit production industry. Growing the apple trees on their own rootsprovides some advantages in comparison with grafted trees. Micropropagation is the method of choice for plantlet production for thispurpose as well as for the establishment of healthy mother stock trees as a source of scions. The efficiency of axillary shoot proliferationwas examined on four media differing in plant growth regulators and their concentrations, and from three explant types: intact ordecapitated and defoliated microshoots placed vertically and one-nodal segments placed horizontally. All media consisted of Quoirin andLepoivre (QL macroelements and Murashige and Skoog (MS microelements. Furthermore, rooting efficiency on six different media/treatments was analyzed. Media with 1 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA or BA (0.5 mg/L + 1.5 mg/L kinetin (Kin produced similarnumber of microshoots per inoculated one (2.5 and 2.4, respectively. Medium with 1 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ produced significantlyhigher number of shoots (3.6 but they were fasciated. Three different explant types also produced similar numbers of microshoots.High rooting efficiency (68.7%, a high number of roots per shoot (6.6 and the best quality of shoots were obtained in rooting mediumcontaining 2 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. An efficient method of shoot proliferation was established, and, since rooting was themost critical step, an efficient procedure for rooting apple cv. ‘Topaz’ was established.

  18. Ki-67 expression in axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer is prognostically significant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem; Kimler, Bruce F; Davis, Marilyn K; Fan, Fang; Tawfik, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have documented the prognostic significance of cell proliferation in breast cancer and its positive relationship with tumor grade, size, mitotic activity, hormonal and Her-2 status, and tumor progression. The Ki-67 antigen provides an accurate measure of the growth fraction of a tumor. Ki-67 expression in 103 primary breast carcinomas and their corresponding axillary lymph node metastases was correlated with age, tumor grade, size, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Bcl-2, Her-2 status, and patients' overall survival. Median Ki-67 expression in primary and metastatic tumors was 20% and 15%, respectively. Although there was no difference in overall survival (P = .65, log-rank test) between primary tumors with less than or at least 10% Ki-67 expression, there was significantly better overall survival when Ki-67 expression in lymph nodes was less than 10% (P = .040). For patients whose primary tumors exhibited Ki-67 expression less than 10%, most of their metastatic lesions had a similar low Ki-67; these patients had a favorable outcome. A small subgroup was noted to have a nodal Ki-67 of 10% or more and worse survival (P = .047). For patients whose primary tumors had a Ki-67 of 10% or more, most of their metastatic lesions had similar high Ki-67 values; however, a group of 12 patients had lymph node Ki-67 less than 10% and had a better overall survival (P = .092). Our results showed that measurement of Ki-67 in lymph node is superior to its evaluation in primary tumors. Identification of subgroups of patients in whom Ki-67 expression in lymph nodes differs from expression in primary tumor may assist in the selection of therapeutic options.

  19. Novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate histone protein levels in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3

  20. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from “local epithelium”, in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, ...

  1. Functional expression of ionotropic purinergic receptors on mouse taste bud cells

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors on taste bud cells (TBCs) and taste nerve fibres are likely to contribute to taste transduction by mediating the interaction among TBCs and that between TBCs and taste nerve fibres. We investigated the functional expression of P2 receptor subtypes on TBCs of mouse fungiform papillae. Electrophysiological studies showed that 100 [mu m ATP applied to their basolateral membranes either depolarized or hyperpolarized a few cells per taste bud. Ca2+ imaging showed that si...

  2. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Żołna; Barbara Kierpiec-Baran; Maria Kowalik

    2013-01-01

    The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.) inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The materi...

  3. Expression and significance of NKCC1 in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis%NKCC1在手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者腋窝汗腺中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈幼平; 涂远荣; 陈剑锋; 邱明链; 李旭; 林敏; 赵冬峰; 罗荣刚

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者(腋窝多汗组)、手汗症无腋窝多汗患者(单纯型手汗症组)及非手汗症患者(对照组)的腋窝汗腺数目及Na+K+Cl-联合转运子1(NKCC1)的表达,探讨其与手汗症发病的关系.方法 27例腋窝多汗组,11例单纯型手汗症组,8例对照组,取各组患者腋窝皮肤作常规苏木素.伊红(HE)染色,计数汗腺数目,并检测NKCC1在3组患者腋窝皮肤汗腺中的表达和分布.结果 3组汗腺计数差异均无统计学意义(HC=2.528,P>0.05).腋窝多汗组与单纯型手汗症组、对照组NKCC1的吸光度差异有统计学意义(F=5.158,P0.05).结论 伴有腋窝多汗的手汗症患者腋汗增多与NKCC1蛋白表达增强有关,而与腋窝汗腺数目无关.%Objective To examine the number of axillary sweat glands and the expression of Na+ K+ Cl+ cotransporter isoform1(NKCC1) in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis, palmar hyperhidrosis patients and non-hyperhidrosis patients, to investigate its relationship with the pathogenesis of palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods Axillary glands were gained in 27 cases of palmar hyperhidrosis with axillary hyperhidrosis, 11 cases of palmar hyperhidrosis and 8 cases of non-hyperhidrosis as control group. The number of axillary sweat glands was calculated by using HE staining and the expression of NKCC1 was detected respectively. Results The number of axillary sweat glands in three groups had no significant difference in statistics (HC=2.528 ,P>0.05). There was significant difference in the expression of NKCC1 between palamar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis and palmar hyperhidrosis patients (F=5.158,P0.05). Conclusion The increase of NKCC1 expression has the relationship with axillary hyperhidrosis of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis, but has no relationship with the number of axillary sweat glands.

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Axillary Osmidrosis Using a Combination of Subcutaneous Tissue Removal and a 1,444-nm Nd:YAG Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Geun; Ryu, Hwa Jung; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Many treatment modalities have been developed for axillary osmidrosis. It is well known that the surgical treatment has the best results. However, there is a high possibility of side effects. The 1,444-nm lipolysis laser has been recently introduced to remove the apocrine glands. So far, subdermal coagulation treatment with a 1,444-nm Nd:YAG laser may be the least invasive and most effective therapy for axillary osmidrosis. However, according to our previous experience, the recurrence rate was 20%~30%. This emphasizes the need for combination of surgical method and non-surgical method and we combined subcutaneous tissue removal and photothermocoagulation with a 1,444-nm Nd:YAG laser. Three patients for bilateral axillary osmidrosis were enrolled. After an incision of about one-third the length of the widest transverse diameter, the apocrine glands were separated from the skin. And then apocrine glands within the marked area were destroyed by irradiation with a 1,444-nm Nd:YAG laser thereafter. All patients exhibited no relapse of axillary osmidrosis and were satisfied with the treatment results. A combination of subcutaneous tissue removal and Interstitial laser photothermocoagulation with a 1,444-nm Nd:YAG laser could be an effective treatment for mild to moderate axillary osmidrosis.

  5. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number.

  6. Expression and function of myc during asexual reproduction of the budding ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Isozaki, Takaomi; Mori, Kyoko; Kawamura, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    The budding ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis proliferates asexually by budding. The atrial epithelium is a multipotent but differentiated tissue, which transdifferentiates into various tissues and organs after the bud separates from the parental body. We isolated cDNA clones homologous to the myc proto-oncogene from P. misakiensis. The cDNA, named Pm-myc, encoded a polypeptide of 639 amino acid residues, containing Myc-specific functional motifs, Myc box I and Myc box II, and the basic helix-loop-helix domain. Expression of Pm-myc was observed in the atrial epithelium in the organ-forming region of the developing bud, where the epithelial cells dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle. The expression was also observed in fibroblast-like cells, which are known to participate in the organogenesis together with the epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, the atrial epithelium expressed Pm-myc more than one day before the dedifferentiation. The organogenesis was disturbed by Pm-myc-specific double-stranded RNA. In situ hybridization revealed that Pm-myc-positive fibroblast-like cells disappeared around the organ primordium of the dsRNA-treated bud. The results suggest that the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of fibroblast-like cells is important for the organogenesis in this budding ascidian species.

  7. Association of Dermatological Conditions of External Ear with the Use of Cotton Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The habit of cleaning the external auditory canal with cotton buds is a common practice of the masses. It has strong association with neurodermatitis and contact dermatitis of the external ear. It is also associated with acute otitis externa, rupture of tympanic membrane causing bleeding and temporary hearing loss in some cases. In many cases the injury will heal but damage to minuscule bones deep inside the ear can cause permanent deafness. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dermatological condition of external ear with the use of cotton buds. Materials and Methods: This case control study was done from January to October 2012 in the Ear Nose Throat Department of Pakistan Level III Hospital, Darfur, Sudan. Sixty seven patients with dermatological diseases of external ear were cases and 83 subjects without dermatological diseases of external ear were selected as controls. Results: Among 67 cases, 58 were cotton bud users and among 83 controls only 29 were cotton bud users. Different types of dermatological diseases were neurodermatitis (34.32%, otitis externa (28.36%, contact dermatitis (26.87% and wax impaction (8.95%. Ninety three percent of cotton bud users were ignorant of harmful effects of this bad habit. Conclusion: There is a strong association of dermatological diseases of external ear with the use of cotton bud which should be discouraged by fortifying the warning by manufacturers and health education at various educational levels.

  8. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  9. Local administration of liposomal adriamycin inhibited proliferation of metastatic cells in axillary lymph nodes in rabbit breast cancer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaojun; Qin Hong; Yao Jia; Wang Jiansheng; Xian Yinsheng; Zhang Yunfeng; Ren Hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the inhibitory effects of liposomal adriamycin (LADR) locally injected into mammary glands of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits on proliferation of lymph nodal metastatic cells. Methods: Twenty-one VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups. Rabbits were randomized to receive sham treatment (Group I), subcutaneous LADR around tumor (Group II) and intravenous free adriamycin (Group III), respectively. Breast tumor and axillary lymph nodes were harvested after 3 repeated treatment. Nodal sizes of both pre- and post-treatment were measured. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA in both tumor and lymph nodes were determined by RT-PCR. Results: The mean size of axillary lymph nodes in Group I, II and III increased by 3.70%, 1.55% and 2.89%, respectively, with significant difference between Group III and I (P=0.004) and between Group II and III (P=0.002). Relative expression values of PCNA mRNA in breast tumors of Group I, II and III were 0.486, 0.513 and 0.396, respectively. For Group III, PCNA mRNA was significantly less expressed than that in Group I (P=0.023) and II (P=0.005). Relative expression values of PCNA mRNA in axillary lymph nodes of Group I, II and III were 0.541, 0.329 and 0.450, respectively. Compared with Group I, Group III showed a markedly decreased expression of PCNA (P=0.021). The least level of PCNA mRNA was found in Group II, with a significant difference from that in Group HI (P=0.004). Conclusion: Local injection of LADR was an effective therapeutic regimen for lymphatic metastases from breast cancer, regardless of its little effect on primary tumor.

  10. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  11. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.

  12. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation.

  13. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-03-27

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  14. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  15. Impella 5.0 Support in INTERMACS II Cardiogenic Shock Patients Using Right and Left Axillary Artery Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibilsky, David; Lausberg, Henning; Haller, Christoph; Lenglinger, Matthias; Woernle, Barbara; Haeberle, Helene; Rosenberger, Peter; Walker, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The catheter-based Impella 5.0 left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a powerful and less invasive alternative for patients in cardiogenic shock. The use of this device as a primary mechanical circulatory support strategy in INTERMACS II patients should be evaluated. From April 2014 to August 2014, eight Impella 5.0 devices were implanted in seven patients via the axillary artery access (six right and two left). We analyzed the outcome of the four patients in whom the Impella 5.0 device was implanted for the purpose of primary stabilization of cardiogenic shock (INTERMACS II). The remaining three patients had a contraindication for a permanent LVAD and received the device for prolonged weaning from extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The implantation of the Impella 5.0 was technically successful in all patients and resulted in the stabilization of the clinical situation. All four patients could be bridged to a long-term device (n = 3) or to cardiac recovery (n = 1). In one patient, 2 days of ECLS support was necessary because of pump thrombosis after 31 days of Impella 5.0 support. One patient with bronchopneumonia had the Impella 5.0 exchanged from the right to the left axillary artery after 22 days of support because of the progressive loss of purge flow and the need for longer bridging to a permanent LVAD. The last patient was supported for giant-cell myocarditis for 22 days and bridged to cardiac recovery. All patients were transferred to the intensive care unit with the Impella device in place. In INTERMACS II situations, the implantation of the Impella 5.0 via the right or left axillary access allowed additional time for decision making. Early patient mobilization, including walking with the Impella device in place, optimized the conditions for either weaning or the implantation of a permanent LVAD. This novel technique of left axillary approach leads to more flexibility in the case of anatomical- or device-related contraindications to right

  16. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  17. Artificial Evolution by Viability Rather than Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

  18. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Charvin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop, rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation.

  19. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  20. Stn1 is critical for telomere maintenance and long-term viability of somatic human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Virginia; Razdan, Neetu; Kaplunov, Jessica; Mundra, Jyoti J; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Herbig, Utz

    2015-06-01

    Disruption of telomere maintenance pathways leads to accelerated entry into cellular senescence, a stable proliferative arrest that promotes aging-associated disorders in some mammals. The budding yeast CST complex, comprising Cdc13, Stn1, and Ctc1, is critical for telomere replication, length regulation, and end protection. Although mammalian homologues of CST have been identified recently, their role and function for telomere maintenance in normal somatic human cells are still incompletely understood. Here, we characterize the function of human Stn1 in cultured human fibroblasts and demonstrate its critical role in telomere replication, length regulation, and function. In the absence of high telomerase activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of hStn1 resulted in aberrant and fragile telomeric structures, stochastic telomere attrition, increased telomere erosion rates, telomere dysfunction, and consequently accelerated entry into cellular senescence. Oxidative stress augmented the defects caused by Stn1 knockdown leading to almost immediate cessation of cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of hTERT suppressed some of the defects caused by hStn1 knockdown suggesting that telomerase can partially compensate for hStn1 loss. Our findings reveal a critical role for human Stn1 in telomere length maintenance and function, supporting the model that efficient replication of telomeric repeats is critical for long-term viability of normal somatic mammalian cells.

  1. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  2. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  3. 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality ...scores Data detail Data name 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores De...from the budding yeast full-length cDNA library by the vector-capping method, the sequence quality score gen...s accession only. Sequence 5'-end sequence data of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones. FASTA format. Quality Phred's quality... Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality

  4. 油菜扩繁中茎段长度对腋芽生长发育的影响%Effect of Lengths of Stem Segments on Growth and Development of Axillary Buds in Asexual Reproduction in B. napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彦涛

    2001-01-01

    以甘蓝型油菜97TZ192的单株无性系试管苗为材料,探讨了油菜茎段培养中腋芽生理学下端茎切段长度对腋芽生长发育的影响.结果表明,培养24 h后,有80.7%的茎段从叶腋露出幼小生长点;5 d后已有93.2%茎段出芽.但培养过程中,随着茎切段长度的减小,幼芽生长发育明显减慢,正常率和成活率降低.培养30 d后统计,幼苗平均苗高和生根率降低,平均每株幼苗的根数、根长以及叶片数也出现减少的趋势,其中茎段长度以1 mm≤x<4mm的变化较明显.因此认为,茎切段培养中叶腋生理学下端茎切段长度至少应大于4~6 mm.

  5. Report of the Preliminary Inhibiting Effect of a New Type Biological Inhibitor of Tobacco Axillary Bud%新型生物抑芽剂在烟草上的抑芽效果初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德喜; 吴建宇

    2000-01-01

    报道由云南省植物重点病理重点实验室通过Botrytis cinerea次生代谢产物研制的烟草腋芽新型生物抑芽剂在田间抑芽试验效果的初步结果:烟株封顶后施用1次此抑芽剂即可有效控制腋芽的生长,施用后50 d抑芽率高达99%.

  6. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...... a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... may itself kill sperm, which is likely to confound many common experimental designs in addition to producing artificially low estimates of sperm viability. I further suggest that sperm number should be routinely measured in sperm viability studies, as it may be an important but overlooked source...

  7. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Labinaz, G

    2012-01-01

    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  8. Study of Axillary Reverse Mapping and Lymph Node Metastasis during an Axillary Dissection%乳腺癌腋窝清扫术中上肢淋巴结定位及转移规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾实; 李建一; 张文海; 张扬; 费翔

    2012-01-01

    目的 在乳腺癌腋窝清扫术中利用上肢淋巴结反转定位(ARM)技术对引流上肢的淋巴管及淋巴结进行定位,分析其转移可能性及对上肢淋巴水肿的影响.方法 选取乳腺癌改良根治术20例.美兰法进行术前定位.术中行淋巴结清扫,蓝染淋巴结单独分组,行免疫组化方法病理检测.结果 在20例患者中术中发现16例患者存在蓝染淋巴管及淋巴结,4例未发现蓝染的淋巴管或淋巴结.术中发现蓝染的上肢淋巴结均位于腋静脉下方,肋间臂神经上方这一区域内;在施行上肢淋巴结清除的患者中,术后短期内上肢水肿的发生率高于表进行上肢淋巴结清扫的患者;上肢淋巴结可能出现转移.结论 利用美兰法能够对腋窝处的上肢淋巴结进行定位;上肢淋巴结在腋窝的位置相对固定;肿瘤如仅在Level 1水平淋巴结发生转移,上肢淋巴结可能不会受累.%Objective In breast cancer axillary lymph node dissection,reverse positioning aim (ARM) technology is used for the upper limb lymphatic drainage and lymph nodes, This paper aimed to analyze the possibility of transfer and its impact on upper extremity lym-phedema. Methods Twenty patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy were chosen whose axillary lymph nodes could be palpable or be found by breast ultrasound and enhanced CT examinations. All the patients did not receive preopeian've neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. Methylene blue method was employed for preoperan've localization. During operation,lymph node dissection was performed. Blue-stained lymph nodes weie grouped and examined using the immunohistoeheimeal method. Results (X the 20 patients, 16 had blue-stained lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes,4 did not show blue-stained lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes. Blue-stained lymph nodes were found to have been located in the region below the axillary vein and over the Intercostal brachial nerves. The

  9. The value of T2* in differentiating metastatic from benign axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer--a preliminary in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate detection and determination of axillary lymph node metastasis are crucial for the clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Noninvasive imaging methods including ultrasound (US, computed tomography (CT, or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are not yet accurate enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of in vivo T2* in differentiating metastatic from benign axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this institutional review board approved study, 35 women with breast cancer underwent multi-echo T2* weighted imaging (T2*WI of the axillary area on a 3.0 T clinical magnetic resonance (MR imaging system. T2* values of pathologically proven benign and metastatic axillary lymph nodes were calculated and compared. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic ability. The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs and the confidence intervals (CIs were assessed. In total, 56 metastatic and 65 benign axillary lymph nodes were identified in this study. For metastatic lymph nodes, the average T2* value (55.96±11.87 ms was significantly longer than that of the benign lymph nodes (26.00±5.51 ms, P<0.05. The AUC of T2* in differentiating benign from metastatic lymph nodes was 0.993. The cut-off value of 37.5 milliseconds (ms gave a sensitivity of 94.6%, a specificity of 98.5%, a positive predictive value of 98.17 and a negative predictive value 95.54. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo T2* can differentiate benign from metastatic axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. The high sensitivity and specificity as well as the easiness suggest its high potential for use in clinical practice.

  10. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu eSalminen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in 2001–2003 and 2008–2010 in sapling stands representing two different locations in northern Finland about 250 kilometers apart along latitudinal transect. The field measurements continued at the southern site also through 2011–2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded during 1908–2014 in Sodankylä that locates in-between the sapling stands in north–south direction and during 1877–2014 in Karasjok that is in Norway about 145 kilometers north-west from the northernmost stand of this study.On average buds began to extend on the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of three weeks. Simple day-length-triggered (fixed date model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; RMSE was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicate that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine clearly has advanced since 1960s but was as currently early in the 1920s and 1950s. Temperature record from Karasjok indicated similar variation but there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3–4 days during a 100 years period.

  11. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  12. A longitudinal comparison of arm morbidity in stage I-II breast cancer patients treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by completion lymph node dissection, or axillary lymph node dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; Rietman, Johan S.; Vries, de Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H.B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and ALN

  13. Fault Detection and Isolation using Viability Theory and Interval Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaniee Zarch, Majid; Puig, Vicenç; Poshtan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of interval observers and viability theory in fault detection and isolation (FDI). Viability theory develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty. These methods can be used for checking the consistency between observed and predicted behavior by using simple sets that approximate the exact set of possible behavior (in the parameter or state space). In this paper, fault detection is based on checking for an inconsistency between the measured and predicted behaviors using viability theory concepts and sets. Finally, an example is provided in order to show the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  14. Occult breast primary malignancy presenting as isolated axillary lymph node metastasis - early detection of primary site by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Ramya; Naswa, Niraj; Karunanithi, Sellam; Walia, Ritika; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer patients rarely present with isolated axillary lymph node metastasis without any clinical or radiological evidence of primary tumor. Identification of the primary site of tumor helps in planning appropriate patient management which has definite impact on patient's survival. We present here a case of 30-year-old female who presented with isolated right axillary lymph node metastasis with no evidence of primary tumor clinically. Conventional imaging modalities were negative for primary site. She underwent whole body 18F-Flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and it contributed significantly in early detection of occult primary tumor in right breast.

  15. The detection of axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjandra, J.J. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia) Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia)); Sacks, N.P.M.; Thompson, C.H. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)) (and others)

    1989-02-01

    Two murine monoclonal antibodies that react with human breast cancer (3E1.2 and RCC-1) were labelled with {sup 131}iodine, and the radiolabelled antibody was injected into 40 patients, 36 of whom had breast cancer and the remaining four of whom had fibroadenoma (the normal, contralateral axilla was used as a control). Immunoscintigraphy had an overall sensitivity of 33% (23% with {sup 131}I-3E1.2 and 5% with {sup 131}I-RCC-1) for the detection of lymph node metastases and a specificity of 63% (67% with {sup 131}I-3E1.2 and 60% with {sup 131}I-RCC-1) with problems of non-specific uptake by presumably normal lymph nodes. The results of immunoscintigraphy obtained with {sup 131}I-RCC-1 (IgG) were superior to {sup 131}I-3E1.2 (IgM) although the accuracy of immunoscintigraphy using {sup 131}I-RCC-1 (56%) was not much better than preoperative clinical assessment (50%). However, there were cases when immunoscintigraphy using radiolabelled antibody (IgM or IgG) detected axillary lymph node metastases not suspected by clinical examination. Thus it appears that while immunoscintigraphy may be a useful adjunct to preoperative clinical assessment and is simple and safe, a major improvement in its accuracy is needed before it can replace axillary dissection and histological examination in the accurate staging of axilla in breast cancer. (author).

  16. Sentinel lymph node detection after trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Program of Post-Graduation in Surgical Practice]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Urban, Cicero Andrade [UnicenP, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamada, Airton Seiji [CERMEN - Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear de Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unit of Nuclear Medicine; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2008-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the potential influence of trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: all the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  17. THE PROGNOSIS SIGNIFICANCE OF CATHEPSIN-D EXPRESSION IN THE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS IN AXILLARY NODES NEGATIVE CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate Cathepsin-D (Cath-D) expression in different location and its relationship with prognosis in the axillary lymph nodes negative (ANN) breast cancer patients. Methods: Cath-D expression in 192 cases of breast carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemistry. Depending on different parts of expression, three evaluating methods were used, compared and analysed. Results: The positive rate of Cath-D expression in ANN breast cancer with poor prognosis group and axillary nodes positive (ANP) group were significantly higher than that in ANN breast cancer with good prognosis group (x2=23.20, P0.05). Cath-D expression in stromal cells had no statistical difference among the three groups (x2=1.56, P>0.05). When the Cath-D expression in cancer and stromal cells were counted into the positive rate, it was near the same (u1=0.47, u2=1.41, P>0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that Cath-D expression is one of the powerful prognostic markers in ANN breast cancer. It's a reliable, practical, and convenient method to observe and evaluate Cath-D expression in cancer cells.

  18. Male axillary extracts contain pheromones that affect pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and mood in women recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, George; Wysocki, Charles J; Barnhart, Kurt T; Sondheimer, Steven J; Leyden, James J

    2003-06-01

    Human underarm secretions, when applied to women recipients, alter the length and timing of the menstrual cycle. These effects are thought to arise from exposure to primer pheromones that are produced in the underarm. Pheromones can affect endocrine (primer) or behavioral (releaser) responses, provide information (signaler), or perhaps even modify emotion or mood (modulator). In this study, we extracted underarm secretions from pads worn by men and placed the extract under the nose of women volunteers while monitoring serum LH and emotion/mood. Pulses of LH are excellent indicators of the release of GnRH from the brain's hypothalamus. In women, the positive influence of GnRH on LH affects the length and timing of the menstrual cycle, which, in turn, affects fertility. Here we show that extracts of male axillary secretions have a direct effect upon LH-pulsing and mood of women. In our subjects, the putative male pheromone(s) advanced the onset of the next peak of LH after its application, reduced tension, and increased relaxation. These results demonstrate that male axillary secretions contain one or more constituents that act as primer and modulator pheromones.

  19. Outcome of Trans-Axillary Approach for Surgical Decompression of Thoracic Outlet: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Riyaz Lattoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the trans-axillary surgical approach in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome. Methods: This retrospective study is comprised of data acquired from January 1998 until Oct 2008. Case histories of all the patients were reviewed from the Medical Records Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute. Relevant information and follow-up of the patients was carried out by examining the relevant clinical notes available by telephone interviews and personal contact whenever possible. All data was compiled and analyzed statistically. Results: There were a total of 139 patients. The female: male ratio was about 6:1. Pain was the most common presenting symptom followed by weakness and parasthesia. Nerve conduction velocity was abnormal in 111 patients. Twenty-eight patients had abnormal Doppler study of subclavian vessels. Preoperative symptoms persisted in 13 patients. Overall, 126 patients showed improvement in symptoms and no recurrence or persistence of symptoms on follow-up examination. Conclusion: Trans-axillary approach provides a good exposure and cosmesis in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome. It should be considered as the gold standard in the management of thoracic outlet syndrome.

  20. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  1. Reactivation from latency displays HIV particle budding at plasma membrane, accompanying CD44 upregulation and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Kouichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been accepted that HIV buds from the cell surface in T lymphocytes, whereas in macrophages it buds into intracellular endosomes. Recent studies, on the other hand, suggest that HIV preferentially buds from the cell surface even in monocytic cells. However, most studies are based on observations in acutely infected cells and little is known about HIV budding concomitant with reactivation from latency. Such studies would provide a better understanding of a reservoir for HIV. Results We observed HIV budding in latently infected T lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines following TNF-α stimulation and examined the upregulation of host factors that may be involved in particle production. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that reactivation of latently infected J1.1 cells (latently infected Jurkat cells with HIV-1 and U1 cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1 displayed HIV particle budding predominantly at the plasma membrane, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acutely infected Jurkat and U937 cells. When mRNA expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR, we found that particle production from reactivated J1.1 and U1 cells was accompanied by CD44 upregulation. This upregulation was similarly observed when Jurkat and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1 but not when just stimulated with TNF-α, suggesting that CD44 upregulation was linked with HIV production but not with cell stimulation. The molecules in endocytic pathways such as CD63 and HRS were also upregulated when U1 cells were reactivated and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1. Confocal microscopy revealed that these upregulated host molecules were recruited to and accumulated at the sites where mature particles were formed at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our study indicates that HIV particles are budded at the plasma membrane upon reactivation from latency, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acute

  2. Preliminary proteomics analysis of the total proteins of flower bud induction of apple trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangyin CAO; Qiuming ZHANG; Zhiyong ZHU; Junying GUO; Yuling CHEN; Huabai XUE

    2008-01-01

    Apple is one of the most important fruit trees in the world. Nevertheless, mainly due to its long juvenile period, its breeding work constantly falls far behind other crops. So the aim of this study is to reveal the mechanism of apple flower bud differentiation, shorten the juvenile period and accelerate its breeding process. Proteomics technology (including two-dimensional gel electrophor-esis (2-DE), biomass spectrometry and bioinformatics) was applied to work on the specific protein of flower bud and leaf bud after the brachyblasts of 'Fuji' stopped growth for 3-9 weeks. The results showed that the mor-phodifferentiation of flower bud did not begin until the seventh week after the brachyblast stopped growth. Furthermore, compared with the leaf bud, flower bud had significant changes in the expression of 283 protein spots in quality and quantity on 2-DE maps. Among the 283 protein spots, four protein spots (16.4, 30.2, 40.3 and 65.1 kD) were characteristic of the flower bud in the archae-stage (initial inflorescence appeared) at the begin-ning of flower-bud differentiation, three (39.3, 60.2 and 66.3 kD) in the post-stage (Lateral-flower appears) and one (77.1 kD) in the sepal stage on 2-DE maps. Analysis by peptide mass fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry also identified and forecasted functionally by blasting dif-ferent databases. In the four specific proteins, it was found that spots No. 256 (16.4 kD) and 298 (30.2 kD) were unknown proteins, spot Nos. 327 (40.3 kD) was identified as the synthesis enzyme protein and spot No. 367 (40.3 kD) was identified as a RNA-binding protein involved in transcription. When flower bud started to dif-ferentiate morphologically, we detected four specific pro-teins which were 16.4, 30.2, 40.3 and 65.1 kD. Three specific proteins 39.3, 60.2 and 66.3 kD were observed at side flower-appearing stage. When calyx began to emerge, there was one specific protein: 77.1 kD. The

  3. Multiple Shh signaling centers participate in fungiform papilla and taste bud formation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong Xiang; Ermilov, Alexandre; Grachtchouk, Marina; Li, Libo; Gumucio, Deborah L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charalotte M

    2013-10-01

    The adult fungiform taste papilla is a complex of specialized cell types residing in the stratified squamous tongue epithelium. This unique sensory organ includes taste buds, papilla epithelium and lateral walls that extend into underlying connective tissue to surround a core of lamina propria cells. Fungiform papillae must contain long-lived, sustaining or stem cells and short-lived, maintaining or transit amplifying cells that support the papilla and specialized taste buds. Shh signaling has established roles in supporting fungiform induction, development and patterning. However, for a full understanding of how Shh transduced signals act in tongue, papilla and taste bud formation and maintenance, it is necessary to know where and when the Shh ligand and pathway components are positioned. We used immunostaining, in situ hybridization and mouse reporter strains for Shh, Ptch1, Gli1 and Gli2-expression and proliferation markers to identify cells that participate in hedgehog signaling. Whereas there is a progressive restriction in location of Shh ligand-expressing cells, from placode and apical papilla cells to taste bud cells only, a surrounding population of Ptch1 and Gli1 responding cells is maintained in signaling centers throughout papilla and taste bud development and differentiation. The Shh signaling targets are in regions of active cell proliferation. Using genetic-inducible lineage tracing for Gli1-expression, we found that Shh-responding cells contribute not only to maintenance of filiform and fungiform papillae, but also to taste buds. A requirement for normal Shh signaling in fungiform papilla, taste bud and filiform papilla maintenance was shown by Gli2 constitutive activation. We identified proliferation niches where Shh signaling is active and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal compartments harbor potential stem and/or progenitor cell zones. In all, we report a set of hedgehog signaling centers that regulate development and maintenance of taste

  4. Expression and significance of AQP5 in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis%水通道蛋白5在手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者腋窝汗腺中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬峰; 涂远荣; 陈剑锋; 邱明链; 李旭; 林敏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of aquaporin (AQP) in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis and investigate its relationship with the pathogene-sis of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. Methods Axillary sweat glands were obtained in 34 cases of hyperhidrosis and 8 cases of non-hyperhidrosis as control group. The number of axillary sweat glands was calculated by using HE staining and the expression of aquaporins (AQP1, AQP3, AQP5) was detected by using immunochemical method respectively. The comparison was made between hyperhidrosis group and control group. Results The number of axillary sweat glands in two groups had no significant difference in statistics (Z=- 1.506, P>0. 05 ). Both groups had the expression of AQP5, and AQP1, AQP3 were undetectable; The AQP5 expression of axillary sweat glands in hyperhidmsis cases was significantly increased as compared with that in control group (Z=- 3. 523, P0.05);两组腋窝汗腺中均无AQP1、AQP3表达,AQP5在两组均有表达且在实验组中表达显著增强(Z=-3.523,P<0.05).结论 AQP1、AQP3不参与人体腋窝汗腺分泌;AQP5可能是参与人体腋窝汗腺分泌的主要水通道蛋白之一,其表达增强很可能是手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者的发病机制之一.

  5. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  6. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  7. Tumor Budding, uPA, and PAI-1 in Colorectal Cancer: Update of a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, Bruno; Hardt, Jochen; Franz, Simon; Schaller, Tina; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kriening, Bernadette; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Rüth, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The prognostic role of the proteases uPA and PAI-1, as well as tumor budding, in colon cancer, has been investigated previously. Methods. We provide 6-year follow-up data and results of the validation set. The initial test set and validation set consisted of 55 colon cancers and 68 colorectal cancers, respectively. Tissue samples were analyzed for uPA and PAI-1 using a commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Tumor budding was analyzed on cytokeratin-stained slides. Survival analyses were performed using cut-offs that were determined previously. Results. uPA was not prognostic for outcome. PAI-1 showed a trend towards reduced cancer specific survival in PAI-1 high-grade cases (68 versus 83 months; P = 0.091). The combination of high-grade PAI-1 and tumor budding was associated with significantly reduced cancer specific survival (60 versus 83 months; P = 0.021). After pooling the data from both sets, multivariate analyses revealed that the factors pN-stage, V-stage, and a combination of tumor budding and PAI-1 were independently prognostic for the association with distant metastases. Conclusions. A synergistic adverse effect of PAI-1 and tumor budding in uni- and multivariable analyses was found. PAI-1 could serve as a target for anticancer therapy.

  8. ALG-2 attenuates COPII budding in vitro and stabilizes the Sec23/Sec31A complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M la Cour

    Full Text Available Coated vesicles mediate the traffic of secretory and membrane cargo proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi apparatus. The coat protein complex (COPII involved in vesicle budding is constituted by a GTPase, Sar1, the inner coat components of Sec23/Sec24 and the components of the outer coat Sec13/Sec31A. The Ca(2+-binding protein ALG-2 was recently identified as a Sec31A binding partner and a possible link to Ca(2+ regulation of COPII vesicle budding. Here we show that ALG-2/Ca(2+ is capable of attenuating vesicle budding in vitro through interaction with an ALG-2 binding domain in the proline rich region of Sec31A. Binding of ALG-2 to Sec31A and inhibition of COPII vesicle budding is furthermore dependent on an intact Ca(2+-binding site at EF-hand 1 of ALG-2. ALG-2 increased recruitment of COPII proteins Sec23/24 and Sec13/31A to artificial liposomes and was capable of mediating binding of Sec13/31A to Sec23. These results introduce a regulatory role for ALG-2/Ca(2+ in COPII tethering and vesicle budding.

  9. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  10. Yap1, transcription regulator in the Hippo signaling pathway, is required for Xenopus limb bud regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is conserved from insects to mammals and is important for multiple processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and tissue homeostasis. Hippo signaling is also crucial for regeneration, including intercalary regeneration, of the whole body in the flatworm and of the leg in the cricket. However, its role in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is unknown. Therefore, to identify principles of regeneration that are conserved among bilaterians, we investigated the role of Hippo signaling in the limb bud regeneration of an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis. We found that a transcription factor, Yap1, an important downstream effector of Hippo signaling, is upregulated in the regenerating limb bud. To evaluate Yap1׳s function in limb bud regeneration, we made transgenic animals that expressed a dominant-negative form of Yap under a heat-shock promoter. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Yap in tadpoles reduced cell proliferation, induced ectopic apoptosis, perturbed the expression domains of limb-patterning genes including hoxa13, hoxa11, and shh in the regenerating limb bud. Transient expression of a dominant-negative Yap in transgenic tadpoles also caused limb bud regeneration defects, and reduced intercalary regeneration. These results indicate that Yap1 has a crucial role in controlling the limb regenerative capacity in Xenopus, and suggest that the involvement of Hippo signaling in regeneration is conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. This finding provides molecular evidence that common principles underlie regeneration across phyla, and may contribute to the development of new therapies in regenerative medicine.

  11. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Żołna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The material comprised infected inflorescence buds collected from nine newly bred taxa and one botanical species of rhododendron. 596 colonies of fungi belonging to 31 species were isolated from infected rhododendron inflorescence buds. The dominant species were: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Truncatella truncata, Alternaria alternata, Phialophora asteris, and Trichoderma viride, which constituted almost 74% of the isolated fungi population. Boeremia exigua var. exigua, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium poae, Mammaria echinobotryoides, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phoma eupyrena, Talaromyces wortmannii, Umbelopsis isabellina, and other fungi were isolated in a lower number. The results of mycological analysis confirm the diversity of species colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron. .

  12. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J; Neuman, Benjamin W

    2013-09-06

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations.

  13. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  14. Relation Between Endodormancy Induction and Changes in Two Main Electron Transport Pathways of Nectarine Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qin; GAO Dong-sheng; XU Xiao-ming; LI Jin; XU Chen-shan

    2008-01-01

    Operation regulations of two main electron transport pathways in nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. Shuguang) buds during endodormancy induction were studied to understand possible roles which two main electron transport pathways played in the buds of deciduous fruit trees during endodormancy induction. Respiratory inhibitors (KCN and SHAM) were used to investigate total respiration rate (Vt), the development and operation of the alternative pathway and partitioning of electrons between the cytochrome and alternative pathways in nectarine buds during endodormancy induction. Results indicated that changes of V, in flower and leaf buds showed single and double hump-shaped curves, respectively. In endodormancy induction, the capacity (V^,,) and activity (pValt) of the alternative pathway rapidly increased, but changes of them had different patterns during the entire measuration. At the same time, changes of engagements of the alternative (pValt/Vt) and cytochrome pathway (p'Vcy/Vt) were opposite, and p'Vcyt/Vt was always further higher than pValt/Vt during the entire measuration. All these results indicated that the development and operation of the alternative pathway played important roles in endodormancy induction, but the cytochrome pathway was the main pathway for mitochondrial electron transport in buds during endodormancy induction.

  15. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Vegetative Buds to High Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; LI Ling; LENG Chuan-yuan; LI Dong-mei; CHEN Xiu-de; GAO Dong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature stress (HT) is efficient in breaking endo-dormancy of perennial trees. The effects of HT (50°C) on the respiration of dormant nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. Shuguang) vegetative buds were evaluated in the research. We found that bud respiration was transiently inhibited by HT and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the cytochrome C pathway (CYT) were significantly affected. On the substrate level, PPP was activated in the HT-treated buds compared with the control group. However, the activation did mot occur until hours after HT treatment. The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in both the HT-treated buds and in the control group proceeded at a low level most of the time compared with total respiration. On the electron transfer level, CYT was transiently inhibited by HT but became significantly active in the later stage. CYT operation in the control group exhibited an attenuation process. The alternative pathway (ALT) fluctuated both in the HT-treated samples and in the control. The results suggest that the temporary CYT inhibition and the following PPP activation may be involved in HT-induced bud dormancy release and budburst mechanisms.

  16. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  17. Establishing Guidelines to Retain Viability of Probiotics during Spray Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    We present the application of a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to sy

  18. Establishing guidelines to retain viability of probiotics during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess

  19. Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Bloemen, K.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2001-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA b

  20. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neural cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, T.; Vulto, P.; Rutten, W.L.C.; Marani, E.

    2001-01-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  1. The relationship of storage and viability of Lily pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, H.K.; Lim, Jin Hee; Cho, Hae Ryong; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the pollen viability of eight lily genotypes and optimum storage conditions. Pollen viability was assessed by in vitro germination, FCR (Fluorochromatic raction) test and fruit set test. Pollen grains were stored in the dark chamber where the temperature was maint

  2. Screening conditions of adventitious bud induction and plantlet regeneration for Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉木茎段不定芽诱导及植株再生条件筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫雅芳; 戴勤; 谭玲; 苏治南; 卢亮; 杨梅

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探索广西杉木快繁技术,为杉木组织培养和种苗供应提供参考依据.[方法]以杉木优良树种基部枝条为试验材料,进行茎段外植体消毒、不定芽诱导及植株再生研究.[结果]以75%酒精处理30 s+0.1%升汞消毒6min的效果较理想,污染率为30%;初代培养基为1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg/L+6-BA 0.6 mg/L,第8d即有芽萌动,诱导率可达47%;继代培养基1/2MS +IBA 0.3 mg/L+6-BA 0.4 mg/L中加入蔗糖30 g/L,25 d腋芽增殖倍数可达3.4倍;1/4MS+IBA 0.15mg/L+NAA 0.075 mg/L对杉木生根诱导效果较好,生根率为52%.[结论],杉木外植体用75%酒精和0.1%升汞消毒6min效果较理想,适当减少培养基中矿质元素有利于杉木外殖体芽的诱导和试管苗的增殖生长,NAA可促进试管苗生根.%[Objective]Conditions of the adventitious bud induction and plant regeneration for Cunninghamia lanceolata were screened and rapid propagation techniques for Chinese fir in Guangxi was explored to provide references for supply and tissue culture of Chinese fir seedlings.[Method]Using base branches of superior Chinese fir species as testing materials,stem explant disinfection,adventitious bud induction and plant regeneration were the focal points in the current research.[Result] (1)The best disinfection method was treating stem explants with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% mercuric chloride for 6 min,which showed 30% contamination rate; (2)In the initial medium (1/2MS + NAA 0.2 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L),the buds germinated on the 8th day with the induction rate of 47%; (3)In the optimum subculture medium (1/2MS + IBA 0.3 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L + white sugar 30 g/L),axillary buds were multiplied by 3.4 times on the 25th day; (4)The induction effect was the best with the rooting rate of 52% in the rooting medium (1/4MS + IBA 0.15 mg/L + NAA 0.075 mg/L).[Conclusion]It was beneficial to the adventitious bud induction for Chinese fir with the initial medium (1/2MS + NAA 0.2 mg

  3. Multiple shoot-bud formation and plantlet regeneration on Castanea sativa Mill. seeds in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R

    1982-06-01

    Primordial initiation and development of shoot-buds has been accomplished by using shoots derived from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) seedlings cultured with added 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Germination of chestnut seeds in the presence of BAP (4 - 40 μM) stimulated varying numbers of shoot-buds in those areas of the main axis that were favorably altered. When excised single shoots from these treated seeds were subcultured on a fresh medium containing BAP (4 - 40 μM) continual shoot production was observed. Bud growth and shoot elongation were stimulated by transferring cultures to a reduced concentration of BAP (2 μM) plus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 0.4 μM). Plant regeneration occurred in the presence of IBA (0.8 μM) after a preconditioning treatment in which naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 50 μM) and kinetin (k 2 μM) were applied to the tissue culture shoots for 7 days in light.

  4. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  5. Multiple Enhancers Regulate Hoxd Genes and the Hotdog LncRNA during Cecum Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Delpretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes are required for the development of the intestinal cecum, a major organ of plant-eating species. We have analyzed the transcriptional regulation of Hoxd genes in cecal buds and show that they are controlled by a series of enhancers located in a gene desert flanking the HoxD cluster. The start site of two opposite long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, Hotdog and Twin of Hotdog, selectively contacts the expressed Hoxd genes in the framework of a topological domain, coinciding with robust transcription of these genes during cecum budding. Both lncRNAs are specifically transcribed in the cecum, albeit bearing no detectable function in trans. Hedgehogs have kept this regulatory potential despite the absence of the cecum, suggesting that these mechanisms are used in other developmental situations. In this context, we discuss the implementation of a common “budding toolkit” between the cecum and the limbs.

  6. Ferrite-Cored Solenoidal Induction Coil Sensor for BUD (MM-1667)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, F.; Becker, A.; Conti, U.; Gasperikova, E.

    2011-06-15

    We have designed and lab tested a new ferrite cored induction coil sensor for measuring the secondary fields from metallic UXO with the BUD system. The objective was to replace the 5-inch diameter air-cored coils in the BUD system with smaller sensors that would allow the placement of multiple sensors in the smaller package of the new BUD hand-held system. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil of length L can easily be made to have sensitivity and noise level roughly the same as an air-cored coil of a diameter on the same order as L. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil can easily have a feedback configuration to achieve critical damping. The feedback configuration leads to a very stable response. Feedback ferrite-cored solenoidal coils show very little interaction as long as they are separated by one half their length.

  7. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers.

  8. Comparison of molecular analysis and histopathology for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer: results of the B-CLOSER-I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegué, Laia Bernet; Rojo, Federico; Hardisson, David; Iturriagagoitia, Alicia Córdoba; Panadés, Maria José; Velasco, Ana; Bonet, Eugeni López; Muñoz, Rafael Cano; Polo, Luis

    2012-06-01

    In breast cancer, the number of lymph node metastases is the strongest predictor of outcome. However, histopathology may underestimate the frequency of metastasis. Here we compare automated molecular detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) with histopathology of single tissue sections for the staging of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. Axillary lymph nodes were collected from 55 patients with primary breast cancer and sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. The central 1-mm portion of each node was processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the remaining tissue was analyzed by OSNA. According to OSNA, histopathology misclassified 41.8% of patients as negative for axillary node metastasis (P=0.007). Of the individual nodes considered negative by histopathology, 4.5% contained micrometastases and 2.5% contained macrometastases according to OSNA. Furthermore, 80% of micrometastases identified by histopathology were reclassified as macrometastases by OSNA. Histopathology failed to identify 81.1% of nodes shown to contain metastasis by OSNA. However, OSNA yielded no false-negative results. On the basis of OSNA results, 3 patients were reclassified to a higher pathologic stage. The number of SLN and non-SLN metastases was unrelated according to OSNA (P=0.891). These results show that, compared with molecular detection, histopathology of single tissue sections significantly underestimates the frequency of axillary node metastases. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of current recommendations on the staging of breast cancer.

  9. The value of completion axillary treatment in sentinel node positive breast cancer patients undergoing a mastectomy : A Dutch randomized controlled multicentre trial (BOOG 2013-07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, L.M.; de Wilt, J.H.; van Dalen, T.; van der Hage, J.A.; Strobbe, L.J.; Boersma, L.J.; Linn, S.C.; Lobbes, M.B.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; van de Vijver, K.K.; Westenberg, A.G.; Kessels, A.G.; Smidt, M.L.; de Vries, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trials failed to demonstrate additional value of completion axillary lymph node dissection in case of limited sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy. It has been suggested that the low regional recurrence rates in these trials might

  10. Ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of invasive breast carcinoma: Does tumour total haemoglobin concentration contribute to the prediction of axillary lymph node status?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qingli, E-mail: qinglizhu@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Xiao, Mengsu, E-mail: xiaomengsu_2000@sina.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); You, Shanshan, E-mail: shanshan_0531@sina.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhang.jing1029@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jiang, Yuxin, E-mail: yuxinjiangxh@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Lai, Xingjian, E-mail: lxjpumch@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: qingdai_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To prospectively study the ultrasound-guided near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) findings of the total haemoglobin concentration (THC) detected in invasive breast carcinomas and its contribution to the prediction of axillary lymph node (LN) status. Methods: A total of 195 invasive breast carcinomas were prospectively studied with DOT before surgery. Lumpectomy or mastectomy with full axillary nodal dissection was performed. Tumour size and THC level were correlated with LN status by a logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-four patients (63.59%) was LN(-) and 71 (36.41%) was LN(+). The average THC was significantly higher in the LN(+) group than in the LN(-) group (252.94 {+-} 69.19 {mu}mol/L versus 203.86 {+-} 83.13 {mu}mol/L, P = 0.01). A multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship between the probability of axillary metastasis, elevated THC level (P = 0.01), and tumour size (P = 0.001). The odds ratio with THC {>=} 140 {mu}mol/L was 13.651 (1.781-104.560), whereas that of tumour size with a 1 cm increment was only 1.777 (1.283-2.246). Conclusions: The THC level and the tumour size are independent and preoperative predictors of axillary nodal status; these variables may improve the diagnosis of patients with lymph node metastasis.

  11. Stämföringar av Bud Powell : En studie om Bud Powells sätt att stämföra

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstrand, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att erbjuda pianister en möjlighet att lära sig att använda Bud Powells sätt att stämföra ackord. Frågorna som kommer att diskuteras är: 1.Vad är bebop? 2. Vem var Bud Powell? 3. Hur stämförde Powell ackord? För att besvara dessa forskningsfrågor baserar jag min metod på litteraturstudier och transkriptioner av inspelningar. Detta görs utifrån en hermeneutisk metod. I arbetet diskuteras Powells sätt att stämföra ackord ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv och användning ...

  12. Pulmonary metastatic microangiopathy of colon cancer presenting as a "tree in bud" pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, S; Weynand, B; Coche, E

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a "tree in bud" pattern of vascular origin caused by colon cancer metastases. A 60-year-old man presented for routine follow-up of a colon tumour resected surgically 15 years previously. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, including carcino-embryonic antigen and inflammatory parameters, and chest radiograph were normal. Multislice CT of the lungs revealed the presence of several "tree in bud" opacities. The connection to the pulmonary arteries was well depicted by reformatted maximal intensity projection images. Biopsy of some of the nodules was characterized by mucinous material and neoplastic cells within the small vessels, consistent with metastases from the known colon adenocarcinoma.

  13. Project BudBurst - Meeting the Needs of Climate Change Educators and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.

    2015-12-01

    It is challenging for many to get a sense of what climate change means as long periods of time are involved - like decades - which can be difficult to grasp. However, there are a number of citizen science based projects, including NEON's Project BudBurst, that provide the opportunity for both learning about climate change and advancing scientific knowledge. In this presentation, we will share lessons learned from Project BudBurst. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events and to increase climate literacy. Project BudBurst is important from an educational perspective, but also because it enables scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. It was important to better understand if and how Project BudBurst is meeting its goals. Specifically, does participation by non-experts advance scientific knowledge? Does participation advance educational goals and outcomes? Is participation an effective approach to advance/enhance science education in both formal and informal settings? Critical examination of Project BudBurst supports advancement of scientific knowledge and realization of educational objectives. Citizen science collected observations and measurements are being used by scientists as evidenced by the increase of such data in scientific publication. In addition, we found that there is a significant increase in educators utilizing citizen science as part of their instruction. Part of this increase is due to the resources and professional development materials available to educators. Working with partners also demonstrated that the needs of both science and

  14. Download - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project Download First of all, please read the license of this database. Data ...names and data descriptions are about the downloadable data in this page. They might not correspond to the c...f the data. # Data name File Simple search and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 5'-end sequences of buddi...ng yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores yeast_seq_qual.zip (59.9MB) Simple search and download 3...Downlaod via FTP Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update H

  15. Expression of the Apoptosis Inhibitor Survivin and its correlation with Thymidine Kinase and Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping WU; Yun-Feng ZHOU; Zhi-Guo LUO; Ming-Sheng ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Many molecular factors have been demonstrated to interfere with cellular proliferation and programmed cell death. One of these factors is a recently discovered member of the "inhibitor of apoptosis protein(IAP)" called survivin. Survivin is abundantly expressed in most solid and hematologic malignancies, but undetectable in normal adult tissues. Interference with survivin function induces pleiotropic cell-division defects and apoptosis. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK) is a marker for proliferating cells and TK is one of several key enzymes involved in DNAmetabolism that phosphorylates thymidine to thymidine mono-phosphate. This study was aimed to detect the expression of suvivin and TK in breast cancer, and to explore a possible relationship between survivin expression and axillary lymph node metastasis.

  16. Cyclosporine-A therapy-induced multiple bilateral breast and accessory axillary breast fibroadenomas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast adenoma is common. However, in the setting of post-transplantation immune suppression it may be expressed differently. Case presentation A 35-year-old Sudanese woman, with a history of renal transplantation two and half years prior to presentation, was on a single immune suppression therapy in the form of cyclosporine-A since the transplantation. During a regular follow-up visit, she was noticed to have gingival hypertrophy and bilateral breast and axillary swellings. She underwent successful surgical resection of the bilateral fibroadenomas. Conclusions Cyclosporine-A therapy post renal transplantation is associated with an increased incidence of benign breast changes as fibroadenoma. Regular follow-up and appropriate selection of immunosuppressant therapy are essential in the post transplantation management of these patients.

  17. Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in an ipsilateral axillary lymph node in a patient with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limin; Park, Jeong Mi; Askeland, Ryan W; Fajardo, Laurie L

    2012-01-01

    A patient presented with flu-like symptoms and a warm, tender area in the left axilla after working with an ancient piece of Cyprus wood. Antibiotics prescribed failed to improve symptoms. Followup physical examination and subsequent ultrasound found suspicious left-breast mass and an enlarged lymph node in the left axilla. Biopsy and lumpectomy of the left-breast mass revealed invasive ductal carcinoma. Biopsy and excision of the enlarged lymph node in the left axilla revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation without evidence of metastatic breast carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to show the coexistence of breast cancer with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the ipsilateral axillary lymph node, likely due to exposure to ancient wood.

  18. A unique approach to demonstrating that apical bud temperature specifically determines leaf initiation rate in the dicot Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Dieleman, Anja; Ieperen, van Wim; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: Leaf initiation rate is largely determined by the apical bud temperature even when apical bud temperature largely deviates from the temperature of other plant organs.We have long known that the rate of leaf initiation (LIR) is highly sensitive to temperature, but previous studies

  19. Changes in aquaporin gene expression and magnetic resonance imaging of water status in peach tree flower buds during dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooyongwech, Suravoot; Horigane, Akemi K; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masami; Sekozawa, Yoshihiro; Sugaya, Sumiko; Gemma, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    The movement of cellular water accompanies changes in growth within dormant buds. To further understand this process, accumulation of tonoplast deltaTIP1 and plasma membrane PIP2 aquaporin transcripts was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the water dynamics in dormant peach (Prunus persica L.) flower buds was studied by magnetic resonance imaging. Proton density (PD), spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were used to observe water dynamics during dormancy. The expression of deltaTIP1 and PIP2 aquaporins, PD and T(2) in the upper part of the bud including primordia, in the basal part of the bud and the bud trace increased earlier in the low-chill cultivar 'Coral' than in the high-chill cultivar 'Kansuke Hakuto,' reflecting the difference in timing for the end of endodormancy in the two cultivars. deltaTIP1 mRNA accumulated mainly in the basal part of the bud, whereas PIP2 mRNA was detected mainly in the upper part. These findings may reflect the activation of inter- and intracell communication through membrane transport properties of aquaporins resulting in a gradual increase in water content to that required for bud activity at the end of endodormancy. An apparent decrease in the expression of deltaTIP1 and PIP2 mRNAs was, however, observed in late winter in some portions of the buds of both cultivars just before sprouting.

  20. Epidemiology and effective control of Altenaria altenata, causal agent of dead (dormant) flower bud disease of pear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Joosten, N.N.; Anbergen, R.H.N.; Vink, P.; Bruggen, van A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Dead flower buds are a common phenomenon in pear culture in The Netherlands, Belgium and Mediterranean countries. Disease cases are also reported from South America. The disease is characterized by a partial or complete necrosis of flower buds during tree dormancy. The disease progresses during wint

  1. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to ligh

  2. Neurturin-GFRalpha2 signaling controls liver bud migration along the ductus venosus in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Norifumi; Miki, Rika; Katsu, Kenjiro; Yokouchi, Yuji

    2007-07-01

    During chick liver development, the liver bud arises from the foregut, invaginates into the septum transversum, and elongates along and envelops the ductus venosus. However, the mechanism of liver bud migration is only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a GDNF family ligand involved in neuronal outgrowth and migration, neurturin (NRTN), and its receptor, GFRalpha2, are essential for liver bud migration. In the chick embryo, we found that GFRalpha2 was expressed in the liver bud and that NRTN was expressed in the endothelial cells of the ductus venosus. Inhibition of GFRalpha2 signaling suppressed liver bud elongation along the ductus venous without affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, ectopic expression of NRTN perturbed the directional migration along the ductus venosus, leading to splitting or ectopic branching of the liver. We showed that liver buds selectively migrated toward an NRTN-soaked bead in vitro. These data represent a new model for liver bud migration: NRTN secreted from endothelial cells functions as a chemoattractant to direct the migration of the GFRalpha2-expressing liver bud in early liver development.

  3. Effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy on prognosis in different tumor stages of breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-Miao Jia; Zhi-Jie Liang; Qin Chen; Ying Zheng; Ling-Mei Li; Xu-Chen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on the locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients under different tumor stages and with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 527 patients with one to three positive lymph nodes who underwent modiifed radical or partial mastectomy and axillary dissection from January 2000 to December 2002. hTe patients were divided into the T1-T2 N1 and T3-T4 N1 groups. hTe effects of PMRT on the LRFFS and OS of these two patient groups were analyzed using SPSS 19.0, Pearson’s χ2-test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results: For T1-T2 N1 patients, no statistical signiifcance was observed in the effects of PMRT on LRFFS [hazard ratio (HR)=0.726; 95% conifdence interval (CI): 0.233-2.265;P=0.582] and OS (HR=0.914; 95% CI: 0.478-1.745;P=0.784) of the general patients. Extracapsular extension (ECE) and high histological grade were the risk factors for LRFFS and OS with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Stratification analysis showed that PMRT statistically improved the clinical outcomes in high-risk patients [ECE (+), LRFFS:P=0.026, OS:P=0.007; histological grade III, LRFFS:P Conclusion: PMRT could reduce ECE (+), histological grade III-related LRR, and total mortality of T1-T2 N1 patients. T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (-) could beneift from PMRT by improving LRFFS and OS. However, PMRT could only reduce LRR but failed to improve OS for T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (+) who received endocrine therapy.

  4. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  5. Comparative GC analyses of ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds essential oils of Tunisian Myrtus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Snoussi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Tunisian wild growing myrtle ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds was examined by GC and GC-MS. The yields of hydrodistilled oils obtained from different plant parts were: leaves 0.5%, floral buds 0.2% and ripe fruits 0.02%. Significant differences were found in the concentration of main constituents of the oils: α-pinene [48.9% (floral buds, 34.3% (fruits, 23.7% (leaves], 1,8-cineole [15.3% (floral buds, 26.6% (fruits, 61.0% (leaves]. The leaves oil contained less linalool than floral buds and ripe fruits oils. Tunisian myrtle is characterized by the absence of myrtenyl acetate.

  6. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity.

  7. Soluble proteins and polyphenoloxidase activity in bud flowers, flowers and leaves of cold stored lisianthus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavasini, R.; Nunes, K.N.M.; Favero, B.T.;

    This study evaluated the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the content of soluble protein present in lisianthus bud flowers, flowers and leaves in room temperature (24±2°C) and pre-exposure cold chamber at 9±2°C for 24 h, in order to examine a possible correlation between these ...

  8. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results ...

  9. Whole lifespan microscopic observation of budding yeast aging through a microfluidic dissection platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Avalos Vizcarra, Ima; Huberts, Daphne H E W; Lee, Luke P; Heinemann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Important insights into aging have been generated with the genetically tractable and short-lived budding yeast. However, it is still impossible today to continuously track cells by high-resolution microscopic imaging (e.g., fluorescent imaging) throughout their entire lifespan. Instead, the field st

  10. A novel minimal in vitro system for analyzing HIV-1 Gag mediated budding

    CERN Document Server

    Gui, Dong; Xu, Jun; Zandi, Roya; Gill, Sarjeet; Huang, I-Chueh; Rao, A L N; Mohideen, Umar

    2013-01-01

    A biomimetic minimalist model membrane is used to study the mechanism and kinetics of the in vitro HIV-1 Gag budding from a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV). The real time interaction of the Gag, RNA and lipid leading to the formation of minivesicles is measured in real time using confocal microscopy. The Gag is found to lead to resolution limited punctae on the lipid membranes of the GUV. The introduction of the Gag to a GUV solution containing RNA led to the budding of minivesicles on the inside surface of the GUV. The diameter of the GUV decreased due to the bud formation. The corresponding rate of decrease of the GUV diameter was found to be linear in time. The bud formation and the decrease in GUV size were found to be proportional to the Gag concentration. The method is promising and will allow the systematic study of the dynamics of assembly of immature HIV and help classify the hierarchy of factors that impact the Gag protein initiated assembly of retroviruses such as HIV. The GUV system might also be ...

  11. Effect of floral bud reduction on flower longevity in Asiatic hybrids lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Muisers, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Floral bud abortion was found to be an undesirable source of non-genetic variation in breeding trials directed on the improvement of individual flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies. It increased the longevity of the remaining flowers of the inflorescence. A similar response was found after elim

  12. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  13. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  14. Evolution and development of budding by stem cells: ascidian coloniality as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Federico D; Swalla, Billie J

    2012-09-15

    The evolution of budding in metazoans is not well understood on a mechanistic level, but is an important developmental process. We examine the evolution of coloniality in ascidians, contrasting the life histories of solitary and colonial forms with a focus on the cellular and developmental basis of the evolution of budding. Tunicates are an excellent group to study colonial transitions, as all solitary larvae develop with determinant and invariant cleavage patterns, but colonial species show robust developmental flexibility during larval development. We propose that acquiring new stem cell lineages in the larvae may be a preadaptation necessary for the evolution of budding. Brooding in colonial ascidians allows increased egg size, which in turn allows greater flexibility in the specification of cells and cell numbers in late embryonic and pre-metamorphic larval stages. We review hypotheses for changes in stem cell lineages in colonial species, describe what the current data suggest about the evolution of budding, and discuss where we believe further studies will be most fruitful.

  15. Regularity in budding mode and resultant growth morphology of the azooxanthellate colonial scleractinian Tubastraea coccinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentoku, A.; Ezaki, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Scleractinia exhibit a variety of growth forms, whether zooxanthellate or azooxanthellate, according to factors that control asexual reproduction and ensuing coral growth. The azooxanthellate branching scleractinian Dendrophyllia arbuscula shows regular modes of budding in terms of the locations of budding sites, the orientations of directive septa, and the inclination angle of budding throughout colonial growth. This study reports that such regularities are also found in the apparently different growth form of the massive dendrophylliid Tubastraea coccinea, which shows the following growth features: (1) the offsets (lateral corallites) always occur near four primary septa, except the two directive primary septa, meaning that the lateral corallites do not appear in the sectors of the two directive septa; (2) the two directive septa in lateral corallites tend to be oriented subperpendicular to the growth direction of the parental corallites; (3) the lateral corallites grow approximately diagonally upwards; and (4) these regularities are seen in the axial and derived lateral corallites among all generations during colony growth. Large differences in growth form are found between the branching D. arbuscula and massive T. coccinea, irrespective of the presence of specific regularities. It is likely that subtle modifications of certain parameters (e.g., budding interval, branch length, corallite size, and inclination angle of lateral corallites) have a strong effect on the overall growth morphology. A precise understanding of such regularities, which occur regardless of generation or taxonomic position, would contribute to understanding the "shape-controlling mechanism" of corals, which are an archetypal modular organism.

  16. Continuous High-resolution Microscopic Observation of Replicative Aging in Budding Yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, Daphne H. E. W.; Janssens, Georges E.; Lee, Sung Sik; Vizcarra, Ima Avalos; Heinemann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a simple microfluidic setup, in which single budding yeast cells can be tracked throughout their entire lifespan. The microfluidic chip exploits the size difference between mother and daughter cells using an array of micropads. Upon loading, cells are trapped underneath the

  17. Autocrine and paracrine roles for ATP and serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-11-01

    Receptor (type II) taste bud cells secrete ATP during taste stimulation. In turn, ATP activates adjacent presynaptic (type III) cells to release serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). The roles of these neurotransmitters in taste buds have not been fully elucidated. Here we tested whether ATP or 5-HT exert feedback onto receptor (type II) cells during taste stimulation. Our previous studies showed NE does not appear to act on adjacent taste bud cells, or at least on receptor cells. Our data show that 5-HT released from presynaptic (type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto receptor cells by activating 5-HT(1A) receptors, inhibiting taste-evoked Ca(2+) mobilization in receptor cells, and reducing ATP secretion. The findings also demonstrate that ATP exerts positive autocrine feedback onto receptor (type II) cells by activating P2Y1 receptors and enhancing ATP secretion. These results begin to sort out how purinergic and aminergic transmitters function within the taste bud to modulate gustatory signaling in these peripheral sensory organs.

  18. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention.

  19. HAND2 Targets Define a Network of Transcriptional Regulators that Compartmentalize the Early Limb Bud Mesenchyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, Marco; Speziale, Dario; Shoukry, Malak; Mohan, Rajiv; Ivanek, Robert; Kohler, Manuel; Beisel, Christian; Wen, Xiaohui; Scales, Suzie J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Visel, Axel; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Zeller, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Summary The genetic networks that govern vertebrate development are well studied, but how the interactions of trans-acting factors with cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) are integrated into spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression is not clear. The transcriptional regulator HAND2 is required during limb, heart and branchial arch development. Here, we identify the genomic regions enriched in HAND2 chromatin complexes from mouse embryos and limb buds. Then, we analyze the HAND2 target CRMs in the genomic landscapes encoding transcriptional regulators required in early limb buds. HAND2 controls the expression of genes functioning in the proximal limb bud and orchestrates the establishment of anterior and posterior polarity of the nascent limb bud mesenchyme by impacting on Gli3 and Tbx3 expression. TBX3 is required downstream of HAND2 to refine the posterior Gli3 expression boundary. Our analysis uncovers the transcriptional circuits that function in establishing distinct mesenchymal compartments downstream of HAND2 and upstream of SHH signaling. PMID:25453830

  20. Meta-analysis identifies potential molecular markers for endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative shoot growth originating from underground adventitious buds (UABs) of herbaceous perennials such as leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is critical for survival after episodes of severe abiotic stress. Although leafy spurge is considered an invasive weed in North American ecosystems, it ha...