Baryon axial charges from chirally improved fermions - first results
Engel, G.; Gattringer, C.; Glozman, L. Y.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.; Mohler, D.; Schäfer, A.
We present first results from dynamical Chirally Improved (CI) fermion simulations for the axial charge $G_A$ of various hadrons. We work with 16^3x32 lattices of spatial extent 2.4 fm and use the variational method with a suitable basis of Jacobi-smeared interpolators to suppress contaminations from excited states.
Fluxionally chiral DMAP catalysts: kinetic resolution of axially chiral biaryl compounds.
Ma, Gaoyuan; Deng, Jun; Sibi, Mukund P
2014-10-27
Can organocatalysts that incorporate fluxional groups provide enhanced selectivity in asymmetric transformations? To address this issue, we have designed chiral 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalysts with fluxional chirality. These catalysts were found to be efficient in promoting the acylative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols and axially chiral biaryl compounds with selectivity factors of up to 37 and 51, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bifunctional organocatalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral benzamides
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Ryota Miyaji
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Bifunctional organocatalysts bearing amino and urea functional groups in a chiral molecular skeleton were applied to the enantioselective synthesis of axially chiral benzamides via aromatic electrophilic bromination. The results demonstrate the versatility of bifunctional organocatalysts for the enantioselective construction of axially chiral compounds. Moderate to good enantioselectivities were afforded with a range of benzamide substrates. Mechanistic investigations were also carried out.
Chiral lattice fermions, minimal doubling, and the axial anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiburzi, B. C.
2010-01-01
Exact chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing would preclude the axial anomaly. In order to describe a continuum quantum field theory of Dirac fermions, lattice actions with purported exact chiral symmetry must break the flavor-singlet axial symmetry. We demonstrate that this is indeed the case by using a minimally doubled fermion action. For simplicity, we consider the Abelian axial anomaly in two dimensions. At finite lattice spacing and with gauge interactions, the axial anomaly arises from nonconservation of the flavor-singlet current. Similar nonconservation also leads to the axial anomaly in the case of the naieve lattice action. For minimally doubled actions, however, fine-tuning of the action and axial current is necessary to arrive at the anomaly. Conservation of the flavor nonsinglet vector current additionally requires the current to be fine-tuned. Finally, we determine that the chiral projection of a minimally doubled fermion action can be used to arrive at a lattice theory with an undoubled Dirac fermion possessing the correct anomaly in the continuum limit.
Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.
Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan
2017-09-04
The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran, E-mail: tigran@caltech.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 845 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, M/S 298, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Murchikova, Elena [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2017-06-15
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium {sup 3}He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena
2017-01-01
In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium "3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.
Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tigran Kalaydzhyan
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave. We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.
Nuclear chiral axial currents and applications to few-nucleon systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baroni, Alessandro [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2017-08-01
This Thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part discusses basic aspects of chiral effective field theory and the formalism, based on time ordered perturbation theory, used to to derive the nuclear potentials and currents from the chiral Lagrangians. The second part deals with the actual derivation, up to one loop, of the two-nucleon potential and one- and two-nucleon weak axial charge and current. In both derivations ultraviolet divergences generated by loop corrections are isolated using dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. A complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power counting is constructed. The third part of this Thesis discusses two applications: (i) the calculation of the Gamow-Teller matrix element of tritium, used to constrain the single low-energy constant entering the axial current; (ii) the calculation of neutrino-deuteron inclusive cross sections at low energies. These results have confirmed previous predictions obtained in phenomenological approaches. These latter studies have played an important role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.
Chiral filter, axial charges and Gamow-Teller strengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1983-09-01
The different ways that nuclear matter responds to the weak axial-vector current are interpreted in terms of modification of the ''vacuum'' in baryon-rich environments. The notion of ''chiral filter'' is introduced. Use of a ward identity is suggested. The Gamow-Teller quenching and the enhanced axial charge in O + O - transitions follow from this. I also discuss briefly possible relevance of the nucleon as a topological soliton configuration to the global property of nuclear axial response functions
Axial charges of octet and decuplet baryons in a perturbative chiral quark model
Liu, X. Y.; Samart, D.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Limphirat, A.; Xu, K.; Yan, Y.
2018-05-01
Using the perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM), we investigate and predict in this work axial charges gAB of octet and decuplet N , Σ , Ξ , Δ , Σ*, and Ξ* baryons, considering both the ground and excited states in the quark propagator. The PCQM predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data, lattice-QCD values, and other approaches. In addition, the study reveals that the meson cloud is influential in the PCQM, contributing around 30% to the total values of gAB, and the meson cloud contribution to gAB stems mainly from the diagrams with the ground-state quark propagator while the excited intermediate quark states reduce gAB by 10-20%.
Zheng, Jun; You, Shu-Li
2014-11-24
Enantioselective construction of axially chiral biaryls by direct C-H bond functionalization reactions has been realized. Novel axially chiral biaryls were synthesized by the direct C-H bond olefination of biaryl compounds, using a chiral [Cp*Rh(III)] catalyst, in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The obtained axially chiral biaryls were found as suitable ligands for rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate additions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Alternative Experimental Evidence for Chiral Restoration in Excited Baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L. Ya.
2007-01-01
It has been suggested that chiral symmetry is approximately restored in excited hadrons at zero temperature and density (effective symmetry restoration). Using very general chiral symmetry arguments, it is shown that those excited nucleons that are assumed from the spectroscopic patterns to be in approximate chiral multiplets must only weakly decay into the Nπ channel (f N*Nπ /f NNπ ) 2 NNπ . It turns out that for all those well-established excited nucleons which can be classified into chiral doublets the ratio is (f N*Nπ /f NNπ ) 2 ∼0.1 or much smaller for the high-spin states. In contrast, the only well-established excited nucleon for which the chiral partner cannot be identified from the spectroscopic data, N(1520), has a decay constant into the Nπ channel that is comparable with f NNπ
Polavarapu, Prasad L; Jeirath, Neha; Kurtán, Tibor; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Krohn, Karsten
2009-01-01
Cephalochromin, a homodimeric naphthpyranone natural product, contains both axial chirality due to the hindered rotation along the biaryl axis and central chirality due to the C-2, C-2' stereogenic centers of the fused pyranone ring. For determining the absolute configurations (ACs) of central chirality elements, different chiroptical spectroscopic methods, namely vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and optical rotation (OR), have been used. From these experimental data, in conjunction with corresponding quantum chemical predictions at B3LYP/6-311G* level, it is found that the ECD spectra of cephalochromin are dominated by its axial chirality and are not suitable to distinguish the (aS,2S,2'S) and (aS,2R,2'R) diastereomers and hence to determine the ACs of the central chirality elements. OR signs also did not distinguish the (aS,2S,2'S) and (aS,2R,2'R) diastereomers. On other hand, VCD spectrum of cephalochromin exhibited separate spectral features attributable to axial chirality and stereogenic centers, thereby allowing the determination of both types of chirality elements. This is the first investigation demonstrating that, because of vibrations specific to the studied stereogenic centers, VCD spectroscopy can be used to simultaneously determine the ACs of axial and central chirality elements whenever other chiroptical methods (ECD and OR) fail to report on them. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fumitoshi Yagishita
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.
Li, Tian-Xiao; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Jun; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi
2016-12-01
The research on secondary metabolites of Aspergillus lentulus afforded eight unusual heterodimeric tetrahydroxanthone derivatives, lentulins A-H (2-9), along with the known compound neosartorin (1). Compounds 1-6 exhibited potent antimicrobial activities especially against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Their absolute configurations, particularly the axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of electronic circular dichroism (ECD), Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced ECD experiments, modified Mosher methods, and chemical conversions. Interestingly, compounds 1-4 were the first samples of atropisomers within the dimeric tetrahydroxanthone class. Further investigation of the relationships between their axial chiralities and ECD Cotton effects led to the proposal of a specific CD Exciton Chirality rule to determine the axial chiralities in dimeric tetrahydroxanthones and their derivatives.
Baryon axial-vector couplings and SU(3)-symmetry breaking in chiral quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvat, D.; Ilakovac, A.; Tadic, D.
1986-01-01
SU(3)-symmetry breaking is studied in the framework of the chiral bag models. Comparisons are also made with the MIT bag model and the harmonic-oscillator quark model. An important clue for the nature of the symmetry breaking comes from the isoscalar axial-vector coupling constant g/sub A//sup S/ which can be indirectly estimated from the Bjorken sum rules for deep-inelastic scattering. The chiral bag model with two radii reasonably well accounts for the empirical values of g/sub A//sup S/ and of the axial-vector coupling constants measured in hyperon semileptonic decays
Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten
2016-01-26
Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle
Analysis of axial compressive loaded beam under random support excitations
Xiao, Wensheng; Wang, Fengde; Liu, Jian
2017-12-01
An analytical procedure to investigate the response spectrum of a uniform Bernoulli-Euler beam with axial compressive load subjected to random support excitations is implemented based on the Mindlin-Goodman method and the mode superposition method in the frequency domain. The random response spectrum of the simply supported beam subjected to white noise excitation and to Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum excitation is investigated, and the characteristics of the response spectrum are further explored. Moreover, the effect of axial compressive load is studied and a method to determine the axial load is proposed. The research results show that the response spectrum mainly consists of the beam's additional displacement response spectrum when the excitation is white noise; however, the quasi-static displacement response spectrum is the main component when the excitation is the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. Under white noise excitation, the amplitude of the power spectral density function decreased as the axial compressive load increased, while the frequency band of the vibration response spectrum increased with the increase of axial compressive load.
Doorn, Stephen; Duque, Juan; Telg, Hagen; Haroz, Erik; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming
2014-03-01
Access to carbon nanotube samples enriched in single chiralities allows the observation of new photophysical behaviors obscured or difficult to demonstrate in mixed-chirality ensembles. Recent examples include the observation of strongly asymmetric G-band excitation profiles resulting from non-Condon effects1 and the unambiguous demonstration of Raman interference effects.2 We present here our most recent results demonstrating the generality of the non-Condon behavior to include metallic species (specifically several armchair chiralities). Additionally, the Eii dependence in non-Condon behavior with excitations from E11 thru E44 for both RBM and G modes will be discussed. 1. J.G. Duque, et. al., ACS Nano, 5, 5233 (2011). 2. J.G. Duque, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117404 (2012).
Evaluating chiral symmetry restoration through the use of sum rules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rapp Ralf
2012-11-01
Full Text Available We pursue the idea of assessing chiral restoration via in-medium modifications of hadronic spectral functions of chiral partners. The usefulness of sum rules in this endeavor is illustrated, focusing on the vector/axial-vector channel. We first present an update on obtaining quantitative results for pertinent vacuum spectral functions. These serve as a basis upon which the in-medium spectral functions can be constructed. A novel feature of our analysis of the vacuum spectral functions is the need to include excited resonances, dictated by satisfying the Weinberg-type sum rules. This includes excited states in both the vector and axial-vector channels.We also analyze the QCD sum rule for the finite temperature vector spectral function, based on a ρ spectral function tested in dilepton data which develops a shoulder at low energies.We find that the ρ′ peak flattens off which may be a sign of chiral restoration, though a study of the finite temperature axial-vector spectral function remains to be carried out.
Aldol Reactions of Axially Chiral 5-Methyl-2-(o-arylimino-3-(o-aryl-thiazolidine-4-ones
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Sule Erol Gunal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Axially chiral 5-methyl-2-(o-arylimino-3-(o-aryl-thiazolidine-4-ones have been subjected to aldol reactions with benzaldehyde to produce secondary carbinols which have been found to be separable by HPLC on a chiral stationary phase. Based on the reaction done on a single enantiomer resolved via a chromatographic separation from a racemic mixture of 5-methyl-2-(α-naphthylimino-3-(α-naphthyl-thiazolidine-4-one by HPLC on a chiral stationary phase, the aldol reaction was shown to proceed via an enolate intermediate. The axially chiral enolate of the thiazolidine-4-one was found to shield one face of the heterocyclic ring rendering face selectivity with respect to the enolate. The selectivities observed at C-5 of the ring varied from none to 11.5:1 depending on the size of the ortho substituent. Although the aldol reaction proceeded with a lack of face selectivity with respect to benzaldehyde, recrystallization returned highly diastereomerically enriched products.
Excited meson spectroscopy with two chirally improved quarks
Engel, G.; Lang, C. B.; Mohler, D.; Limmer, M.; Schäfer, A.
The excited isovector meson spectrum is explored using two chirally improved dynamical quarks. Seven ensembles, with pion masses down to \\approx 250 MeV are discussed and used for extrapolations to the physical point. Strange mesons are investigated using partially quenched s-quarks. Using the variational method, we extract excited states in several channels and most of the results are in good agreement with experiment.
Yao, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhan, Bei-Bei; Shi, Bing-Feng
2017-06-01
Atroposelective synthesis of axially chiral biaryls by palladium-catalyzed C-H olefination, using tert-leucine as an inexpensive, catalytic, and transient chiral auxiliary, has been realized. This strategy provides a highly efficient and straightforward access to a broad range of enantioenriched biaryls in good yields (up to 98 %) with excellent enantioselectivities (95 to >99 % ee). Kinetic resolution of trisubstituted biaryls bearing sterically more demanding substituents is also operative, thus furnishing the optically active olefinated products with excellent selectivity (95 to >99 % ee, s-factor up to 600). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Excited Landau levels, orbital angular momentum and axial anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teryaev, O.V.
1993-01-01
The IR cutoff via the exclusion of the high orbital momentum components for the excited Landau levels leads to the physical interpretation of the cancellation between the explicity and anomalous chiral symmetry breaking. 21 refs
Sutherland, Daniel R; Kinsman, Luke; Angiolini, Stuart M; Rosair, Georgina M; Lee, Ai-Lan
2018-05-11
Hydroarylation of enantioenriched 1,3-disubstituted allenes has the potential to proceed with axial-to-point chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched allylated (hetero)aryl compounds. However, the gold-catalysed intermolecular reaction was previously reported to occur with no chirality transfer owing to competing allene racemisation. Herein, we describe the development of the first intermolecular hydroarylations of allenes to proceed with efficient chirality transfer and summarise some of the key criteria for achieving high regio- and stereoselectivity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Molecular design for nonpolar chiral-axial quadratic nonlinear optics
Wiggers, Gregory A.
In this thesis the hyperpolarizability of various multi-dimensional molecules is studied theoretically/computationally, with particular focus on the second-rank Kleinman-disallowed (KD) component of the hyperpolarizability. This component, which transforms as a second-rank traceless symmetric tensor, could be utilized in certain chiral-axial molecular alignment schemes to produce a bulk response. Nonpolar chiral-axial systems have been proposed in contrast to polar media, which utilize the vector component of the molecular hyperpolarizability and require parallel alignment of the molecular dipoles. Such parallel alignment of dipoles must be "frozen in" in order to overcome the natural tendency for dipoles to align anti-parallel. This limits the density of chromophores that can be loaded into a polar material. Nonpolar materials do not have such limits in theory. The two geometric classes of molecules that can most easily be incorporated into nonpolar chiral-uniaxial materials are propeller-shaped (C3 or D3 symmetry) and Λ-shaped (C2v symmetry). This work describes efforts to design molecules within these classes that would be suitable for bulk NLO materials. The sum-over-states (SOS) expression is used to model the molecular hyperpolarizability, and quantum chemical calculations, along with linear absorption data (when available) provide the necessary parameters to evaluate truncated forms of the SOS expression. A host of chemical and geometric modifications will be considered in order to elucidate important structure/function relationships. Also, the SOS model will be tested in some cases when experimental measurements (via Kleinman-disallowed hyper-Rayleigh scattering) are available. While a majority of this work focuses on multi-dimensional molecules, a small section deals with the question of optimizing the hyperpolarizability of a one-dimensional system. It is suggested that the recently-proposed idea of "modulated conjugation" as a means for improving
B meson excitations with chirally improved light quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burch, Tommy [University of Regensburg (Germany); University of Utah (United States); Chakrabarti, Dipanker [University of Regensburg (Germany); Swansea University (United Kingdom); Hagen, Christian; Maurer, Thilo; Schaefer, Andreas [University of Regensburg (Germany); Lang, Christian; Limmer, Markus [University of Graz (Austria)
2008-07-01
We present our latest results for the excitations of static-light mesons on both quenched and unquenched lattices, where the light quarks are simulated using the chirally improved (CI) lattice Dirac operator. To improve our results we use a new technique to estimate the light quark propagator. The b quark is treated as infinitely heavy, in the so-called static approximation. We are able to find several excited states reaching from S-waves up to D-waves for both B and B{sub s}.
Xu, Zheng; Xu, Li-Wen
2015-10-01
Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in the development of 1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol (BINOL)-derived chiral ligands. Six years ago, a working hypothesis, that the chirality matching of hybrid chirality on a ligand could probably lead to high levels of stereoselective induction, prompted us to use the axial chirality of BINOL derivatives to generate new stereogenic centers within the same molecule with high stereoselectivity, obtaining as a result sterically favorable ligands for applications in asymmetric catalysis. This Personal Account describes our laboratory's efforts toward the development of a novel class of BINOL-derived atropisomers bearing both axial and sp(3) central chirality, the so-called Ar-BINMOLs, for asymmetric synthesis. Furthermore, on the basis of the successful application of Ar-BINMOLs and their derivatives in asymmetric catalysis, the search for highly efficient and enantioselective processes also compelled us to give special attention to the BINOL-derived multifunctional ligands with multiple stereogenic centers for use in catalytic asymmetric reactions. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masaki Kawachi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of wavenumber and chirality on the axial compressive behavior and properties of wavy carbon nanotubes (CNTs with multiple Stone-Wales defects are investigated using molecular mechanics simulations with the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond-order potential. The wavy CNTs are assumed to be point-symmetric with respect to their axial centers. It is found that the wavy CNT models, respectively, exhibit a buckling point and long wavelength buckling mode regardless of the wavenumbers and chiralities examined. It is also found that the wavy CNTs have nearly the same buckling stresses as their pristine straight counterparts.
Torsion axial vector and Yvon-Takabayashi angle: zitterbewegung, chirality and all that
Fabbri, Luca; da Rocha, Roldão
2018-03-01
We consider propagating torsion as a completion of gravitation in order to describe the dynamics of curved-twisted space-times filled with Dirac spinorial fields; we discuss interesting relationships of the torsion axial vector and the curvature tensor with the Yvon-Takabayashi angle and the module of the spinor field, that is the two degrees of freedom of the spinor field itself: in particular, we shall discuss in what way the torsion axial vector could be seen as the potential of a specific interaction of the Yvon-Takabayashi angle, and therefore as a force between the two chiral projections of the spinor field itself. Chiral interactions of the components of a spinor may render effects of zitterbewegung, as well as effective mass terms and other related features: we shall briefly sketch some of the analogies and differences with the similar but not identical situation given by the Yukawa interaction occurring in the Higgs sector of the standard model. We will provide some overall considerations about general consequences for contemporary physics, consequences that have never been discussed before, so far as we are aware, in the present physics literature.
van Delden, Richard A.; Huck, N.P.M.; Piet, J.J.; Warman, J.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Dekkers, H.P J M; Feringa, B.L.
2003-01-01
The photochemical control of ground- and excited-state chirality of (M)-cis-(1) and (P)-trans(2)-2-nitro-7-(dimethylamino)-9-(2',3'-dihydro-1'H-naphtho[2,1-b]-thiopyran-1'-ylidene)-9H-thioxanthene is described. It is shown that while ground state chirality can be controlled photochemically by
Delden, van R.A.; Huck, H.P.M.; Piet, J.J.; Warman, J.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Feringa, B.L.
2003-01-01
The photochemical control of ground- and excited-state chirality of (M)-cis-(1) and (P)-trans-(2)-2-nitro-7-(dimethylamino)-9-(2',3' -dihydro-1'H-naphtho[2,1-b]-thiopyran-1'-ylidene)-9H-thioxanthene is described. It is shown that while ground state chirality can be controlled photochemically by
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Qibo; Yao Jiangming; Meng Jie; Zhang Shuangquan; Qi Bin
2010-01-01
Since the occurrence of chirality was originally suggested in 1997 by Frauendorf and Meng [1] and experimentally observed in 2001 [2] , the investigation of chiral symmetry in atomic nuclei becomes one of the most important topics in nuclear physics. More and more chiral doublet bands [3-7] in atomic nuclei [8] have been reported. There are also many discussions about the fingerprints of chirality. In the pioneer paper [1] , the two lowest near degenerate bands given by the particle-rotor model (PRM) are interpreted as chiral doublet bands. If the nucleus has chiral geometry with proper configuration, the character of chiral rotation may appear not only in the two lowest bands, but also in the other bands. Therefore, it is interesting to search for the character of chiral rotation, Based on the PRM model with configuration corresponding to A ∼ 130 mass region, we examine the theoretical spectroscopy of higher excited bands (band3, band4, band5 and band6) beyond the two lowest bands (bandl and band2), including energies, spin-alignments, projection of total angular momentum and electromagnetic transition probabilities. The results show that band3 and band4 have characters of chirality in some spin region. (authors)
A chiral model for excited pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, M.K.; Weiss, C.
1996-01-01
We study radially excited mesons (π', σ') in a simple extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a polynomial meson-quark form factor. The form factor is introduced so that the usual form of the NJL gap equation remains unchanged. We derive the effective Lagrangian for π- and π'-mesons which describes the decoupling of the Goldstone pion in the chiral limit in agreement with current algebra. For π' masses in the range of 750 MeV and 1300 MeV f π' /f π is found to be of an order of one per cent. 12 refs
Hydrodynamic excitations in hot QCD plasma
Abbasi, Navid; Allahbakhshi, Davood; Davody, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid
2017-12-01
We study the long wavelength excitations in rotating QCD fluid in the presence of an external magnetic field at finite vector and axial charge densities. We consider the fluctuations of vector and axial charge currents coupled to energy and momentum fluctuations and compute the S O (3 ) covariant dispersion relations of the six corresponding hydrodynamic modes. Among them, there are always two scalar chiral-magnetic-vortical-heat (CMVH) waves; in the absence of a magnetic field (vorticity) these waves reduce to chiral-vortical-heat (CVH) [chiral-magnetic-heat (CMH)] waves. While CMVH waves are a mixture of CMH and CVH waves, they have generally different velocities compared to the sum of velocities of the latter waves. The other four modes, which are made out of scalar-vector fluctuations, are mixed sound-Alfvén waves. We show that when the magnetic field is parallel with the vorticity, these four modes are the two ordinary sound modes together with two chiral Alfvén waves propagating along the common direction of the magnetic field and vorticity.
Confining but chirally symmetric dense and cold matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L. Ya.
2012-01-01
The possibility for existence of cold, dense chirally symmetric matter with confinement is reviewed. The answer to this question crucially depends on the mechanism of mass generation in QCD and interconnection of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. This question can be clarified from spectroscopy of hadrons and their axial properties. Almost systematical parity doubling of highly excited hadrons suggests that their mass is not related to chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and is approximately chirally symmetric. Then there is a possibility for existence of confining but chirally symmetric matter. We clarify a possible mechanism underlying such a phase at low temperatures and large density. Namely, at large density the Pauli blocking prevents the gap equation to generate a solution with broken chiral symmetry. However, the chirally symmetric part of the quark Green function as well as all color non-singlet quantities are still infrared divergent, meaning that the system is with confinement. A possible phase transition to such a matter is most probably of the first order. This is because there are no chiral partners to the lowest lying hadrons.
Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 quark flavours : chiral symmetry and topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagae, J.-F.
1998-01-01
We have studied the restoration of chiral symmetry in lattice QCD at the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. By measuring the screening masses of flavour singlet and non-singlet meson excitations, we have seen evidence that, although flavour chiral symmetry is restored at this transition, flavour singlet (U(1)) axial symmetry is not. We conclude that this indicates that instantons continue to play an important role in the quark-gluon plasma phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Anderson Rouge dos; Pinheiro, Alessandra Campbell; Sodero, Ana Carolina Renno; Cunha, Andrea Sousa da; Padilha, Monica Costa; Sousa, Priscila Mesquita de; Fontes, Silvia Paredes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Veloso, Marcia Paranho [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Lab. de Avaliacao e Sintese de Substancias Bioativas (LASSBio)]. E-mail: cmfraga@pharma.ufrj.br
2007-01-15
Atropisomerism is a special kind of stereoisomeric relationship that arises from the freezing of a certain conformation of an organic molecule, associated with a high rotational barrier about a single covalent bond. Atropisomerism has been originally described in orto-functionalized biphenyl derivatives, but a lot of other organic functionalities can present this structural phenomenon, characterized by the presence of chiral properties in compounds that do not present classical stereogenic centers. Atropisomeric compounds, intermediates and catalysts have well-know importance in organic synthesis, but the influence of the axial chirality in substances able to modulate biological systems is still not very exploited in drug design and development. In this context, the present account describes the importance of this structural property in the medicinal chemistry of different classes of bioactive compounds or therapeutic agents, emphasizing how atropisomerism could affect the molecular recognition of a ligand or a prototype by the target bioreceptor. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.; Vento, V.
1997-01-01
Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. We show that the presence of this surface term first discovered several years ago allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. This has relevance to what is referred to as the ''proton spin problem'' on the one hand and to the Cheshire-Cat phenomenon in hadron structure on the other. We show that when calculated to the leading order in the color gauge coupling and for a specific color electric monopole configuration in the bag, one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge. (orig.)
Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Keun-Young; Sahoo, Bindusar; Yee, Ho-Ung
2010-06-01
We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)
Topological responses from chiral anomaly in multi-Weyl semimetals
Huang, Ze-Min; Zhou, Jianhui; Shen, Shun-Qing
2017-08-01
Multi-Weyl semimetals are a kind of topological phase of matter with discrete Weyl nodes characterized by multiple monopole charges, in which the chiral anomaly, the anomalous nonconservation of an axial current, occurs in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. Electronic transport properties related to the chiral anomaly in the presence of both electromagnetic fields and axial electromagnetic fields in multi-Weyl semimetals are systematically studied. It has been found that the anomalous Hall conductivity has a modification linear in the axial vector potential from inhomogeneous strains. The axial electric field leads to an axial Hall current that is proportional to the distance of Weyl nodes in momentum space. This axial current may generate chirality accumulation of Weyl fermions through delicately engineering the axial electromagnetic fields even in the absence of external electromagnetic fields. Therefore this work provides a nonmagnetic mechanism of generation of chirality accumulation in Weyl semimetals and might shed new light on the application of Weyl semimetals in the emerging field of valleytronics.
Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krebs, H., E-mail: hermann.krebs@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Epelbaum, E., E-mail: evgeny.epelbaum@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93016 (United States); Meißner, U.-G., E-mail: meissner@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)
2017-03-15
We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.
Chiral properties of baryon interpolating fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Keitaro; Hosaka, Atsushi; Dmitrasinovic, V.
2008-01-01
We study the chiral transformation properties of all possible local (non-derivative) interpolating field operators for baryons consisting of three quarks with two flavors, assuming good isospin symmetry. We derive and use the relations/identities among the baryon operators with identical quantum numbers that follow from the combined color, Dirac and isospin Fierz transformations. These relations reduce the number of independent baryon operators with any given spin and isospin. The Fierz identities also effectively restrict the allowed baryon chiral multiplets. It turns out that the non-derivative baryons' chiral multiplets have the same dimensionality as their Lorentz representations. For the two independent nucleon operators the only permissible chiral multiplet is the fundamental one, ((1)/(2),0)+(0,(1)/(2)). For the Δ, admissible Lorentz representations are (1,(1)/(2))+((1)/(2),1) and ((3)/(2),0)+(0,(3)/(2)). In the case of the (1,(1)/(2))+((1)/(2),1) chiral multiplet, the I(J)=(3)/(2)((3)/(2)) Δ field has one I(J)=(1)/(2)((3)/(2)) chiral partner; otherwise it has none. We also consider the Abelian (U A (1)) chiral transformation properties of the fields and show that each baryon comes in two varieties: (1) with Abelian axial charge +3; and (2) with Abelian axial charge -1. In case of the nucleon these are the two Ioffe fields; in case of the Δ, the (1,(1)/(2))+((1)/(2),1) multiplet has an Abelian axial charge -1 and the ((3)/(2),0)+(0,(3)/(2)) multiplet has an Abelian axial charge +3. (orig.)
Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecules
Beaulieu, S.; Comby, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Garcia, G. A.; Géneaux, R.; Harvey, A. G.; Légaré, F.; Mašín, Z.; Nahon, L.; Ordonez, A. F.; Petit, S.; Pons, B.; Mairesse, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Blanchet, V.
2018-05-01
Chiral effects appear in a wide variety of natural phenomena and are of fundamental importance in science, from particle physics to metamaterials. The standard technique of chiral discrimination—photoabsorption circular dichroism—relies on the magnetic properties of a chiral medium and yields an extremely weak chiral response. Here, we propose and demonstrate an orders of magnitude more sensitive type of circular dichroism in neutral molecules: photoexcitation circular dichroism. This technique does not rely on weak magnetic effects, but takes advantage of the coherent helical motion of bound electrons excited by ultrashort circularly polarized light. It results in an ultrafast chiral response and the efficient excitation of a macroscopic chiral density in an initially isotropic ensemble of randomly oriented chiral molecules. We probe this excitation using linearly polarized laser pulses, without the aid of further chiral interactions. Our time-resolved study of vibronic chiral dynamics opens a way to the efficient initiation, control and monitoring of chiral chemical change in neutral molecules at the level of electrons.
Alajarín, Mateo; Bonillo, Baltasar; Vidal, Angel; Bautista, Delia
2008-01-04
Bis(ketenimines) and bis(carbodiimides) derived from 1,4-bis(2-aminophenyl)-1,3-butadiynes via two independent biradical cyclizations provided, respectively, axially chiral bis(benzocarbazoles) and bis(quinindolines). Mixed biheteroaryls, consisting of benzocarbazole and quinindoline units, have been also prepared by a slightly modified strategy.
Self-excited vibration control for axially fast excited beam by a time delay state feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamdi, Mustapha; Belhaq, Mohamed
2009-01-01
This work examines the control of self-excited vibration of a simply-supported beam subjected to an axially high-frequency excitation. The investigation of the resonant cases are not considered in this paper. The control is implemented via a corrective position feedback with time delay. The objective of this control is to eliminate the undesirable self-excited vibrations with an appropriate choice of parameters. The issue of stability is also addressed in this paper. Using the technique of direct partition of motion, the dynamic of discretized equations is separated into slow and fast components. The multiple scales method is then performed on the slow dynamic to obtain a slow flow for the amplitude and phase. Analysis of this slow flow provides analytical approximations locating regions in parameters space where undesirable self-excited vibration can be eliminated. A numerical study of these regions is performed on the original discretized system and compared to the analytical prediction showing a good agreement.
Chiral heat wave and mixing of magnetic, vortical and heat waves in chiral media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernodub, M.N.
2016-01-01
We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective mode associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This mode, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. The coupling of the Chiral Magnetic and Chiral Vortical Waves is also demonstrated. We find that the coupled waves — which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents — have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves.
Wang, Feijun; Li, Shengke; Qu, Mingliang; Zhao, Mei-Xin; Liu, Lian-Jun; Shi, Min
2012-01-01
Axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework were successfully prepared, and their coordination behavior with AuCl·SMe(2) was also investigated, affording the corresponding Au(I) complexes in moderate to high yields.
Pseudoscalar glueball, η'-meson and its excitation in the chiral effective Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nekrasov, M.L.
1995-12-01
A generalization of the chiral effective Lagrangian of order p 2 is obtained which describes interaction between singlet pseudoscalar states and octet of the lightest pseudoscalar states π, K, η. The singlet states were lowest quarkic state, its excitation, and the lowest gluonic state. The QCD renormalization group for the composite operators generating the singlet states, and some other QCD-inspired conditions have been taken into consideration. The way is found, which allows one to separate unambiguously the contributions of the lowest gluonic state and the single excited state. Besides, an additional condition is found which restricts the singlet-state contributions. The mixing picture of the singlet states is considered. The problem of the radiative decays of the singlet mesons is discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musakhanov, M.M.
1980-01-01
The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basar, Goekce; Dunne, Gerald V.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2010-01-01
We argue that the presence of a very strong magnetic field in the chirally broken phase induces inhomogeneous expectation values, of a spiral nature along the magnetic field axis, for the currents of charge and chirality, when there is finite baryon density or an imbalance between left and right chiralities. This 'chiral magnetic spiral' is a gapless excitation transporting the currents of (i) charge (at finite chirality), and (ii) chirality (at finite baryon density) along the direction of the magnetic field. In both cases it also induces in the transverse directions oscillating currents of charge and chirality. In heavy ion collisions, the chiral magnetic spiral possibly provides contributions both to the out-of-plane and the in-plane dynamical charge fluctuations recently observed at BNL RHIC.
Vector mesons and chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1989-01-01
The ambiguities in the off-shell behaviour of spin-1 exchange can be resolved to O(p 4 ) in the chiral low-energy expansion if the asymptotic behaviour of QCD is properly incorporated. As a consequence, the chiral version of vector (and axial-vector) meson dominance is model independent. Additional high-energy constraints motivated by QCD determine the V,A resonance couplings uniquely. In particular, QCD in its effective chiral realization sucessfully predicts Γ(ρ→2π). 10 refs. (Author)
Chiral supramolecular organization from a sheet-like achiral gel: a study of chiral photoinduction.
Royes, Jorge; Polo, Víctor; Uriel, Santiago; Oriol, Luis; Piñol, Milagros; Tejedor, Rosa M
2017-05-31
Chiral photoinduction in a photoresponsive gel based on an achiral 2D architecture with high geometric anisotropy and low roughness has been investigated. Circularly polarized light (CPL) was used as a chiral source and an azobenzene chromophore was employed as a chiral trigger. The chiral photoinduction was studied by evaluating the preferential excitation of enantiomeric conformers of the azobenzene units. Crystallographic data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show how chirality is transferred to the achiral azomaterials as a result of the combination of chiral photochemistry and supramolecular interactions. This procedure could be applied to predict and estimate chirality transfer from a chiral physical source to a supramolecular organization using different light-responsive units.
Δ(1232) Axial Charge and Form Factors from Lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, Constantia; Gregory, Eric B.; Korzec, Tomasz; Koutsou, Giannis; Negele, John W.; Sato, Toru; Tsapalis, Antonios
2011-01-01
We present the first calculation on the Δ axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors using lattice QCD. Two Goldberger-Treiman relations are derived and examined. A combined chiral fit is performed to the nucleon axial charge, N to Δ axial transition coupling constant and Δ axial charge.
Collective excitations with chiral NN+3N interactions from coupled-cluster and in-medium SRG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippel, Richard
2016-01-01
A broad variety of many-body methods exists for the investigation of ground-state properties, ranging from sophisticated ab initio approaches to traditional, phenomenological models. The description of low-lying excited states of medium-mass nuclei with ab initio methods has also become possible through recent progress in many-body theory. For collective modes at higher energies, however, these methods usually cannot be applied. Therefore, when describing collective excitations either completely phenomenological, macroscopic models are employed or microscopic models using phenomenological interactions. One of the microscopic models well suited for the calculation of collective properties is the random-phase approximation (RPA). In the past, the use of phenomenological interactions for RPA has shown promising results. However, the application of chiral NN interactions yielded transitions at significantly too high energies, far from agreement with experimental data. This thesis focuses on the description of collective modes using both RPA and its second-order extension, SRPA. In contrast to previous research endeavors, we employ chiral NN+3N interactions. The use of chiral interactions is an important first step for describing ground-state, excitation and collective properties on an equal foundation. We find that the inclusion of 3N terms is crucial for RPA calculations and the prediction for collective modes is drastically improved through the 3N terms. For SRPA we show first-ever results with chiral interactions, again leading to an improvement in the predictions. For a successful ab initio description of ground-state properties the inclusion of correlations is of paramount importance. Past RPA calculations have been performed using the quasi-boson approximation, effectively neglecting ground-state correlations. Using RPA, the next step along the path towards an ab initio description of collective properties will, therefore, be the inclusion of correlations. To
Collective excitations with chiral NN+3N interactions from coupled-cluster and in-medium SRG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trippel, Richard
2016-12-19
A broad variety of many-body methods exists for the investigation of ground-state properties, ranging from sophisticated ab initio approaches to traditional, phenomenological models. The description of low-lying excited states of medium-mass nuclei with ab initio methods has also become possible through recent progress in many-body theory. For collective modes at higher energies, however, these methods usually cannot be applied. Therefore, when describing collective excitations either completely phenomenological, macroscopic models are employed or microscopic models using phenomenological interactions. One of the microscopic models well suited for the calculation of collective properties is the random-phase approximation (RPA). In the past, the use of phenomenological interactions for RPA has shown promising results. However, the application of chiral NN interactions yielded transitions at significantly too high energies, far from agreement with experimental data. This thesis focuses on the description of collective modes using both RPA and its second-order extension, SRPA. In contrast to previous research endeavors, we employ chiral NN+3N interactions. The use of chiral interactions is an important first step for describing ground-state, excitation and collective properties on an equal foundation. We find that the inclusion of 3N terms is crucial for RPA calculations and the prediction for collective modes is drastically improved through the 3N terms. For SRPA we show first-ever results with chiral interactions, again leading to an improvement in the predictions. For a successful ab initio description of ground-state properties the inclusion of correlations is of paramount importance. Past RPA calculations have been performed using the quasi-boson approximation, effectively neglecting ground-state correlations. Using RPA, the next step along the path towards an ab initio description of collective properties will, therefore, be the inclusion of correlations. To
Preparation of strained axially chiral (1,5)naphthalenophanes by photo-dehydro-Diels-Alder reaction.
Wessig, Pablo; Matthes, Annika
2011-03-02
The preparation of 10 (1,5)naphthalenophanes (10a-j) by photo-dehydro-Diels-Alder (PDDA) reaction is described. Owing to hindered rotation around the biaryl axis, compounds 10 are axially chiral and the separation of enantiomers by chiral HPLC was demonstrated in three cases (10a,b,e). The absolute configuration of the isolated enantiomers could be unambiguously determined by comparison of calculated and measured circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, we analyzed ring strain phenomena of (1,5)naphthalenophanes 10. Depending on the length of the linker units, one can distinguish three classes of naphthalenophanes. Compounds 10a-c are highly strained (E(STR) = 7-31 kcal/mol), and the strain is caused by small bond angles in the linker unit and deformation of the naphthalene moiety. Another type of strain is observed if the linker unit becomes relatively long (10g,h) originating from transannular interactions and is comparable with the well-known strain of medium sized rings. The naphthalenophanes 10d-f with a linker length of 10-14 atoms are only marginally strained. To clearly discriminate the different sources of strain, we defined two geometrical parameters (average central dihedral angle δ(C) and naphthalene thickness D(N)) and demonstrated that they are well-suited to indicate naphthalene deformation of our naphthalenophanes 10 as well as of ten model naphthalenophanes (I-X) with different linker lengths and linking positions.
Parity doublers in chiral potential quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu. S.; Nefediev, A. V.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.
2007-01-01
The effect of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry over the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is addressed in the framework of a microscopic chiral potential quark model (Generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model) with a vectorial instantaneous quark kernel of a generic form. A heavy-light quark-antiquark bound system is considered, as an example, and the Lorentz nature of the effective light-quark potential is identified to be a pure Lorentz-scalar, for low-lying states in the spectrum, and to become a pure spatial Lorentz vector, for highly excited states. Consequently, the splitting between the partners in chiral doublets is demonstrated to decrease fast in the upper part of the spectrum so that neighboring states of an opposite parity become almost degenerate. A detailed microscopic picture of such a 'chiral symmetry restoration' in the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is drawn and the corresponding scale of restoration is estimated
Induction of axial chirality in divanillin by interaction with bovine serum albumin.
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Diego Venturini
Full Text Available Vanillin is a plant secondary metabolite and has numerous beneficial health applications. Divanillin is the homodimer of vanillin and used as a taste enhancer compound and also a promissory anticancer drug. Here, divanillin was synthesized and studied in the context of its interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA. We found that divanillin acquires axial chirality when complexed with BSA. This chiroptical property was demonstrated by a strong induced circular dichroism (ICD signal. In agreement with this finding, the association constant between BSA and divanillin (3.3 x 105 mol-1L was higher compared to its precursor vanillin (7.3 x 104 mol-1L. The ICD signal was used for evaluation of the association constant, demonstration of the reversibility of the interaction and determination of the binding site, revealing that divanillin has preference for Sudlow's site I in BSA. This property was confirmed by displacement of the fluorescent markers warfarin (site I and dansyl-L-proline (site II. Molecular docking simulation confirmed the higher affinity of divanillin to site I. The highest scored conformation obtained by docking (dihedral angle 242° was used for calculation of the circular dichroism spectrum of divanillin using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT. The theoretical spectrum showed good similarity with the experimental ICD. In summary, we have demonstrated that by interacting with the chiral cavities in BSA, divanillin became a atropos biphenyl, i.e., the free rotation around the single bound that links the aromatic rings was impeded. This phenomenon can be explained considering the interactions of divanillin with amino acid residues in the binding site of the protein. This chiroptical property can be very useful for studying the effects of divanillin in biological systems. Considering the potential pharmacological application of divanillin, these findings will be helpful for researchers interested in the pharmacological
Influence of the axial anomaly on the decay N (1535 )→N η
Olbrich, Lisa; Zétényi, Miklós; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2018-01-01
The decay width of N (1535 )→N η is as large as that of N (1535 )→N π . This is in evident conflict with simple expectations based on flavor symmetry and phase space. Similarly, the decay width of Λ (1670 )→Λ (1116 )η is larger than predicted by flavor symmetry. In this work, we propose that the axial U (1 )A anomaly is responsible for an enhanced coupling of (some) excited baryons to the η meson. We test this idea by including a new, chirally symmetric but U (1 )A anomalous, term in an effective hadronic model describing baryons and their chiral partners in the mirror assignment. This term enhances the decay of the chiral partners into baryons and an η meson, such as N (1535 )→N η . Moreover, a strong coupling of N (1535 ) to N η' emerges (this is important for studies of η' production processes). Our approach shows that N (1535 ) is predominantly the chiral partner of N (939 ), and Λ (1670 ) the chiral partner of Λ (1116 ). Finally, our formalism can be used to couple the pseudoscalar glueball G ˜ to baryons. We expect a large cross section for the reaction p ¯ p →G ˜ →p ¯ p (1535 ) , which can be experimentally tested in the future PANDA experiment.
Chiral Quark-Meson model of N and DELTA with vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broniowski, W.; Banerjee, M.K.
1985-10-01
Vector mesons rho, A 1 and ω are introduced in the Chiral Quark-Meson Theory (CQMT) of N and Δ. We propose a new viewpoint for developing CQMT from QCD at the mean-field level. The SU(2) x SU(2) chiral Lagrangian incorporates universal coupling. Accordingly, rho is coupled to the conserved isospin current, A to the partially conserved axial-vector current (PCAC), and ω to the conserved baryon current. As a result the only parameter of the model not directly related to experiment is the quark-pion coupling constant. A fully self-consistent mean-field solution to the model is found for fields in the hedgehog ansatz. The vector mesons play a very important role in the system. They contribute significantly to the values of observables and produce a high-quality fit to many data. The classical stability of the system with respect to hedgehog excitations is analyzed through the use of the Quark-Meson RPA equations (QMRPA)
Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Gangemi, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Roberto; Superchi, Stefano; Caporusso, Anna Maria; Ruzziconi, Renzo
2011-10-01
The IR and Near infrared (NIR) vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of molecules endowed with noncentral chirality have been investigated. Data for fundamental, first, and second overtone regions of (S)-2,3-pentadiene, exhibiting axial chirality, and methyl-d(3) (R)- and (S)-[2.2]paracyclophane-4-carboxylate, exhibiting planar chirality have been measured and analyzed. The analysis of NIR and IR VCD spectra was based on the local-mode model and the use of density functional theory (DFT), providing mechanical and electrical anharmonic terms for all CH-bonds. The comparison of experimental and calculated spectra is satisfactory and allows one to monitor fine details in the asymmetric charge distribution in the molecules: these details consist in the harmonic frequencies, in the principal anharmonicity constants, in both the atomic polar and axial tensors and in their first and second derivatives with respect to the CH-stretching coordinates. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Chiral approach to nuclear matter: Role of two-pion exchange with virtual delta-isobar excitation
Fritsch, S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.
2004-01-01
We extend a recent three-loop calculation of nuclear matter in chiral perturbation theory by including the effects from two-pion exchange with single and double virtual $\\Delta(1232)$-isobar excitation. Regularization dependent short-range contributions from pion-loops are encoded in a few NN-contact coupling constants. The empirical saturation point of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, $\\bar E_0 = -16 $MeV, $\\rho_0 = 0.16 $fm$^{-3}$, can be well reproduced by adjusting the strength of a two-...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraudi, G J; Prasad, D R
1874-01-01
Laser flash excitations at 640 nm have been used to generate the transient spectra of the lowest-lying /sup 3/..pi pi../sup */ state of phthalocyaninatoruthenium(II) complexes. The properties of this excited state such as the properties of the maxima, lambda/sub max/ = 500 +/- 30 nm, and lifetimes, t/sub 1/2/ = 70-4500 ns, exhibit a large dependence on the electron-accepting and electron-withdrawing tendencies of the axial ligands. A similar influence was observed upon the rate of electron-transfer quenching of the /sup 3/..pi pi../sup */ state. Values between 10/sup 6/ and 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for the self-exchange rate constant have been obtained, according to Marcus-Hush theoretical treatments, for (Ru(pc.)LL')/sup +//(/sup 3/..pi pi../sup */)(Ru(pc)LL') (L and L' = neutral axial ligands; pc = phthalocyaninate (2-)) and isoelectronic cobalt(III) and rhodium(III) couples. The redox properties of the ground and excited states are correlated with axial ligand-induced perturbations of the electronic structure.
Nucleus as a chiral filter: the role of the Δ(1232)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, Mannque.
1982-03-01
We describe how two different modes of chiral symmetry can be seen in nuclei. In particular, it is shown that the nuclear axial charge or more precisely the O + O - , ΔT=1 transition at zero momentum transfer probe the nuclear configuration wherein the axial charge gsub(A) is effectively enhanced in nuclear medium due to soft pions, symptomatic of the Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry in the medium while the Gamow-Teller resonances probe the configuration wherein soft pions are no longer operative, suggesting an approach toward the Wigner realization of chiral symmetry. Using the celebrated Adler-Weisberger relation, it is argued that the observed approximately 50% quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength reflects the possibility that the Gamow-Teller operator sees the quarks inside the bag, blind to the Goldstone vacuum outside. Some implications on chiral phase transitions are also discussed
LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY
VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A
1995-01-01
We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with
SU(3) chiral symmetry for baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dmitrasinovic, V.
2011-01-01
Three-quark nucleon interpolating fields in QCD have well-defined SU L (3)xSU R (3) and U A (1) chiral transformation properties, viz. [(6,3)+(3,6)], [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)], [(8,1)+(1,8)] and their 'mirror' images. It has been shown (phenomenologically) in Ref. [2] that mixing of the [(6,3)+(3,6)] chiral multiplet with one ordinary ('naive') and one 'mirror' field belonging to the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)], [(8,1)+(1,8)] multiplets can be used to fit the values of the isovector (g A (3) ) and the flavor-singlet (isoscalar) axial coupling (g A (0) ) of the nucleon and then predict the axial F and D coefficients, or vice versa, in reasonable agreement with experiment. In an attempt to derive such mixing from an effective Lagrangian, we construct all SU L (3)xSU R (3) chirally invariant non-derivative one-meson-baryon interactions and then calculate the mixing angles in terms of baryons' masses. It turns out that there are (strong) selection rules: for example, there is only one non-derivative chirally symmetric interaction between J 1/2 fields belonging to the [(6,3)+(3,6)] and the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)] chiral multiplets, that is also U A (1) symmetric. We also study the chiral interactions of the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)] and [(8,1)+(1,8)] nucleon fields. Again, there are selection rules that allow only one off-diagonal non-derivative chiral SU L (3)xSU R (3) interaction of this type, that also explicitly breaks the U A (1) symmetry. We use this interaction to calculate the corresponding mixing angles in terms of baryon masses and fit two lowest lying observed nucleon (resonance) masses, thus predicting the third (J = 1/2, I = 3/2)Δ resonance, as well as one or two flavor-singlet Λ hyperon(s), depending on the type of mixing. The effective chiral Lagrangians derived here may be applied to high density matter calculations.
Field theoretic perspectives of the Wigner function formulation of the chiral magnetic effect
Wu, Yan; Hou, De-fu; Ren, Hai-cang
2017-11-01
We assess the applicability of the Wigner function formulation in its present form to the chiral magnetic effect and note some issues regarding the conservation and the consistency of the electric current in the presence of an inhomogeneous and time-dependent axial chemical potential. The problems are rooted in the ultraviolet divergence of the underlying field theory associated with the axial anomaly and can be fixed with the Pauli-Villars regularization of the Wigner function. The chiral magnetic current with a nonconstant axial chemical potential is calculated with the regularized Wigner function and the phenomenological implications are discussed.
Study of axial magnetic effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and pion decay constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogohia, V.Sh.; Kluge, Gy.
1991-08-01
Flavour non-singlet, chiral axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is investigated in the framework of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The use of the condition of stationarity for the bound-state amplitude is proposed in order to fully determine this quantity and the regular piece of the corresponding axial vertex. This makes it possible to express the pion decay constant in terms of the quark propagator variables only. An exact expression was found for the pion decay constant in current algebra and in Jackiw-Johnson representation as well. We also find a new expression for the pion decay constant in the Pagels-Stokar-Cornwall variables within the framework of Jackiw-Johnson representation. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs
On the Bose symmetry and the left- and right-chiral anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porto, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Fisica-ICEX, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R. [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro-Campus Iturama, Iturama, MG (Brazil); Cherchiglia, A.L. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Fisica-ICEX, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Department of Physiscs, Coimbra (Portugal)
2018-02-15
It is generally assumed that in order to preserve Bose symmetry in the left- (or right-chiral) current it is necessary to equally distribute the chiral anomaly between the vectorial and the axial Ward identities, requiring the use of counterterms to restore consistency. In this work, we show how to calculate the quantum breaking of the left- and right-chiral currents in a way that allows to preserve Bose symmetry independently of the chiral anomaly, using the implicit regularization method. (orig.)
Belinsky, Moisey I
2016-05-02
The rotation behavior of the vector chirality κ, scalar chirality χ, and magnetization M in the rotating magnetic field H1 is considered for the V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets, in which the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya coupling is active. The polar rotation of the field H1 of the given strength H1 results in the energy spectrum characterized by different vector and scalar chiralities in the ground and excited states. The magnetochiral correlations between the vector and scalar chiralities, energy, and magnetization in the rotating field were considered. Under the uniform polar rotation of the field H1, the ground-state chirality vector κI performs sawtooth oscillations and the magnetization vector MI performs the sawtooth oscillating rotation that is accompanied by the correlated transformation of the scalar chirality χI. This demonstrates the magnetochiral effect of the joint rotation behavior and simultaneous frustrations of the spin chiralities and magnetization in the rotating field, which are governed by the correlation between the chiralities and magnetization.
Chirality-induced magnon transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets.
Owerre, S A
2016-11-30
In this Letter, we study the magnetic transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. For both couplings, we observe chirality-induced gaps, chiral protected edge states, magnon Hall and magnon spin Nernst effects of magnetic spin excitations. For ferromagnetically coupled layers, thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities do not change sign as function of magnetic field or temperature similar to single-layer honeycomb ferromagnetic insulator. In contrast, for antiferromagnetically coupled layers, we observe a sign change in the thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities as the magnetic field is reversed. We discuss possible experimental accessible honeycomb bilayer quantum materials in which these effects can be observed.
Nucleon parton distributions in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseeva, Alena
2013-01-01
Properties of the chiral expansion of nucleon light-cone operators have been studied. In the framework of the chiral perturbation theory we have demonstrated that convergency of the chiral expansion of nucleon parton distributions strongly depends on the value of the variable x. Three regions in x with essentially different analytical properties of the resulting chiral expansion for parton distributions were found. For each of the regions we have elaborated special power counting rules corresponding to the partial resummation of the chiral series. The nonlocal effective operators for the vector and the axial nucleon parton distributions have been constructed at the zeroth and the first chiral order. Using the derived nonlocal operators and the derived power counting rules we have obtained the second order expressions for the nucleon GPDs H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ), H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ),E(x,ξ,Δ 2 ) valid in the region x>or similar a 2 χ .
Ni, Cailing; Zha, Daijun; Ye, Hebo; Hai, Yu; Zhou, Yuntao; Anslyn, Eric V; You, Lei
2018-01-26
Axial chirality is a prevalent and important phenomenon in chemistry. Herein we report a combination of dynamic covalent chemistry and axial chirality for the development of a versatile platform for the binding and chirality sensing of multiple classes of mononucleophiles. An equilibrium between an open aldehyde and its cyclic hemiaminal within biphenyl derivatives enabled the dynamic incorporation of a broad range of alcohols, thiols, primary amines, and secondary amines with high efficiency. Selectivity toward different classes of nucleophiles was also achieved by regulating the distinct reactivity of the system with external stimuli. Through induced helicity as a result of central-to-axial chirality transfer, the handedness and ee values of chiral monoalcohol and monoamine analytes were reported by circular dichroism. The strategies introduced herein should find application in many contexts, including assembly, sensing, and labeling. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The role of resonances in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Rafael, E. de
1988-09-01
The strong interactions of low-lying meson resonances (spin ≤ 1) with the octet of pseudoscalar mesons (π,Κ,η) are considered to lowest order in the derivative expansion of chiral SU(3). The resonance contributions to the coupling constants of the O(p 4 ) effective chiral lagrangian involving pseudoscalar fields only are determined. These low-energy coupling constants are found to be dominated by the resonance contributions. Although we do not treat the vector and axial-vector mesons as gauge bosons of local chiral symmetry, vector meson dominance emerges as a prominent result of our analysis. As a further application of chiral resonance couplings, we calculate the electromagnetic pion mass difference to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory with explicit resonance fields. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)
Chiral symmetry and low energy pion-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coon, S.A.
1999-01-01
In these lectures, I examine the effect of the meson factory πN data on the current algebra/PCAC program which describes chiral symmetry breaking in this system. After historical remarks on the current algebra/PCAC versus chiral Lagrangians approaches to chiral symmetry, and description of the need for πN amplitudes with virtual (off-mass-shell) pions in nuclear force models and other nuclear physics problems, I begin with kinematics and isospin aspects of the invariant amplitudes. A detailed introduction to the hadronic vector and axial-vector currents and the hypothesis of partially conserved axial-vector currents (PCAC) follows. I review and test against contemporary data the PCAC predictions of the Goldberger-Treiman relation, and the Adler consistency condition for a πN amplitude. Then comes a detailed description of the current algebra Ward-Takahashi identities in the chiral limit and a brief account of the on-shell current algebra Ward-Takahashi identities. The latter identities form the basis of so-called current algebra models of πN scattering. I then test these models against the contemporary empirical πN amplitudes extrapolated into the subthreshold region via dispersion relations. The scale and the t dependence of the 'sigma term' is determined by the recent data. (author)
Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1984-09-01
Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise
Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trueman, T.L.
1979-04-01
The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozga, Christian, E-mail: ozga@physik.uni-kassel.de [Institute for Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Jänkälä, Kari [Centre for Molecular Materials Research, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Schmidt, Philipp; Hans, Andreas; Reiß, Philipp; Ehresmann, Arno; Knie, André [Institute for Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)
2016-02-15
Highlights: • Determination of the X-ray absorption spectra for two terpenoids and two terpenes. • Allocation of predominant or even site-selective excitation of stereocenters. • Fragment fluorescence spectra of the prototype molecules are identical. • Presented data can be used for future fluorescence circular dichroism experiments. - Abstract: Relative ionization cross sections and fluorescence intensities as functions of the exciting-photon energy were recorded for the chiral molecules carvone, α-pinene, limonene and fenchone after excitation by monochromatized synchrotron radiation with energies of the exciting-photons between 284 eV and 289 eV. At selected exciting-photon energies dispersed fragment fluorescence spectra in the wavelength range between 365 nm and 505 nm were obtained. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations were performed to analyze the experimentally observed resonance-structures. Comparison of the computed and recorded spectra demonstrates the possibility of a predominant or even specific excitation of one particular stereocenter site in a molecule with more than one stereocenter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cukras, Janusz; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick
2016-01-01
A computational protocol for magneto-chiral dichroism and magneto-chiral birefringence dispersion is presented within the framework of damped response theory, also known as complex polarization propagator theory, at the level of time-dependent Hartree–Fock and time-dependent density functional th...
Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo.
1985-03-01
The conventional axial gauging of the Wess-Zumino term leads to the results which do not necessarily agree with the expectations on the basis of quark level Ward-Takahashi identities. This discrepancy arises from the fact that the quark level anomalous identities reflect the short distance structure of QCD, whereas the gauging of the Wess-Zumino term reflects the axial symmetry in the spontaneously broken chiral phase. The low energy theorem for axial weak fields is not sharply defined, in contrast to the case of vector fields where no such complications arise. (author)
Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory
Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju
2018-03-01
In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.
Chiral corrections to the Adler-Weisberger sum rule
Beane, Silas R.; Klco, Natalie
2016-12-01
The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, gA , offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking—as exploited using chiral perturbation theory—which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to nonvanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy constants, the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is confronted with experimental data. With uncertainty estimates associated with the cross-section parametrization, the Goldberger-Treimann discrepancy, and the truncation of the sum rule at O (Mπ4) in the chiral expansion, this work finds gA=1.248 ±0.010 ±0.007 ±0.013 .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, A.A.; Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.
2006-03-01
We present data for the axial coupling constant g A of the nucleon obtained in lattice QCD with two degenerate flavours of dynamical non-perturbatively improved Wilson quarks. The renormalisation is also performed non-perturbatively. For the analysis we give a chiral extrapolation formula for g A based on the small scale expansion scheme of chiral effective field theory for two degenerate quark flavours. Applying this formalism in a finite volume we derive a formula that allows us to extrapolate our data simultaneously to the infinite volume and to the chiral limit. Using the additional lattice data in finite volume we are able to determine the axial coupling of the nucleon in the chiral limit without imposing the known value at the physical point. (Orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, A.A.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Physik-Department, Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2006-03-15
We present data for the axial coupling constant g{sub A} of the nucleon obtained in lattice QCD with two degenerate flavours of dynamical non-perturbatively improved Wilson quarks. The renormalisation is also performed non-perturbatively. For the analysis we give a chiral extrapolation formula for g{sub A} based on the small scale expansion scheme of chiral effective field theory for two degenerate quark flavours. Applying this formalism in a finite volume we derive a formula that allows us to extrapolate our data simultaneously to the infinite volume and to the chiral limit. Using the additional lattice data in finite volume we are able to determine the axial coupling of the nucleon in the chiral limit without imposing the known value at the physical point. (Orig.)
Transport and collective radiance in a basic quantum chiral optical model
Kornovan, D. F.; Petrov, M. I.; Iorsh, I. V.
2017-09-01
In our work, we theoretically study the dynamics of a single excitation in a one-dimensional array of two-level systems, which are chirally coupled through a single mode waveguide. The chirality is achieved owing to a strong optical spin-locking effect, which in an ideal case gives perfect unidirectional excitation transport. We obtain a simple analytical solution for a single excitation dynamics in the Markovian limit, which directly shows the tolerance of the system with respect to the fluctuations of emitters position. We also show that the Dicke state, which is well known to be superradiant, has twice lower emission rate in the case of unidirectional quantum interaction. Our model is supported and verified with the numerical computations of quantum emitters coupled via surface plasmon modes in a metallic nanowire. The obtained results are based on a very general model and can be applied to any chirally coupled system that gives a new outlook on quantum transport in chiral nanophotonics.
Physical properties of the chiral quantum baryon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignaco, A.J.; Wulck, S.
1989-01-01
It is presented an account to understand the quantum chiral baryon, which a stable chiral soliton with baryon number one obtained after first quantization by collective coordinates. Starting from the exact series solution to the non-linear sigma model with the hedge-hog configuration, the values of several physical quantities (mass, axial weak coupling, gyromagnetic ratios and radii) as a function of the order of Pade approximants used as approximanted representations of the solution, are calculated. It turns out that consistent results may be obtained, but a better approximation should be developed. (author) [pt
Chiral approach to nuclear matter: role of two-pion exchange with virtual delta-isobar excitation
Fritsch, virtual delta-isobar excitation S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.
2005-04-01
We extend a recent three-loop calculation of nuclear matter by including the effects from two-pion exchange with single and double virtual Δ(1232)-isobar excitation. Regularization dependent short-range contributions from pion-loops are encoded in a few NN-contact coupling constants. The empirical saturation point of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, E=-16 MeV, ρ=0.16 fm, can be well reproduced by adjusting the strength of a two-body term linear in density (and tuning an emerging three-body term quadratic in density). The nuclear matter compressibility comes out as K=304 MeV. The real single-particle potential U(p,k) is substantially improved by the inclusion of the chiral πNΔ-dynamics: it grows now monotonically with the nucleon momentum p. The effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface takes on a realistic value of M(k)=0.88M. As a consequence of these features, the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition gets lowered to the value T≃15 MeV. In this work we continue the complex-valued single-particle potential U(p,k)+iW(p,k) into the region above the Fermi surface p>k. The effects of 2 π-exchange with virtual Δ-excitation on the nuclear energy density functional are also investigated. The effective nucleon mass associated with the kinetic energy density is M(ρ)=0.64M. Furthermore, we find that the isospin properties of nuclear matter get significantly improved by including the chiral πNΔ-dynamics. Instead of bending downward above ρ as in previous calculations, the energy per particle of pure neutron matter E(k) and the asymmetry energy A(k) now grow monotonically with density. In the density regime ρ=2ρnuclear physics our results agree well with sophisticated many-body calculations and (semi)-empirical values.
The spin of the proton and the axial anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatsuda, T.; Zahed, I.
1989-01-01
We show that a consistent treatment of the abelian axial anomaly in a two-phase model of the proton yields a flavor singlet axial current that is saturated by the anomaly at Q 2 =0 in the chiral limit. This result suggests that at Q 2 =0 the matrix element of the flavor singlet axial current in a polarized proton state is small while the proton spin is still one-half. Modulo the QCD evolution equation, this result is in fair agreement with the recent EMC data. (orig.)
Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2010-01-01
We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.
Molecular spinning by a chiral train of short laser pulses
Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.
2012-12-01
We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of molecular rotational excitation by a chiral pulse train, a sequence of linearly polarized pulses with the polarization direction rotating from pulse to pulse by a controllable angle. Molecular rotation with a preferential rotational sense (clockwise or counterclockwise) can be excited by this scheme. We show that the directionality of the rotation is caused by quantum interference of different excitation pathways. The chiral pulse train is capable of selective excitation of molecular isotopologs and nuclear spin isomers in a mixture. We demonstrate this using 14N2 and 15N2 as examples for isotopologs and para- and ortho-nitrogen as examples for nuclear-spin isomers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J; Gu, Q; Lörscher, C; Klemm, R A
2014-01-01
We calculate the temperature T and angular (θ, ϕ) dependencies of the upper critical induction B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) for parallel-spin superconductors with an axially symmetric p-wave pairing interaction pinned to the lattice and a dominant ellipsoidal Fermi surface (FS). For all FS anisotropies, the chiral Scharnberg–Klemm (SK) state B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) exceeds that of the chiral Anderson–Brinkman–Morel (ABM) state and exhibits a kink at θ = θ * (T, ϕ), indicative of a first-order transition from its chiral, nodal-direction behavior to its non-chiral, antinodal-direction behavior. Applicabilities to Sr 2 RuO 4 , UCoGe and the candidate topological superconductor Cu x Bi 2 Se 3 are discussed. (fast track communication)
Axial crystals macroscopic symmetry and tensor properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janovec, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : axial * polar * pseudopolar * chiral * enantiomorphism * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing, Wu; Chun-Yan, Xiao
2010-01-01
The solutions to the electromagnetic field excited by a long axial current outside a conductive and magnetic cylindrical shell of finite length are studied in this paper. The more accurate analytical solutions are obtained by solving the proper boundary value problems by the separation variable method. Then the solutions are simplified according to asymptotic formulas of Bessel functions. Compared with the accurate solutions, the simplified solutions do not contain the Bessel functions and the inverse operation of the singular matrix, and can be calculated out fast by computers. The simplified solutions are more suitable for the cylindrical shell of high permeability and conductivity excited by a high frequency source. Both of the numerical results and the physical experimental results validate the simplified solutions obtained. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Axial nucleon form factors from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.
2011-01-01
We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-01
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-15
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Effective chiral restoration in the ρ' meson in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, Markus
2010-01-01
In simulations with dynamical quarks it has been established that the ground state ρ in the infrared is a strong mixture of the two chiral representations (0,1)+(1,0) and (1/2,1/2) b . Its angular momentum content is approximately the 3 S 1 partial wave. Effective chiral restoration in an excited ρ-meson would require that in the infrared this meson couples predominantly to one of the two representations. The variational method allows one to study the mixing of interpolators with different chiral transformation properties in the nonperturbatively determined excited state at different resolution scales. We present results for the first excited state of the ρ-meson using simulations with n f =2 dynamical quarks. We point out, that in the infrared a leading contribution to ρ ' =ρ(1450) comes from (1/2,1/2) b , in contrast to the ρ. The ρ ' wave function contains a significant contribution of the 3 D 1 wave which is not consistent with the quark model prediction.
Effective chiral restoration in the ρ' meson in lattice QCD
Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, Markus
2010-11-01
In simulations with dynamical quarks it has been established that the ground state ρ in the infrared is a strong mixture of the two chiral representations (0,1)+(1,0) and (1/2,1/2)b. Its angular momentum content is approximately the S13 partial wave. Effective chiral restoration in an excited ρ-meson would require that in the infrared this meson couples predominantly to one of the two representations. The variational method allows one to study the mixing of interpolators with different chiral transformation properties in the nonperturbatively determined excited state at different resolution scales. We present results for the first excited state of the ρ-meson using simulations with nf=2 dynamical quarks. We point out, that in the infrared a leading contribution to ρ'=ρ(1450) comes from (1/2,1/2)b, in contrast to the ρ. The ρ' wave function contains a significant contribution of the D13 wave which is not consistent with the quark model prediction.
Regular Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tips can be Intrinsically Chiral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tierney, Heather L.; Murphy, Colin J.; Sykes, E. Charles H.
2011-01-01
We report our discovery that regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can themselves be chiral. This chirality leads to differences in electron tunneling efficiencies through left- and right-handed molecules, and, when using the tip to electrically excite molecular rotation, large differences in rotation rate were observed which correlated with molecular chirality. As scanning tunneling microscopy is a widely used technique, this result may have unforeseen consequences for the measurement of asymmetric surface phenomena in a variety of important fields.
Regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can be intrinsically chiral.
Tierney, Heather L; Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H
2011-01-07
We report our discovery that regular scanning tunneling microscope tips can themselves be chiral. This chirality leads to differences in electron tunneling efficiencies through left- and right-handed molecules, and, when using the tip to electrically excite molecular rotation, large differences in rotation rate were observed which correlated with molecular chirality. As scanning tunneling microscopy is a widely used technique, this result may have unforeseen consequences for the measurement of asymmetric surface phenomena in a variety of important fields.
Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Lazzeretti, Paolo
2017-11-01
Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.
Wang, Chen; Sun, Zuo-Bang; Xu, Qing-Wen; Zhao, Cui-Hua
2016-11-14
It is a challenging issue to achieve propeller chirality for triarylboranes owing to the low transition barrier between the P and M forms of the boron center. Herein, we report a new strategy to achieve propeller chirality of triarylboranes. It was found that the chirality relay from axially chiral 1,1'-binaphthyl to propeller chirality of the trivalent boron center can be realized when a Me 2 N and a Mes 2 B group (Mes=mesityl) are introduced at the 2,2'-positions of the 1,1'-binaphthyl skeleton (BN-BNaph) owing to the strong π-π interaction between the Me 2 N-bonded naphthyl ring and the phenyl ring of one adjacent Mes group, which not only exerts great steric hindrance on the rotation of the two Mes groups but also gives unequal stability to the two configurations of the boron center for a given configuration of the binaphthyl moiety. The stereostructures of the boron center were fully characterized through 1 H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystal analyses, and theoretical calculations. Detailed comparisons with the analog BN-Ph-BNaph, in which the Mes 2 B group is separated from 1,1'-binaphthyl by a para-phenylene spacer, confirmed the essential role of π-π interaction for the successful chirality relay in BN-BNaph. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Photoinduced molecular chirality probed by ultrafast resonant X-ray spectroscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jérémy R. Rouxel
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Recently developed circularly polarized X-ray light sources can probe the ultrafast chiral electronic and nuclear dynamics through spatially localized resonant core transitions. We present simulations of time-resolved circular dichroism signals given by the difference of left and right circularly polarized X-ray probe transmission following an excitation by a circularly polarized optical pump with the variable time delay. Application is made to formamide which is achiral in the ground state and assumes two chiral geometries upon optical excitation to the first valence excited state. Probes resonant with various K-edges (C, N, and O provide different local windows onto the parity breaking geometry change thus revealing the enantiomer asymmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belinsky, Moisey I.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Distorted spin configurations determine field behavior of the variable chiralities. • Distortions change spin chiralities, intermediate M 12 ± and staggered magnetization. • Magnetizations, distorted vector and scalar chiralities are strongly correlated. • Distorted V 3 , Cu 3 nanomagnets possess large vector chirality in the ground state in B ⊥ . • Chiralities and distortions in EPR, INS and NMR spectra were considered. - Abstract: Correlated spin configurations, magnetizations, frustration, vector κ ¯ z and scalar χ ¯ chiralities are considered for distorted V ‾ 3 , /Cu 3 / anisotropic DM nanomagnets in transverse B x ‖X and longitudinal B‖Z fields. Different planar configurations in the ground and excited states of distorted nanomagnets in B x determine different field behavior of the vector chiralities and the degenerate frustration in these states correlated with the M ~ 12 ± (B x ) intermediate spin (IS) magnetization which describes the S 12 characteristics, χ=0. Distortion results in the reduced κ ¯ z <1 chirality in the ground distorted configuration and in the maximum κ z =±1 in the excited states with the planar 120° configurations at avoided level crossing. In B‖Z, distorted longitudinal spin-collinear configurations are characterized by the reduced degenerate frustration, out-of-plane staggered and IS M ~ 12 ± (B z ) magnetizations, and in-plane toroidal moments, correlated with the κ ¯ z , χ ¯ chiralities, χ ¯ =±|κ ¯ z |. The chiralities and IS magnetization in EPR, INS and NMR spectra are considered. The quantitative correlations describe variable spin chirality, frustration and field manipulation of chiralities in nanomagnets
Illuminating the chirality of Weyl fermions
Ma, Qiong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chan, Ching-Kit; Zhang, Cheng-Long; Chang, Guoqing; Lin, Hsin; Jia, Shuang; Lee, Patrick; Gedik, Nuh; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo
In particle physics, Weyl fermions (WF) are elementary particles that travel at the speed of light and have a definite chirality. In condensed matter, it has been recently realized that WFs can arise as magnetic monopoles in the momentum space of a novel topological metal, the Weyl semimetal (WSM). Their chirality, given by the sign of the monopole charge, is the defining property of a WSM, since it directly serves as the topological number and gives rise to exotic properties such as Fermi arcs and the chiral anomaly. Moreover, the two chiralities, analogous to the two valleys in 2D materials, lead to a new degree of freedom in a 3D crystal, suggesting novel pathways to store and carry information. By shining circularly polarized light on the WSM TaAs, we illuminate the chirality of the WFs and achieve an electrical current that is highly controllable based on the WFs' chirality. Our results open up a wide range of new possibilities for experimentally studying and controlling the WFs and their associated quantum anomalies by optical and electrical means, which suggest the exciting prospect of ``Weyltronics''.
Renormalization of the axial-vector current in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, C.B.; Pasupathy, J.; Wilson, S.L.
1985-01-01
Following the method of Ioffe and Smilga, the propagation of the baryon current in an external constant axial-vector field is considered. The close similarity of the operator-product expansion with and without an external field is shown to arise from the chiral invariance of gauge interactions in perturbation theory. Several sum rules corresponding to various invariants both for the nucleon and the hyperons are derived. The analysis of the sum rules is carried out by two independent methods, one called the ratio method and the other called the continuum method, paying special attention to the nondiagonal transitions induced by the external field between the ground state and excited states. Up to operators of dimension six, two new external-field-induced vacuum expectation values enter the calculations. Previous work determining these expectation values from PCAC (partial conservation of axial-vector current) are utilized. Our determination from the sum rules of the nucleon axial-vector renormalization constant G/sub A/, as well as the Cabibbo coupling constants in the SU 3 -symmetric limit (m/sub s/ = 0), is in reasonable accord with the experimental values. Uncertainties in the analysis are pointed out. The case of broken flavor SU 3 symmetry is also considered. While in the ratio method, the results are stable for variation of the fiducial interval of the Borel mass parameter over which the left-hand side and the right-hand side of the sum rules are matched, in the continuum method the results are less stable. Another set of sum rules determines the value of the linear combination 7F-5D to be roughly-equal0, or D/(F+D)roughly-equal(7/12). .AE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikiji Miyata
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A multi-point approximation method clarifies supramolecular chirality of twofold rotational or helical assemblies as well as bundles of the one-dimensional (1D assemblies. While one-point approximation of materials claims no chirality generation of such assemblies, multi-point approximations do claim possible generation in the 1D assemblies of bars and plates. Such chirality derives from deformations toward three-axial directions around the helical axes. The chiral columns are bundled in chiral ways through symmetry operations. The preferable right- or left-handed columns are bundled together to yield chiral crystals with right- or left-handedness, respectively, indicating that twofold helix symmetry operations cause chiral crystals composed of achiral components via a three-stepwise and three-directional process.
Symmetry and symmetry restoration of lattice chiral fermions in the overlap formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikukawa, Y.
1999-01-01
Three aspects of the symmetry structure of lattice chiral fermions in the overlap formalism are discussed. By the weak coupling expansion of the overlap Dirac operator, the axial anomaly associated to the chiral transformation proposed by Luescher is evaluated and is shown to have the correct form of the topological charge density for perturbative backgrounds. Next we discuss the exponential suppression of the self-energy correction of the lightest mode in the domain-wall fermion/truncated overlap. Finally, we consider a supersymmetric extension of the overlap formula in the case of the chiral multiplet and examine the symmetry structure of the action
Chiral Magnetic Effect and Anomalous Transport from Real-Time Lattice Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Müller, Niklas; Schlichting, Sören; Sharma, Sayantan
2016-01-01
Here, we present a first-principles study of anomaly induced transport phenomena by performing real-time lattice simulations with dynamical fermions coupled simultaneously to non-Abelian S U (N _c) and Abelian U (1) gauge fields. By investigating the behavior of vector and axial currents during a sphaleron transition in the presence of an external magnetic field, we demonstrate how the interplay of the chiral magnetic and chiral separation effect leads to the formation of a propagating wave. Furthermore, we analyze the dependence of the magnitude of the induced vector current and the propagation of the wave on the amount of explicit chiral symmetry breaking due to finite quark masses.
Transport properties of chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puhr, Matthias
2017-04-26
Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume
Axial and parity anomalies and vacuum charge: A direct approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Blankenbecler, R.
1985-01-01
We study the axial and parity anomalies in Abelian gauge theories using the direct yet intuitive approach of counting the relative number of states of one chirality with respect to the other. A fundamental gauge-invariant quantity, the determinantal ratio, is introduced for this purpose. We find that the number of states is conserved and that the gauge fields differentially phase shift states of opposite chirality at infinite energies. This implies a relative flow of states at very large energies which must be compensated by a rearrangement of the density of states at finite energies. We then derive a sum rule which yields two alternative formulas for the index of a Dirac operator. One expresses the index in terms of its high-energy behavior, and the other in terms of the low-energy properties; these are the ''zero modes'' of definite chirality. Two examples are worked out in detail to clarify our general result. The physics of the axial anomaly is shown to translate into that of the parity anomaly in 2+1 dimensions, in which parity and chirality have interchanged roles. We also analyze the vacuum charge in regard to its high- and low-energy origin. The possibility of spectral flow is formulated and briefly discussed. In short, we provide a physical interpretation of certain mathematical indices, relate them to an extended version of Levinson's theorem of potential scattering, and simplify their evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Abedi
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.
Excitation of chiral molecules and their hydrated by clusters by R2PI studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satta, M.; Piccirillo, S.; Scuderia, D.; Paladini, A.; Della Vedova, L.; Filippi, A.; Speranza, M.; Giardini, A.
2002-01-01
Molecular clusters play a key role in the molecular scale explanation of macroscopic phenomena, being in between the isolated gas phase and the condensed phase. Thus, allowing to obtain information on intermolecular forces simply by studying the physicochemical properties of isolated clusters and to extend them macroscopic systems. A comprehensive study of the short-range forces operating in the molecular complexes between several chiral aromatic alcohols (M) and water (solv), through the application of mass resolved REMPI technique is reported. The experimental setup was composed by a supersonic molecular beam, two Nd-YAG pumped dye lasers and a time of flight mass spectrometer. The photoionization efficiency curves were obtained as follows: a) the first exciting laser (hv 1 ) was tuned on the S 1 0 transition of the species of interest; b) the laser intensity is lowered to about 1 % of the initial fluence to minimize the hv 1 absorption; c)a second laser (hv 2 ) is scanned through the cluster ionization and fragmentation threshold regions. The binding energy of the M-solv adduct was computed from the differences between its dissociative ionization threshold and the ionization threshold of bare M. The mass-resolved one colour R2PI excitation spectra of l-tetralol (THN R ), THN R -H 2 O, l i ndanol (I R ) and I R -H 2 O are given. (nevyjel)
Kawashima, Aki; Shu, Shuangjie; Takeda, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Akie; Sato, Tatsunori; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Wang, Jiang; Izawa, Kunisuke; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong
2016-04-01
Asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is in extremely high demand due to the pharmaceutical importance of this tailor-made, sterically constrained α-amino acid. Here we report the development of an advanced procedure for preparation of the target amino acid via two-step SN2 and SN2' alkylation of novel axially chiral nucleophilic glycine equivalent. Excellent yields and diastereoselectivity coupled with reliable and easy scalability render this method of immediate use for practical synthesis of (1R,2S)-vinyl-ACCA.
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Boyarsky, Alexey [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Fröhlich, Jürg [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer, E-mail: gary@bgu.ac.il [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-09-10
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer
2017-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.
Gauge anomaly with vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space
Yajima, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Makoto; Oka, Tomonori
2018-03-01
Imposing the conservation equation of the vector current for a fermion of spin 1/2 at the quantum level, a gauge anomaly for the fermion coupling with non-Abelian vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space is expressed in tensorial form. The anomaly consists of terms that resemble the chiral U(1) anomaly and the commutator terms that disappear if the axial-vector field is Abelian.
Mai, Thi Thoa; Viswambharan, Baby; Gori, Didier; Guillot, Régis; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Kouklovsky, Cyrille; Alezra, Valérie
2017-04-27
One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. In this field, the absolute asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids is a major challenge. Herein, we report access, by chemical means, to tertiary α-amino acid derivatives in up to 96 % ee without using any chiral reagent. In our strategy, the dynamic axial chirality of tertiary aromatic amides is frozen in a crystal and is responsible for the stereoselectivity of the subsequent steps. Furthermore, we could control the configuration of the final product by manually sorting and selecting the initial crystals. Based on vibrational circular dichroism studies, we could rationalize the observed stereoselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Broken chiral symmetry and the structure of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.
1982-01-01
The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry plays a decisive role in the structure of hadrons composed of light quarks. The formalism by which the dynamics of chiral symmetry breaking and its implications for hadronic structure can be explored in a simplified world in which fully relativistic zero-bare-mass quarks interact through a chirally symmetric instantaneous confining potential is presented. By thus modeling the essentials of the chiral limit-N/sub c/ infinity limit of QCD contact is made with the successes of existent semiphenomenological models of hadrons but post assumptions which explicitly violate chiral symetry are avoided. This revised approach then makes possible a unification of the dynamics of hadron structure with the mechanism of spontaneous chiral breaking and guarantees the appearance of the correct Goldstone excitations. The chiral breaking order parameter (absolute value anti psi psi), effective quark mass, and Goldstone boson wave function are obtainable by solving a single non-linear integral equation once a potential has been prescribed. The stability of the chiral asymmetric vacuum must then be established by studying the linear eigenvalue problem which determines the spectrum of states with vacuum quantum numbers. The nature of the instability of the chiral symmetric vacuum that leads to spontaneous symmetry breaking is explained and its apparent contingency on details of the dynamics is emphasized. It is argued that a single massless fermion in a chirally symmetric potential does form bound states for which a semi-classical description is given. Coupling to vacuum pairs of such bound states occasions the possibility of chiral symmetry breakdown
Strain-induced chiral magnetic effect in Weyl semimetals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortijo, Alberto; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Vozmediano, Maria A. H.
2016-01-01
Here, we argue that strain applied to a time-reversal and inversion breaking Weyl semimetal in a magnetic field can induce an electric current via the chiral magnetic effect. A tight-binding model is used to show that strain generically changes the locations in the Brillouin zone but also the energies of the band touching points (tips of the Weyl cones). Since axial charge in a Weyl semimetal can relax via intervalley scattering processes, the induced current will decay with a time scale given by the lifetime of a chiral quasiparticle. Lastly, we estimate the strength and lifetime of the current for typical material parameters and find that it should be experimentally observable.
Chiral topological insulator on Nambu 3-algebraic geometry
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Kazuki Hasebe
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Chiral topological insulator (AIII-class with Landau levels is constructed based on the Nambu 3-algebraic geometry. We clarify the geometric origin of the chiral symmetry of the AIII-class topological insulator in the context of non-commutative geometry of 4D quantum Hall effect. The many-body groundstate wavefunction is explicitly derived as a (l,l,l−1 Laughlin–Halperin type wavefunction with unique K-matrix structure. Fundamental excitation is identified with anyonic string-like object with fractional charge 1/(2(l−12+1. The Hall effect of the chiral topological insulators turns out be a color version of Hall effect, which exhibits a dual property of the Hall and spin-Hall effects.
Dispersive approach to the axial anomaly and nonrenormalization theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasechnik, R.S.; Teryaev, O.V.
2006-01-01
Anomalous triangle graphs for the divergence of the axial-vector current are studied using the dispersive approach generalized for the case of higher orders of perturbation theory. The validity of this procedure is proved up to the two-loop level. By direct calculation in the framework of dispersive approach we have obtained that the two-loop axial-vector-vector (AVV) amplitude is equal to zero. According to the Vainshtein's theorem, the transversal part of the anomalous triangle is not renormalized in the chiral limit. We generalize this theorem for the case of finite fermion mass in the triangle loop
Roy, Sthitadhi; Kolodrubetz, Michael; Goldman, Nathan; Grushin, Adolfo G.
2018-04-01
In this work, we describe a toolbox to realize and probe synthetic axial gauge fields in engineered Weyl semimetals. These synthetic electromagnetic fields, which are sensitive to the chirality associated with Weyl nodes, emerge due to spatially and temporally dependent shifts of the corresponding Weyl momenta. First, we introduce two realistic models, inspired by recent cold-atom developments, which are particularly suitable for the exploration of these synthetic axial gauge fields. Second, we describe how to realize and measure the effects of such axial fields through center-of-mass observables, based on semiclassical equations of motion and exact numerical simulations. In particular, we suggest realistic protocols to reveal an axial Hall response due to the axial electric field \
Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to Chiral Perturbation Theory
Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David
2015-01-01
The Soft Wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We correct analytically this problem and describe the axial sector and chiral symmetry breaking. The low energy chiral parameters, $F_{\\pi}$ and $L_{10}$ , are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions.
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta Avalo, J.L., E-mail: jlacosta@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), Ave Salvador Allende, No. 1110, Vedado, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Pérez Rojas, H., E-mail: hugo@icimaf.cu [Instituto de Cibernética, Matemática y Física (ICIMAF), Calle E esq 15, No. 309, Vedado, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)
2016-08-15
We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone) contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone). In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.L. Acosta Avalo
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone. In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.
Large degeneracy of excited hadrons and quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicudo, P.
2007-01-01
The pattern of a large approximate degeneracy of the excited hadron spectra (larger than the chiral restoration degeneracy) is present in the recent experimental report of Bugg. Here we try to model this degeneracy with state of the art quark models. We review how the Coulomb Gauge chiral invariant and confining Bethe-Salpeter equation simplifies in the case of very excited quark-antiquark mesons, including angular or radial excitations, to a Salpeter equation with an ultrarelativistic kinetic energy with the spin-independent part of the potential. The resulting meson spectrum is solved, and the excited chiral restoration is recovered, for all mesons with J>0. Applying the ultrarelativistic simplification to a linear equal-time potential, linear Regge trajectories are obtained, for both angular and radial excitations. The spectrum is also compared with the semiclassical Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization relation. However, the excited angular and radial spectra do not coincide exactly. We then search, with the classical Bertrand theorem, for central potentials producing always classical closed orbits with the ultrarelativistic kinetic energy. We find that no such potential exists, and this implies that no exact larger degeneracy can be obtained in our equal-time framework, with a single principal quantum number comparable to the nonrelativistic Coulomb or harmonic oscillator potentials. Nevertheless we find it plausible that the large experimental approximate degeneracy will be modeled in the future by quark models beyond the present state of the art
Tailoring the chirality of light emission with spherical Si-based antennas.
Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Bonod, Nicolas
2016-05-21
Chirality of light is of fundamental importance in several enabling technologies with growing applications in life sciences, chemistry and photodetection. Recently, some attention has been focused on chiral quantum emitters. Consequently, optical antennas which are able to tailor the chirality of light emission are needed. Spherical nanoresonators such as colloids are of particular interest to design optical antennas since they can be synthesized at a large scale and they exhibit good optical properties. Here, we show that these colloids can be used to tailor the chirality of a chiral emitter. To this purpose, we derive an analytic formalism to model the interaction between a chiral emitter and a spherical resonator. We then compare the performances of metallic and dielectric spherical antennas to tailor the chirality of light emission. It is seen that, due to their strong electric dipolar response, metallic spherical nanoparticles spoil the chirality of light emission by yielding achiral fields. In contrast, thanks to the combined excitation of electric and magnetic modes, dielectric Si-based particles feature the ability to inhibit or to boost the chirality of light emission. Finally, it is shown that dual modes in dielectric antennas preserve the chirality of light emission.
Gluonic contributions in the chiral hyperbag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, B.Y.; Vento, V.; Valencia Univ./CSIC, Valencia
1990-01-01
We incorporate into a non-perturbative chiral bag model scheme the gluons and the η' in a perturbative fashion. We analyze in this context the proton matrix element for the flavor singlet axial current, where due account is taken of the anomaly, and the delta-nucleon mass difference. Our results show that the contribution due to the gluons is significant for large bag radii and that they are crucial in order to establish the Cheshire cat principle. (orig.)
Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer
2005-03-01
We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dick, Viktor
2016-04-01
In this work, the spectrum of the overlap Dirac operator has been computed and analyzed on configurations that had been created using highly improved staggered quarks. Although the overlap operator is expensive to compute, it has the advantage that it fully implements chiral symmetry in the same way as the continuum QCD Dirac operator even at finite lattice spacings. This opened the possibility to investigate chiral aspects of QCD and, in particular, the question if the axial anomaly is suppressed at the chiral transition temperature T c . The obtained results indicate that the axial anomaly is still present at T c and even at 1.5 T c as evidenced by a splitting in the integrated pion and delta susceptibilities. The spectrum shows a peak in the near-zero region consisting of zero modes and pairs of near-zero modes. The breaking of the axial symmetry was identified as being caused by these infrared modes. It was discussed how this infrared contribution might change in the thermodynamic, continuum, and chiral limits. The obtained data supports the expectation that the peak becomes narrower with decreasing quark masses, resulting in a Dirac-delta peak in the chiral limit. The area under the peak was found to decrease with decreasing lattice spacing, so in order to resolve how much of it survives the continuum limit further investigations are needed, in particular ones where already for the generation of gauge configurations chiral fermions are used. The infrared modes were investigated and found to be highly localized, supporting the picture of QCD at high temperatures as a dilute instanton gas. The instantons were found to have an average size of 0.239(4) fm and a density of 0.154(5) fm -4 at 1.5 T c . Near-zero modes were found to be induced by instanton-anti-instanton molecules, which are weakly bound. At temperatures closer to T c , this picture becomes more complicated but these features sometimes still can be recognized. In conclusion, in QCD at temperatures
Interwoven Patterns of Chirality Among Solar Structures: a Review
Martin, Sara F.
2009-05-01
Chirality is the handedness of solar magnetic structures as recognized in two dimensional solar images or in other solar data revealing distinct magnetic patterns. This review covers the historical succession of discoveries of the chirality of solar magnetic structures, beginning with left and right-handed helical magnetic clouds detected in many interplanetary coronal mass ejections. This led to the recognition of corresponding chiralities in coronal loop systems. Separately, chiral patterns in filaments, filament channels, sunspots, sigmoidal structures, and flare loop systems were established, interrelated, and linked to the chirality of coronal loop systems. The result was the finding that all solar chiral patterns fall into two and only two larger chiral systems with one system more prevalent in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern hemisphere. From chiral characteristics, along with knowledge or assumptions about the magnetic field topology, we have the ability to better deduce the helicities characteristic of many solar structures. Traditionally, helicity is a property of magnetic fields with strict mathematical definitions in two well-known forms: twist and writhe. Application of the principle of the conservation of helicity to chiral systems now leads to more mature interpretations of the helicity of whole solar magnetic field systems as well as their components, which together must contain equivalent amounts of both left and right-handed helicity. From this broadened perspective, comes a better understanding of why right-handed coronal loops necessarily exist above filaments with left-handed barbs that always overly left-handed filament channels and vice versa. Along with this greater understanding, we are collectively at the point of learning to better recognize and predict the senses of roll, twist, and writhe in the axial fields of erupting prominences. These, in turn, confirm the signs of helicity in associated CMEs and magnetic clouds
Ksub(lsub(4)) decay in the chiral quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Kreopalov, D.V.; Volkov, M.K.
1978-01-01
Form factors of Ksub(lsub(4))-decay are described in the framework of chiral quantum field theory. The axial form factors are calculated in the tree approximation which defines their main contribution. The vector form factor is calculated in the one-loop approximation. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data
Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pumsa-ard, K.
2006-07-01
In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints
On Yang--Mills Theories with Chiral Matter at Strong Coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shifman, M.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Saclay, SPhT; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-08-20
Strong coupling dynamics of Yang-Mills theories with chiral fermion content remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. In this work, we propose a dynamical framework in which we can address non-perturbative properties of chiral, non-supersymmetric gauge theories, in particular, chiral quiver theories on S{sub 1} x R{sub 3}. Double-trace deformations are used to stabilize the center-symmetric vacuum. This allows one to smoothly connect smaller(S{sub 1}) to larger(S{sub 1}) physics (R{sub 4} is the limiting case) where the double-trace deformations are switched off. In particular, occurrence of the mass gap in the gauge sector and linear confinement due to bions are analytically demonstrated. We find the pattern of the chiral symmetry realization which depends on the structure of the ring operators, a novel class of topological excitations. The deformed chiral theory, unlike the undeformed one, satisfies volume independence down to arbitrarily small volumes (a working Eguchi-Kawai reduction) in the large N limit. This equivalence, may open new perspectives on strong coupling chiral gauge theories on R{sub 4}.
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. II. Simulations
Schober, Jennifer; Rogachevskii, Igor; Brandenburg, Axel; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Kleeorin, Nathan
2018-05-01
Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), we study laminar and turbulent dynamos in chiral magnetohydrodynamics with an extended set of equations that accounts for an additional contribution to the electric current due to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This quantum phenomenon originates from an asymmetry between left- and right-handed relativistic fermions in the presence of a magnetic field and gives rise to a chiral dynamo. We show that the magnetic field evolution proceeds in three stages: (1) a small-scale chiral dynamo instability, (2) production of chiral magnetically driven turbulence and excitation of a large-scale dynamo instability due to a new chiral effect (α μ effect), and (3) saturation of magnetic helicity and magnetic field growth controlled by a conservation law for the total chirality. The α μ effect becomes dominant at large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers and is not related to kinetic helicity. The growth rate of the large-scale magnetic field and its characteristic scale measured in the numerical simulations agree well with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The previously discussed two-stage chiral magnetic scenario did not include stage (2), during which the characteristic scale of magnetic field variations can increase by many orders of magnitude. Based on the findings from numerical simulations, the relevance of the CME and the chiral effects revealed in the relativistic plasma of the early universe and of proto-neutron stars are discussed.
Chiral near-fields around chiral dolmen nanostructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Tong; Wang, Tiankun; Chen, Yuyan; Wang, Yongkai; Qu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongyue
2017-01-01
Discriminating the handedness of the chiral molecule is of great importance in the field of pharmacology and biomedicine. Enhancing the chiral near-field is one way to increase the chiral signal of chiral molecules. In this paper, the chiral dolmen nanostructure (CDN) is proposed to enhance the chiral near-field. Numerical results show that the CDN can increase the optical chirality of the near-field by almost two orders of magnitude compared to that of a circularly polarized incident wave. In addition, the optical chirality of the near-field of the bonding mode is enhanced more than that of the antibonding mode. These results provide an effective method for tailoring the chiral near-field for biophotonics sensors. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDougall, N.A.
1983-01-01
When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta') 2 fsub(eta') 2 is proportional to the vacuum energy density. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minodora Maria PASĂRE
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In these paper, starting from the relations for the displacements and spinning the transversal section of a bar with thin walls of sections opened expressed by the corresponding influence functions and introducing the components of the exterior forces distributed and the moments of the exterior forces distributed due to the inertia forces, the exciting axial forces together with the following effect of these and of the reaction forces of the elastic environment for leaning it may reach to the system of the equations of parametric vibrations under the form of three integral equation These equations may serve for the study of vibrations of the bars, to study the static stability and to study the dynamic stability
Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Hutchison, James A; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2013-01-01
We calculate optical forces and torques exerted on a chiral dipole by chiral light fields and reveal genuine chiral forces in combining the chiral contents of both light field and dipolar matter. Here, the optical chirality is characterized in a general way through the definition of optical chirality density and chirality flow. We show, in particular, that both terms have mechanical effects associated, respectively, with reactive and dissipative components of the chiral forces. Remarkably, these chiral force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation for the reactive component and circular dichroism for the dissipative one. As a consequence, the resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This suggests promising strategies for using chiral light forces to mechanically separate chiral objects according to their enantiomeric form. (paper)
Relativistic chiral SU(3) symmetry, large Nc sum rules and meson-baryon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, M.F.M.; Kolomeitsev, E.E.
2001-05-01
The relativistic chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is used to describe kaon-nucleon scattering imposing constraints from the pion-nucleon sector and the axial-vector coupling constants of the baryon octet states. We solve the covariant coupled-channel Bethe-Salpeter equation with the interaction kernel truncated at chiral order Q 3 where we include only those terms which are leading in the large N c limit of QCD. The baryon decuplet states are an important explicit ingredient in our scheme, because together with the baryon octet states they form the large N c baryon ground states of QCD. Part of our technical developments is a minimal chiral subtraction scheme within dimensional regularization, which leads to a manifest realization of the covariant chiral counting rules. All SU(3) symmetry-breaking effects are well controlled by the combined chiral and large N c expansion, but still found to play a crucial role in understanding the empirical data. We achieve an excellent description of the data set typically up to laboratory momenta of p lab ≅ 500 MeV. (orig.)
Plasmonic rack-and-pinion gear with chiral metasurface
Gorodetski, Yuri; Karabchevsky, Alina
2016-04-01
The effect of circularly polarized beaming excited by traveling surface plasmons, via chiral metasurface is experimentally studied. Here we show that the propagation direction of the plasmonic wave, evanescently excited on the thin gold film affects the handedness of the scattered beam polarization. Nanostructured metasurface leads to excitation of localized plasmonic modes whose relative spatial orientation induces overall spin-orbit interaction. This effect is analogical to the rack-and-pinion gear: the rotational motion into the linear motion converter. From the practical point of view, the observed effect can be utilized in integrated optical circuits for communication systems, cyber security and sensing.
Massive torsion modes, chiral gravity and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Lay Nam; Soo Chopin
2003-01-01
Regularization of quantum field theories introduces a mass scale which breaks axial rotational and scaling invariances. We demonstrate from first principles that axial torsion and torsion trace modes have non-transverse vacuum polarization tensors, and become massive as a result. The underlying reasons are similar to those responsible for the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) and scaling anomalies. Since these are the only torsion components that can couple minimally to spin-1/2 particles, the anomalous generation of masses for these modes, naturally of the order of the regulator scale, may help to explain why torsion and its associated effects, including CPT violation in chiral gravity, have so far escaped detection. As a simpler manifestation of the reasons underpinning the ABJ anomaly than triangle diagrams, the vacuum polarization demonstration is also pedagogically useful. In addition, it is shown that the teleparallel limit of a Weyl fermion theory coupled only to the left-handed spin connection leads to a counter term which is the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of chiral gravity in four dimensions
Massive torsion modes, chiral gravity and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Lay Nam [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States); Soo Chopin [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)
2003-04-07
Regularization of quantum field theories introduces a mass scale which breaks axial rotational and scaling invariances. We demonstrate from first principles that axial torsion and torsion trace modes have non-transverse vacuum polarization tensors, and become massive as a result. The underlying reasons are similar to those responsible for the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) and scaling anomalies. Since these are the only torsion components that can couple minimally to spin-1/2 particles, the anomalous generation of masses for these modes, naturally of the order of the regulator scale, may help to explain why torsion and its associated effects, including CPT violation in chiral gravity, have so far escaped detection. As a simpler manifestation of the reasons underpinning the ABJ anomaly than triangle diagrams, the vacuum polarization demonstration is also pedagogically useful. In addition, it is shown that the teleparallel limit of a Weyl fermion theory coupled only to the left-handed spin connection leads to a counter term which is the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of chiral gravity in four dimensions.
Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun
2017-11-01
Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center-controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, ( S )-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.
Chiral Gold Nanoclusters: Atomic Level Origins of Chirality.
Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao
2017-08-04
Chiral nanomaterials have received wide interest in many areas, but the exact origin of chirality at the atomic level remains elusive in many cases. With recent significant progress in atomically precise gold nanoclusters (e.g., thiolate-protected Au n (SR) m ), several origins of chirality have been unveiled based upon atomic structures determined by using single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The reported chiral Au n (SR) m structures explicitly reveal a predominant origin of chirality that arises from the Au-S chiral patterns at the metal-ligand interface, as opposed to the chiral arrangement of metal atoms in the inner core (i.e. kernel). In addition, chirality can also be introduced by a chiral ligand, manifested in the circular dichroism response from metal-based electronic transitions other than the ligand's own transition(s). Lastly, the chiral arrangement of carbon tails of the ligands has also been discovered in a very recent work on chiral Au 133 (SR) 52 and Au 246 (SR) 80 nanoclusters. Overall, the origins of chirality discovered in Au n (SR) m nanoclusters may provide models for the understanding of chirality origins in other types of nanomaterials and also constitute the basis for the development of various applications of chiral nanoparticles. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators
Ramini, Abdallah
2016-09-12
We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
Control and femtosecond time-resolved imaging of torsion in a chiral molecule
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Nielsen, Jens Hedegaard; Madsen, Christian Bruun
2012-01-01
We study how the combination of long and short laser pulses can be used to induce torsion in an axially chiral biphenyl derivative (3,5-difluoro-3′,5′-dibromo-4′-cyanobiphenyl). A long, with respect to the molecular rotational periods, elliptically polarized laser pulse produces 3D alignment of t...
Thermal excitations of frustrated XY spins in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benakli, M.; Zheng, H.; Gabay, M.
1996-11-01
We present a new variational approach to the study of phase transitions in frustrated 2D XY models. In the spirit of Villain's approach for the ferromagnetic case we divide thermal excitations into a low temperature long wavelength part (LW) and a high temperature short wavelength part (SW). In the present work we mainly deal with LW excitations and we explicitly consider the cases of the fully frustrated triangular (FFTXY) and square (FFSQXY) XY models. The novel aspect of our method is that it preserves the coupling between phase (spin angles) and chiral degrees of freedom. LW fluctuations consist of coupled phase and chiral excitations. As a result, we find that for frustrated systems the effective interactions between phase variables is long range and oscillatory in contrast to the unfrustrated problem. Using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations we show that our analytical calculations produce accurate results at all temperature T; this is seen at low T in the spin wave stiffness constant and in the staggered chirality; this is also the case near T c : transitions are driven by the SW part associated with domain walls and vortices, but the coupling between phase and chiral variables is still relevant in the critical region. In that regime our analytical results yield the correct T dependence for bare couplings (given by the LW fluctuations) such as the Coulomb gas temperature T CG of the frustrated XY models. In particular, we find that T CG tracks chiral rather than phase fluctuations. Our results provide support for a single phase transition scenario in the FFTXY and FFSQXY models. (author). 35 refs, 8 figs
A three-flavor chiral effective model with four baryonic multiplets within the mirror assignment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olbrich, Lisa; Zetenyi, Miklos; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2016-07-01
Chiral symmetry requires the existence of chiral partners in the hadronic mass spectrum. In this talk, we address the question which is the chiral partner of the nucleon. We employ a chirally symmetric linear sigma model, where hadrons and their chiral partners are treated on the same footing. We construct four spin-1/2 baryon multiplets from left- and right-handed quarks as well as left- and right-handed diquarks. Two of these multiplets transform in a ''mirror'' way, which allows for chirally invariant mass terms. We then embed these baryonic multiplets into the Lagrangian of the extended Linear Sigma Model, which features (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons, as well as glueballs. Reducing the Lagrangian to the two-flavor case, we obtain four doublets of nucleonic states. These mix to produce the positive-parity nucleon N(939) and the Roper resonance N(1440), as well as the negative-parity resonances N(1535) and N(1650). We determine the parameters of the nucleonic part of the Lagrangian from a fit to masses and decay properties of these states. Studying the limit of vanishing quark condensate, we conclude that N(939) and N(1535), as well as N(1440) and N(1650) form pairs of chiral partners.
Competition between modes with different axial structures in gyrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.
2014-01-01
This study was motivated by some experiments in which it was found that during the voltage rise, instead of expected excitation of a high-frequency parasitic mode, the excitation of a lower-frequency parasitic mode takes place in a certain range of voltages. For explaining this fact, the dependence of start currents of possible competing modes on the beam voltage was carried out in the cold-cavity approximation and by using the self-consistent approach. It was found that in the case of cavities, which consist of the combination of a section of constant radius waveguide and a slightly uptapered waveguide, these two approaches yield completely different results. Thus, experimentally observed excitation of the low-frequency parasitic mode can be explained by the self-consistent modification of the axial profile of the excited field, which has strong influence on the diffractive quality factor of competing modes. This modification is especially pronounced in the case of excitation of modes with many axial variations which can be excited in the region of beam interaction with the backward-wave component of such modes
Evolved chiral Hamiltonians at the three-body level and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calci, Angelo
2014-07-14
Based on the fundamental symmetries of QCD, chiral effective field theory (EFT) provides two- (NN), three- (3N), four- (4N), and many-nucleon interactions in a consistent and systematic scheme. Recent developments to construct chiral NN+3N interactions at different chiral orders and regularizations enable exciting nuclear structure investigations as well as a quantification of the fundamental uncertainties resulting from the chiral expansion and regularization. We present the complete toolchain to employ the present and future chiral NN, 3N, and 4N interactions in nuclear structure calculations and emphasize technical developments in the three- and four-body space, such as the similarity renormalization group (SRG), the frequency conversion, and the transformation to the JT-coupled scheme. We study the predictions of the chiral NN+3N interactions in ab initio nuclear structure calculations with the importance-truncated no-core shell model and coupled-cluster approach. We demonstrate that the inclusion of chiral 3N forces improves the overall agreement with experiment for excitation energies of p-shell nuclei and it qualitatively reproduces the systematics of nuclear binding energies throughout the nuclear chart up to heavy tin isotopes. In this context it is necessary to introduce truncations in the three-body model space and we carefully analyze their impact and confirm the reliability of the reported results. The SRG evolution induces many-nucleon forces that generally cannot be included in the calculations and constitute a major limitation for the applicability of SRG-evolved chiral forces. We study the origin and effect of the induced many-nucleon forces and propose a modification of the interaction, which suppresses the induced beyond-3N forces. This enables applications of the chiral interactions far beyond the mid-p shell. Furthermore, we test alternative formulations of SRG generators aiming to prevent the induced many-body forces from the outset. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)
1983-01-10
When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta')/sup 2/fsub(eta')/sup 2/ is proportional to the vacuum energy density.
Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Yu; Chai, Zhen; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang
2015-01-01
An all-optical tunabe chirality is realized in a photonic metamaterial, the metamolecule of which consists of a nonlinear nano-Au:polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer sandwiched between two L-shaped gold nano-antennas twisted 90° with each other. The maximum circular dichroism reached 30%. Under excitation of a 40 kW/cm 2 weak pump light, the peak in the circular dichroism shifts 45 nm in the short-wavelength direction. An ultrafast response time of 35 ps is maintained. This work not only opens up the possibility for the realization of ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable chirality but also offers a way to construct ultrahigh-speed on-chip biochemical sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Avery Sauls
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Recent theories of Sr2RuO4 based on the interplay of strong interactions, spin-orbit coupling and multi-band anisotropy predict chiral or helical ground states with strong anisotropy of the pairing states, with deep minima in the excitation gap, as well as strong phase anisotropy for the chiral ground state. We develop time-dependent mean field theory to calculate the Bosonic spectrum for the class of 2D chiral superconductors spanning 3He-A to chiral superconductors with strong anisotropy. Chiral superconductors support a pair of massive Bosonic excitations of the time-reversed pairs labeled by their parity under charge conjugation. These modes are degenerate for 2D 3He-A. Crystal field anisotropy lifts the degeneracy. Strong anisotropy also leads to low-lying Fermions, and thus to channels for the decay of the Bosonic modes. Selection rules and phase space considerations lead to large asymmetries in the lifetimes and hybridization of the Bosonic modes with the continuum of un-bound Fermion pairs. We also highlight results for the excitation of the Bosonic modes by microwave radiation that provide clear signatures of the Bosonic modes of an anisotropic chiral ground state.
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Pion parameters in nuclear medium from chiral perturbation theory and virial expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2004-01-01
We consider two methods to find the effective parameters of the pion traversing a nuclear medium. One is the first order chiral perturbation theoretic evaluation of the pion pole contribution to the two-point function of the axial-vector current. The other is the exact, first order virial expansion of the pion self-energy. We find that, although the results of chiral perturbation theory are not valid at normal nuclear density, those from the virial expansion may be reliable at such density. The latter predicts both the mass shift and the in-medium decay width of the pion to be small, of about a few MeV
Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.
Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua
2014-08-14
Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.
Partner bands of 126Cs - first observation of chiral electromagnetic selection rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grodner, E.; Sankowska, I.; Morek, T.; Rohozinski, S.G.; Droste, Ch.; Srebrny, J.; Pasternak, A.A.; Kisielinski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kownacki, J.; Mierzejewski, J.; Krol, A.
2011-01-01
The lifetimes of the excited states belonging to the chiral partner bands built on the πh 11/2 xνh 11/2 -1 configuration in 126 Cs have been measured using the DSA technique. For the first time the large set of the experimental transition probabilities is in qualitative agreement with all selection rules predicted for the strong chiral symmetry breaking limit. The selection rules originate from two general features of a chiral nucleus, namely, from the existence of well separated left- and right-handed systems built of three angular momentum vectors and extra symmetries appearing in addition to the chiral symmetry breaking. The B(M1) staggering resulting from these additional symmetries is sensitive to triaxiality of odd-odd nuclei as well as configuration of valence particles.
The nucleon axial charge in full lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, R.G.; Richards, D.G.; Fleming, G.T.; Haegler, P.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Orginos, K.; College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA; Renner, D.B.; Schroers, W.
2005-10-01
The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm) 3 . We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 7% statistical errors. (orig.)
Deep-Subwavelength Resolving and Manipulating of Hidden Chirality in Achiral Nanostructures.
Zu, Shuai; Han, Tianyang; Jiang, Meiling; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu
2018-04-24
The chiral state of light plays a vital role in light-matter interactions and the consequent revolution of nanophotonic devices and advanced modern chiroptics. As the light-matter interaction goes into the nano- and quantum world, numerous chiroptical technologies and quantum devices require precise knowledge of chiral electromagnetic modes and chiral radiative local density of states (LDOS) distributions in detail, which directly determine the chiral light-matter interaction for applications such as chiral light detection and emission. With classical optical techniques failing to directly measure the chiral radiative LDOS, deep-subwavelength imaging and control of circular polarization (CP) light associated phenomena are introduced into the agenda. Here, we simultaneously reveal the hidden chiral electromagnetic mode and acquire its chiral radiative LDOS distribution of a single symmetric nanostructure at the deep-subwavelength scale by using CP-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy. The chirality of the symmetric nanostructure under normally incident light excitation, resulting from the interference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the V-shaped nanoantenna, is hidden in the near field with a giant chiral distribution (∼99%) at the arm-ends, which enables the circularly polarized CL emission from the radiative LDOS hot-spot and the following active helicity control at the deep-subwavelength scale. The proposed V-shaped nanostructure as a functional unit is further applied to the helicity-dependent binary encoding and the two-dimensional display applications. The proposed physical principle and experimental configuration can promote the future chiral characterization and manipulation at the deep-subwavelength scale and provide direct guidelines for the optimization of chiral light-matter interactions for future quantum studies.
Electromagnetic and axial-vector form factors of the quarks and nucleon
Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika
2017-11-01
In light of the improved precision of the experimental measurements and enormous theoretical progress, the nucleon form factors have been evaluated with an aim to understand how the static properties and dynamical behavior of nucleons emerge from the theory of strong interactions between quarks. We have analyzed the vector and axial-vector nucleon form factors (GE,Mp,n(Q2) and GAp,n(Q2)) using the spin observables in the chiral constituent quark model (χCQM) which has made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon in the nonperturbative regime. We have also presented a comprehensive analysis of the flavor decomposition of the form factors (GEq(Q2), GMq(Q2) and GAq(Q2) for q = u,d,s) within the framework of χCQM with emphasis on the extraction of the strangeness form factors which are fundamental to determine the spin structure and test the chiral symmetry breaking effects in the nucleon. The Q2 dependence of the vector and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon has been studied using the conventional dipole form of parametrization. The results are in agreement with the available experimental data.
Ferrarini, Alberta; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pieraccini, Silvia; Rosini, Carlo; Superchi, Stefano; Spada, Gian Piero
2011-10-01
The conversion into 6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine (DAZ) N-protected amides is a viable route for the determination of the absolute configuration of chiral 2-substituted carboxylic acids. The biphenyl moiety of DAZ, besides being a probe of chirality for the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, makes these systems suitable for configuration assignment by exploiting the chirality amplification which occurs in nematic liquid crystals. To assess the reliability of the liquid crystal method in detecting the absolute stereochemistry of chiral amides bound to a biphenyl group, we measured the helical twisting power of a series of DAZ-N-protected amides and compared these data with the results obtained from ECD measurements. We will show that the liquid crystal method, corroborated by HTP predictions, is trustworthy with our biphenyl derivatives, even when ECD spectra are ambiguous for the presence of aryl moieties displaying strong UV absorptions in the same range of the biphenyl chromophore. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica
2011-07-01
In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)
On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toppan, Francesco
2011-01-01
In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)
Dispersive approach to the axial anomaly. The t'Hooft's principle and QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horejsi, J.; Teryaev, O.; Veretin, O.; )
1997-01-01
The dispersive approach to the axial anomaly is revisited. Considering the familiar VVA triangle graph, the anomalous Ward identity is proved in the case of the arbitrary external momenta. It is also commented on a recent claim that the anomaly pole in QCD fails to reproduce the pion pole. In this connection it is emphasized that there is no need to introduce a massless axial meson in the chiral limit. In the framework of QCD sum rules method a constraint for the Borel transform of relevant form factors imposed by the anomaly is considered [ru
Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.
2003-01-01
The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum
Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics
Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.
2003-01-01
The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.
Role of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1985-01-01
Spurred by some recent experiments in electron scattering, the author reassesses the role that chiral symmetry plays in nuclear structure. Though difficult to formulate precisely, some of the ideas put forward many years ago, combined with the recent revival of the Skyrmion picture of the nucleon, are seen to be more relevant now than ever. Three relevant experiments and theoretical interpretations are discussed: M1 transitions in p(n,γ)d and d(e,e')np; axial charge transition in 16 N → 16 O + e + neutrino; and Gamow-Teller transitions and isobar currents. (Auth.)
Du, Yu; Zhuang, Ziwei; He, Jiexing; Liu, Hongji; Qiu, Ping; Wang, Ke
2018-05-16
With tunable excitation light, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is widely used for imaging biological structures at subcellular resolution. Axial chromatic dispersion, present in virtually every transmissive optical system including the multiphoton microscope, leads to focal (and the resultant image) plane separation. Here we demonstrate experimentally a technique to measure the axial chromatic dispersion in a multiphoton microscope, using simultaneous 2-color third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging excited by a 2-color soliton source with tunable wavelength separation. Our technique is self-referenced, eliminating potential measurement error when 1-color tunable excitation light is used which necessitates reciprocating motion of the mechanical translation stage. Using this technique, we demonstrate measured axial chromatic dispersion with 2 different objective lenses in a multiphoton microscope. Further measurement in a biological sample also indicates that this axial chromatic dispersion, in combination with 2-color imaging, may open up opportunity for simultaneous imaging of two different axial planes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
1986-01-01
In a simplified model lagrangian of 3 quarks with an SU(2)sub(L) gauging of chiral SU(3)sub(L)xSU(3)sub(R) to introduce W-boson, we analyse certain complications associated with the low-energy theorem including axial weak fields. We first show that the low-energy amplitude is independent of the form of the quark-level anomalous identity, whether in the covariant form or the consistent form. However, the interplay of the short-distance dynamics (anomalous identity) and the long-distance dynamics (low-energy theorem) becomes involved in the presence of axial fields. We then discuss what kinds of conditions single out the gauged Wess-Zumino term as a low-energy effective action. The connection of the low-energy theorem with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition is also discussed. (orig.)
Siegel's chiral boson and the chiral Schwinger model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, T.
1992-01-01
In this paper Siegel's proposal for a Lagrangian formulation of a chiral boson is analyzed by applying recent results on 2d chiral quantum gravity. A model is derived whose solution consists of a massive scalar and two massless chiral scalars. Therefore it is a minimally bosonized two-fermion chiral Schwinger model
Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.
Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P
2007-08-01
In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.
Characteristics of chiral anomaly in view of various applications
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2018-01-01
In view of the recent applications of chiral anomaly to various fields beyond particle physics, we discuss some basic aspects of chiral anomaly which may help deepen our understanding of chiral anomaly in particle physics also. It is first shown that Berry's phase (and its generalization) for the Weyl model H =vFσ →.p →(t ) assumes a monopole form at the exact adiabatic limit but deviates from it off the adiabatic limit and vanishes in the high frequency limit of the Fourier transform of p →(t ) for bounded |p →(t )|. An effective action, which is consistent with the nonadiabatic limit of Berry's phase, combined with the Bjorken-Johnson-Low prescription, gives normal equal-time space-time commutators and no chiral anomaly. In contrast, an effective action with a monopole at the origin of the momentum space, which describes Berry's phase in the precise adiabatic limit but fails off the adiabatic limit, gives anomalous space-time commutators and a covariant anomaly to the gauge current. We regard this anomaly as an artifact of the postulated monopole and not a consequence of Berry's phase. As for the recent application of the chiral anomaly to the description of effective Weyl fermions in condensed matter and nuclear physics, which is closely related to the formulation of lattice chiral fermions, we point out that the chiral anomaly for each species doubler separately vanishes for a finite lattice spacing, contrary to the common assumption. Instead, a general form of pair creation associated with the spectral flow for the Dirac sea with finite depth takes place. This view is supported by the Ginsparg-Wilson fermion, which defines a single Weyl fermion without doublers on the lattice and gives a well-defined index (anomaly) even for a finite lattice spacing. A different use of anomaly in analogy to the partially conserved axial-vector current is also mentioned and could lead to an effect without fermion number nonconservation.
Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette
1980-01-01
A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)
Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P
2007-06-01
The first simultaneous use of a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil for microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) is reported. Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and dibutyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 1.23% v/v) were examined as chiral pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the separation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Subtle differences were observed for three chromatographic figures of merit (alpha(enant), alpha(meth), k) among the chiral microemulsions; a moderate difference was observed for efficiency (N) and elution range. Dual-chirality microemulsions provided both the largest and smallest enantioselectivities, due to small positive and negative synergies between the chiral microemulsion components. For the ephedrine family of compounds, dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in opposite stereochemical configurations provided higher enantioselectivities than the single-chiral component microemulsion (RXX), whereas dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in the same stereochemical configurations provided lower enantioselectivities than RXX. Slight to moderate enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Efficiencies observed with microemulsions comprised of racemic dibutyl tartrate or dibutyl-D-tartrate were significantly higher than those obtained with dibutyl-L-tartrate, with an average difference in plate count of about 25 000. Finally, one two-chiral-component microemulsion (RXS) provided significantly better resolution than the remaining one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions for the ephedrine-based compounds, but only slightly better or equivalent resolution for non-ephedrine compounds.
Synthesis of a new chiral cyclic aminal derived from rac-1,2-propanediamine
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rivera, A.; Pacheco, D.J.; Ríos-Motta, J.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal
2012-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 45 (2012), s. 6132-6135 ISSN 0040-4039 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : aminal cage * axial chirality * imidazolidine-bridged bis(phenols) * Mannich condensation * 1,2-propanediamine Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2012
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de FÃsica, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior TÃ©cnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de FÃsica, Universidade de Ãvora, 7000-671 Ãvora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud S. Dawood
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The spatial variation of the characteristics of an aluminum plasma induced by a pulsed nanosecond XeCl laser is studied in this paper. The electron density and the excitation temperature are deduced from time- and space- resolved Stark broadening of an ion line and from a Boltzmann diagram, respectively. The influence of the gas pressure (from vacuum up to atmospheric pressure and compositions (argon, nitrogen and helium on these characteristics is investigated. It is observed that the highest electron density occurs near the laser spot and decreases by moving away both from the target surface and from the plume center to its edge. The electron density increases with the gas pressure, the highest values being occurred at atmospheric pressure when the ambient gas has the highest mass, i.e. in argon. The excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot of line intensities of iron impurities present in the aluminum target. The highest temperature is observed close to the laser spot location for argon at atmospheric pressure. It decreases by moving away from the target surface in the axial direction. However, no significant variation of temperature occurs along the radial direction. The differences observed between the axial and radial direction are mainly due to the different plasma kinetics in both directions.
On the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Dutra, A. de.
1991-01-01
We show the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models, in the sense that all Green's functions of one model can be obtained from those of the other, and that both models have the same effective Lagrangian density (and so they have equal partition functions associated with them). In particular, we show that the two models have the same chiral anomaly. Finally it is demonstrated that the Schwinger model can keep gauge invariance for an arbitrary mass, dispensing with an additional gauge group integration. (author)
Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John
2016-05-01
Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.
Chiral Recognition and Separation by Chirality-Enriched Metal-Organic Frameworks.
Das, Saikat; Xu, Shixian; Ben, Teng; Qiu, Shilun
2018-05-16
Endowed with chiral channels and pores, chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly useful; however, their synthesis remains a challenge given that most chiral building blocks are expensive. Although MOFs with induced chirality have been reported to avoid this shortcoming, no study providing evidence for the ee value of such MOFs has yet been reported. We herein describe the first study on the efficiency of chiral induction in MOFs using inexpensive achiral building blocks and fully recoverable chiral dopants to control the handedness of racemic MOFs. This method yielded chirality-enriched MOFs with accessible pores. The ability of the materials to form host-guest complexes was probed with enantiomers of varying size and coordination and in solvents with varying polarity. Furthermore, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) composed of chirality-enriched MOF particles dispersed in a polymer matrix demonstrated a new route for chiral separation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bhaskararao, Bangaru; Sunoj, Raghavan B
2015-12-23
Accomplishing high diastereo- and enantioselectivities simultaneously is a persistent challenge in asymmetric catalysis. The use of two chiral catalysts in one-pot conditions might offer new avenues to this end. Chirality transfer from a catalyst to product gets increasingly complex due to potential chiral match-mismatch issues. The origin of high enantio- and diastereoselectivities in the reaction between a racemic aldehyde and an allyl alcohol, catalyzed by using axially chiral iridium phosphoramidites PR/S-Ir and cinchona amine is established through transition-state modeling. The multipoint contact analysis of the stereocontrolling transition state revealed how the stereodivergence could be achieved by inverting the configuration of the chiral catalysts that are involved in the activation of the reacting partners. While the enantiocontrol is identified as being decided in the generation of PR/S-Ir-π-allyl intermediate from the allyl alcohol, the diastereocontrol arises due to the differential stabilizations in the C-C bond formation transition states. The analysis of the weak interactions in the transition states responsible for chiral induction revealed that the geometric disposition of the quinoline ring at the C8 chiral carbon of cinchona-enamine plays an anchoring role. The quinolone ring is noted as participating in a π-stacking interaction with the phenyl ring of the Ir-π-allyl moiety in the case of PR with the (8R,9R)-cinchona catalyst combination, whereas a series of C-H···π interactions is identified as vital to the relative stabilization of the stereocontrolling transition states when PR is used with (8S,9S)-cinchona.
Chiral cell sliding drives left-right asymmetric organ twisting
Inaki, Mikiko; Hatori, Ryo; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Okumura, Takashi; Ishibashi, Tomoki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru
2018-01-01
Polarized epithelial morphogenesis is an essential process in animal development. While this process is mostly attributed to directional cell intercalation, it can also be induced by other mechanisms. Using live-imaging analysis and a three-dimensional vertex model, we identified ‘cell sliding,’ a novel mechanism driving epithelial morphogenesis, in which cells directionally change their position relative to their subjacent (posterior) neighbors by sliding in one direction. In Drosophila embryonic hindgut, an initial left-right (LR) asymmetry of the cell shape (cell chirality in three dimensions), which occurs intrinsically before tissue deformation, is converted through LR asymmetric cell sliding into a directional axial twisting of the epithelial tube. In a Drosophila inversion mutant showing inverted cell chirality and hindgut rotation, cell sliding occurs in the opposite direction to that in wild-type. Unlike directional cell intercalation, cell sliding does not require junctional remodeling. Cell sliding may also be involved in other cases of LR-polarized epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:29891026
Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, Marco
2017-01-01
The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.
Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, Marco
2017-07-24
The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goto, Hiromasa
2014-01-01
Electrochemical synthesis in liquid crystal (LC) affords conducting polymers having LC molecular order and electro-activity. The polymerisation method can be referred to as structure organising polymerisation (SOP). The optical textures of the polymers thus prepared appear very similar to that of the LC electrolyte solution used for the polymerisation. Especially, polymers prepared in cholesteric LC (chiral LC) having structural chirality show doping-dedoping (redox) driven change in chiroptical activity (controllable circular dichroism and optical rotation), as e lectro-chiroptical effect . The polymer films exhibit interference colour and electrochemically driven refractive index modulations. The chiroptical activity of the polymer prepared in cholesteric LC comes from axial chirality of the helical structure
Chiral Spirals from Discontinuous Chiral Symmetry
Kojo, Toru
2014-09-01
Recently phases of the inhomongeneous chiral condensates (IChC) attract renewed attentions in quark matter context. A number of theoretical studies have suggested that in some domain of moderate quark density the IChC phases are energetically more favored than the normal, chiral symmetric phase. In particular, the NJL-type model studies indicate that the phase of IChCs may mask the usual 1st order chiral phase transition line and its critical end point, and might change the conventional wisdom. In this talk, I will discuss characteristic features of the IChC phases and their potential impacts on the compact star physics. In particular, some of the IChC phases open gaps near the quark Fermi surface, suppressing back-reaction from the quark to gluon sectors. This mechanism delays the chiral restoration in the strange quark sector, forbids the emergence of the large bag constant, and as a consequence, makes the quark matter EOS very stiff. Recently phases of the inhomongeneous chiral condensates (IChC) attract renewed attentions in quark matter context. A number of theoretical studies have suggested that in some domain of moderate quark density the IChC phases are energetically more favored than the normal, chiral symmetric phase. In particular, the NJL-type model studies indicate that the phase of IChCs may mask the usual 1st order chiral phase transition line and its critical end point, and might change the conventional wisdom. In this talk, I will discuss characteristic features of the IChC phases and their potential impacts on the compact star physics. In particular, some of the IChC phases open gaps near the quark Fermi surface, suppressing back-reaction from the quark to gluon sectors. This mechanism delays the chiral restoration in the strange quark sector, forbids the emergence of the large bag constant, and as a consequence, makes the quark matter EOS very stiff. NSF Grants PHY09-69790, PHY13-05891.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Caricato
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and characterization of novel shape-persistent, optically active arylamide macrocycles, which can be obtained using a one-pot methodology. Resolved, axially chiral binol scaffolds, which incorporate either methoxy or acetoxy functionalities in the 2,2' positions and carboxylic functionalities in the external 3,3' positions, were used as the source of chirality. Two of these binaphthyls are joined through amidation reactions using rigid diaryl amines of differing shapes, to give homochiral tetraamidic macrocycles. The recognition properties of these supramolecular receptors have been analyzed, and the results indicate a modulation of binding affinities towards dicarboxylate anions, with a drastic change of binding mode depending on the steric and electronic features of the functional groups in the 2,2' positions.
Multi-hadron-state contamination in nucleon observables from chiral perturbation theory
Bär, Oliver
2018-03-01
Multi-particle states with additional pions are expected to be a non-negligible source of the excited-state contamination in lattice simulations at the physical point. It is shown that baryon chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) can be employed to calculate the contamination due to two-particle nucleon-pion states in various nucleon observables. Results to leading order are presented for the nucleon axial, tensor and scalar charge and three Mellin moments of parton distribution functions: the average quark momentum fraction, the helicity and the transversity moment. Taking into account experimental and phenomenological results for the charges and moments the impact of the nucleon-pionstates on lattice estimates for these observables can be estimated. The nucleon-pion-state contribution leads to an overestimation of all charges and moments obtained with the plateau method. The overestimation is at the 5-10% level for source-sink separations of about 2 fm. Existing lattice data is not in conflict with the ChPT predictions, but the comparison suggests that significantly larger source-sink separations are needed to compute the charges and moments with few-percent precision. Talk given at the 35th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, 18 - 24 June 2017, Granada, Spain.
Geometrical approach to central molecular chirality: a chirality selection rule
Capozziello, S.; Lattanzi, A.
2004-01-01
Chirality is of primary importance in many areas of chemistry and has been extensively investigated since its discovery. We introduce here the description of central chirality for tetrahedral molecules using a geometrical approach based on complex numbers. According to this representation, for a molecule having n chiral centres, it is possible to define an index of chirality. Consequently a chirality selection rule has been derived which allows the characterization of a molecule as achiral, e...
Chiral nanophotonics chiral optical properties of plasmonic systems
Schäferling, Martin
2017-01-01
This book describes the physics behind the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures focusing on chiral aspects. It explains in detail how the geometry determines chiral near-fields and how to tailor their shape and strength. Electromagnetic fields with strong optical chirality interact strongly with chiral molecules and, therefore, can be used for enhancing the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopy techniques. Besides a short review of the latest results in the field of plasmonically enhanced enantiomer discrimination, this book introduces the concept of chiral plasmonic near-field sources for enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy. The discussion of the fundamental properties of these light sources provides the theoretical basis for further optimizations and is of interest for researchers at the intersection of nano-optics, plasmonics and stereochemistry. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levi, A.R.; Lubicz, V.; Rebbi, C.
1997-01-01
We discuss a general strategy to compute the coefficients of the QCD chiral Lagrangian using lattice QCD with Wilson fermions. This procedure requires the introduction of a lattice chiral Lagrangian as an intermediate step in the calculation. The QCD chiral Lagrangian is then obtained by expanding the lattice effective theory in increasing powers of the lattice spacing and the external momenta. In order to investigate the general structure of the lattice effective Lagrangian, we perform an analytical calculation at the leading order of the strong-coupling and large-N expansion. We find that the explicit chiral symmetry breaking, introduced on the lattice by the Wilson term, is reproduced in the effective theory by a set of additional terms, which do not have direct correspondence in the continuum chiral Lagrangian. We argue that these terms can be conveniently reabsorbed by a suitable renormalization procedure. This is shown explicitly at the leading order of the strong-coupling and large-N expansion. In fact, we find that at this order, as is known to be the case in the opposite weak-coupling limit, the vector and axial Ward identities of the continuum theory are reproduced on the lattice provided that the bare quark mass and the lattice operators are properly renormalized. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio
2007-01-01
Motivated by the observation that there may exist hadronic excitations even in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase, we investigate how the properties of quarks, especially within the quasi-particle picture, are affected by the coupling with bosonic excitations at finite temperature (T), employing Yukawa models with a massive scalar (pseudoscalar) and vector (axial-vector) boson of mass m. The quark spectral function and the quasi-dispersion relations are calculated at one-loop order. We find that there appears at three-peak structure in the quark spectral function with a collective nature when T is comparable with m, irrespective of the type of boson considered. Such a multi-peak structure was first found in a chiral model yielding scalar composite bosons with a decay width. We elucidate the mechanism through which the new quark collective excitations are realized in terms of the Landau damping of a quark (an antiquark) induced by scattering with the thermally excited boson, which gives rise to mixing and hence a level repulsion between a quark (antiquark) and an antiquark-hole (quark-hole) in the thermally excited antiquark (quark) distribution. Our results suggest that the quarks in the QGP phase can be described within an interesting quasi-particle picture with a multi-peak spectral function. Because the models employed here are rather generic, our findings may represent a universal phenomenon for fermions coupled to a massive bosonic excitation with a vanishing or small width. The relevance of these results to other fields of physics, such as neutrino physics, is also briefly discussed. In addition, we describe a new aspect of the plasmino excitation obtained in the hard-thermal loop approximation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Byungsik [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
Topological fluctuation of the gluon field in quantum chromodynamics modifies the vacuum structure, and causes various chiral anomalies. In the strong magnetic field generated by semi-central heavy-ion collisions, the axial and vector density fluctuations propagate along the external magnetic field, called the chiral magnetic wave. Up to now the investigation of the various chiral anomalies in heavy ion collisions has been focussed on the charge distribution in the transverse plane. However, this paper points out that the information on the charge distribution is not enough and the spin effect should also be taken into account. Considering the charge and spin distributions together, π{sup ±} with spin 0 are not proper particle species to study the chiral anomalies, as the signal may be significantly suppressed as one of the constituent (anti)quarks should come from background to form the pseudoscalar states. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze explicitly the vector mesons with spin 1 (K⋆{sup ±} (892)) and baryons with spin 3/2 (Δ{sup ++}(1232), Σ{sup −} (1385) and Ω{sup −} ). If the chiral anomaly effects exist, the elliptic flow parameter is expected to be larger for negative particles for each particle species.
Path-integral formulation of chiral invariant fermion models in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, K.; Gamboa Saravi, R.E.; Schaposnik, F.A.
1982-01-01
We study the Thirring and chiral-invariant Gross-Neveu (CGN) models using the functional integral method. By introducing an auxiliary vector field we disclose a relation with two-dimensional gauge theories coupled to fermions and then extend a technique based on a chiral change in the functional variables to study purely fermionic models. We obtain the exact Klaiber solution for the massless Thirring model (for spin 1/2) in a very simple way and we then extend our technique to investigate the CGN model. We show the factorization of a free fermionic part at the level of Green functions on very general grounds. We then impose certain restrictions on the behavior of the fields - which render our treatment exact only in the zero winding number sector, but allow the computation of the U(1) part of the CGN Green functions exactly, showing, in particular, its complete decoupling from the color part and the almost long-range order behavior in the infrared region. In our approach, the non-triviality of the jacobian arising from the chiral transformation - directly related to the topological density and the axial anomaly - appears to be crucial for the functional integral treatment of these models. (orig.)
Spontaneous formation and dynamics of half-skyrmions in a chiral liquid-crystal film
Nych, Andriy; Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Ognysta, Uliana; Žumer, Slobodan; Muševič, Igor
2017-12-01
Skyrmions are coreless vortex-like excitations emerging in diverse condensed-matter systems, and real-time observation of their dynamics is still challenging. Here we report the first direct optical observation of the spontaneous formation of half-skyrmions. In a thin film of a chiral liquid crystal, depending on experimental conditions including film thickness, they form a hexagonal lattice whose lattice constant is a few hundred nanometres, or appear as isolated entities with topological defects compensating their charge. These half-skyrmions exhibit intriguing dynamical behaviour driven by thermal fluctuations. Numerical calculations of real-space images successfully corroborate the experimental observations despite the challenge because of the characteristic scale of the structures close to the optical resolution limit. A thin film of a chiral liquid crystal thus offers an intriguing platform that facilitates a direct investigation of the dynamics of topological excitations such as half-skyrmions and their manipulation with optical techniques.
Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators
Ramini, Abdallah; Alcheikh, Nouha; Ilyas, Saad; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting
Chiral memory via chiral amplification and selective depolymerization of porphyrin aggregates
Helmich, F.A.; Lee, C.C.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.
2010-01-01
Chiral memory at the supramolecular level is obtained via a new approach using chiral Zn porphrins and achiral Cu porphyrins. In a "sergeant-and-soldiers" experiment, the Zn "sergeant" transfers its own chirality to Cu "soldiers" and, after chiral amplification, the "sergeant" is removed from the
Chiral Cliffs: Investigating the Influence of Chirality on Binding Affinity.
Schneider, Nadine; Lewis, Richard A; Fechner, Nikolas; Ertl, Peter
2018-05-11
Chirality is understood by many as a binary concept: a molecule is either chiral or it is not. In terms of the action of a structure on polarized light, this is indeed true. When examined through the prism of molecular recognition, the answer becomes more nuanced. In this work, we investigated chiral behavior on protein-ligand binding: when does chirality make a difference in binding activity? Chirality is a property of the 3D structure, so recognition also requires an appreciation of the conformation. In many situations, the bioactive conformation is undefined. We set out to address this by defining and using several novel 2D descriptors to capture general characteristic features of the chiral center. Using machine-learning methods, we built different predictive models to estimate if a chiral pair (a set of two enantiomers) might exhibit a chiral cliff in a binding assay. A set of about 3800 chiral pairs extracted from the ChEMBL23 database was used to train and test our models. By achieving an accuracy of up to 75 %, our models provide good performance in discriminating chiral cliffs from non-cliffs. More importantly, we were able to derive some simple guidelines for when one can reasonably use a racemate and when an enantiopure compound is needed in an assay. We critically discuss our results and show detailed examples of using our guidelines. Along with this publication we provide our dataset, our novel descriptors, and the Python code to rebuild the predictive models. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Vibration mechanism of fuel rod in axial flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam
1998-08-01
This is a review on the previous researches for the vibration of fuel rod induced by axial flow. The analysis methods are classified into three categories accordingly as the researchers postulate the vibration to be self-excited, forced and parametric; the self-excited mechanism by Burgreen and Quinn, the forced one by Reavis, Gorman, kanazawa, and S. Chen, and the parametric one by Y. Chen. Quinn supposed that the centrifugal force by flow exaggerated the natural bow in the cylinder, and the flexural force by it diminished the bow by turns; this interactive motion leaded cylinder to vibration. The supporters to the forced mechanism considered the forces arising from pressure perturbation within the boundary layers as vibrating sources. Y. Chen insisted that the cylinder could only be excited to vibration in resonance by the small oscillation of mean flow velocity. The previous studies were based on the simple boundary conditions such as hinged-hinged or fixed-fixed single span. Therefore, for the more accurate prediction of the fuel rod vibration in reactor, the further studies need to reflect the actual boundary conditions of the fuel rod like axial force and continuous supports by grids. (author). 25 refs
Non-uniform chiral phase in effective chiral quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadzikowski, M.; Broniowski, W.
2000-01-01
We analyze the phase diagram in effective chiral quark models (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the σ-model with quarks) and show that at the mean-field level a phase with a periodically-modulated chiral fields separates the usual phases with broken and restored chiral symmetry. A possible signal of such a phase is the production of multipion jets travelling in opposite directions, with individual pions having momenta of the order of several hundred MeV. This signal can be interpreted in terms of disoriented chiral condensates. (author)
Insight into the chiral induction in supramolecular stacks through preferential chiral salvation
George, S.J.; Tomovic, Z.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.
2011-01-01
Preferred handedness in the supramolecular chirality of self-assembled achiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) derivatives is induced by chiral solvents and spectroscopic probing provides insight into the mechanistic aspects of this chiral induction through chiral solvation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wollermann-Windgasse, R.; Ackermann, F.
1987-04-01
The project describes the development of a new generation of CO 2 -lasers using high frequency discharge (13.56 MHz) for laser excitation by capacitive dielectrical input. HF-excitation has a lot of advantages compared with direct current technology, these are higher electrical input power into the plasma, better homogeneity and stability of discharges. In addition to this, HF-excitation shows excellent possibilities for pulsing and modulation. As a result of this, there are compact powerful laser systems with the possibility of scaling up to the multi-kW-range. The examination included fast transversal flowed as well as fast axial flowed systems. In the end of this project development prototypes with laser output power of 1000 W, 1500 W and 3000 W were available. Detailed attempts of application show that these lasers on grounds of excellent laser output quality and controlability of laser power specifically to each process make possible new ways for material treatment by laser. (orig./HP) [de
Highly efficient induction of chirality in intramolecular
Cossio; Arrieta; Lecea; Alajarin; Vidal; Tovar
2000-06-16
Highly stereocontrolled, intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloadditions between ketenimines and imines leading to 1,2-dihydroazeto[2, 1-b]quinazolines have been achieved. The source of stereocontrol is a chiral carbon atom adjacent either to the iminic carbon or nitrogen atom. In the first case, the stereocontrol stems from the preference for the axial conformer in the first transition structure. In the second case, the origin of the stereocontrol lies on the two-electron stabilizing interaction between the C-C bond being formed and the sigma orbital corresponding to the polar C-X bond, X being an electronegative atom. These models can be extended to other related systems for predicting the stereochemical outcome in this intramolecular reaction.
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biernat, Elmer P. [Unibersidade de Lisboa, 104-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, M. T. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, J. E. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Universidade de Ãvora, 7000-671 Ãvora, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-01-01
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2016-01-01
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)
2016-01-22
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics, holography and the chiral magnetic effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo; Hamburg Univ.
2012-03-01
We discuss a possible dependence of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) on the elliptic flow coefficient υ 2 . We first study this in a hydrodynamic model for a static anisotropic plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We compute this transport coefficient and show its dependence on υ 2 . We also determine the CME-coefficient from first-order corrections to the dual AdS background using the fluid-gravity duality. For small anisotropies, we find numerical agreement with the hydrodynamic result. (orig.)
Anisotropic hydrodynamics, holography and the chiral magnetic effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik
2012-03-15
We discuss a possible dependence of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) on the elliptic flow coefficient {upsilon}{sub 2}. We first study this in a hydrodynamic model for a static anisotropic plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We compute this transport coefficient and show its dependence on {upsilon}{sub 2}. We also determine the CME-coefficient from first-order corrections to the dual AdS background using the fluid-gravity duality. For small anisotropies, we find numerical agreement with the hydrodynamic result. (orig.)
Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality
van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.
2014-01-01
The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The
Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F
2012-09-01
Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.
Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mireia Oromí-Farrús
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α=3.00 and 2-hexyl acetates (α=1.95. This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.
Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis.
Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon
2012-01-01
The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.
The axial polarizability of nucleons and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, M.; Figureau, A.
1981-02-01
The part of the static nuclear axial polarizability arising from the nucleonic excitations is derived from the low energy expansion of the πN amplitude. It is shown that the contribution of the Δ intermediate state, though dominant, does not saturate the nucleonic response. A similar effect, though more pronounced, is known to occur for the magnetic susceptibility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo Zhen; Liu Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen Yuan; Yang Yanhui [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Du Yu, E-mail: du_yu@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: yhyang@ntu.edu.sg [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2010-04-23
Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Zhen; Liu Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen Yuan; Yang Yanhui; Du Yu
2010-01-01
Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.
Chiral discotics; expression and amplification of chirality
Brunsveld, L.; Meijer, E.W.; Rowan, A.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Denmark, S.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Meijer, E.W.
2003-01-01
In this contribution, chirality and discotic liquid crystals are discussed as a tool for studying the self-assembly of these molecules, both in solution and in the solid state. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to summarize and elucidate how molecular chirality can be expressed in discotic
Static and dynamical anomalies caused by chiral soliton lattice in molecular-based chiral magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Inoue, Katsuya; Kikuchi, Koichi
2007-01-01
Interplay of crystallographic chirality and magnetic chirality has been of great interest in both chemist's and physicist's viewpoints. Crystals belonging to chiral space groups are eligible to stabilize macroscopic chiral magnetic order. This class of magnetic order is described by the chiral XY model, where the transverse magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral axis causes the chiral soliton lattice (CSL) formation. As a clear evidence of the chiral magnetic order, the temperature dependence of the transverse magnetization exhibits sharp cusp just below the mean field ferrimagnetic transition temperature, indicating the formation of the CSL. In addition to the static anomaly, we expect the CSL formation also causes dynamical anomalies such as induction of the spin supercurrent
Chirality invariance and 'chiral' fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziino, G.
1978-01-01
The new field model derived in the present paper actually gives a definite answer to three fundamental questions concerning elementary-particle physics: 1) The phenomenological dualism between parity and chirality invariance: it would be only an apparent display of a general 'duality' principle underlying the intrinsic nature itself of (spin 1/2) fermions and expressed by the anticommutativity property between scalar and pseudoscalar charges. 2) The real physical meaning of V - A current structure: it would exclusively be connected to the one (just pointed out) of chiral fields themselves. 3) The unjustified apparent oddness shown by Nature in weak interactions, for the fact of picking out only one of the two (left- and right-handed) fermion 'chiral' projections: the key to such a 'mystery' would just be provided by the consequences of the dual and partial character of the two fermion-antifermion field bases. (Auth.)
Chiral measurements with the Fixed-Point Dirac operator and construction of chiral currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, P.; Hauswirth, S.; Holland, K.; Joerg, T.; Niedermayer, F.
2002-01-01
In this preliminary study, we examine the chiral properties of the parametrized Fixed-Point Dirac operator D FP , see how to improve its chirality via the Overlap construction, measure the renormalized quark condensate Σ-circumflex and the topological susceptibility χ t , and investigate local chirality of near zero modes of the Dirac operator. We also give a general construction of chiral currents and densities for chiral lattice actions
Effects of chirality and surface stresses on the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jian-Shan; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wang, Gang-Feng
2014-01-01
Due to their superior optical, elastic and electrical properties, chiral nanowires have many applications as sensors, probes, and building blocks of nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we develop a refined Euler–Bernoulli beam model for chiral nanowires with surface effects and material chirality incorporated. This refined model is employed to investigate the bending and buckling of chiral nanowires. It is found that surface effects and material chirality significantly affect the elastic behaviour of chiral nanowires. This study is helpful not only for understanding the size-dependent behaviour of chiral nanowires, but also for characterizing their mechanical properties. (paper)
Δ-excitations and the three-nucleon force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2008-01-01
We study the three-nucleon force in chiral effective field theory with explicit Δ-resonance degrees of freedom. We show that up to next-to-next-to-leading order, the only contribution to the isospin symmetric three-nucleon force involving the spin-3/2 degrees of freedom is given by the two-pion-exchange diagram with an intermediate delta, frequently called the Fujita-Miyazawa force. We also analyze the leading isospin-breaking corrections due to the delta. For that, we give the first quantitative analysis of the delta quartet mass splittings in chiral effective field theory including the leading electromagnetic corrections. The charge-symmetry breaking three-nucleon force due to an intermediate delta excitation is small, of the order of a few keV
Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P
2007-08-01
Novel microemulsion formulations containing all chiral components are described for the enantioseparation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers (atenolol, ephedrine, metoprolol, N-methyl ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and synephrine). The chiral surfactant dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV, R- and S-), the chiral cosurfactant S-2-hexanol, and the chiral oil diethyl tartrate (R- and S-) were combined to create four different chiral microemulsions, three of which were stable. Results obtained for enantioselectivity, efficiency, and resolution were compared for the triple-chirality systems and the single-chirality system that contained chiral surfactant only. Improvements in enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved by simultaneously incorporating three chiral components into the aggregate. The one-chiral-component microemulsion provided better efficiencies. Enantioselective synergies were identified for the three-chiral-component nanodroplets using a thermodynamic model. Additionally, two types of dual-chirality systems, chiral surfactant/chiral cosurfactant and chiral surfactant/chiral oil, were examined in terms of chromatographic figures of merit, with the former providing much better resolution. The two varieties of two-chiral-component microemulsions gave similar values for enantioselectivity and efficiency. Lastly, the microemulsion formulations were divided into categories based on the number of chiral microemulsion reagents and the average results for each pair of enantiomers were analyzed for trends. In general, enantioselectivity and resolution were enhanced while efficiency was decreased as more chiral components were used to create the pseudostationary phase (PSP).
Sensitive criterion for chirality; Chiral doublet bands in 104Rh59
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koike, T.; Starosta, K.; Vaman, C.; Ahn, T.; Fossan, D.B.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.
2003-01-01
A particle plus triaxial rotor model was applied to odd-odd nuclei in the A ∼ 130 region in order to study the unique parity πh11/2xνh11/2 rotational bands. With maximum triaxiality assumed and the intermediate axis chosen as the quantization axis for the model calculations, the two lowest energy eigenstates of a given spin have chiral properties. The independence of the quantity S(I) on spin can be used as a new criterion for chirality. In addition, a diminishing staggering amplitude of S(I) with increasing spin implies triaxiality in neighboring odd-A nuclei. Chiral quartet bases were constructed specifically to examine electromagnetic properties for chiral structures. A set of selection rules unique to chirality was derived. Doublet bands built on the πg9/2xνh11/2 configuration have been discovered in odd-odd 104Rh using the 96Zr(11B, 3n) reaction. Based on the discussed criteria for chirality, it is concluded that the doublet bands observed in 104Rh exhibit characteristic chiral properties suggesting a new region of chirality around A ∼110. In addition, magnetic moment measurements have been performed to test the πh11/2xνh11/2 configuration in 128Cs and the πg9/2xνh11/2 configuration in 104Rh
Anomalous dimension, chiral phase transition and inverse magnetic catalysis in soft-wall AdS/QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Zhen, E-mail: fangzhen@itp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)
2016-07-10
A modified soft-wall AdS/QCD model with a z-dependent bulk scalar mass is proposed. We argue for the necessity of a modified bulk scalar mass from the quark mass anomalous dimension and carefully constrain the form of bulk mass by the corresponding UV and IR asymptotics. After fixing the form of bulk scalar mass, we calculate the mass spectra of (axial-)vector and pseudoscalar mesons, which have a good agreement with the experimental data. The behavior of chiral phase transition is also investigated, and the results are consistent with the standard scenario and lattice simulations. Finally, the issue of chiral magnetic effects is addressed. We find that the inverse magnetic catalysis emerges naturally from the modified soft-wall model, which is consistent with the recent lattice simulations.
Pancholi, S C
2011-01-01
By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...
Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandru, Andrei; Horv, Ivan
2013-01-01
It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedge ch – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedge ch remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in N f = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedge ch to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature T ch > T c .
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard
2014-01-01
Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...... molecules down to 3%. The microscopic mechanism for the observed chiral induction is suggested to involve nucleation of the intrinsically chiral seeds, allowing for effective transfer and amplification of chirality to large numbers of soldier target molecules....
Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry
2016-01-01
dark” measurements, we also describe photoelectrochemical measurements in which light is used to affect the spin selective electron transport through the chiral molecules. We describe how the excitation of a chromophore (such as CdSe nanoparticles), which is attached to a chiral working electrode, can flip the preferred spin orientation of the photocurrent, when measured under the identical conditions. Thus, chirality-induced spin polarization, when combined with light and magnetic field effects, opens new avenues for the study of the spin transport properties of chiral molecules and biomolecules and for creating new types of spintronic devices in which light and molecular chirality provide new functions and properties. PMID:27797176
Axial U(1) current in Grabowska and Kaplan's formulation
Hamada, Yu; Kawai, Hikaru
2017-06-01
Recently, Grabowska and Kaplan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 211602 (2016); Phys. Rev. D 94, 114504 (2016)] suggested a nonperturbative formulation of a chiral gauge theory, which consists of the conventional domain-wall fermion and a gauge field that evolves by gradient flow from one domain wall to the other. We introduce two sets of domain-wall fermions belonging to complex conjugate representations so that the effective theory is a 4D vector-like gauge theory. Then, as a natural definition of the axial-vector current, we consider a current that generates simultaneous phase transformations for the massless modes in 4 dimensions. However, this current is exactly conserved and does not reproduce the correct anomaly. In order to investigate this point precisely, we consider the mechanism of the conservation. We find that this current includes not only the axial current on the domain wall but also a contribution from the bulk, which is nonlocal in the sense of 4D fields. Therefore, the local current is obtained by subtracting the bulk contribution from it.
Chiral symmetry breaking and the spin content of the ρ and ρ' mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L.Ya.; Lang, C.B.; Limmer, M.
2011-01-01
Using interpolators with different SU(2) L xSU(2) R transformation properties we study the chiral symmetry and spin contents of the ρ and ρ ' mesons in lattice simulations with dynamical quarks. A ratio of couplings of the q-bar γ i τq and q-bar σ 0i τq interpolators to a given meson state at different resolution scales tells one about the degree of chiral symmetry breaking in the meson wave function at these scales. Using a Gaussian gauge invariant smearing of the quark fields in the interpolators, we are able to extract the chiral content of mesons up to the infrared resolution of ∼1 fm. In the ground state ρ meson the chiral symmetry is strongly broken with comparable contributions of both the (0,1)+(1,0) and (1/2,1/2) b chiral representations with the former being the leading contribution. In contrast, in the ρ ' meson the degree of chiral symmetry breaking is manifestly smaller and the leading representation is (1/2,1/2) b . Using a unitary transformation from the chiral basis to the 2S+1 L J basis, we are able to define and measure the angular momentum content of mesons in the rest frame. This definition is different from the traditional one which uses parton distributions in the infinite momentum frame. The ρ meson is practically a 3 S 1 state with no obvious trace of a 'spin crisis'. The ρ ' meson has a sizeable contribution of the 3 D 1 wave, which implies that the ρ ' meson cannot be considered as a pure radial excitation of the ρ meson.
Bessel beam CARS of axially structured samples
Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen
2015-06-01
We report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.
Color of illumination during growth affects LHCII chiral macroaggregates in pea plant leaves.
Gussakovsky, Eugene E; Shahak, Yosepha; Schroeder, Dana F
2007-02-01
To determine whether the color of illumination under which plants are grown, affects the structure of photosynthetic antennae, pea plants were grown under either blue-enriched, red-enriched, or white light. Carotenoid content of isolated chloroplasts was found to be insensitive to the color of illumination during growth, while chlorophyll a/b ratio in chloroplasts isolated from young illuminated leaves showed susceptibility to color. Color of illumination affects the LHCII chiral macroaggregates in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts, providing light-induced alteration of the handedness of the LHCII chiral macroaggregate, as measured with circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. The susceptibility of handedness to current illumination (red light excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence) is dependent on the color under which the plants were grown, and was maximal for the red-enriched illumination. We propose the existence of a long-term (growth period) color memory, which influences the susceptibility of the handedness of LHCII chiral macroaggregates to current light.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.
1992-04-01
I develop a diagrammatic method for calculating chiral logarithms in the quenched approximation. While not rigorous, the method is based on physically reasonable assumptions, which can be tested by numerical simulations. The main results are that, at leading order in the chiral expansion, (a) there are no chiral logarithms in quenched f π m u = m d ; (b) the chiral logarithms in B K and related kaon B-parameters are, for m d = m s the same in the quenched approximation as in the full theory (c) for m π and the condensate, there are extra chiral logarithms due to loops containing the η', which lead to a peculiar non-analytic dependence of these quantities on the bare quark mass. Following the work of Gasser and Leutwyler, I discuss how there is a predictable finite volume dependence associated with each chiral logarithm. I compare the resulting predictions with numerical results: for most quantities the expected volume dependence is smaller than the errors. but for B V and B A there is an observed dependence which is consistent with the predictions
Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics revisited
Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.
2009-01-01
We use a recently improved density-matrix expansion to calculate the nuclear energy density functional in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation treats systematically the effects from $1\\pi$-exchange, iterated $1\\pi$-exchange, and irreducible $2\\pi$-exchange with intermediate $\\Delta$-isobar excitations, including Pauli-blocking corrections up to three-loop order. We find that the effective nucleon mass $M^*(\\rho)$ entering the energy density functional is iden...
Nonlinear spectroscopic studies of chiral media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belkin, Mikhail Alexandrovich
2004-01-01
Molecular chirality plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and medicine. Traditional optical techniques for probing chirality, such as circular dichroism and Raman optical activity rely on electric-dipole forbidden transitions. As a result, their intrinsic low sensitivity limits their use to probe bulk chirality rather than chiral surfaces, monolayers or thin films often important for chemical or biological systems. Contrary to the traditional chirality probes, chiral signal in sum-frequency generation (SFG) is electric-dipole allowed both on chiral surface and in chiral bulk making it a much more promising tool for probing molecular chirality. SFG from a chiral medium was first proposed in 1965, but had never been experimentally confirmed until this thesis work was performed. This thesis describes a set of experiments successfully demonstrating that chiral SFG responses from chiral monolayers and liquids are observable. It shows that, with tunable inputs, SFG can be used as a sensitive spectroscopic tool to probe chirality in both electronic and vibrational resonances of chiral molecules. The monolayer sensitivity is feasible in both cases. It also discusses the relevant theoretical models explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in vibrational and electronic SFG spectroscopies
Parthasarathi, Srividhya; Shankar Rao, D. S.; Prabhu, Rashmi; Yelamaggad, C. V.; Krishna Prasad, S.
2017-10-01
We present the first investigation of the influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties in a biologically important homomeric dipeptide that exhibits a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal mesophase. The peptide employed has two chiral centres, and thus the two possible enantiopures are the (R,R) and (S,S) forms having opposite chirality. The measurements reported the span of the binary phase space between these two enantiopures. Any point in the binary diagram is identified by the enantiomeric excess Xee (the excess content of the R,R enantiopure over its S,S counterpart). We observe that the magnitude of Xee plays a pivotal role in governing the properties as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electric polarization (Ps), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, and the isotropic-columnar transition temperature. For example, XRD shows that while other features pointing to a hexagonal columnar phase remain the same, additional short-range ordering, indicating correlated discs within the column, is present for the enantiopures (Xee = ±1) but not for the racemate (Xee = 0). Similarly, an electric-field driven switching whose profile suggests the phase structure to be antiferroelectric is seen over the entire binary space, but the magnitude is dependent on Xee; interestingly the polarization direction is axial, i.e., along the column axis. DRS studies display two dielectric modes over a limited temperature range and one mode (mode 2) connected with the antiferroelectric nature of the columnar structure covering the entire mesophase. The relaxation frequency and the thermal behaviour of mode 2 are strongly influenced by Xee. The most attractive effect of chirality is its influence on the polar order, a measure of which is the magnitude of the axial polarization. This result can be taken to be a direct evidence of the manifestation of molecular recognition and the delicate interplay between chiral perturbations and the magnitude of the
Heavy Scalar, Vector, and Axial-Vector Mesons in Hot and Dense Nuclear Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arvind Kumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we shall investigate the mass modifications of scalar mesons (D0; B0, vector mesons (D*; B*, and axial-vector mesons (D1; B1 at finite density and temperature of the nuclear medium. The above mesons are modified in the nuclear medium through the modification of quark and gluon condensates. We will find the medium modification of quark and gluon condensates within chiral SU(3 model through the medium modification of scalar-isoscalar fields σ and ζ at finite density and temperature. These medium modified quark and gluon condensates will further be used through QCD sum rules for the evaluation of in-medium properties of the above mentioned scalar, vector, and axial vector mesons. We will also discuss the effects of density and temperature of the nuclear medium on the scattering lengths of the above scalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons. The study of the medium modifications of the above mesons may be helpful for understanding their production rates in heavy-ion collision experiments. The results of present investigations of medium modifications of scalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons at finite density and temperature can be verified in the compressed baryonic matter (CBM experiment of FAIR facility at GSI, Germany.
Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.
Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai
2017-07-17
Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions
Bakas, Ioannis
2011-01-01
We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...
Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh
2014-02-01
We have studied the electronic structure and dipole matrix element, D, of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under magnetic field, using the third nearest neighbor tight binding model. It is shown that the 1NN and 3NN-TB band structures show differences such as the spacing and mixing of neighbor subbands. Applying the magnetic field leads to breaking the degeneracy behavior in the D transitions and creates new allowed transitions corresponding to the band modifications. It is found that |D| is proportional to the inverse tube radius and chiral angle. Our numerical results show that amount of filed induced splitting for the first optical peak is proportional to the magnetic field by the splitting rate ν11. It is shown that ν11 changes linearly and parabolicly with the chiral angle and radius, respectively.
Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2 Nanostructures.
Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K
2018-02-27
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.
Parafermionic wires at the interface of chiral topological states
Santos, Luiz; Hughes, Taylor
We discuss a scenario where local interactions form one-dimensional gapped interfaces between a pair of distinct chiral two-dimensional topological states such that each gapped region terminates at a domain wall separating the chiral gapless edge states of these phases. We show that this type of T-junction supports point-like fractionalized excitations obeying parafermion statistics, thus implying that the one-dimensional gapped interface forms an effective topological parafermionic wire possessing a non-trivial ground state degeneracy. The physical properties of the anyon condensate that gives rise to the gapped interface are investigated. Remarkably, this condensate causes the gapped interface to behave as a type of anyon ``Andreev reflector'' in the bulk, whereby anyons from one phase, upon hitting the interface, can be transformed into a combination of reflected anyons and outgoing anyons from the other phase. Thus, we conclude that while different topological orders can be connected via gapped interfaces, the interfaces are themselves topological.
Artificial muscles made of chiral two-way shape memory polymer fibers
Yang, Qianxi; Fan, Jizhou; Li, Guoqiang
2016-10-01
In this work, we demonstrate the unusual improvement of the tensile actuation of hierarchically chiral structured artificial muscle made of two-way shape memory polymer (2W-SMP) fiber. Experimental results show that the chemically cross-linked poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) 2W-SMP fibers possess an average negative coefficient of thermal expansion (NCTE) that is at least one order higher than that of the polyethylene fiber used previously. As expected, the increase in axial thermal contraction of the precursor fiber leads to an increase in the recovered torque ( 4.4 Nmm ) of the chiral fiber and eventually in the tensile actuation of the twisted-then-coiled artificial muscle ( 67.81 ±1.82 % ). A mechanical model based on Castigliano's second theorem is proposed, and the calculated result is consistent with the experimental result (64.17% tensile stroke). The model proves the significance of the NCTE and the recovered torque on tensile actuation of the artificial muscle and can be used as a guidance for the future design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Kun; Qiu Zhongping
1993-01-01
Chiral Ward-Takahashi identities at finite temperature are derived in (2+1) dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model. In terms of these identities, fermion mass generation and the mass spectra of bound states are investigate at finite temperature. Taking the fermion mass as an order parameter, the authors discuss the phase structure and chiral phase transition and obtain the critical temperature
Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva F. M. A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.
Chiral symmetry breaking and the spin content of the ρ and ρ‧ mesons
Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.
2011-11-01
Using interpolators with different SU(2)L × SU(2)R transformation properties we study the chiral symmetry and spin contents of the ρ and ρ‧ mesons in lattice simulations with dynamical quarks. A ratio of couplings of the qbarγi τq and qbarσ0i τq interpolators to a given meson state at different resolution scales tells one about the degree of chiral symmetry breaking in the meson wave function at these scales. Using a Gaussian gauge invariant smearing of the quark fields in the interpolators, we are able to extract the chiral content of mesons up to the infrared resolution of ∼ 1 fm. In the ground state ρ meson the chiral symmetry is strongly broken with comparable contributions of both the (0 , 1) + (1 , 0) and (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) b chiral representations with the former being the leading contribution. In contrast, in the ρ‧ meson the degree of chiral symmetry breaking is manifestly smaller and the leading representation is (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) b. Using a unitary transformation from the chiral basis to the LJ2S+1 basis, we are able to define and measure the angular momentum content of mesons in the rest frame. This definition is different from the traditional one which uses parton distributions in the infinite momentum frame. The ρ meson is practically a 3S1 state with no obvious trace of a "spin crisis". The ρ‧ meson has a sizeable contribution of the 3D1 wave, which implies that the ρ‧ meson cannot be considered as a pure radial excitation of the ρ meson.
The off-shell axial anomaly via the γ*π0 → γ transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, M.R.; Roberts, C.D.
1995-01-01
The γ*π 0 → γ form factor, including the extension off the pion mass-shell, is obtained from a generalized impulse approximation within a QCD-based model field theory known to provide an excellent description of the pion charge form factor. This approach implements dressing of the vertex functions and propagators consistent with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, gauge invariance, quark confinement and perturbative QCD. Soft nonperturbative behavior, dictated by the axial anomaly, is found to evolve to the perturbative QCD limit only for Q 2 ≥ 20 GeV 2
Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan
2013-01-01
Electron–nuclei coupling accompanying excitation and relaxation processes is a fascinating phenomenon in molecular dynamics. A striking and unexpected example of such coupling is presented here in the context of photoelectron circular dichroism measurements on randomly oriented, chiral methyloxirane molecules, unaffected by any continuum resonance. Here, we report that the forward-backward asymmetry in the electron angular distribution, with respect to the photon axis, which is associated with photoelectron circular dichroism can surprisingly reverse direction according to the ion vibrational mode excited. This vibrational dependence represents a clear breakdown of the usual Franck–Condon assumption, ascribed to the enhanced sensitivity of photoelectron circular dichroism (compared with other observables like cross-sections or the conventional anisotropy parameter-β) to the scattering phase off the chiral molecular potential, inducing a dependence on the nuclear geometry sampled in the photoionization process. Important consequences for the interpretation of such dichroism measurements within analytical contexts are discussed. PMID:23828557
Chirality: from QCD to condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharzeev, D.
2015-01-01
This lecture is about chirality and consists of 4 parts. In the first part a general introduction of chirality is given and its implementation in nuclear and particle physics, in particular the chiral magnetic effect, as well as Chirality in quantum materials (CME, optoelectronics, photonics) are discussed. The 2nd lecture is about the chiral magnetic effect. The 3rd lecture deals with the chiral magnetic effect and hydrodynamics and the last part with chirality and light. (nowak)
Boundary stress tensor and asymptotically AdS3 non-Einstein spaces at the chiral point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andres; Leston, Mauricio
2011-01-01
Chiral gravity admits asymptotically AdS 3 solutions that are not locally equivalent to AdS 3 ; meaning that solutions do exist which, while obeying the strong boundary conditions usually imposed in general relativity, happen not to be Einstein spaces. In topologically massive gravity (TMG), the existence of non-Einstein solutions is particularly connected to the question about the role played by complex saddle points in the Euclidean path integral. Consequently, studying (the existence of) nonlocally AdS 3 solutions to chiral gravity is relevant to understanding the quantum theory. Here, we discuss a special family of nonlocally AdS 3 solutions to chiral gravity. In particular, we show that such solutions persist when one deforms the theory by adding the higher-curvature terms of the so-called new massive gravity. Moreover, the addition of higher-curvature terms to the gravity action introduces new nonlocally AdS 3 solutions that have no analogues in TMG. Both stationary and time-dependent, axially symmetric solutions that asymptote AdS 3 space without being locally equivalent to it appear. Defining the boundary stress tensor for the full theory, we show that these non-Einstein geometries have associated vanishing conserved charges.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Janssen, Maurice H. M., E-mail: m.h.m.janssen@vu.nl [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Powis, Ivan [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2013-12-21
Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations
Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.
Zaera, Francisco
2017-12-07
In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral
Chirality in molecular collision dynamics
Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico
2018-02-01
Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.
Zhu, Hanyu; Yi, Jun; Li, Ming-yang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Lifa; Yang, Chih-Wen; Kaindl, Robert A.; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2018-01-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Zhu, Hanyu
2018-02-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Tensor Excitations in Nambu - Jona-Lasinio Model
Chizhov, M V
1996-01-01
It is shown that in the one-flavour NJL model the vector and axial-vector quasiparticles described by the antisymmetric tensor field are generated. These excitations have tensor interactions with quarks in contrast to usual vector ones. Phenomenological applications are discussed.
Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.
Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.
Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L
2014-10-01
Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.
Identifying chiral bands in real nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirinda, O.; Lawrie, E.A.
2012-01-01
The application of the presently used fingerprints of chiral bands (originally derived for strongly broken chirality) is investigated for real chiral systems. In particular the chiral fingerprints concerning the B(M1) staggering patterns and the energy staggering are studied. It is found that both fingerprints show considerable changes for real chiral systems, a behaviour that creates a significant risk for misinterpretation of the experimental data and can lead to a failure to identify real chiral systems. (orig.)
Chirality-controlled crystallization via screw dislocations.
Sung, Baeckkyoung; de la Cotte, Alexis; Grelet, Eric
2018-04-11
Chirality plays an important role in science from enantiomeric separation in chemistry to chiral plasmonics in nanotechnology. However, the understanding of chirality amplification from chiral building blocks to ordered helical superstructures remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that topological defects, such as screw dislocations, can drive the chirality transfer from particle to supramolecular structure level during the crystallization process. By using a model system of chiral particles, which enables direct imaging of single particle incorporation into growing crystals, we show that the crystallization kinetic pathway is the key parameter for monitoring, via the defects, the chirality amplification of the crystalline structures from racemic to predominantly homohelical. We provide an explanation based on the interplay between geometrical frustration, racemization induced by thermal fluctuations, and particle chirality. Our results demonstrate that screw dislocations not only promote the growth, but also control the chiral morphology and therefore the functionality of crystalline states.
Characterisation of plasmas produced by the "torche à injection axiale"
Jonkers, J.; Selen, L.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Fauchais, P.
1997-01-01
Two different kinds of plasmas created by the microwave driven Torche a' Injection Axiale (TIA) are investigated: one with helium and the other with argon as the main gas. By using abs. line intensity measurements, the densities of the excited states are detd. Applying the ideal gas law gives the
Excitations of single-beauty hadrons
Burch, Tommy; Hagen, Christian; Lang, Christian B.; Limmer, Markus; Schäfer, Andreas
2009-01-01
In this work we study the predominantly orbital and radial excitations of hadrons containing a single heavy quark. We present meson and baryon mass splittings and ratios of meson decay constants (e.g., fBs/fB and fBs'/fBs) resulting from quenched and dynamical two-flavor configurations. Light quarks are simulated using the chirally improved lattice Dirac operator at valence masses as light as Mπ≈350MeV. The heavy quark is approximated by a static propagator, appropriate for the b quark on our lattices (1/ã1-2GeV). We also include some preliminary calculations of the O(1/mQ) kinetic corrections to the states, showing, in the process, a viable way of applying the variational method to three-point functions involving excited states. We compare our results with recent experimental findings.
Excitations of single-beauty hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burch, Tommy; Hagen, Christian; Lang, Christian B.; Limmer, Markus; Schaefer, Andreas
2009-01-01
In this work we study the predominantly orbital and radial excitations of hadrons containing a single heavy quark. We present meson and baryon mass splittings and ratios of meson decay constants (e.g., f B s /f B and f B s ' /f B s ) resulting from quenched and dynamical two-flavor configurations. Light quarks are simulated using the chirally improved lattice Dirac operator at valence masses as light as M π ≅350 MeV. The heavy quark is approximated by a static propagator, appropriate for the b quark on our lattices (1/a∼1-2 GeV). We also include some preliminary calculations of the O(1/m Q ) kinetic corrections to the states, showing, in the process, a viable way of applying the variational method to three-point functions involving excited states. We compare our results with recent experimental findings.
Chiral forces and molecular dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, R.
1992-01-01
Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected
Introduction to Chiral Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-05-09
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.
Introduction to chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, V.
1996-01-01
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented
Broken SU(5) x SU(5) chiral symmetry and the classification of B mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatzis, M.
1984-01-01
We consider broken SU(5) x SU(5) chiral summetry and we assume that the vacuum is SU(5)-symmetric. Using the observed mass spectrum of pseudoscalar mesons, and setting the bu mass in the range 5.2 +- 0.06 GeV, we predict the masses of bs, bc, and etasub(b) states as well as axial current couplings fsub(i)/fsub(π). SU(5) x SU(5) is found to be consistent with SU(4) x SU(4) breaking. The problem of eta - eta' - eta sub(c) - eta sub(b) mixing is also discussed
Chiral algebras for trinion theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Madalena; Peelaers, Wolfger
2015-01-01
It was recently understood that one can identify a chiral algebra in any four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theory. In this note, we conjecture the full set of generators of the chiral algebras associated with the T n theories. The conjecture is motivated by making manifest the critical affine module structure in the graded partition function of the chiral algebras, which is computed by the Schur limit of the superconformal index for T n theories. We also explicitly construct the chiral algebra arising from the T 4 theory. Its null relations give rise to new T 4 Higgs branch chiral ring relations.
Simplified chiral superfield propagators for chiral constant mass superfields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1983-01-01
Unconstrained superfield potentials are introduced to derive Feynman rules for chiral superfields following conventional procedure which is easy and instructive. Propagators for the case when the mass parameters are constant chiral superfields are derived. The propagators reported here are very simple compared to those available in literature and allow a manageable calculation of higher loops. (Author) [pt
A highly sensitive multiplasmonic sensor using hyperbolic chiral sculptured thin films
Abbas, Farhat; Faryad, Muhammad
2017-11-01
Surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves guided by an interface of a metal and a hyperbolic chiral sculptured thin film (STF) were theoretically investigated for optical sensing of an analyte. The chiral STF was infiltrated with the analyte to be sensed, and the resulting change in the incidence angle of excitation of the SPP waves in the prism-coupled configuration was computed. The results indicated the potential of this configuration for a plasmonic sensor with sensitivity up to 6000 degrees per refractive index units of the infiltrating fluid in the angular investigation scheme, with multiple SPP waves of the same frequency but different phase speeds, spatial profiles, and sensitivities. The enhancement in the sensitivity is attributed to the high field strength of the SPP waves near the interface. A multiplasmonic sensor is advantageous because of its potential for higher confidence in the measurement of the same analyte.
Deng, Ming; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Yuqian; Liu, Minghua
2016-11-21
Chiral self-assembly is a basic process in biological systems, where many chiral biomolecules such as amino acids and sugars play important roles. Achiral nucleobases usually covalently bond to saccharides and play a significant role in the formation of the double helix structure. However, it remains unclear how the achiral nucleobases can function in chiral self-assembly without the sugar modification. Herein, we have clarified that purine nucleobases could trigger N-(9-fluorenylmethox-ycarbonyl) (Fmoc)-protected glutamic acid to self-assemble into helical nanostructures. Moreover, the helical nanostructure could serve as a matrix and transfer the chirality to an achiral fluorescence probe, thioflavin T (ThT). Upon chirality transfer, the ThT showed not only supramolecular chirality but also circular polarized fluorescence (CPL). Without the nucleobase, the self-assembly processes cannot happen, thus providing an example where achiral molecules played an essential role in the expression and transfer of the chirality. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials
Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.
2018-06-01
Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.
Two-photon excited UV fluorescence for protein crystal detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madden, Jeremy T.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.
2011-01-01
Complementary measurements using SONICC and TPE-UVF allow the sensitive and selective detection of protein crystals. Two-photon excited ultraviolet fluorescence (TPE-UVF) microscopy is explored for sensitive protein-crystal detection as a complement to second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Like conventional ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), TPE-UVF generates image contrast based on the intrinsic fluorescence of aromatic residues, generally producing higher fluorescence emission within crystals than the mother liquor by nature of the higher local protein concentration. However, TPE-UVF has several advantages over conventional UVF, including (i) insensitivity to optical scattering, allowing imaging in turbid matrices, (ii) direct compatibility with conventional optical plates and windows by using visible light for excitation, (iii) elimination of potentially damaging out-of-plane UV excitation, (iv) improved signal to noise through background reduction from out-of-plane excitation and (v) relatively simple integration into instrumentation developed for SONICC
Arthurs, Ross A; Ismail, Muhammad; Prior, Christopher C; Oganesyan, Vasily S; Horton, Peter N; Coles, Simon J; Richards, Christopher J
2016-02-24
Reaction of [IrCp*Cl2 ]2 with ferrocenylimines (Fc=NAr, Ar=Ph, p-MeOC6 H4 ) results in ferrocene C-H activation and the diastereoselective synthesis of half-sandwich iridacycles of relative configuration Sp *,RIr *. Extension to (S)-2-ferrocenyl-4-(1-methylethyl)oxazoline gave highly diastereoselective control over the new elements of planar chirality and metal-based pseudo-tetrahedral chirality, to give both neutral and cationic half-sandwich iridacycles of absolute configuration Sc ,Sp ,RIr . Substitution reactions proceed with retention of configuration, with the planar chirality controlling the metal-centred chirality through an iron-iridium interaction in the coordinatively unsaturated cationic intermediate. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electroweak amplitudes in chiral quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiolhais, Manuel
2004-01-01
After referring to some basic features of chiral models for baryons, with quarks and mesons, we describe how to construct model states representing physical baryons. We consider soliton models such as the Linear Sigma Model or the Chromodielectric Model, and bag models such as the Cloudy Bag Model. These models are solved approximately using variational approaches whose starting point is a mean-field description. We go beyond the mean-field description by introducing quantum fluctuations in the mesonic degrees of freedom. This is achieved, in a first step, by using a quantum state to represent meson clouds and, secondly, by performing an angular momentum and isospin projection from the mean-field state (actually a coherent state). Model states for baryons (nucleon, Delta, Roper) constructed in this way are used to determine several physical properties. I this seminar we paid a particular attention to the nucleon-delta electromagnetic and weak transition, presenting the model predictions for the electromagnetic and axial amplitudes
Chiral Responsive Liquid Quantum Dots.
Zhang, Jin; Ma, Junkai; Shi, Fangdan; Tian, Demei; Li, Haibing
2017-08-01
How to convert the weak chiral-interaction into the macroscopic properties of materials remains a huge challenge. Here, this study develops highly fluorescent, selectively chiral-responsive liquid quantum dots (liquid QDs) based on the hydrophobic interaction between the chiral chains and the oleic acid-stabilized QDs, which have been designated as (S)-1810-QDs. The fluorescence spectrum and liquidity of thermal control demonstrate the fluorescence properties and the fluidic behavior of (S)-1810-QDs in the solvent-free state. Especially, (S)-1810-QDs exhibit a highly chiral-selective response toward (1R, 2S)-2-amino-1,2-diphenyl ethanol. It is anticipated that this study will facilitate the construction of smart chiral fluidic sensors. More importantly, (S)-1810-QDs can become an attractive material for chiral separation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chiral symmetry breaking and the spin content of the {rho} and {rho}{sup '} mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glozman, L.Ya., E-mail: leonid.glozman@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Physik, FB Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Lang, C.B., E-mail: christian.lang@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Physik, FB Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Limmer, M., E-mail: markus.limmer@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Physik, FB Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)
2011-11-03
Using interpolators with different SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R} transformation properties we study the chiral symmetry and spin contents of the {rho} and {rho}{sup '} mesons in lattice simulations with dynamical quarks. A ratio of couplings of the q-bar {gamma}{sup i}{tau}q and q-bar {sigma}{sup 0}i{tau}q interpolators to a given meson state at different resolution scales tells one about the degree of chiral symmetry breaking in the meson wave function at these scales. Using a Gaussian gauge invariant smearing of the quark fields in the interpolators, we are able to extract the chiral content of mesons up to the infrared resolution of {approx}1 fm. In the ground state {rho} meson the chiral symmetry is strongly broken with comparable contributions of both the (0,1)+(1,0) and (1/2,1/2){sub b} chiral representations with the former being the leading contribution. In contrast, in the {rho}{sup '} meson the degree of chiral symmetry breaking is manifestly smaller and the leading representation is (1/2,1/2){sub b}. Using a unitary transformation from the chiral basis to the {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} basis, we are able to define and measure the angular momentum content of mesons in the rest frame. This definition is different from the traditional one which uses parton distributions in the infinite momentum frame. The {rho} meson is practically a {sup 3}S{sub 1} state with no obvious trace of a 'spin crisis'. The {rho}{sup '} meson has a sizeable contribution of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} wave, which implies that the {rho}{sup '} meson cannot be considered as a pure radial excitation of the {rho} meson.
Applications of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frederico Martins Alves da Silva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of Young’s modulus, shells thickness, and geometrical imperfection uncertainties on the parametric instability loads of simply supported axially excited cylindrical shells. The Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory is used for the displacement field of the cylindrical shell and the parameters under investigation are considered as uncertain parameters with a known probability density function in the equilibrium equation. The uncertainties are discretized as Hermite-Chaos polynomials together with the Galerkin stochastic procedure that discretizes the stochastic equation in a set of deterministic equations of motion. Then, a general expression for the transversal displacement is obtained by a perturbation procedure which identifies all nonlinear modes that couple with the linear modes. So, a particular solution is selected which ensures the convergence of the response up to very large deflections. Applying the standard Galerkin method, a discrete system in time domain that considers the uncertainties is obtained and solved by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Several numerical strategies are used to study the nonlinear behavior of the shell considering the uncertainties in the parameters. Special attention is given to the influence of the uncertainties on the parametric instability and time response, showing that the Hermite-Chaos polynomial is a good numerical tool.
Maeda, Katsuhiro; Yashima, Eiji
2017-08-01
Construction of predominantly one-handed helical polyacetylenes with a desired helix sense utilizing noncovalent chiral interactions with nonracemic chiral guest compounds based on a supramolecular approach is described. As with the conventional dynamic helical polymers possessing optically active pendant groups covalently bonded to the polymer chains, this noncovalent helicity induction system can show significant chiral amplification phenomena, in which the chiral information of the nonracemic guests can transfer with high cooperativity through noncovalent bonding interactions to induce an almost single-handed helical conformation in the polymer backbone. An intriguing "memory effect" of the induced macromolecular helicity is observed for some polyacetylenes, which means that the helical conformations induced in dynamic helical polyacetylene can be transformed into metastable static ones by tuning their helix-inversion barriers. Potential applications of helical polyacetylenes with controlled helix sense constructed by the "noncovalent helicity induction and/or memory effect" as chiral materials are also described.
Wernisch, Stefanie; Pell, Reinhard; Lindner, Wolfgang
2012-07-01
The intramolecular distances of anion and cation exchanger sites of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases represent potential tuning sites for enantiomer selectivity. In this contribution, we investigate the influence of alkanesulfonic acid chain length and flexibility on enantiomer separations of chiral acids, bases, and amphoteric molecules for six Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral stationary phases in comparison with structurally related anion and cation exchangers. Employing polar-organic elution conditions, we observed an intramolecular counterion effect for acidic analytes which led to reduced retention times but did not impair enantiomer selectivities. Retention of amphoteric analytes is based on simultaneous double ion pairing of their charged functional groups with the acidic and basic sites of the zwitterionic selectors. A chiral center in the vicinity of the strong cation exchanger site is vital for chiral separations of bases. Sterically demanding side chains are beneficial for separations of free amino acids. Enantioseparations of free (un-derivatized) peptides were particularly successful in stationary phases with straight-chain alkanesulfonic acid sites, pointing to a beneficial influence of more flexible moieties. In addition, we observed pseudo-enantiomeric behavior of quinine and quinidine-derived chiral stationary phases facilitating reversal of elution orders for all analytes. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses
Feringa, Bernard
1988-01-01
The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the
Breaking of axial symmetry in excited nuclei as identified in experimental data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junghans Arnd R.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A phenomenological prediction for radiative neutron capture is presented and compared to recent compilations of Maxwellian averaged cross sections and average radiative widths. Photon strength functions and nuclear level densities near the neutron separation energy are extracted from data without the assumption of axial symmetry – at variance to common usage. A satisfactory description is reached with a small number of global parameters when theoretical predictions on triaxiality (from constrained HFB calculations with the Gogny D1S interaction are inserted into conventional calculations of radiative neutron capture. The photon strength is parametrized using the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The positions and widths are accounted for by the droplet model with surface dissipation without locally adjusted parameters. Level densities are influenced strongly by the significant collective enhancement based on the breaking of axial symmetry. With the less stringent requirement of invariance against rotation by 180∘ a global set of parameters which allows to describe the photon strength function and the level densities in the nuclear mass range from mass number 50 < A < 250 is found.
Cell Chirality Drives Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis.
Inaki, Mikiko; Sasamura, Takeshi; Matsuno, Kenji
2018-01-01
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species. The actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the formation of cell chirality. In addition, Myosin31DF ( Myo31DF ), which encodes Drosophila Myosin ID, was identified as a molecular switch for cell chirality. In other invertebrate species, including snails and Caenorhabditis elegans , chirality of the blastomeres, another type of cell chirality, determines the LR asymmetry of structures in the body. Thus, chirality at the cellular level may broadly contribute to LR asymmetric development in various invertebrate species. Recently, cell chirality was also reported for various vertebrate cultured cells, and studies suggested that cell chirality is evolutionarily conserved, including the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton. Although the biological roles of cell chirality in vertebrates remain unknown, it may control LR asymmetric development or other morphogenetic events. The investigation of cell chirality has just begun, and this new field should provide valuable new insights in biology and medicine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
1994-12-01
This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-12-15
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].
Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A
2011-01-17
We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.
Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meissner, U.G.
1991-09-01
I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon
Toy model for two chiral nonets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph
2005-01-01
Motivated by the possibility that nonets of scalar mesons might be described as mixtures of 'two quark' and 'four quark' components, we further study a toy model in which corresponding chiral nonets (containing also the pseudoscalar partners) interact with each other. Although the 'two quark' and 'four quark' chiral fields transform identically under SU(3) L xSU(3) R transformations, they transform differently under the U(1) A transformation which essentially counts total (quark+antiquark) content of the mesons. To implement this, we formulate an effective Lagrangian which mocks up the U(1) A behavior of the underlying QCD. We derive generating equations which yield Ward identity type relations based only on the assumed symmetry structure. This is applied to the mass spectrum of the low lying pseudoscalars and scalars, as well as their 'excitations'. Assuming isotopic spin invariance, it is possible to disentangle the amount of 'two quark' vs 'four quark' content in the pseudoscalar π,K,η-type states and in the scalar κ-type states. It is found that a small 'four quark' content in the lightest pseudoscalars is consistent with a large 'four quark' content in the lightest of the scalar κ mesons. The present toy model also allows one to easily estimate the strength of a 'four quark' vacuum condensate. There seems to be a rich and interesting structure
Chiral magnetic effect of light
Hayata, Tomoya
2018-05-01
We study a photonic analog of the chiral magnetic (vortical) effect. We discuss that the vector component of magnetoelectric tensors plays a role of "vector potential," and its rotation is understood as "magnetic field" of a light. Using the geometrical optics approximation, we show that "magnetic fields" cause an anomalous shift of a wave packet of a light through an interplay with the Berry curvature of photons. The mechanism is the same as that of the chiral magnetic (vortical) effect of a chiral fermion, so that we term the anomalous shift "chiral magnetic effect of a light." We further study the chiral magnetic effect of a light beyond geometric optics by directly solving the transmission problem of a wave packet at a surface of a magnetoelectric material. We show that the experimental signal of the chiral magnetic effect of a light is the nonvanishing of transverse displacements for the beam normally incident to a magnetoelectric material.
Chiral symmetry breaking for domain wall fermions in quenched lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Lingling
2001-01-01
The domain wall fermion formulation exhibits full chiral symmetry for finite lattice spacing except for the effects of mixing between the domain walls. Close to the continuum limit these symmetry breaking effects should be described by a single residual mass. We determine this mass from the conservation law obeyed by the conserved axial current in quenched simulations with β = 5.7 and 6.0 and domain wall separations varying between 12 and 48 on 8 3 x 32 and 16 3 x 32 lattices. Using the resulting values for the residual mass we perform two complete and independent calculations of the pion decay constant. Good agreement is found between these two methods and with experiment
QCD and the chiral critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavin, S.; Gocksch, A.; Pisarski, R.D.
1994-01-01
As an extension of QCD, consider a theory with ''2+1'' flavors, where the current quark masses are held in a fixed ratio as the overall scale of the quark masses is varied. At nonzero temperature and baryon density it is expected that in the chiral limit the chiral phase transition is of first order. Increasing the quark mass from zero, the chiral transition becomes more weakly first order, and can end in a chiral critical point. We show that the only massless field at the chiral critical point is a σ meson, with the universality class that of the Ising model. Present day lattice simulations indicate that QCD is (relatively) near to the chiral critical point
Kehr, Nermin Seda; Jose, Joachim
2017-12-01
We demonstrate the organic molecules loaded and chiral polymers coated periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) to generate chiral nanocarriers that we used to study chirality-dependent cellular uptake in serum and serum-free media and the subsequent delivery of different amounts of organic molecules into cells. Our results show that the amount of internalized PMO and thus the transported amount of organic molecules by nanocarrier PMO into cells was chirality dependent and controlled by hard/soft protein corona formation on the PMO surfaces. Therefore, this study demonstrate that chiral porous nanocarriers could potentially be used as advanced drug delivery systems which are able to use the specific chiral surface-protein interactions to influence/control the amount of (bio)active molecules delivered to cells in drug delivery and/or imaging applications.
Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Huijuan; Hu Lian
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots
Oscillation damping of chiral string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav
2002-01-01
Chiral cosmic string loops tend to the stationary (vorton) configuration due to energy loss into gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We describe the asymptotic behavior of near stationary chiral loops and their fading to vortons. General limits on the gravitational and electromagnetic energy losses by near stationary chiral loops are found. For these loops we estimate the oscillation damping time. We present solvable examples of gravitational radiation energy loss by some chiral loop configurations. The analytical dependence of string energy with time is found in the case of the chiral ring with small amplitude radial oscillations
Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.
2015-01-01
Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.
Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.
Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M
2016-10-18
The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahaman, Anisur, E-mail: anisur.rahman@saha.ac.in
2015-10-15
The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahaman, Anisur
2015-01-01
The vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model was replaced by the chiral type and a new model was presented which was termed as chiral Thirring–Wess model in Rahaman (2015). The model was studied there with a Faddeevian class of regularization. Few ambiguity parameters were allowed there with the apprehension that unitarity might be threatened like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. In the present work it has been shown that no counter term containing the regularization ambiguity is needed for this model to be physically sensible. So the chiral Thirring–Wess model is studied here without the presence of any ambiguity parameter and it has been found that the model not only remains exactly solvable but also does not lose the unitarity like the chiral generation of the Schwinger model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this new model have been determined in the present scenario. The theoretical spectrum is found to contain a massive boson with ambiguity free mass and a massless boson
Chen, Xingwu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinjie; Li, Chenyue; Hou, Guoyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai
2014-01-21
A chiral nematic liquid crystal-photopolymerizable monomer-chiral azobenzene compound composite was prepared and then polymerized under UV irradiation. The reflection wavelength of the composite can be extended to cover the 1000-2400 nm range and also be adjusted to the visible light region by controlling the concentration of chiral compounds.
Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efi Efrati
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.
Macdonald index and chiral algebra
Song, Jaewon
2017-08-01
For any 4d N = 2 SCFT, there is a subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra. The vacuum character of the chiral algebra reproduces the Schur index of the corresponding 4d theory. The Macdonald index counts the same set of operators as the Schur index, but the former has one more fugacity than the latter. We conjecture a prescription to obtain the Macdonald index from the chiral algebra. The vacuum module admits a filtration, from which we construct an associated graded vector space. From this grading, we conjecture a notion of refined character for the vacuum module of a chiral algebra, which reproduces the Macdonald index. We test this prescription for the Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A 1 , A 2 n ) and ( A 1 , D 2 n+1) where the chiral algebras are given by Virasoro and \\widehat{su}(2) affine Kac-Moody algebra. When the chiral algebra has more than one family of generators, our prescription requires a knowledge of the generators from the 4d.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevrin, Alexander; Staessens, Wieland; Wijns, Alexander
2008-01-01
We investigate N = (2, 2) supersymmetric nonlinear σ-models in the presence of a boundary. We restrict our attention to the case where the bulk geometry is described by chiral and twisted chiral superfields corresponding to a bihermitian bulk geometry with two commuting complex structures. The D-brane configurations preserving an N = 2 worldsheet supersymmetry are identified. Duality transformations interchanging chiral for twisted chiral fields and vice versa while preserving all supersymmetries are explicitly constructed. We illustrate our results with various explicit examples such as the WZW-model on the Hopf surface S 3 x S 1 . The duality transformations provide e.g new examples of coisotropic A-branes on Kaehler manifolds (which are not necessarily hyper-Kaehler). Finally, by dualizing a chiral and a twisted chiral field to a semi-chiral multiplet, we initiate the study of D-branes in bihermitian geometries where the cokernel of the commutator of the complex structures is non-empty.
On the strength of the U{sub A}(1) anomaly at the chiral phase transition in N{sub f}=2 QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, Bastian B. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität,D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Francis, Anthony [Department of Physics & Astronomy, York University,4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Meyer, Harvey B. [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Philipsen, Owe [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität,D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Robaina, Daniel; Wittig, Hartmut [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)
2016-12-30
We study the thermal transition of QCD with two degenerate light flavours by lattice simulations using O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. Temperature scans are performed at a fixed value of N{sub t}=(aT){sup −1}=16, where a is the lattice spacing and T the temperature, at three fixed zero-temperature pion masses between 200 MeV and 540 MeV. In this range we find that the transition is consistent with a broad crossover. As a probe of the restoration of chiral symmetry, we study the static screening spectrum. We observe a degeneracy between the transverse isovector vector and axial-vector channels starting from the transition temperature. Particularly striking is the strong reduction of the splitting between isovector scalar and pseudoscalar screening masses around the chiral phase transition by at least a factor of three compared to its value at zero temperature. In fact, the splitting is consistent with zero within our uncertainties. This disfavours a chiral phase transition in the O(4) universality class.
Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. P. Furlani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.
Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Feldmann, T.; Friedrich, R.; Reinhardt, H.
1994-06-01
By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3) F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)
2016-03-23
We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.
Feng, Zhang; Li, Ma; Yan, Yang; Jihai, Tang; Xiao, Li; Wanglin, Li
2013-01-01
A novel method to indicate the degree of chirality in polyaniline (PANI) was developed. The (D-camphorsulfonic acid)- and (HCl)-PANI-based electrodes exhibited significantly different electrochemical performances in D- and L-Alanine (Ala) aqueous solution, respectively, which can be used for the characterization the optical activity of chiral PANI. Cyclic voltammogram, tafel, and open circuit potential of PANI-based electrodes were measured within D- and L-Ala electrolyte solution, respectively. The open circuit potentials under different reacting conditions were analyzed by Doblhofer model formula, in which [C(+)](poly1)/[C(+)](poly2) was used as a parameter to characterize the degree of chirality in chiral PANI. The results showed that [C(+)](poly1)/[C(+)](poly2) can be increased with increasing concentrations of (1S)-(+)- and (1R)-(-)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. In addition, we detected that appropriate response time and lower temperature are necessary to improve the degree of chirality. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jager, H.U.; Kirchbach, M.; Truhlik, E.
1982-01-01
Starting with the hard pion model based on a minimal chiral invariant phenomenological Lagrangian, the two-particle part of the time component of the weak axial-vector current is constructed in the tree-approximation. Pion, rho- and A 1 -meson exchanges are considered. The mesonic exchange operator obtained is applied to describe the purely weak axial 0 + reversible 0 - , ΔT=1 transition in the nuclear A=16 system the muon reaction μ - + 16 O(0 1 + ; T=0) → 16 N(0 1 - ; T=1) + γsub(μ) and beta decay 16 N(0 1 - ; T=1) → 16 O(0 1 + ; T=0) + e - + anti νsub(e). In order to treat nufar structure correlation efects explicit use of shell model wave functions with configuration mixing is made. The large enhancement of the nuclear weak axial charge density with respect to impulse approximation is established
Axial magnetic field produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Q.L.; McMurry, S.M.; Coey, J.M.D.
2004-01-01
Axial magnetic fields produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent magnet rings were studied. First, the axial magnetic field produced by a current loop is introduced, from which the axial field generated by an infinitely thin solenoid and by an infinitely thin current disk can be derived. Then the axial fields produced by axially and by radially magnetized permanent magnet rings can be obtained. An analytic formula for the axial fields produced by two axially magnetized rings is given. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field is fabricated, the measured results agree with the theoretical calculation very well. As an example, the axial periodic field produced by an arrangement of alternating axially and radially magnetized rings has been discussed
Molecular-Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaera, Francisco
2012-01-01
The following is a proposal to continue our multi-institutional research on heterogeneous chiral catalysis. Our team combines the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for the characterization of model systems with quantum and statistical mechanical calculations to interpret experimental data and guide the design of future research. Our investigation focuses on the interrelation among the three main mechanisms by which enantioselectivity can be bestowed to heterogeneous catalysts, namely: (1) by templating chirality via the adsorption of chiral supramolecular assemblies, (2) by using chiral modifiers capable of forming chiral complexes with the reactant and force enantioselective surface reactions, and (3) by forming naturally chiral surfaces using imprinting chiral agents. Individually, the members of our team are leaders in these various aspects of chiral catalysis, but the present program provides the vehicle to generate and exploit the synergies necessary to address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Our initial work has advanced the methodology needed for these studies, including an enantioselective titration procedure to identify surface chiral sites, infrared spectroscopy in situ at the interface between gases or liquids and solids to mimic realistic catalytic conditions, and DFT and Monte Carlo algorithms to simulate and understand chirality on surfaces. The next step, to be funded by the monies requested in this proposal, is to apply those methods to specific problems in chiral catalysis, including the identification of the requirements for the formation of supramolecular surface structures with enantioselective behavior, the search for better molecules to probe the chiral nature of the modified surfaces, the exploration of the transition from supramolecular to one-to-one chiral modification, the correlation of the adsorption characteristics of one-to-one chiral modifiers with their physical properties, in particular with their configuration
Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gellman, Andrew John [Carnegie Mellon University; Sholl, David S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tysoe, Wilfred T. [University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; Zaera, Francisco [University of California at Riverside
2013-04-28
Understanding and controlling selectivity is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous catalysis. Among problems in catalytic selectivity enantioselectivity is perhaps the most the most challenging. The primary goal of the project on “Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts” is to understand the origins of enantioselectivity on chiral heterogeneous surfaces and catalysts. The efforts of the project team include preparation of chiral surfaces, characterization of chiral surfaces, experimental detection of enantioselectivity on such surfaces and computational modeling of the interactions of chiral probe molecules with chiral surfaces. Over the course of the project period the team of PI’s has made some of the most detailed and insightful studies of enantioselective chemistry on chiral surfaces. This includes the measurement of fundamental interactions and reaction mechanisms of chiral molecules on chiral surfaces and leads all the way to rationale design and synthesis of chiral surfaces and materials for enantioselective surface chemistry. The PI’s have designed and prepared new materials for enantioselective adsorption and catalysis. Naturally Chiral Surfaces • Completion of a systematic study of the enantiospecific desorption kinetics of R-3-methylcyclohexanone (R-3-MCHO) on 9 achiral and 7 enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces with orientations that span the stereographic triangle. • Discovery of super-enantioselective tartaric acid (TA) and aspartic acid (Asp) decomposition as a result of a surface explosion mechanism on Cu(643)R&S. Systematic study of super-enantiospecific TA and Asp decomposition on five enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces. • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-propylene oxide (PO) from Cu(100) imprinted with {3,1,17} facets by L-lysine adsorption. Templated Chiral Surfaces • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-PO from Pt(111) and Pd(111
Supramolecular Chirality: Solvent Chirality Transfer in Molecular Chemistry and Polymer Chemistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michiya Fujiki
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Controlled mirror symmetry breaking arising from chemical and physical origin is currently one of the hottest issues in the field of supramolecular chirality. The dynamic twisting abilities of solvent molecules are often ignored and unknown, although the targeted molecules and polymers in a fluid solution are surrounded by solvent molecules. We should pay more attention to the facts that mostly all of the chemical and physical properties of these molecules and polymers in the ground and photoexcited states are significantly influenced by the surrounding solvent molecules with much conformational freedom through non-covalent supramolecular interactions between these substances and solvent molecules. This review highlights a series of studies that include: (i historical background, covering chiral NaClO3 crystallization in the presence of d-sugars in the late 19th century; (ii early solvent chirality effects for optically inactive chromophores/fluorophores in the 1960s–1980s; and (iii the recent development of mirror symmetry breaking from the corresponding achiral or optically inactive molecules and polymers with the help of molecular chirality as the solvent use quantity.
Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, S. Y. [Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N. D. [Department of Physics, Illinois State University, 61790, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X., E-mail: xiw77@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2015-10-06
We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -}→(ℓ{sup +}D{sup 0})(ℓ{sup -}D{sup -bar0}) at high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (non-chiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.
Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal
Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander
2016-08-01
The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.
Superharmonic imaging with chirp coded excitation: filtering spectrally overlapped harmonics.
Harput, Sevan; McLaughlan, James; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven
2014-11-01
Superharmonic imaging improves the spatial resolution by using the higher order harmonics generated in tissue. The superharmonic component is formed by combining the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, which have low energy content and therefore poor SNR. This study uses coded excitation to increase the excitation energy. The SNR improvement is achieved on the receiver side by performing pulse compression with harmonic matched filters. The use of coded signals also introduces new filtering capabilities that are not possible with pulsed excitation. This is especially important when using wideband signals. For narrowband signals, the spectral boundaries of the harmonics are clearly separated and thus easy to filter; however, the available imaging bandwidth is underused. Wideband excitation is preferable for harmonic imaging applications to preserve axial resolution, but it generates spectrally overlapping harmonics that are not possible to filter in time and frequency domains. After pulse compression, this overlap increases the range side lobes, which appear as imaging artifacts and reduce the Bmode image quality. In this study, the isolation of higher order harmonics was achieved in another domain by using the fan chirp transform (FChT). To show the effect of excitation bandwidth in superharmonic imaging, measurements were performed by using linear frequency modulated chirp excitation with varying bandwidths of 10% to 50%. Superharmonic imaging was performed on a wire phantom using a wideband chirp excitation. Results were presented with and without applying the FChT filtering technique by comparing the spatial resolution and side lobe levels. Wideband excitation signals achieved a better resolution as expected, however range side lobes as high as -23 dB were observed for the superharmonic component of chirp excitation with 50% fractional bandwidth. The proposed filtering technique achieved >50 dB range side lobe suppression and improved the image quality without
Corminboeuf, Olivier; Quaranta, Laura; Renaud, Philippe; Liu, Mei; Jasperse, Craig P; Sibi, Mukund P
2003-01-03
Chiral Lewis acid catalysis has emerged as one of the premiere method to control stereochemistry. Much effort has gone into the design of superior ligands with increasing steric extension to shield distant reactive sites. We report here an alternative and complementary approach based on a "chiral relay". This strategy focuses on the improved design of achiral templates which may relay and amplify the stereochemistry from ligands. The essence of this strategy is that the chiral Lewis acid would effectively convert an achiral template into a chiral non-racemic template. This approach combines the advantages of enantioselective catalysis (substoichiometric amount of the chiral inducer) with the ones of chiral auxiliary control (efficient and predictable stereocontrol).
Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B
2009-01-01
The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.
Quasilocal quark models as effective theory of non-perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, A.A.
2006-01-01
We consider the Quasilocal Quark Model of NJL type (QNJLM) as effective theory of non-perturbative QCD including scalar (S), pseudo-scalar (P), vector (V) and axial-vector (A) four-fermion interaction with derivatives. In the presence of a strong attraction in the scalar channel the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken and as a consequence the composite meson states are generated in all channels. With the help of Operator Product Expansion the appropriate set of Chiral Symmetry Restoration (CSR) Sum Rules in these channels are imposed as matching rules to QCD at intermediate energies. The mass spectrum and some decay constants for ground and excited meson states are calculated
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misaridis, Thanasis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1999-01-01
This paper presents a coded excitation imaging system based on a predistorted FM excitation and a digital compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications, in order to preserve both axial resolution and contrast. In radars, optimal Chebyshev windows efficiently weight a nearly...... as with pulse excitation (about 1.5 lambda), depending on the filter design criteria. The axial sidelobes are below -40 dB, which is the noise level of the measuring imaging system. The proposed excitation/compression scheme shows good overall performance and stability to the frequency shift due to attenuation...... be removed by weighting. We show that by using a predistorted chirp with amplitude or phase shaping for amplitude ripple reduction and a correlation filter that accounts for the transducer's natural frequency weighting, output sidelobe levels of -35 to -40 dB are directly obtained. When an optimized filter...
Anomalous Hall effect in semiconductor quantum wells in proximity to chiral p -wave superconductors
Yang, F.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.
2018-05-01
By using the gauge-invariant optical Bloch equation, we perform a microscopic kinetic investigation on the anomalous Hall effect in chiral p -wave superconducting states. Specifically, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in the absence of the magnetic field is zero as a consequence of Galilean invariance in our description. As for the extrinsic channel, a finite anomalous Hall current is obtained from the impurity scattering with the optically excited normal quasiparticle current even at zero temperature. From our kinetic description, it can be clearly seen that the excited normal quasiparticle current is due to an induced center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs through the acceleration driven by ac electric field. For the induced anomalous Hall current, we show that the conventional skew-scattering channel in the linear response makes the dominant contribution in the strong impurity interaction. In this case, our kinetic description as a supplementary viewpoint mostly confirms the results of Kubo formalism in the literature. Nevertheless, in the weak impurity interaction, this skew-scattering channel becomes marginal and we reveal that an induction channel from the Born contribution dominates the anomalous Hall current. This channel, which has long been overlooked in the literature, is due to the particle-hole asymmetry by nonlinear optical excitation. Finally, we study the case in the chiral p -wave superconducting state with a transverse conical magnetization, which breaks the Galilean invariance. In this situation, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity is no longer zero. Comparison of this intrinsic channel with the extrinsic one from impurity scattering is addressed.
Symmetry, structure, and dynamics of monoaxial chiral magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Togawa, Yoshihiko; Kousaka, Yusuke; Inoue, Katsuya; Kishine, Jun-ichiro
2016-01-01
Nontrivial spin orders with magnetic chirality emerge in a particular class of magnetic materials with structural chirality, which are frequently referred to as chiral magnets. Various interesting physical properties are expected to be induced in chiral magnets through the coupling of chiral magnetic orders with conduction electrons and electromagnetic fields. One promising candidate for achieving these couplings is a chiral spin soliton lattice. Here, we review recent experimental observations mainly carried out on the monoaxial chiral magnetic crystal CrNb_3S_6 via magnetic imaging using electron, neutron, and X-ray beams and magnetoresistance measurements, together with the strategy for synthesizing chiral magnetic materials and underlying theoretical backgrounds. The chiral soliton lattice appears under a magnetic field perpendicular to the chiral helical axis and is very robust and stable with phase coherence on a macroscopic length scale. The tunable and topological nature of the chiral soliton lattice gives rise to nontrivial physical properties. Indeed, it is demonstrated that the interlayer magnetoresistance scales to the soliton density, which plays an essential role as an order parameter in chiral soliton lattice formation, and becomes quantized with the reduction of the system size. These interesting features arising from macroscopic phase coherence unique to the chiral soliton lattice will lead to the exploration of routes to a new paradigm for applications in spin electronics using spin phase coherence. (author)
Compressible Strips, Chiral Luttinger Liquids, and All That Jazz
MacDonald, A. H.
1996-03-01
When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic {\\em compressible strip} models for microscopic {chiral Luttinger liquid} models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems.
Chirality: a relational geometric-physical property.
Gerlach, Hans
2013-11-01
The definition of the term chirality by Lord Kelvin in 1893 and 1904 is analyzed by taking crystallography at that time into account. This shows clearly that chirality is a relational geometric-physical property, i.e., two relations between isometric objects are possible: homochiral or heterochiral. In scientific articles the relational term chirality is often mistaken for the two valued measure for the individual (absolute) sense of chirality, an arbitrary attributive term. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Goldberger-Treiman relation and the chiral soliton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiolhais, M.; Urbano, J.N.; Coimbra Univ.; Nippe, A.; Gruemmer, F.; Goeke, K.; Bonn Univ.
1987-01-01
The linear chiral soliton model with explicit quark fields and elementary pion- and sigma-fields is solved in order to describe nucleon and delta properties. Special emphasis is put on the axial vector coupling constant g A and on the Goldberger-Treiman relation. To this end baryon Fock states are constructed in a mean field approximation with hedgehog-like configurations from which the physical states are obtained by projection techniques. It is shown that the Goldberger-Treiman relation is only fulfilled if the quark- and pion-hedgehog is generalized and the variation is performed with projected states. Under this condition no parameter set is found which yields a proper g A and a proper pion-nucleon coupling constant g πNN , if the polarization of the Dirac sea is neglected. Other observables are reproduced within 20% limits or less. (orig.)
Light-front realization of chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itakura, Kazunori; Maedan, Shinji
2001-01-01
We discuss a description of chiral symmetry breaking in the light-front (LF) formalism. Based on careful analyses of several modes, we give clear answers to the following three fundamental questions: (i) What is the difference between the LF chiral transformation and the ordinary chiral transformation? (ii) How does a gap equation for the chiral condensate emerge? (iii) What is the consequence of the coexistence of a nonzero chiral condensate and the trivial Fock vacuum? The answer to Question (i) is given through a classical analysis of each model. Question (ii) is answered based on our recognition of the importance of characteristic constraints, such as the zero-mode and fermionic constraints. Question (iii) is intimately related to another important problem, reconciliation of the nonzero chiral condensate ≠ 0 and the invariance of the vacuum under the LF chiral transformation Q 5 LF | 0> = 0. This and Question (iii) are understood in terms of the modified chiral transformation laws of the dependent variables. The characteristic ways in which the chiral symmetry breaking is realized are that the chiral charge Q 5 LF is no longer conserved and that the transformation of the scalar and pseudoscalar fields is modified. We also discuss other outcomes, such as the light-cone wave function of the pseudoscalar meson in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. (author)
Hegade, Ravindra Suryakant; De Beer, Maarten; Lynen, Frederic
2017-09-15
Chiral Stationary-Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOSLC) is proposed as a tool to optimally separate mixtures of enantiomers on a set of commercially available coupled chiral columns. This approach allows for the prediction of the separation profiles on any possible combination of the chiral stationary phases based on a limited number of preliminary analyses, followed by automated selection of the optimal column combination. Both the isocratic and gradient SOSLC approach were implemented for prediction of the retention times for a mixture of 4 chiral pairs on all possible combinations of the 5 commercial chiral columns. Predictions in isocratic and gradient mode were performed with a commercially available and with an in-house developed Microsoft visual basic algorithm, respectively. Optimal predictions in the isocratic mode required the coupling of 4 columns whereby relative deviations between the predicted and experimental retention times ranged between 2 and 7%. Gradient predictions led to the coupling of 3 chiral columns allowing baseline separation of all solutes, whereby differences between predictions and experiments ranged between 0 and 12%. The methodology is a novel tool allowing optimizing the separation of mixtures of optical isomers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hadron properties in chiral sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Hong
2005-01-01
The modification of hadron masses in nuclear medium is studied by using the chiral sigma model, which is extended to generate the omega meson mass by the sigma condensation in the vacuum in the same way as the nucleon mass. The chiral sigma model provides proper equilibrium properties of nuclear matter. It is shown that the effective masses of both nucleons and omega mesons decrease in nuclear medium, while the effective mass of sigma mesons increases oat finite density in the chiral sigma model. The results obtained in the chiral sigma model are compared with those obtained in the Walecka model, which includes sigma and omega mesons in a non-chiral fashion. (author)
Chiral recognition in separation science: an overview.
Scriba, Gerhard K E
2013-01-01
Chiral recognition phenomena play an important role in nature as well as analytical separation sciences. In separation sciences such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, enantiospecific interactions between the enantiomers of an analyte and the chiral selector are required in order to observe enantioseparations. Due to the large structural variety of chiral selectors applied, different mechanisms and structural features contribute to the chiral recognition process. This chapter briefly illustrates the current models of the enantiospecific recognition on the structural basics of various chiral selectors.
No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?
Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald
2010-03-01
At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.
Maeda, Katsuhiro; Hirose, Daisuke; Okoshi, Natsuki; Shimomura, Kouhei; Wada, Yuya; Ikai, Tomoyuki; Kanoh, Shigeyoshi; Yashima, Eiji
2018-03-07
We report the first direct chirality sensing of a series of chiral hydrocarbons and isotopically chiral compounds (deuterated isotopomers), which are almost impossible to detect by conventional optical spectroscopic methods, by a stereoregular polyacetylene bearing 2,2'-biphenol-derived pendants. The polyacetylene showed a circular dichroism due to a preferred-handed helix formation in response to the hardly detectable hidden chirality of saturated tertiary or chiroptical quaternary hydrocarbons, and deuterated isotopomers. In sharp contrast to the previously reported sensory systems, the chirality detection by the polyacetylene relies on an excess one-handed helix formation induced by the chiral hydrocarbons and deuterated isotopomers via significant amplification of the chirality followed by its static memory, through which chiral information on the minute and hidden chirality can be stored as an excess of a single-handed helix memory for a long time.
Chirality, nongauge couplings and compositeness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Mahiko
1985-01-01
We study from a phenomenological viewpoint what constraints exist on a possible scale of compositeness for W, Z, leptons, and quarks. A few critical arguments are presented about excited fermions and spinless partners of W and Z. It is argued that irrespective of a compositeness scale, the coupling of an excited fermion to a ground state light fermion is likely to be maximally parity violating. Besides chirality breaking interactions of light fermions, gauge noninvariant, dimensionless, unrenormalizable couplings are specially interesting in many classes of composite theories. The deviation of the W magnetic moment from the standard theory (g = 2) is such an example. We relate the ''g-2'' of W to a compositeness scale through an unitarity argument and make a guess on its effect on the muon g-2 for a given compositeness scale. The present experimental data on the W-Z mass ratio is already accurate enough to indicate that if a compositeness scale is larger than 0(1 TeV), gauge noninvariant couplings of W and Z should be negligibly small and a composite theory is hardly distinguishable from an elementary particle theory at the electroweak energy scale (≅ 250 GeV). However, a compositeness scale close to the electroweak scale can not be ruled out for W and Z at present. (author)
Chiral dynamics with (nonstrange quarks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kubis Bastian
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405, the dynamical generation of the lowest S11 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy–Steiner analysis of pion–nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion–nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Soohyun; Kim, Sang Jun; Hyun, Myung Ho
2012-01-01
Optically active chiral amines are important as building blocks for pharmaceuticals and as scaffolds for chiral ligands and, consequently, many efforts have been devoted to the development of efficient methods for their preparation. For example, reduction of amine precursors with chiral catalysts, enzymatic kinetic resolution or dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic amines and the direct amination of ketones with transaminases have been developed as the efficient methods for the preparation of optically active chiral amines. During the process of developing or utilizing optically active chiral amines, the methods for the determination of their enantiomeric composition are essential. Among various methods, liquid chromatographic resolution of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been known to be one of the most accurate and economic means for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of optically active chiral compounds. Especially, CSPs based on chiral crown ethers have been successfully used for the resolution of racemic primary amines. For example, CSPs based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (CSP 1, Figure 1) or (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6 (CSP 2 and CSP 3, Figure 1) have been known to be quite effective for the resolution of cyclic and non-cyclic amines, various fluoroquinolone antibacterials containing a primary amino group, tocainide (antiarrhythmic agent) and its analogues, aryl-a-amino ketones and 3-amino-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones
Spectral signatures of chirality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger
2009-01-01
We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...
Is there chirality in atomic nuclei?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Jie
2009-01-01
Static chiral symmetries are common in nature, for example, the macroscopic spirals of snail shells, the microscopic handedness of certain molecules, and human hands. The concept of chirality in atomic nuclei was first proposed in 1997, and since then many efforts have been made to understand chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking in atomic nuclei. Recent theoretical and experimental progress in the verification of chirality in atomic nuclei will be reviewed, together with a discussion of the problems that await to be solved in the future. (authors)
11th Workshop on The Physics of Excited Nucleons
Hammer, Hans-Werner; Thoma, Ulrike; Schmieden, Hartmut; NSTAR 2007
2008-01-01
The excitation spectrum of the nucleon promises to offer important insights into the non-perturbative regime of QCD. Dedicated experimental programs at various laboratories exist to perform accurate measurements of meson photo- and electroproduction off the nucleon, studying its excitation. The NStar workshops are a well-established series of meetings that bring together experimenters and theoreticians working on baryon resonances and related areas to discuss New results on pseudoscalar and vector meson production; Partial wave analysis and resonance parameters; Baryon resonance structure and quark models; Dynamical models and coupled channel analysis; Baryon resonances in lattice QCD; Chiral symmetry and baryon resonances; Laboratory reports and future projects. The refereed and edited proceedings constitute an indispensable archival record of the progress in the field.
Influence of Chirality in Ordered Block Copolymer Phases
Prasad, Ishan; Grason, Gregory
2015-03-01
Block copolymers are known to assemble into rich spectrum of ordered phases, with many complex phases driven by asymmetry in copolymer architecture. Despite decades of study, the influence of intrinsic chirality on equilibrium mesophase assembly of block copolymers is not well understood and largely unexplored. Self-consistent field theory has played a major role in prediction of physical properties of polymeric systems. Only recently, a polar orientational self-consistent field (oSCF) approach was adopted to model chiral BCP having a thermodynamic preference for cholesteric ordering in chiral segments. We implement oSCF theory for chiral nematic copolymers, where segment orientations are characterized by quadrupolar chiral interactions, and focus our study on the thermodynamic stability of bi-continuous network morphologies, and the transfer of molecular chirality to mesoscale chirality of networks. Unique photonic properties observed in butterfly wings have been attributed to presence of chiral single-gyroid networks, this has made it an attractive target for chiral metamaterial design.
Research on magnetic excitation model of magnetic flux leakage for coal mine hoisting wire rope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Tian
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This study presents the optimal design of a magnetic excitation model for developing a nondestructive sensor for coal mine hoist wire ropes. The model was established using axial-symmetry finite-element analysis and calculations. The influence of the excitation device parameters on the local magnetization effect of the wire rope was investigated in detail using the axial-symmetry finite-element model. The excitation model parameters of the sensor were optimally designed using a combination of finite-element analysis and an optimization method. The experiments were performed to measure the leakage flux and evaluate the performance of the optimally designed sensor. The results show that the sensor based on the newly designed excitation model can not only improve the signal-to-noise ratio for defect detection in a coal mine hoist wire rope by 11% compared to an existing sensor but also reliably detect small defects with a high detection speed (5 m/s along the length of the coal mine wire rope.
van Elburg, P.A.; Honig, G.W.N.; Reinhoudt, David
1987-01-01
Chiral four-membered cyclic nitrones were synthesized by the asymmetric (4+2)-cycloaddition of nitroalkenes 1 and chiral ynamines 2. The subsequent stereoselective addition of nucleophiles to these nitrones enabled the synthesis of chiral N-hydroxyazetidines.
Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Physics, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N.D. [Illinois State University, Department of Physics, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2015-10-15
We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} → (l{sup +}D{sup 0})(l{sup +} anti D{sup 0}) at highenergy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (nonchiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. (orig.)
The development of an air injection system for the forced response testing of axial compressors
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Wegman, Erik J
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A phase-controllable, air injection exciter system was developed to enable measurement of the forced response properties of a transonic axial compressor blisk. The project was performed as part of the FP7 European framework program project FUTURE...
Variational approach to chiral quark models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Futami, Yasuhiko; Odajima, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Akira
1987-03-01
A variational approach is applied to a chiral quark model to test the validity of the perturbative treatment of the pion-quark interaction based on the chiral symmetry principle. It is indispensably related to the chiral symmetry breaking radius if the pion-quark interaction can be regarded as a perturbation.
Some aspects of chirality: Fermion masses and chiral p-forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleppe, A
1997-05-01
The properties of fermion mass matrices are investigated from different points of view, both within the minimal Standard Model and in extensions of the model. It is shown how mass matrix invariants are used to define the measurables of the quark mixing matrix as invariant functions of the mass matrices. One model is presented where the family pattern is suggested to originate from a kind of mass scaling. A Lagrangian density is defined for an entire charge sector, such that the existence of a Dirac field with mass m{sub 0} implies the existence of other Dirac fields where the corresponding quanta have masses Rm{sub 0}, R{sup 2}m{sub 0}, .. which are obtained by a discrete scale transformation. This suggests a certain type of democratic fermion mass matrices. Also extensions of the minimal Standard Model are investigated, obtained by including right-handed neutrinos in the model. The Standard Model extended by two right-handed neutrinos gives rise to a mass spectrum with two massive and three massless neutrinos. The phenomenological consequences of this model are discussed. The neutrino mass matrix in such a scheme has what is defined as a democratic texture. They are studied for the cases with two and three right-handed neutrinos, resp. The chiral fields that we find in the Standard Model have certain similarities with self-dual fields. Among other things, both chiral and self-dual fields suffer species doubling on the lattice. Chiral p-forms are self-dual fields that appear in twice odd dimensions. Chiral p-forms violate manifest covariance, in the same sense as manifest covariance is violated by non-covariant gauges in electrodynamics. It is shown that a covariant action can nevertheless be formulated for chiral p-forms, by introducing an infinite set of gauge fields in a carefully controlled way.
Some aspects of chirality: Fermion masses and chiral p-forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppe, A.
1997-05-01
The properties of fermion mass matrices are investigated from different points of view, both within the minimal Standard Model and in extensions of the model. It is shown how mass matrix invariants are used to define the measurables of the quark mixing matrix as invariant functions of the mass matrices. One model is presented where the family pattern is suggested to originate from a kind of mass scaling. A Lagrangian density is defined for an entire charge sector, such that the existence of a Dirac field with mass m 0 implies the existence of other Dirac fields where the corresponding quanta have masses Rm 0 , R 2 m 0 , .. which are obtained by a discrete scale transformation. This suggests a certain type of democratic fermion mass matrices. Also extensions of the minimal Standard Model are investigated, obtained by including right-handed neutrinos in the model. The Standard Model extended by two right-handed neutrinos gives rise to a mass spectrum with two massive and three massless neutrinos. The phenomenological consequences of this model are discussed. The neutrino mass matrix in such a scheme has what is defined as a democratic texture. They are studied for the cases with two and three right-handed neutrinos, resp. The chiral fields that we find in the Standard Model have certain similarities with self-dual fields. Among other things, both chiral and self-dual fields suffer species doubling on the lattice. Chiral p-forms are self-dual fields that appear in twice odd dimensions. Chiral p-forms violate manifest covariance, in the same sense as manifest covariance is violated by non-covariant gauges in electrodynamics. It is shown that a covariant action can nevertheless be formulated for chiral p-forms, by introducing an infinite set of gauge fields in a carefully controlled way
Crossed-coil detection of two-photon excited nuclear quadrupole resonance
Eles, Philip T.; Michal, Carl A.
2005-08-01
Applying a recently developed theoretical framework for determining two-photon excitation Hamiltonians using average Hamiltonian theory, we calculate the excitation produced by half-resonant irradiation of the pure quadrupole resonance of a spin-3/2 system. This formalism provides expressions for the single-quantum and double-quantum nutation frequencies as well as the Bloch-Siegert shift. The dependence of the excitation strength on RF field orientation and the appearance of the free-induction signal along an axis perpendicular to the excitation field provide an unmistakable signature of two-photon excitation. We demonstrate single- and double-quantum excitation in an axially symmetric system using 35Cl in a single crystal of potassium chlorate ( ωQ = 28 MHz) with crossed-coil detection. A rotation plot verifies the orientation dependence of the two-photon excitation, and double-quantum coherences are observed directly with the application of a static external magnetic field.
Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Wen
2012-01-01
We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)
Bergantini, Alexandre; Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Pokhilko, Pavel; Krylov, Anna I.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Herbst, Eric; Kaiser, Ralf I.
2018-06-01
This work reveals via a combined experimental, computational, and astrochemical modeling study that racemic propylene oxide (c-C3H6O)—the first chiral molecule detected outside Earth toward the high-mass star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N)—can be synthesized by non-equilibrium reactions initiated by the effects of secondary electrons generated in the track of cosmic rays interacting with ice-coated interstellar grains through excited-state and spin-forbidden reaction pathways operating within low-temperature interstellar ices at 10 K. Our findings confront traditional hypotheses that thermal chemistries followed by processing of interstellar grains dictate the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) in molecular clouds. Instead, we reveal a hitherto poorly quantified reaction class involving excited-state and spin-forbidden chemistry leading to racemic mixtures of COMs inside interstellar ices prior to their sublimation in star-forming regions. This fundamental production mechanism is of essential consequence in aiding our understanding of the origin and evolution of chiral molecules in the universe.
Chiral topological insulator of magnons
Li, Bo; Kovalev, Alexey A.
2018-05-01
We propose a magnon realization of 3D topological insulator in the AIII (chiral symmetry) topological class. The topological magnon gap opens due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. The existence of the topological invariant is established by calculating the bulk winding number of the system. Within our model, the surface magnon Dirac cone is protected by the sublattice chiral symmetry. By analyzing the magnon surface modes, we confirm that the backscattering is prohibited. By weakly breaking the chiral symmetry, we observe the magnon Hall response on the surface due to opening of the gap. Finally, we show that by changing certain parameters, the system can be tuned between the chiral topological insulator, three-dimensional magnon anomalous Hall, and Weyl magnon phases.
Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions.
Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong
2013-06-01
The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.
Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V.
2015-01-01
Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin......Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase......-closure Principle, and their correspondence with stop band formation is shown. Steady-state and transient dynamics of a periodic rod of finite length are analysed numerically and the difference in structural response when excitation is done in either stop- or pass bands is demonstrated. A physical interpretation...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knippschild, Bastian
2012-03-05
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises wether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m{sub ud}{sup MS}(2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knippschild, Bastian
2012-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, one of the four fundamental forces in our Universe. It describes the interaction of gluons and quarks which build up hadrons like protons and neutrons. Most of the visible matter in our universe is made of protons and neutrons. Hence, we are interested in their fundamental properties like their masses, their distribution of charge and their shape. The only known theoretical, non-perturbative and ab initio method to investigate hadron properties at low energies is lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). However, up-to-date simulations (especially for baryonic quantities) do not achieve the accuracy of experiments. In fact, current simulations do not even reproduce the experimental values for the form factors. The question arises whether these deviations can be explained by systematic effects in lattice QCD simulations. This thesis is about the computation of nucleon form factors and other hadronic quantities from lattice QCD. So called Wilson fermions are used and the u- and d-quarks are treated fully dynamically. The simulations were performed using gauge ensembles with a range of lattice spacings, volumes and pion masses. First of all, the lattice spacing was set to be able to make contact between the lattice results and their experimental complement and to be able to perform a continuum extrapolation. The light quark mass has been computed and found to be m ud MS (2 GeV)=3.03(17)(38) MeV. This value is in good agreement with values from experiments and other lattice determinations. Electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon have been calculated. From these form factors the nucleon radii and the coupling constants were computed. The different ensembles enabled us to investigate systematically the dependence of these quantities on the volume, the lattice spacing and the pion mass. Finally we perform a continuum extrapolation and chiral extrapolations to the physical point. In
Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min
2017-01-01
Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs
Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandula, Jeffrey E.
2009-01-01
The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luescher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.
Chiral ionic liquids in chromatographic and electrophoretic separations.
Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P; Stavrou, Ioannis J; Mavroudi, Maria C
2014-10-10
This report provides an overview of the application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) in separation technology, and particularly in capillary electrophoresis and both gas and liquid chromatography. There is a large number of CILs that have been synthesized and designed as chiral agents. However, only a few have successfully been applied in separation technology. Even though this application of CILs is still in its early stages, the scientific interest is increasing dramatically. This article is focused on the use of CILs as chiral selectors, background electrolyte additives, chiral ligands and chiral stationary phases in electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques. Different examples of CILs, which contain either a chiral cation, a chiral anion or both, are presented in this review article, and their major advantages along with their potential applications in chiral electrophoretic and chromatographic recognition are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilger, Thomas Uwe
2012-04-11
The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes D{sub s} and D{sup *}{sub 0} mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.
Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and tori
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shyu, F L; Tsai, C C; Lee, C H; Lin, M F
2006-01-01
Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and toroids are studied for any magnetic field. They are sensitive to the changes in the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field, as well as the chirality. The important differences between chiral and achiral carbon nanotubes include band symmetry, band curvature, band crossing, band-edge state, state degeneracy, band spacing, energy gap, and semiconductor-metal transition. Carbon tori also exhibit the strong chirality dependence on the field modulation of discrete states. Chiral carbon tori might differ from chiral carbon nanotubes in energy-gap modulation, density of states, and state degeneracy
Compressible strips, chiral Luttinger liquids, and all that jazz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, A.H.
1996-01-01
When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic compressible and incompressible strip models for microscopic chiral Luttinger liquid models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems. (author). 33 refs., 2 figs
Compressible strips, chiral Luttinger liquids, and all that jazz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacDonald, A.H. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics
1996-03-01
When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic compressible and incompressible strip models for microscopic chiral Luttinger liquid models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems. (author). 33 refs., 2 figs.
Chiral restoration and the extended photoabsorption sum rule in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, M.; Rosa-Clot, M.; Kulagin, S.A.
1996-07-01
The Bethe-Levinger sum rule is extended beyond the potential model. The pion degrees of freedom are taken into account and the modifications of the potential theory are analyzed within two different approaches: dipole sum rule and dispersion relation on the Compton amplitude. Our aim is to extract from the photon data experimental information on the expectation value of the square of the pion field, a quantity which enters also in the restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei and in pion-nucleus scattering. We are led to incorporate in the description the Δ resonance, which is strongly excited by the pion degrees of freedom
Chiral restoration and the extended photoabsorption sum rule in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ericson, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Rosa-Clot, M [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy); Kulagin, S A [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1996-07-01
The Bethe-Levinger sum rule is extended beyond the potential model. The pion degrees of freedom are taken into account and the modifications of the potential theory are analyzed within two different approaches: dipole sum rule and dispersion relation on the Compton amplitude. Our aim is to extract from the photon data experimental information on the expectation value of the square of the pion field, a quantity which enters also in the restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei and in pion-nucleus scattering. We are led to incorporate in the description the {Delta} resonance, which is strongly excited by the pion degrees of freedom. 11 refs.
Algebraic study of chiral anomalies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chiral anomalies; gauge theories; bundles; connections; quantum ﬁeld ... The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a ﬁxed background connection. ... Current Issue : Vol.
Supersymmetric chiral electrodynamics as a renormalized theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansel'm, A.A.; Iogansen, A.A.
1991-01-01
It is well know that the QED of chiral fermions is a nonrenormalizable theory, inasmuch as the gauge current in it is not conserved because of the presence of an anomaly. It is evident that in this theory unitarity is also violated. The principal object of investigation in the present paper is supersymmetric chiral QED, supersymmetric QED is a renormalizable theory. This happens because the radiative corrections generate here a charged current of a chiral fermion that appears in the chiral (i.e., longitudinal) part of the vector supermultiplet. At first sight, the chiral part of the vector multiplet is unphysical and contains only supergauge degrees of freedom. However, this is valid only at the classical level, whereas, because of the anomaly, the radiative corrections lead to nonconservation of the gauge current, as a result of which the degrees of freedom associated with the chiral part of the vector multiplet become physical. On the other hand, owing to the nonconservation of the gauge charge, the apparently neutral fermion appearing int he chiral (longitudinal) part of the vector superfield becomes charged
Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Yumei
2006-01-01
The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1996-06-01
After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)
Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters
Guven, Zekiye P.; Ustbas, Burcin; Harkness, Kellen M.; Coskun, Hikmet; Joshi, Chakra Prasad; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman; Akbulut, Ozge
2016-01-01
Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters
Guven, Zekiye P.
2016-06-22
Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Sheshenev, Andrey E; Boltukhina, Ekaterina V; Grishina, Anastasiya A; Cisařova, Ivana; Lyapkalo, Ilya M; Hii, King Kuok Mimi
2013-06-17
A family of new chiral zwitterionic phosphorus-containing heterocycles (zPHC) have been derived from methylene-bridged bis(imidazolines). These structures were unambiguously determined, including single-crystal XRD analysis for two compounds. The stability, acid/base and electronic properties of these dipolar phosphorus heterocycles were subsequently investigated. zPHCs can be successfully employed as a new class of chiral solvating agents for the enantiodifferentiation of chiral carboxylic and sulfonic acids by NMR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry and binding constants for the donor-acceptor complexes formed were established by NMR titration methods. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references
What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieu, T.D.
1994-05-01
It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs
Self-inductance of chiral conducting nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Rubio, Angel; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.
1998-01-01
Chiral conductivity in nanotubes has recently been predicted theoretically. The realization and application of chiral conducting nanotubes can be of great interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints. These chiral currents, if they are realized, can be detected by measuring the self-inductance. We have treated Maxwell's equations for chiral conducting nanotubes (nanocoils) and find that the self-inductance and the resistivity of nanocoils should depend on the frequency of the alternating current even when the capacitance of the nanocoils is not taken into account. This is in contrast to elementary treatment of ordinary coils. This fact is useful to distinguish nanocoils by electrical measurements
Macroscopic chirality of a liquid crystal from nonchiral molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakli, A.; Nair, G. G.; Lee, C. K.; Sun, R.; Chien, L. C.
2001-01-01
The transfer of chirality from nonchiral polymer networks to the racemic B2 phase of nonchiral banana-shaped molecules is demonstrated. This corresponds to the transfer of chirality from an achiral material to another achiral material. There are two levels of chirality transfers. (a) On a microscopic level the presence of a polymer network (chiral or nonchiral) favors a chiral state over a thermodynamically stable racemic state due to the inversion symmetry breaking at the polymer-liquid crystal interfaces. (b) A macroscopically chiral (enantimerically enriched) sample can be produced if the polymer network has a helical structure, and/or contains chemically chiral groups. The chirality transfer can be locally suppressed by exposing the liquid crystal to a strong electric field treatment
Chiral symmetry breaking is permitted in supersymmetric QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, M.
2000-01-01
Full text: A chirally symmetric theory will generally have a chirally symmetric and a chirally asymmetric solution for the dressed fermionic propagator. It has been claimed that no chirally asymmetric solution for the fermionic propagator exists in supersymmetric QED. This result in the superfield formalism uses a gauge dependent argument whose validity has since been questioned. We present an analogous analysis using the component formalism which demonstrates that chiral symmetry breaking is permitted in this theory. We open the presentation with a brief introduction to supersymmetry, supersymmetric QED, and the superfield formalism. We describe chiral symmetry breaking and the Dyson-Schwinger equation used to analyse it. The derivation of the erroneous theorem claiming the lack of an a chiral propagator is outlined and its flaws discussed. We finish with the equivalent derivation in component fields and our contradictory result
Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abuki Hiroaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.
Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angus Davison
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be
Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagahama, Yoshinori.
1985-02-01
A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)
New remarks on chiral bosonization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Dutra, A. de
1992-01-01
We discuss a certain duality between the constraints appearing in ordinary Lagrangian density and its first order counterpart for the gauged Siegel chiral boson. It is demonstrated the equivalence, at the classical level, of the two versions of the gauged Siegel chiral boson to its corresponding gauged Floreanini-Jackiw chiral bosons. It is also argued that the most general constrained Lagrangian density, that leads to a bosonic field obeying a first order differential equation of motion and preserve simultaneously Lorentz invariance, is just the Floreanini-Jackiw one. (author)
Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry
2007-10-01
pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4
On the atomic state densities of plasmas produced by the "torch a injection axiale"
Jonkers, J.; Vos, H.P.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.
1996-01-01
The atomic state densities of helium and argon plasmas produced by the microwave driven plasma torch called the "torche à injection axiale" are presented. They are obtained by absolute line intensity measurements of the excited states and by applying the ideal gas law to the ground state. It will be
Direct excitation of resonant torsional Alfven waves by footpoint motions
Ruderman, M. S.; Berghmans, D.; Goossens, M.; Poedts, S.
1997-01-01
The present paper studies the heating of coronal loops by linear resonant Alfven waves that are excited by the motions of the photospheric footpoints of the magnetic field lines. The analysis is restricted to torsionally polarised footpoint motions in an axially symmetric system so that only
Chirality-Controlled Synthesis and Applications of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.
Liu, Bilu; Wu, Fanqi; Gui, Hui; Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Chongwu
2017-01-24
Preparation of chirality-defined single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is the top challenge in the nanotube field. In recent years, great progress has been made toward preparing single-chirality SWCNTs through both direct controlled synthesis and postsynthesis separation approaches. Accordingly, the uses of single-chirality-dominated SWCNTs for various applications have emerged as a new front in nanotube research. In this Review, we review recent progress made in the chirality-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs, including metal-catalyst-free SWCNT cloning by vapor-phase epitaxy elongation of purified single-chirality nanotube seeds, chirality-specific growth of SWCNTs on bimetallic solid alloy catalysts, chirality-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs using bottom-up synthetic strategy from carbonaceous molecular end-cap precursors, etc. Recent major progresses in postsynthesis separation of single-chirality SWCNT species, as well as methods for chirality characterization of SWCNTs, are also highlighted. Moreover, we discuss some examples where single-chirality SWCNTs have shown clear advantages over SWCNTs with broad chirality distributions. We hope this review could inspire more research on the chirality-controlled preparation of SWCNTs and equally important inspire the use of single-chirality SWCNT samples for more fundamental studies and practical applications.
Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials
Zhao, Yang; Askarpour, Amir N.; Sun, Liuyang; Shi, Jinwei; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea
2017-01-01
Many naturally occurring biomolecules, such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides, are inherently chiral. Enantiomers, a pair of chiral isomers with opposite handedness, often exhibit similar physical and chemical properties due to their identical functional groups and composition, yet show different toxicity to cells. Detecting enantiomers in small quantities has an essential role in drug development to eliminate their unwanted side effects. Here we exploit strong chiral interactions with plasmonic metamaterials with specifically designed optical response to sense chiral molecules down to zeptomole levels, several orders of magnitude smaller than what is typically detectable with conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy. In particular, the measured spectra reveal opposite signs in the spectral regime directly associated with different chiral responses, providing a way to univocally assess molecular chirality. Our work introduces an ultrathin, planarized nanophotonic interface to sense chiral molecules with inherently weak circular dichroism at visible and near-infrared frequencies. PMID:28120825
Cosmic chirality both true and false.
Barron, Laurence D
2012-12-01
The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M51 data and chiral dynamos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia de Andrade, L.C. [IF-UERJ, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-06-15
Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10{sup -31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10{sup -26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10{sup -24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10{sup -24} and 10{sup -23} Ge
Charge-exchange QRPA with the Gogny Force for Axially-symmetric Deformed Nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martini, M., E-mail: martini.marco@gmail.com [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Péru, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-06-15
In recent years fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations using finite range Gogny force have been performed to study electromagnetic excitations of several axially-symmetric deformed nuclei up to the {sup 238}U. Here we present the extension of this approach to the charge-exchange nuclear excitations (pnQRPA). In particular we focus on the Isobaric Analog and Gamow-Teller resonances. A comparison of the predicted GT strength distribution with existing experimental data is presented. The role of nuclear deformation is shown. Special attention is paid to β-decay half-lives calculations for which experimental data exist and for specific isotone chains of relevance for the r-process nucleosynthesis.
Chiral fermions on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1995-01-01
The overlap approach to chiral gauge theories on arbitrary D-dimensional lattices is studied. The doubling problem and its relation to chiral anomalies for D = 2 and 4 is examined. In each case it is shown that the doublers can be eliminated and the well known perturbative results for chiral anomalies can be recovered. We also consider the multi-flavour case and give the general criteria for the construction of anomaly free chiral gauge theories on arbitrary lattices. We calculate the second order terms in a continuum approximation to the overlap formula in D dimensions and show that they coincide with the bilinear part of the effective action of D-dimensional Weyl fermions coupled to a background gauge field. Finally, using the same formalism we reproduce the correct Lorentz, diffeomorphism and gauge anomalies in the coupling of a Weyl fermion to 2-dimensional gravitation and Maxwell fields. (author). 15 refs
Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop
Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.
The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral
Chiral dynamics with (non)strange quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2017-01-01
We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405), the dynamical generation of the lowest S_1_1 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy–Steiner analysis of pion–nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion–nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.
Chiral dynamics with (non)strange quarks
Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2017-01-01
We review the results and achievements of the project B.3. Topics addressed include pion photoproduction off the proton and off deuterium, three-flavor chiral perturbation theory studies, chiral symmetry tests in Goldstone boson decays, the development of unitarized chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order, the two-pole structure of the Λ(1405), the dynamical generation of the lowest S11 resonances, the theory of hadronic atoms and its application to various systems, precision studies in light-meson decays based on dispersion theory, the Roy-Steiner analysis of pion-nucleon scattering, a high-precision extraction of the elusive pion-nucleon σ-term, and aspects of chiral dynamics in few-nucleon systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paik, Manjeong; Jeon, So Hee; Lee, Wonjae; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Kwan Mook
2014-01-01
Our findings show that both (R)- and (S)-ARCA can be practical chiral converters for L- and D-amino acids, respectively, in the deracemization of racemic amino acids. The overall stereoselectivities of both chiral converters are generally greater than 90%. In addition, we developed chiral and achiral HPLC methods for the analysis of stereoselectivity determination. This chromatographic method proved much more accurate and convenient at determining both enantiomer and diastereomer purity than did those previously reported. Deracemization is the stereoselective process of converting a racemate into either a pure enantiomer or a mixture in which one enantiomer is present in excess.1 Previous studies have shown that (S)-alanine racemase chiral analogue (ARCA) [(S)-2-hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde], developed as a chiral convertor compound that imitates the function of alanine racemase, plays an essential role in the stereoselective conversion of amino acid. Since (S)-ARCA showed a higher stability with D-amino acids than with L-amino acids, several L-amino acids were preferentially converted to D-amino acids via (S)-ARCA/D-amino acid imine diastereomer formation. For the deracemization process undertaken in this study, we utilized both (R)-ARCA and (S)-ARCA as chiral converters, which were expected to generate L- and D-amino acids, respectively, from the starting racemic mixtures
Chiral symmetry breaking and cooling in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woloshyn, R.M.; Lee, F.X.
1995-08-01
Chiral symmetry breaking is calculated as a function of cooling in quenched lattice QCD. A non-zero signal is found for the chiral condensate beyond one hundred cooling steps, suggesting that there is chiral symmetry breaking associated with instantons. Quantitatively, the chiral condensate in cooled gauge field configurations is small compared to the value without cooling. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs
A web site for calculating the degree of chirality.
Zayit, Amir; Pinsky, Mark; Elgavi, Hadassah; Dryzun, Chaim; Avnir, David
2011-01-01
The web site, http://www.csm.huji.ac.il/, uses the Continuous Chirality Measure to evaluate quantitatively the degree of chirality of a molecule, a structure, a fragment. The value of this measure ranges from zero, the molecule is achiral, to higher values (the upper limit is 100); the higher the chirality value, the more chiral the molecule is. The measure is based on the distance between the chiral molecule and the nearest structure that is achiral. Questions such as the following can be addressed: by how much is one molecule more chiral than the other? how does chirality change along conformational motions? is there a correlation between chirality and enantioselectivity in a series of molecules? Both elementary and advanced features are offered. Related calculation options are the symmetry measures and shape measures. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)
2015-06-16
The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.
A variational approach to chiral quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futami, Yasuhiko; Odajima, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Akira.
1987-01-01
A variational approach is applied to a chiral quark model to test the validity of the perturbative treatment of the pion-quark interaction based on the chiral symmetry principle. It is indispensably related to the chiral symmetry breaking radius if the pion-quark interaction can be regarded as a perturbation. (author)
Hoffmann, Christian V; Pell, Reinhard; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang
2008-11-15
In an attempt to overcome the limited applicability scope of earlier proposed Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral weak anion exchangers (WAX) and recently reported aminosulfonic acid-based chiral strong cation exchangers (SCX), which are conceptionally restricted to oppositely charged solutes, their individual chiral selector (SO) subunits have been fused in a combinatorial synthesis approach into single, now zwitterionic, chiral SO motifs. The corresponding zwitterionic ion-exchange-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in fact combined the applicability spectra of the parent chiral ion exchangers allowing for enantioseparations of chiral acids and amine-type solutes in liquid chromatography using polar organic mode with largely rivaling separation factors as compared to the parent WAX and SCX CSPs. Furthermore, the application spectrum could be remarkably expanded to various zwitterionic analytes such as alpha- and beta-amino acids and peptides. A set of structurally related yet different CSPs consisting of either a quinine or quinidine alkaloid moiety as anion-exchange subunit and various chiral or achiral amino acids as cation-exchange subunits enabled us to derive structure-enantioselectivity relationships, which clearly provided strong unequivocal evidence for synergistic effects of the two oppositely charged ion-exchange subunits being involved in molecular recognition of zwitterionic analytes by zwitterionic SOs driven by double ionic coordination.
Using axial magnetized permanent rings to build axial gradient magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Quanling
2003-01-01
Axial field produced by an axially magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent magnet rings, if they are magnetized in the same direction, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced; if they are magnetized in opposite direction, an axial gradient field can be produced in the region between the two permanent rings, with the field strength changing from -B 0 to B 0 . A high gradient axial magnetic field has been built by using two axially magnetized permanent rings, the measured field results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. It is desirable that the field gradient can be varied to match various requirements. A method to produce the variable gradient field is presented. Axial gradient field can also be used as a beam focusing facility for linear accelerator if axial periodic field can be produced. Its magnetic field is similar to that of a solenoid, in which, large stray field will leak to the outside environment. A method for shielding the outside stray field is discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Contini, G.; Turchini, S.; Sanna, Simone
2012-01-01
Studies of self-assembled chiral molecules on achiral metallic surfaces have mostly focused on the determination of the geometry of adsorbates and their electronic structure. The aim of this paper is to provide direct information on the chirality character of the system and on the chirality...... transfer from molecules to substrate by means of circular dichroism in the angular distribution of valence photoelectrons for the extended domain of the chiral self-assembled molecular structure, formed by alaninol adsorbed on Cu(100). We show, by the dichroic behavior of a mixed molecule–copper valence...... state, that the presence of molecular chiral domains induces asymmetry in the interaction with the substrate and locally transfers the chiral character to the underlying metal atoms participating in the adsorption process; combined information related to the asymmetry of the initial electronic state...
Numerical investigations on axial and radial blade rubs in turbo-machinery
Abdelrhman, Ahmed M.; Tang, Eric Sang Sung; Salman Leong, M.; Al-Qrimli, Haidar F.; Rajamohan, G.
2017-07-01
In the recent years, the clearance between the rotor blades and stator/casing had been getting smaller and smaller prior improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the turbomachines as demand in the engineering field. Due to the clearance reduction between the blade tip and the rotor casing and between rotor blades and stator blades, axial and radial blade rubbing could be occurred, especially at high speed resulting into complex nonlinear vibrations. The primary aim of this study is to address the blade axial rubbing phenomenon using numerical analysis of rotor system. A comparison between rubbing caused impacts of axial and radial blade rubbing and rubbing forces are also aims of this study. Tow rotor models (rotor-stator and rotor casing models) has been designed and sketched using SOILDSWORKS software. ANSYS software has been used for the simulation and the numerical analysis. The rubbing conditions were simulated at speed range of 1000rpm, 1500rpm and 2000rpm. Analysis results for axial blade rubbing showed the appearance of blade passing frequency and its multiple frequencies (lx, 2x 3x etc.) and these frequencies will more excited with increasing the rotational speed. Also, it has been observed that when the rotating speed increased, the rubbing force and the harmonics frequencies in x, y and z-direction become higher and severe. The comparison study showed that axial blade rub is more dangerous and would generate a higher vibration impacts and higher blade rubbing force than radial blade rub.
Multiaxial Polarity Determines Individual Cellular and Nuclear Chirality.
Raymond, Michael J; Ray, Poulomi; Kaur, Gurleen; Fredericks, Michael; Singh, Ajay V; Wan, Leo Q
2017-02-01
Intrinsic cell chirality has been implicated in the left-right (LR) asymmetry of embryonic development. Impaired cell chirality could lead to severe birth defects in laterality. Previously, we detected cell chirality with an in vitro micropatterning system. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that chirality can be quantified as the coordination of multiaxial polarization of individual cells and nuclei. Using an object labeling, connected component based method, we characterized cell chirality based on cell and nuclear shape polarization and nuclear positioning of each cell in multicellular patterns of epithelial cells. We found that the cells adopted a LR bias the boundaries by positioning the sharp end towards the leading edge and leaving the nucleus at the rear. This behavior is consistent with the directional migration observed previously on the boundary of micropatterns. Although the nucleus is chirally aligned, it is not strongly biased towards or away from the boundary. As the result of the rear positioning of nuclei, the nuclear positioning has an opposite chirality to that of cell alignment. Overall, our results have revealed deep insights of chiral morphogenesis as the coordination of multiaxial polarization at the cellular and subcellular levels.
Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.
1985-01-01
We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ν = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators
A spectral route to determining chirality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger
2009-01-01
We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Berek, G.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Zolnai, L.
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The existence of nuclear chirality is one of the most intriguing questions of contemporary high-spin nuclear structure studies. Rotational doublet-band candidates for chiral structures have been observed mostly in two regions of the nuclear chart: around 134 Pr, and around 104 Rh. In this second region chirality in the Rh isotopes are rather well studied, chiral doubling have also been observed in 100 Tc, however, results obtained for chirality in the studied Ag nuclei ( 105 Ag and 106 Ag) look rather contradictory. Thus, it is interesting to study these doublet bands in the nearby higher-mass Ag nuclei. In order to search for a chiral-candidate partner band to the yrast πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band in 109 Ag, high-spin states of this nucleus have been studied using the 96 Zr( 18 O,p4n) reaction. The experiment was performed at iThemba LABS using 8 Clover detectors of the AFRODITE array and the DIAMANT charged-particle array to detect the γ-rays and the charged particles, respectively. Altogether ∼140 million γγ-coincidence events were collected. Approximately 10 million events of them correspond to the reaction channel producing 109 Ag. No chiral candidate partner band has been found to the πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band with this statistics, however, the level scheme could be extended by several new levels and γ-transitions. A preliminary level scheme of 109 Ag obtained from the ongoing data analysis is shown in Fig. 1
Magnetic excitations and amplitude fluctuations in insulating cuprates
Chelwani, N.; Baum, A.; Böhm, T.; Opel, M.; Venturini, F.; Tassini, L.; Erb, A.; Berger, H.; Forró, L.; Hackl, R.
2018-01-01
We present results from light scattering experiments on three insulating antiferromagnetic cuprates, YBa2Cu3O6.05 , Bi2Sr2YCu2O8 +δ , and La2CuO4 as a function of polarization and excitation energy using samples of the latest generation. From the raw data we derive symmetry-resolved spectra. The spectral shape in B1 g symmetry is found to be nearly universal and independent of excitation energy. The spectra agree quantitatively with predictions by field theory [Eur. Phys. J. B 88, 237 (2015), 10.1140/epjb/e2015-60438-1] facilitating the precise extraction of the Heisenberg coupling J . In addition, the asymmetric lineshape on the high-energy side is found to be related to amplitude fluctuations of the magnetization. In La2CuO4 alone, minor contributions from resonance effects may be identified. The spectra in the other symmetries are not universal. The variations may be traced back to weak resonance effects and extrinsic contributions. For all three compounds we find support for the existence of chiral excitations appearing as a continuum in A2 g symmetry having an onset slightly below 3 J . In La2CuO4 an additional isolated excitation appears on top of the A2 g continuum.
Generalized chiral membrane dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordero, R.; Rojas, E.
2003-01-01
We develop the dynamics of the chiral superconducting membranes (with null current) in an alternative geometrical approach. Besides of this, we show the equivalence of the resulting description with the one known Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) case. Integrability for chiral string model is obtained using a proposed light-cone gauge. In a similar way, domain walls are integrated by means of a simple Ansatz. (Author)
The ''closed'' chiral symmetry and its application to tetraquark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Hua-Xing
2012-01-01
We investigate the chiral (flavor) structure of tetraquarks, and study chiral transformation properties of the ''non-exotic'' [(anti 3, 3)+(3, anti 3)] and [(8,1)+(1,8)] tetraquark chiral multiplets. We find that as long as this kind of tetraquark states contains one quark and one antiquark having the same chirality, such as q L q L anti q L anti q R + q R q R anti q R anti q L , they transform in the same way as the lowest level anti q q chiral multiplets under chiral transformations. There is only one [(anti 3, 3)+(3, anti 3)] chiral multiplet whose quark-antiquark pairs all have the opposite chirality (q L q L anti q R anti q R + q R q R anti q L anti q L ), and it transforms differently from others. Based on these studies, we construct local tetraquark currents belonging to the ''non-exotic'' chiral multiplet [(anti 3, 3)+(3, anti 3)] and having quantum numbers J PC =1 -+ . (orig.)
Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils
Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua
2013-01-01
Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107
Form factors in the projected linear chiral sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberto, P.; Coimbra Univ.; Bochum Univ.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Fiolhais, M.; Urbano, J.N.; Coimbra Univ.; Goeke, K.; Gruemmer, F.; Bochum Univ.
1990-01-01
Several nucleon form factors are computed within the framework of the linear chiral soliton model. To this end variational means and projection techniques applied to generalized hedgehog quark-boson Fock states are used. In this procedure the Goldberger-Treiman relation and a virial theorem for the pion-nucleon form factor are well fulfilled demonstrating the consistency of the treatment. Both proton and neutron charge form factors are correctly reproduced, as well as the proton magnetic one. The shapes of the neutron magnetic and of the axial form factors are good but their absolute values at the origin are too large. The slopes of all the form factors at zero momentum transfer are in good agreement with the experimental data. The pion-nucleon form factor exhibits to great extent a monopole shape with a cut-off mass of Λ=690 MeV. Electromagnetic form factors for the vertex γNΔ and the nucleon spin distribution are also evaluated and discussed. (orig.)
Chiral Rayleigh particles discrimination in dynamic dual optical traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A chiral optical conveyor belt for enantiomeric separation of nanopar-ticles is numerically demonstrated. • Chiral resolution has been theoretically analyzed for chiral spheres immersed in water. • Electromagnetic fields have been designed for obtaining Chiral selective optical tweezers to separate enantiomers in different spatial regions. - Abstract: A chiral optical conveyor belt for enantiomeric separation of nanoparticles is numerically demonstrated by using different types of counter propagating elliptical Laguerre Gaussian beams with different beam waist and topological charge. The analysis of chiral resolution has been made for particles immersed in water demonstrating that in the analyzed conditions one type of enantiomer is trapped in a deep potential and the others are transported by the chiral conveyor toward another trap located in a different geometrical region.
Kano, Taichi; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Maruyama, Hiroki; Maruoka, Keiji
2015-07-13
A simple axially chiral amine catalyst promoted the regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective conjugate addition of aldehydes to β-tosyl enones, which serve as ynone surrogates. The adducts were readily converted by treatment with L-selectride into less accessible enones with a γ stereogenic center. Such compounds cannot be prepared through the amine-catalyzed conjugate addition of aldehydes to ynones. The obtained enones underwent further conjugate addition of diorganozinc compounds in the presence of a copper catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chiral anomaly, bosonization and fractional charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.
1984-01-01
A method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion is presented. With this method the chiral anomaly ofr ν=4,6 dimensions is computed easily, bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models is discussed and the problem of charge fractionization is handled. Besides, the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-hermitean operators is commented. (Author) [pt
Supersymmetry and the chiral Schwinger model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amorim, R.; Das, A.
1998-01-01
We have constructed the N= (1) /(2) supersymmetric general Abelian model with asymmetric chiral couplings. This leads to a N= (1) /(2) supersymmetrization of the Schwinger model. We show that the supersymmetric general model is plagued with problems of infrared divergence. Only the supersymmetric chiral Schwinger model is free from such problems and is dynamically equivalent to the chiral Schwinger model because of the peculiar structure of the N= (1) /(2) multiplets. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer
He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin
2013-01-01
The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...
Microscopic analysis of wobbling excitations in 156Dy and 162Yb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Kvasil, J.
2007-01-01
In the cranked Nilsson-plus-random-phase approximation, we study low-lying quadrupole excitations of positive parity and negative signature in 156 Dy and 162 Yb at high spins. Special attention is paid to a consistent description of wobbling excitations and their identification among excited states. A good agreement between the available experimental data and the results of calculations is obtained. We find that the lowest odd-spin γ-vibrational states in 156 Dy transform into wobbling excitations after the backbending associated with the transition from an axially symmetric shape to a nonaxial shape. Similar results are predicted for 162 Yb. The analysis of electromagnetic transitions uniquely determines the sign of the γ deformation in both nuclei after the transition point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand; Mau, R. Vinh
2002-01-01
We apply the perturbative chiral quark model to the study of the low-energy πN interaction. Using an effective chiral Lagrangian we reproduce the Weinberg-Tomozawa result for the S-wave πN scattering lengths. After inclusion of the photon field we give predictions for the electromagnetic O(p 2 ) low-energy couplings of the chiral perturbation theory effective Lagrangian that define the electromagnetic mass shifts of nucleons and first-order (e 2 ) radiative corrections to the πN scattering amplitude. Finally, we estimate the leading isospin-breaking correction to the strong energy shift of the π - p atom in the 1s state, which is relevant for the experiment 'pionic hydrogen' at PSI
Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, F.
1996-01-01
The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies
Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, F.
1996-12-01
The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.
Pion polarizability in a chiral quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, M.K.; Ehbert, D.
1980-01-01
The pion polarizability is calculated in a chiral meson-quark model at the one-loop level. The results are in complete agreement with earlier ones obtained within a chiral meson-baryon theory. A critical discussion of a recent paper by Lanta and Tarrach is given. The results of the paper give evidence to the nonlinear chiral Lagrangian favour
Intelligent Chiral Sensing Based on Supramolecular and Interfacial Concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hironori Izawa
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized.
Fernandes, Carla; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Cass, Quezia; Kairys, Visvaldas; Fernandes, Miguel Xavier; Pinto, Madalena
2012-06-08
A chiral HPLC method using four macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been investigated for determination of the enantiomeric purity of fourteen new chiral derivatives of xanthones (CDXs). The separations were performed with the CSPs Chirobiotic T, Chirobiotic TAG, Chirobiotic V and Chirobiotic R under multimodal elution conditions (normal-phase, reversed-phase and polar ionic mode). The analyses were performed at room temperature in isocratic mode and UV and CD detection at a wavelength of 254 nm. The best enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved on Chirobiotic R and Chirobiotic T CSPs, under normal elution conditions, with R(S) ranging from 1.25 to 2.50 and from 0.78 to 2.06, respectively. The optimized chromatographic conditions allowed the determination of the enantiomeric ratio of eight CDXs, always higher than 99%. In order to better understand the chromatographic behavior at a molecular level, and the structural features associated with the chiral recognition mechanism, computational studies by molecular docking were carried out using VDock. These studies shed light on the mechanisms involved in the enantioseparation for this important class of chiral compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chiral symmetry breaking and confinement - solutions of relativistic wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murugesan, P.
1983-01-01
In this thesis, an attempt is made to explore the question whether confinement automatically leads to chiral symmetry breaking. While it should be accepted that chiral symmetry breaking manifests in nature in the absence of scalar partners of pseudoscalar mesons, it does not necessarily follow that confinement should lead to chiral symmetry breaking. If chiral conserving forces give rise to observed spectrum of hadrons, then the conjuncture that confinement is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking is not valid. The method employed to answer the question whether confinement leads to chiral symmetry breaking or not is to solve relativistic wave equations by introducing chiral conserving as well as chiral breaking confining potentials and compare the results with experimental observations. It is concluded that even though chiral symmetry is broken in nature, confinement of quarks need not be the cause of it
Multifrequency Excitation of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam
Jaber, Nizar R.
2016-01-20
We present analytical and experimental investigation of an electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam under a twosource harmonic excitation. The first frequency is swept around the first mode of vibration where the second one is fixed. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel form top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. We demonstrate the excitation of additive and subtractive type resonance. We show that by properly tuning the frequency and the amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is increased. Theoretically, we solved the eigenvalue problem for different axial forces to find the natural frequencies ratio that match the experimental values. Using Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device where using three symmetric mode shapes provided a good agreement with experimental data. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.
Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices
Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa
2018-06-01
Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.
Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina
2018-03-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Na [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2006-02-13
Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.
Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Na
2006-01-01
Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers
Inversion of Supramolecular Chirality by Sonication-Induced Organogelation
Maity, Sibaprasad; Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital
2015-01-01
Natural helical structures have inspired the formation of well-ordered peptide-based chiral nanostructures in vitro. These structures have drawn much attention owing to their diverse applications in the area of asymmetric catalysts, chiral photonic materials, and nanoplasmonics. The self-assembly of two enantiomeric fluorinated aromatic dipeptides into ordered chiral fibrillar nanostructures upon sonication is described. These fibrils form organogels. Our results clearly indicate that fluorine-fluorine interactions play an important role in self-assembly. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that both peptides (peptides 1 and 2), containing two fluorines, depicted opposite cotton effects in their monomeric form compared with their aggregated form. This shows that supramolecular chirality inversion took place during the stimuli-responsive self-aggregation process. Conversely, peptide 3, containing one fluorine, did not exhibit chirality inversion in sonication-induced organogelation. Therefore, our results clearly indicate that fluorination plays an important role in the organogelation process of these aromatic dipeptides. Our findings may have broad implications regarding the design of chiral nanostructures for possible applications such as chiroptical switches, asymmetric catalysis, and chiral recognitions. PMID:26553508
Strong Quantum Confinement Effects and Chiral Excitons in Bio-Inspired ZnO–Amino Acid Cocrystals
Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb
2018-02-20
Elucidating the underlying principles behind band gap engineering is paramount for the successful implementation of semiconductors in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been shown that the band gap of a wide and direct band gap semiconductor, such as ZnO, can be modified upon cocrystallization with amino acids, with the role of the biomolecules remaining unclear. Here, by probing and modeling the light-emitting properties of ZnO-amino acid cocrystals, we identify the amino acids\\' role on this band gap modulation and demonstrate their effective chirality transfer to the interband excitations in ZnO. Our 3D quantum model suggests that the strong band edge emission blue-shift in the cocrystals can be explained by a quasi-periodic distribution of amino acid potential barriers within the ZnO crystal lattice. Overall, our findings indicate that biomolecule cocrystallization can be used as a truly bio-inspired means to induce chiral quantum confinement effects in quasi-bulk semiconductors.
Asymmetric Michael Addition Mediated by Chiral Ionic Liquids.
Suzuki, Yumiko
2018-06-01
Chiral ionic liquids with a focus on their applications in asymmetric Michael additions and related reactions were reviewed. The examples were classified on the basis of the mode of asymmetric induction (e.g., external induction/non-covalent interaction or internal induction/covalent bond formation), the roles in reactions (as a solvent or catalyst), and their structural features (e.g., imidazolium-based chiral cations, other chiral oniums; proline derivatives). Most of the reactions with high chiral induction are Michael addition of ketones or aldehydes to chalcones or nitrostyrenes where proline-derived chiral ionic liquids catalyze the reaction through enamine/ iminium formation. Many reports demonstrate the recyclability of ionic liquid-tagged pyrrolidines.
Probing molecular chirality by coherent optical absorption spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia, W. Z. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wei, L. F. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2011-11-15
We propose an approach to sensitively probe the chirality of molecules by measuring their coherent optical-absorption spectra. It is shown that quantum dynamics of the cyclic three-level chiral molecules driven by appropriately designed external fields is total-phase dependent. This will result in chirality-dependent absorption spectra for the probe field. As a consequence, the charality-dependent information in the spectra (such as the locations and relative heights of the characteristic absorption peaks) can be utilized to identify molecular chirality and determinate enantiomer excess (i.e., the percentages of different enantiomers). The feasibility of the proposal with chiral molecules confined in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is also discussed.
Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.
2004-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term
Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.
He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin
2013-08-09
The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.
Evidence for chiral symmetry restoration in heavy-ion collisions
Moreau, P.; Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.; Seifert, E.; Steinert, T.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.
2017-11-01
We study the effect of the chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) on heavy-ion collisions observables in the energy range √{sNN} = 3- 20GeV within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The PHSD includes the deconfinement phase transition as well as essential aspects of CSR in the dense and hot hadronic medium, which are incorporated in the Schwinger mechanism for particle production. Our systematic studies show that chiral symmetry restoration plays a crucial role in the description of heavy-ion collisions at √{sNN} = 3- 20GeV, realizing an increase of the hadronic particle production in the strangeness sector with respect to the non-strange one. Our results provide a microscopic explanation for the horn structure in the excitation function of the K+ /π+ ratio: the CSR in the hadronic phase produces the steep increase of this particle ratio up to √{sNN} ≈ 7GeV, while the drop at higher energies is associated to the appearance of a deconfined partonic medium. Furthermore, the appearance/disappearance of the horn structure is investigated as a function of the system size. We additionally present an analysis of strangeness production in the (T ,μB)-plane (as extracted from the PHSD for central Au+Au collisions) and discuss the perspectives to identify a possible critical point in the phase diagram.
Chiral flavor violation from extended gauge mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Jared A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shih, David; Thalapillil, Arun [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2015-07-08
Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation (χFV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Dao-Cai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the light of the chiral resolution mechanism and structures of brush-type CSP, a new chiral selector 4′-carboxyl-1′-ursolic methyl ester-3β-yl-benzoate has been prepared. Then the terpenoid chiral selector was covalently linked to 3-aminopropyl silica gel. Its structure identification data are provided by 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. The enantiodiscriminating capability of the brush-type CSP was evaluated by static adsorption experiment with methyl mandelate, aniline derivative of mandelic acid, benzoin and ibuprofen. Experimental results demonstrated that the chiral selector has selectivity, and the enantiomers of methyl mandelate and ibuprofen could be separated on the CSP, which indicated that the novel brush-type CSP possess a bright prospects for chiral separation potentially.
Chiral charge erasure via thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, Andrew J.; Sabancilar, Eray
2016-01-01
We consider a relativistic plasma of fermions coupled to an Abelian gauge field and carrying a chiral charge asymmetry, which might arise in the early Universe through baryogenesis. It is known that on large length scales, λ≳1/(αμ_5), the chiral anomaly opens an instability toward the erasure of chiral charge and growth of magnetic helicity. Here the chemical potential μ_5 parametrizes the chiral asymmetry and α is the fine-structure constant. We study the process of chiral charge erasure through the thermal fluctuations of magnetic helicity and contrast with the well-studied phenomenon of Chern-Simons number diffusion. Through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem we estimate the amplitude and time scale of helicity fluctuations on the length scale λ, finding δ H∼λT and τ∼αλ"3T"2 for a relativistic plasma at temperature T. We argue that the presence of a chiral asymmetry allows the helicity to grow diffusively for a time t∼T"3/(α"5μ_5"4) until it reaches an equilibrium value H∼μ_5T"2/α, and the chiral asymmetry is partially erased. If the chiral asymmetry is small, μ_5< T/α, this avenue for chiral charge erasure is found to be slower than the chiral magnetic effect for which t∼T/(α"3μ_5"2). This mechanism for chiral charge erasure can be important for the hypercharge sector of the Standard Model as well as extensions including U(1) gauge interactions, such as asymmetric dark matter models.
A chiral aluminum solvating agent (CASA) for 1H NMR chiral analysis of alcohols at low temperature.
Seo, Min-Seob; Jang, Sumin; Kim, Hyunwoo
2018-03-16
A chiral aluminum solvating agent (CASA) was demonstrated to be a general and efficient reagent for 1H NMR chiral analysis of alcohols. The sodium salt of the CASA (CASA-Na) showed a complete baseline peak separation of the hydroxyl group for various chiral alcohols including primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols with alkyl and aryl substituents in CD3CN. Due to the weak intermolecular interaction, 1H NMR measurement at low temperature (-40 to 10 °C) was required.
Generalized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knecht, M.; Stern, J.
1994-01-01
The Generalized Chiral Perturbation Theory enlarges the framework of the standard χPT (Chiral Perturbation Theory), relaxing certain assumptions which do not necessarily follow from QCD or from experiment, and which are crucial for the usual formulation of the low energy expansion. In this way, experimental tests of the foundations of the standard χPT become possible. Emphasis is put on physical aspects rather than on formal developments of GχPT. (author). 31 refs
Verkuijl, B.J.V.; Schuur, B.; Minnaard, A.J.; Vries, de J.G.; Feringa, B.L.
2010-01-01
Chiral palladium phosphine complexes have been employed in the chiral separation of amino acids and phenylalanine analogues in particular. The use of (S)-xylyl-BINAP as a ligand for the palladium complex in enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction allowed the separation of the phenylalanine
A nonlocal model of chiral dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holdom, B.; Terning, J.; Verbeek, K.
1989-01-01
We consider a nonlocal generalization of the nonlinear σ model. Our chirally symmetric model couples quarks with self-energy Σ(p) to Goldstone bosons (GBs). By integrating out the quarks we obtain a chiral lagrangian, the parameters of which are finite integrals of Σ(p). We find that chiral symmetry is not sufficient to derive the well-known Pagels-Stokar formula for the GB decay constant. We reproduce the Wess-Zumino term and we illustrate the dependence of other four derivative coefficients on Σ(p). (orig.)
Chirality and chiroptical properties of amyloid fibrils.
Dzwolak, Wojciech
2014-09-01
Chirality of amyloid fibrils-linear beta-sheet-rich aggregates of misfolded protein chains-often manifests in morphological traits such as helical twist visible in atomic force microscopy and in chiroptical properties accessible to vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). According to recent studies the relationship between molecular chirality of polypeptide building blocks and superstructural chirality of amyloid fibrils may be more intricate and less deterministic than previously assumed. Several puzzling experimental findings have put into question earlier intuitive ideas on: 1) the bottom-up chirality transfer upon amyloidogenic self-assembly, and 2) the structural origins of chiroptical properties of protein aggregates. For example, removal of a single amino acid residue from an amyloidogenic all-L peptide was shown to reverse handedness of fibrils. On the other hand, certain types of amyloid aggregates revealed surprisingly strong VCD spectra with the sign and shape dependent on the conditions of fibrillation. Hence, microscopic and chiroptical studies have highlighted chirality as one more aspect of polymorphism of amyloid fibrils. This brief review is intended to outline the current state of research on amyloid-like fibrils from the perspective of their structural and superstructural chirality and chiroptical properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dynamics of the edge excitations in the FQH effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, X.G.
1994-01-01
Fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) discovered by Tsui, Stormer and Gossard open a new era in theory of strongly correlated system. In the first time the authors have to completely abandon the theories based on the single-body picture and use an intrinsic many-body theory proposed by Laughlin and others to describe the FQHE. Due to the repulsive interaction, the strongly correlated FQH liquid is an incompressible state despite the first Landau level is only partially filled. All the bulk excitations in the FQH states have finite energy gaps. The FQH states and insulators are similar in the sense that both states have finite energy gap and short ranged electron propagators. Because of this similarity, it is puzzling that the FQH systems apparently have very different transport properties than ordinary insulators. Halperin first point out that the integral quantum Hall (IQH) states contain gapless edge excitations. Although the electronic states in the bulk are localized, the electronic states at the edge of the sample are extended. Therefore the nontrivial transport properties of the IQH states come from the gapless edge excitations. Such an edge transport picture has been supported by many experiments. One also found that the edge excitations in the IQH states are described by a chiral 1D Fermi liquid theory. Here, the authors review the dynamical theory of the edge excitations in the FQH effects
Homochiral Evolution in Self-Assembled Chiral Polymers and Block Copolymers.
Wen, Tao; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Li, Ming-Chia; Ho, Rong-Ming
2017-04-18
The significance of chirality transfer is not only involved in biological systems, such as the origin of homochiral structures in life but also in man-made chemicals and materials. How the chiral bias transfers from molecular level (molecular chirality) to helical chain (conformational chirality) and then to helical superstructure or phase (hierarchical chirality) from self-assembly is vital for the chemical and biological processes in nature, such as communication, replication, and enzyme catalysis. In this Account, we summarize the methodologies for the examination of homochiral evolution at different length scales based on our recent studies with respect to the self-assembly of chiral polymers and chiral block copolymers (BCPs*). A helical (H*) phase to distinguish its P622 symmetry from that of normal hexagonally packed cylinder phase was discovered in the self-assembly of BCPs* due to the chirality effect on BCP self-assembly. Enantiomeric polylactide-containing BCPs*, polystyrene-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) and polystyrene-b-poly(d-lactide) (PS-PDLA), were synthesized for the examination of homochiral evolution. The optical activity (molecular chirality) of constituted chiral repeating unit in the chiral polylactide is detected by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) whereas the conformational chirality of helical polylactide chain can be explicitly determined by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The H* phases of the self-assembled polylactide-containing BCPs* can be directly visualized by 3D transmission electron microscopy (3D TEM) technique at which the handedness (hierarchical chirality) of the helical nanostructure is thus determined. The results from the ECD, VCD, and 3D TEM for the investigated chirality at different length scales suggest the homochiral evolution in the self-assembly of the BCPs*. For chiral polylactides, twisted lamellae in crystalline banded spherulite can be formed by dense packing scheme and effective interactions upon helical
Axial Magneto-Inductive Effect in Soft Magnetic Microfibers, Test Methodology, and Experiments
2016-03-24
Nickle nT Nano- Tesla Si Silicon V Volts w Exchange Energy W Watts Zm Coil Impedance, measured Circumferential Field Direction T Micro... Tesla Ratio of Coil Length to Diameter Ohm ° Degrees 1 (2 blank) 1. INTRODUCTION Magneto-induction (MI) effects in soft...axial magnetic field is utilized to excite the fiber. Previous investigators have demonstrated this effect with small coils applied directly to the
Asymmetric Michael Addition Mediated by Chiral Ionic Liquids
Suzuki, Yumiko
2018-01-01
Chiral ionic liquids with a focus on their applications in asymmetric Michael additions and related reactions were reviewed. The examples were classified on the basis of the mode of asymmetric induction (e.g., external induction/non-covalent interaction or internal induction/covalent bond formation), the roles in reactions (as a solvent or catalyst), and their structural features (e.g., imidazolium-based chiral cations, other chiral oniums; proline derivatives). Most of the reactions with high chiral induction are Michael addition of ketones or aldehydes to chalcones or nitrostyrenes where proline-derived chiral ionic liquids catalyze the reaction through enamine/ iminium formation. Many reports demonstrate the recyclability of ionic liquid-tagged pyrrolidines. PMID:29861702
Chiroptical studies on supramolecular chirality of molecular aggregates.
Sato, Hisako; Yajima, Tomoko; Yamagishi, Akihiko
2015-10-01
The attempts of applying chiroptical spectroscopy to supramolecular chirality are reviewed with a focus on vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Examples were taken from gels, solids, and monolayers formed by low-molecular mass weight chiral gelators. Particular attention was paid to a group of gelators with perfluoroalkyl chains. The effects of the helical conformation of the perfluoroalkyl chains on the formation of chiral architectures are reported. It is described how the conformation of a chiral gelator was determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical VCD spectra together with a model proposed for the molecular aggregation in fibrils. The results demonstrate the potential utility of the chiroptical method in analyzing organized chiral aggregates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The nucleon as a projected chiral soliton: vacuum and medium properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiolhais, M.; Alberto, P.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Christov, C.V.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia
1990-01-01
Nucleon properties and nucleon form factors are computed within the framework of the projected linear chiral soliton model. To this end the Gell-Mann - Levy lagrangian is solved by means of variational methods which include angular momentum and isospin projection with trial quark-boson Fock states in generalized hedgehog configurations. The consistency of the treatment is checked by the fulfillment of virial theorems such as Goldberger-Treiman relation. In general the q 2 dependence of the nucleon form factors are well described although some of their values at zero momentum transfer come out too large, namely for the axial- and πN N- form factors. Electromagnetic form factors for the N - Δ transition are also calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Medium effects on the nucleon properties are investigated combining the projected chiral soliton model with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The latter is employed to compute the pion decay constant and the pion and sigma masses at finite medium density. These meson properties fix the parameters in the linear sigma model, which is then solved using the same variational methods as for the zero density. The nucleon mass shows a decrease of 17% and the proton radius an increase of 19% if the medium reaches nuclear matter density. The magnetic moments and g A are less affected by the medium. The nucleon electromagnetic form factors show remarkable changes at finite transfer numbers as well. (author)
Axial asymmetry of excited heavy nuclei as essential feature for the prediction of level densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosse, Eckart [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Junghans, Arnd R. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Massarczyk, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (United States)
2016-07-01
In previous studies a considerable improvement of predictions for neutron resonance spacings by a modified back-shifted Fermi-gas model (BSFM) was found. The modifications closely follow the basic principles for a gas of weakly bound Fermions as given in text books of statistical physics: (1) Phase transition at a temperature defined by theory, (2) pairing condensation independent of A, and (3) proportionality of entropy to temperature (and thus the level density parameter) fixed by the Fermi energy. For finite nuclei we add: (4) the back-shift energy is defined by shell correction and (5) the collective enhancement is enlarged by allowing the axial symmetry to be broken. Nearly no parameter fitting is needed to arrive at a good reproduction of level density information obtained by various methods for a number of nuclei in a wide range of A and E. To that end the modified BSFM is complemented by a constant temperature approximation below the phase transition point. The axial symmetry breaking (5), which is an evidently essential feature, will also be regarded with respect to other observables for heavy nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huffer, J.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
Intrinsic Chirality Origination in Carbon Nanotubes.
Pierce, Neal; Chen, Gugang; P Rajukumar, Lakshmy; Chou, Nam Hawn; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Maruyama, Shigeo; Terrones, Mauricio; Harutyunyan, Avetik R
2017-10-24
Elucidating the origin of carbon nanotube chirality is key for realizing their untapped potential. Currently, prevalent theories suggest that catalyst structure originates chirality via an epitaxial relationship. Here we studied chirality abundances of carbon nanotubes grown on floating liquid Ga droplets, which excludes the influence of catalyst features, and compared them with abundances grown on solid Ru nanoparticles. Results of growth on liquid droplets bolsters the intrinsic preference of carbon nuclei toward certain chiralities. Specifically, the abundance of the (11,1)/χ = 4.31° tube can reach up to 95% relative to (9,4)/χ = 17.48°, although they have exactly the same diameter, (9.156 Å). However, the comparative abundances for the pair, (19,3)/χ = 7.2° and (17,6)/χ = 14.5°, with bigger diameter, (16.405 Å), fluctuate depending on synthesis temperature. The abundances of the same pairs of tubes grown on floating solid polyhedral Ru nanoparticles show completely different trends. Analysis of abundances in relation to nucleation probability, represented by a product of the Zeldovich factor and the deviation interval of a growing nuclei from equilibrium critical size, explain the findings. We suggest that the chirality in the nanotube in general is a result of interplay between intrinsic preference of carbon cluster and induction by catalyst structure. This finding can help to build the comprehensive theory of nanotube growth and offers a prospect for chirality-preferential synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the exploitation of liquid catalyst droplets.
Chiral filtration-induced spin/valley polarization in silicene line defects
Ren, Chongdan; Zhou, Benhu; Sun, Minglei; Wang, Sake; Li, Yunfang; Tian, Hongyu; Lu, Weitao
2018-06-01
The spin/valley polarization in silicene with extended line defects is investigated according to the chiral filtration mechanism. It is shown that the inner-built quantum Hall pseudo-edge states with identical chirality can serve as a chiral filter with a weak magnetic field and that the transmission process is restrained/strengthened for chiral states with reversed/identical chirality. With two parallel line defects, which act as natural chiral filtration, the filter effect is greatly enhanced, and 100% spin/valley polarization can be achieved.
Physics of chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.
1991-01-01
This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)
Cell chirality: emergence of asymmetry from cell culture.
Wan, Leo Q; Chin, Amanda S; Worley, Kathryn E; Ray, Poulomi
2016-12-19
Increasing evidence suggests that intrinsic cell chirality significantly contributes to the left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development, which is a well-conserved characteristic of living organisms. With animal embryos, several theories have been established, but there are still controversies regarding mechanisms associated with embryonic LR symmetry breaking and the formation of asymmetric internal organs. Recently, in vitro systems have been developed to determine cell chirality and to recapitulate multicellular chiral morphogenesis on a chip. These studies demonstrate that chirality is indeed a universal property of the cell that can be observed with well-controlled experiments such as micropatterning. In this paper, we discuss the possible benefits of these in vitro systems to research in LR asymmetry, categorize available platforms for single-cell chirality and multicellular chiral morphogenesis, and review mathematical models used for in vitro cell chirality and its applications in in vivo embryonic development. These recent developments enable the interrogation of the intracellular machinery in LR axis establishment and accelerate research in birth defects in laterality.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Lee, Minchul; Choi, Mahn-Soo
2014-08-15
We investigate the mesoscopic resistor-capacitor circuit consisting of a quantum dot coupled to spatially separated Majorana fermion modes in a chiral topological superconductor. We find substantially enhanced relaxation resistance due to the nature of Majorana fermions, which are their own antiparticles and are composed of particle and hole excitations in the same abundance. Further, if only a single Majorana mode is involved, the zero-frequency relaxation resistance is completely suppressed due to a destructive interference. As a result, the Majorana mode opens an exotic dissipative channel on a superconductor which is typically regarded as dissipationless due to its finite superconducting gap.
Anda, André; De Vico, Luca; Hansen, Thorsten
2017-06-08
Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) executes the primary processes of photosynthesis in purple bacteria; photon absorption, and energy transportation to the reaction center. A detailed mechanistic insight into these operations is obscured by the complexity of the light-harvesting systems, particularly by the chromophore-environment interaction. In this work, we focus on the effects of the protein residues that are ligated to the bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and construct potential energy surfaces of the ground and first optically excited state for the various BChl-residue systems where we in each case consider two degrees of freedom in the intermolecular region. We find that the excitation energies are only slightly affected by the considered modes. In addition, we see that axial ligands and hydrogen-bonded residues have opposite effects on both excitation energies and oscillator strengths by comparing to the isolated BChls. Our results indicate that only a small part of the chromophore-environment interaction can be associated with the intermolecular region between a BChl and an adjacent residue, but that it may be possible to selectively raise or lower the excitation energy at the axial and planar residue positions, respectively.
Massive states in chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)
1995-08-01
It is shown that the chiral nonanalytic terms generated by {Delta}{sub 33} resonance in the nucleon self-energy is reproduced in chiral perturbation theory by perturbing appropriate local operators contained in the pion-nucleon effective Lagrangian itself. (orig.)
Extended partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis and model-dependent results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, C.A.
1977-01-01
The corrections to Goldberger-Treiman relations for ΔS = 0 and vertical-bardeltaSvertical-bar = 1 β decays (Δ/sub π/and Δ/sub K/, respectively) are estimated from a Veneziano-type model for three-point functions. The effect of unitarizing the model is also discussed, and it turns out that Δ/sub π/and Δ/sub K/ are almost insensitive to a variation in the widths of the pseudoscalar-meson daughters. Moreover, the predictions for Δ/sub π/and Δ/sub K/ are in close agreement with experiment. Finally, on-mass-shell extrapolation factors for chiral anomalies in eta → γγ and eta → π + π - γ are also derived, and agreement with experiment is found without the need for invoking eta-eta' mixing. In summary, the model discussed here seems to be a suitable implementation of the recently proposed extended partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis
Clinical use and evaluation of coded excitation in B-mode images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misaridis, Athanasios; Pedersen, M. H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2000-01-01
on a predistorted FM excitation and a mismatched compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications. The attenuation effect, analyzed in this paper using the ambiguity function and simulations, dictated the choice of the coded waveform. In this study clinical images, images of wire phantoms......Use of long encoded waveforms can be advantageous in ultrasound imaging, as long as the pulse compression mechanism ensures low range sidelobes and preserves both axial resolution and contrast. A coded excitation/compression scheme was previously presented by our group, which is based...... was programmed to allow alternating excitation on every second frame. That offers the possibility of direct comparison of the same set of image pairs; one with pulsed and one with encoded excitation. Abdominal clinical images from healthy volunteers were acquired and statistically analyzed by means of the auto...
Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Petrie, Bruce; Castrignanò, Erika; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
2016-01-01
The issue of drug chirality is attracting increasing attention among the scientific community. The phenomenon of chirality has been overlooked in environmental research (environmental occurrence, fate and toxicity) despite the great impact that chiral pharmacologically active compounds (cPACs) can provoke on ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to introduce the topic of chirality and its implications in environmental contamination. Special attention has been paid to the most recent advances in chiral analysis based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and the most popular protein based chiral stationary phases. Several groups of cPACs of environmental relevance, such as illicit drugs, human and veterinary medicines were discussed. The increase in the number of papers published in the area of chiral environmental analysis indicates that researchers are actively pursuing new opportunities to provide better understanding of environmental impacts resulting from the enantiomerism of cPACs. PMID:27713682
Scanless multitarget-matching multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junpeng Qiu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Using the combination of a reflective blazed grating and a reflective phase-only diffractive spatial light modulator (SLM, scanless multitarget-matching multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy (SMTM-MPM was achieved. The SLM shaped an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:sapphire laser beam into an excitation pattern with addressable shapes and sizes that matched the samples of interest in the field of view. Temporal and spatial focusing were simultaneously realized by combining an objective lens and a blazed grating. The fluorescence signal from illuminated areas was recorded by a two-dimensional sCMOS camera. Compared with a conventional temporal focusing multiphoton microscope, our microscope achieved effective use of the laser power and decreased photodamage with higher axial resolution.
Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You Yuan, E-mail: yctcyouyuan@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Chen Changyuan [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China)
2012-07-01
We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.
Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You Yuan; Chen Changyuan
2012-01-01
We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.
Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures Fabricated by Circularly Polarized Light.
Saito, Koichiro; Tatsuma, Tetsu
2018-05-09
The chirality of materials results in a wide variety of advanced technologies including image display, data storage, light management including negative refraction, and enantioselective catalysis and sensing. Here, we introduce chirality to plasmonic nanostructures by using circularly polarized light as the sole chiral source for the first time. Gold nanocuboids as precursors on a semiconductor were irradiated with circularly polarized light to localize electric fields at specific corners of the cuboids depending on the handedness of light and deposited dielectric moieties as electron oscillation boosters by the localized electric field. Thus, plasmonic nanostructures with high chirality were developed. The present bottom-up method would allow the large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of chiral materials and further applications to functional materials and devices.
Spin-Selective Transmission and Devisable Chirality in Two-Layer Metasurfaces.
Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo
2017-08-15
Chirality is a nearly ubiquitous natural phenomenon. Its minute presence in most naturally occurring materials makes it incredibly difficult to detect. Recent advances in metasurfaces indicate that they exhibit devisable chirality in novel forms; this finding offers an effective opening for studying chirality and its features in such nanostructures. These metasurfaces display vast possibilities for highly sensitive chirality discrimination in biological and chemical systems. Here, we show that two-layer metasurfaces based on twisted nanorods can generate giant spin-selective transmission and support engineered chirality in the near-infrared region. Two designed metasurfaces with opposite spin-selective transmission are proposed for treatment as enantiomers and can be used widely for spin selection and enhanced chiral sensing. Specifically, we demonstrate that the chirality in these proposed metasurfaces can be adjusted effectively by simply changing the orientation angle between the twisted nanorods. Our results offer simple and straightforward rules for chirality engineering in metasurfaces and suggest intriguing possibilities for the applications of such metasurfaces in spin optics and chiral sensing.
Non-perturbative chiral corrections for lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, A.W.; Leinweber, D.B.; Lu, D.H.
2002-01-01
We explore the chiral aspects of extrapolation of observables calculated within lattice QCD, using the nucleon magnetic moments as an example. Our analysis shows that the biggest effects of chiral dynamics occur for quark masses corresponding to a pion mass below 600 MeV. In this limited range chiral perturbation theory is not rapidly convergent, but we can develop some understanding of the behaviour through chiral quark models. This model dependent analysis leads us to a simple Pade approximant which builds in both the limits m π → 0 and m π → ∞ correctly and permits a consistent, model independent extrapolation to the physical pion mass which should be extremely reliable. (author)
Witte, van de P.; Neuteboom, E.E.; Brehmer, M.; Lub, Johan
1999-01-01
A method for the production of polarization sensitive recordings in liquid crystalline polymers is presented. The system is based on local modification of the twist angle of chiral nematic polymer films. The twist angle of the polymer film is varied by modifying the chemical structure of the chiral
DEVELOPMENT AND REGISTRATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS
WITTE, DT; ENSING, K; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA
1993-01-01
In this review we describe the impact of chirality on drug development and registration in the United States, Japan and the European Community. Enantiomers may have differences in their pharmacological profiles, and, therefore, chiral drugs ask for special analytical and pharmacological attention
Chiral doublet bands in odd-A nuclei 103,105Rh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Bin; Wang Shouyu; Zhang Shuangquan; Meng Jie
2010-01-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a phenomenon of general interest in chemistry, biology and particle physics. Since the pioneering work of nuclear chirality in 1997 [1] , much effort has been devoted to further explore this interesting phenomenon. Following the observation of chiral doublet bands in N = 75 isotones [2] more candidates have been reported over more than 20 nuclei experimentally in A∼100, 130 and 190 mass regions including odd-odd, odd-A and even-even nuclei. However, the identification and the intrinsic mechanism of candidate chiral doublet bands are still under debate. Although various versions of particle rotor model (PRM) and titled axis cranking model (TAC) had been applied to study chiral bands, the essential starting point for understanding their properties is based on the ideal picture, i.e. one particle and one hole coupled with a γ = 30 rigid triaxial rotor. On the other hand, from the investigation of semiclassical TAC based on the mean field, it is shown that the chiral doublet bands in the real nuclei are not always consistent with the static chirality, but mixed with the character of dynamic chirality. Thus it is necessary to construct a fully quantal model for the description of chiral doublet bands in the real nuclei, which is aimed to understand the properties of chiral doublet bands in real nuclei, and to present clearly the picture and character of chiral motion [3] . Recently, we have developed the multi-particle multi-hole coupled with the triaxial rotor model, which is able to describe the nuclear rotation related to many valence nucleons. Adopting this model, chirality in odd-A nuclei 103,105 Rh with πg 9/2 -1 ⊗νh 11/2 2 configuration and in odd-A nucleus 135 Nd with πh 11/2 2 ⊗νh 11/2 1 configuration [4] are studied in a fully quantal approach. For the chiral doublet bands, the observed energies and the B(M1) and B(E2) values are reproduced very well. Root mean square values of the angular momentum components
The three dimensional dual of 4D chirality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porrati, M.; Girardello, L.
2009-01-01
Chiral gauge theories can be defined in four-dimensional Anti de Sitter space, but AdS boundary conditions explicitly break the chiral symmetry in a specific, well defined manner, which in turns results in an anomalous Ward identity. When the 4D theory admits a dual description in terms of a 3D CFT, the 3D dual of the broken chiral symmetry is a certain double-trace deformation of the CFT, which produces the same anomalous chiral Ward identities that obtains in the 4D bulk theory.
Cell chirality: its origin and roles in left-right asymmetric development.
Inaki, Mikiko; Liu, Jingyang; Matsuno, Kenji
2016-12-19
An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by 'cortical inheritance'. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality. Intriguingly, chirality in cellular structures and functions is also found in metazoans. In Drosophila, intrinsic cell chirality is observed in various left-right (LR) asymmetric tissues, and appears to be responsible for their LR asymmetric morphogenesis. In other invertebrates, such as snails and Caenorhabditis elegans, blastomere chirality is responsible for subsequent LR asymmetric development. Various cultured cells of vertebrates also show intrinsic chirality in their cellular behaviours and intracellular structural dynamics. Thus, cell chirality may be a general property of eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila, cell chirality drives the LR asymmetric development of individual organs, without establishing the LR axis of the whole embryo. Considering that organ-intrinsic LR asymmetry is also reported in vertebrates, this mechanism may contribute to LR asymmetric development across phyla.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Authors.
Cell chirality: its origin and roles in left–right asymmetric development
Inaki, Mikiko; Liu, Jingyang
2016-01-01
An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by ‘cortical inheritance’. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality. Intriguingly, chirality in cellular structures and functions is also found in metazoans. In Drosophila, intrinsic cell chirality is observed in various left–right (LR) asymmetric tissues, and appears to be responsible for their LR asymmetric morphogenesis. In other invertebrates, such as snails and Caenorhabditis elegans, blastomere chirality is responsible for subsequent LR asymmetric development. Various cultured cells of vertebrates also show intrinsic chirality in their cellular behaviours and intracellular structural dynamics. Thus, cell chirality may be a general property of eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila, cell chirality drives the LR asymmetric development of individual organs, without establishing the LR axis of the whole embryo. Considering that organ-intrinsic LR asymmetry is also reported in vertebrates, this mechanism may contribute to LR asymmetric development across phyla. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821533
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuypers, F.
1990-01-01
Chiral colour is considered in a general framework where the coupling constants associated with each SU(3) component are allowed to be different. To reproduce QCD at low energy, gluons and axigluons cannot then be maximally mixed. Present data form e + e - colliders contrains the axigluon mass to values between 50 GeV and 375 GeV whilst the mixing angle is bounded by 13deg and 45deg. The lower limit of the axigluon mass is a definite bound at 90% C.L., whereas the upper limit only applies if chiral colour is to explain the anomalously high rates of hadron production at TRISTAN. (orig.)
Analysis of piping system response to seismic excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C.Y.
1987-01-01
This paper describes a numerical algorithm for analyzing piping system response to seismic excitations. The numerical model of the piping considers hoop, flexural, axial, and torsional modes of deformation. Hoop modes generated from internal hydrodynamic loading are superimposed on the bending and twisting modes by two extra degrees of freedom. A time-history analysis technique using the implicit temporal integration scheme is addressed. The time integrator uses a predictor-corrector successive iterative scheme which satisfies the equation of motion. Both geometrical and material nonlinearities are considered. Multiple support excitations, fluid effect, piping insulation, and material dampings can be included in the analysis. Two problems are presented to illustrate the method. The results are discussed in detail
Chiral-glass transition in a diluted dipolar-interaction Heisenberg system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Kaicheng; Liu Guibin; Zhu Yan
2011-01-01
Recently, numerical simulations reveal that a spin-glass transition can occur in the three-dimensional diluted dipolar system. By defining the chirality of triple spins in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg spin glass, we study the chiral ordering in the system using parallel tempering algorithm and heat bath method. The finite-size scaling analysis reveals that the system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: → We define the chirality in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg system. → The system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. → We extract the critical exponents of the chiral-glass transition.
Chiral interaction and biomolecular evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilat, G.
1992-01-01
Recent developments in the concept of chiral interaction open now new options and dynamical possibilities for biomolecules which have so far been overlooked. A few of these possibilities are mentioned, such as the control mechanism of enzymatic activity and the role played by non-ergodicity in evolutionary processes. It is shown that chiral interaction, being a surface phenomenon, does not obey Barron's symmetry constraints, which are suitable for force fields present in bulk interactions. In particular, the situation at the ocean-air surface in the prebiotic era is described, as well as the possible role played by chiral interaction in conjunction with the terrestrial magnetic field normal to the ocean surface, which could have lead to a process of deracernization at the ocean-air interface. (author)
Fusion rules of chiral algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.
1994-01-01
Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)
Probing chirality with a femtosecond reaction microscope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janssen M. H. M.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Detection of molecular chirality with high sensitivity and selectivity is important for many analytical and practical applications. Photoionization has emerged as a very sensitive probe of chirality in molecules. We show here that a table top setup with a femtosecond laser and a single imaging detector for both photoelectrons and photoions enables detection of chirality up to 3 orders of magnitude better than the existing conventional absorption based techniques.
Polarized fine structure in the excitation spectrum of a negatively charged quantum dot
Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Doty, M. F.; Bracker, A. S.; Gershoni, D.; Korenev, V. L.; Badescu, S. C.; Lyanda-Geller, Y.; Reinecke, T. L.
2005-01-01
We report polarized photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of the negative trion in single charge tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots. The spectrum exhibits a p-shell resonance with polarized fine structure arising from the direct excitation of the electron spin triplet states. The energy splitting arises from the axially symmetric electron-hole exchange interaction. The magnitude and sign of the polarization are understood from the spin character of the triplet states and a small amount of qua...
Shaping charge excitations in chiral edge states with a time-dependent gate voltage
Misiorny, Maciej; Fève, Gwendal; Splettstoesser, Janine
2018-02-01
We study a coherent conductor supporting a single edge channel in which alternating current pulses are created by local time-dependent gating and sent on a beam-splitter realized by a quantum point contact. The current response to the gate voltage in this setup is intrinsically linear. Based on a fully self-consistent treatment employing a Floquet scattering theory, we analyze the effect of different voltage shapes and frequencies, as well as the role of the gate geometry on the injected signal. In particular, we highlight the impact of frequency-dependent screening on the process of shaping the current signal. The feasibility of creating true single-particle excitations with this method is confirmed by investigating the suppression of excess noise, which is otherwise created by additional electron-hole pair excitations in the current signal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.; Yu, R.; Yang, X.
2008-01-01
We study the propagation of two quantized optical fields via considering the collective effects of photonic emissions and excitations of a three-level cyclic-type system (such as atomic ensemble with symmetry broken, or the chiral molecular gases, or manual 'atomic' array with symmetry broken), where the quantum transitions is driven by two quantized fields and a classical one. The results show that the parametric conversion and maximally entangled photon pair generation can be achieved by means of the collective excitation of the two upper energy levels induced by the classic optical field. This investigation may be used for the generated coherent short-wavelength quantum radiation and quantum information processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John
2016-01-01
Classically, myopathies are categorized according to limb or cranial nerve muscle affection, but with the growing use of magnetic resonance imaging it has become evident that many well-known myopathies have significant involvement of the axial musculature. New disease entities with selective axial...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webster, C. H.; Helme, L. M.; Boothroyd, A. T.; McMorrow, D. F.; Wilkins, S. B.; Detlefs, C.; Detlefs, B.; Bewley, R. I.; McKelvy, M. J.
2007-01-01
A synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of the crystallographic structure of PrO 2 in the Jahn-Teller distorted phase is reported. The distortion of the oxygen sublattice, which was previously ambiguous, is shown to be a chiral structure in which neighboring oxygen chains have opposite chiralities. A temperature dependent study of the magnetic excitation spectrum, probed by neutron inelastic scattering, is also reported. Changes in the energies and relative intensities of the crystal field transitions provide an insight into the interplay between the static and dynamic Jahn-Teller effects
Can the chirality of the ISM be measured
Pendleton, Y.; Sandford, S. A.; Werner, Michael W.; Lauer, J.; Chang, Sherwood
1990-01-01
Many moderately complex carbon-based molecules of the type associated with biological systems can exist in one of two mirror-image forms (left-handed and right-handed), which can be distinguished on the basis of their influence on the state of polarization of a light beam. Both forms are possible in nature; yet in living organisms it is invariably the rule that one of these two species predominates. This gives rise to a net chirality. One possible explanation for the net chirality is that the early earth was somehow seeded from the ISM with an excess of chiral organic compounds which led to the development of life forms which are based on left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars. Molecular spectroscopy of the interstellar medium (ISM) has revealed a complex variety of molecular species similar to those thought to have been available in the oceans and atmospheres of the earth at the time life formed. The detection of such molecules demonstrates the generality of the chemical processes occurring in both environments. If this generality extends to the processes which produce chirality, it may be possible to detect a net chirality in the ISM. This is of particular interest because determining whether or not net chirality exists elsewhere in the universe is an essential aspect of understanding how life developed on earth and how widely distributed it might be. Researchers report preliminary results of a feasibility study to determine whether or not a net chirality in the ISM can be measured. If laboratory results identify candidate chiral molecules that might exist in the ISM, the next step in this feasibility study will be to estimate the detectability of the chiral signature in astrophysical environments.
Can the chirality of the ISM be measured
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pendleton, Y.; Sandford, S.A.; Werner, M.W.; Lauer, J.; Chang, S.
1990-01-01
Many moderately complex carbon-based molecules of the type associated with biological systems can exist in one of two mirror-image forms (left-handed and right-handed), which can be distinguished on the basis of their influence on the state of polarization of a light beam. Both forms are possible in nature; yet in living organisms it is invariably the rule that one of these two species predominates. This gives rise to a net chirality. One possible explanation for the net chirality is that the early earth was somehow seeded from the ISM with an excess of chiral organic compounds which led to the development of life forms which are based on left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars. Molecular spectroscopy of the interstellar medium (ISM) has revealed a complex variety of molecular species similar to those thought to have been available in the oceans and atmospheres of the earth at the time life formed. The detection of such molecules demonstrates the generality of the chemical processes occurring in both environments. If this generality extends to the processes which produce chirality, it may be possible to detect a net chirality in the ISM. This is of particular interest because determining whether or not net chirality exists elsewhere in the universe is an essential aspect of understanding how life developed on earth and how widely distributed it might be. Researchers report preliminary results of a feasibility study to determine whether or not a net chirality in the ISM can be measured. If laboratory results identify candidate chiral molecules that might exist in the ISM, the next step in this feasibility study will be to estimate the detectability of the chiral signature in astrophysical environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhehao; Wang, Hongfei
2014-06-04
We report in this work detailed measurements on the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050cm-1) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-limonene and S-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the equal amount (50/50) racemic mixture show that the enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit spectral signature from chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and spectral signature from prochiral response of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-limonene to S-limonene, and disappears for the 50/50 racemic mixture. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-limonene and S-limonene, and also surprisingly remains the same for the 50/50 racemic mixture. These results provided detail information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces, and demonstrated the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface.
Chiral metamaterials: from optical activity and negative refractive index to asymmetric transmission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhaofeng; Mutlu, Mehmet; Ozbay, Ekmel
2013-01-01
We summarize the progress in the development and application of chiral metamaterials. After a brief review of the salient features of chiral metamaterials, such as giant optical activity, circular dichroism, and negative refractive index, the common method for the retrieval of effective parameters for chiral metamaterials is surveyed. Then, we introduce some typical chiral structures, e.g., chiral metamaterial consisting of split ring resonators, complementary chiral metamaterial, and composite chiral metamaterial, on the basis of the studies of the authors’ group. The coupling effect during the construction of bulk chiral metamaterials is mentioned and discussed. We introduce the application of bianisotropic chiral structures in the field of asymmetric transmission. Finally, we mention a few directions for future research on chiral metamaterials. (review article)
Breaking of axial symmetry in excited heavy nuclei as identified in giant dipole resonance data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosse, E.; Massarczyk, R. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); Junghans, A.R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Dresden (Germany)
2017-11-15
A recent theoretical prediction of a breaking of axial symmetry in quasi all heavy nuclei is confronted to a new critical analysis of photon strength functions of nuclei in the valley of stability. For the photon strength in the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) regime a parameterization of GDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO) is extrapolated to energies below and above the IVGDR. The impact of non-GDR modes adding to the low energy slope of photon strength is discussed including recent data on photon scattering and other radiative processes. These are shown to be concentrated in energy regions where various model calculations predict intermediate collective strength; thus they are obviously separate from the IVGDR tail. The triple Lorentzian (TLO) ansatz for giant dipole resonances is normalized in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The nuclear droplet model with surface dissipation accounts well for positions and widths without local, nuclide specific, parameters. Very few and only global parameters are needed when a breaking of axial symmetry already in the valley of stability is admitted and hence a reliable prediction for electric dipole strength functions also outside of it is expected. (orig.)
Quark matter in a chiral chromodielectric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broniowski, W.; Kutschera, M.; Cibej, M.; Rosina, M.
1989-03-01
Zero and finite temperature quark matter is studied in a chiral chromodielectric model with quark, meson and chromodielectric degrees of freedom. Mean field approximation is used. Two cases are considered: two-flavor and three-flavor quark matter. It is found that at sufficiently low densities and temperatures the system is in a chirally broken phase, with quarks acquiring effective masses of the order of 100 MeV. At higher densities and temperatures a chiral phase transition occurs and the quarks become massless. A comparison to traditional nuclear physics suggests that the chirally broken phase with massive quark gas may be the ground state of matter at densities of the order of a few nuclear saturation densities. 24 refs., 5 figs. (author)
Chiral Recognition by Fluorescence: One Measurement for Two Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanshan Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This outlook describes two strategies to simultaneously determine the enantiomeric composition and concentration of a chiral substrate by a single fluorescent measurement. One strategy utilizes a pseudoenantiomeric sensor pair that is composed of a 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol-based amino alcohol and a partially hydrogenated 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol-based amino alcohol. These two molecules have the opposite chiral configuration with fluorescent enhancement at two different emitting wavelengths when treated with the enantiomers of mandelic acid. Using the sum and difference of the fluorescent intensity at the two wavelengths allows simultaneous determination of both concentration and enantiomeric composition of the chiral acid. The other strategy employs a 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol-based trifluoromethyl ketone that exhibits fluorescent enhancement at two emission wavelengths upon interaction with a chiral diamine. One emission responds mostly to the concentration of the chiral diamine and the ratio of the two emissions depends on the chiral configuration of the enantiomer but independent of the concentration, allowing both the concentration and enantiomeric composition of the chiral diamine to be simultaneously determined. These strategies would significantly simplify the practical application of the enantioselective fluorescent sensors in high-throughput chiral assay.
From cosmic chirality to protein structure: Lord Kelvin's legacy.
Barron, Laurence D
2012-11-01
A selection of my work on chirality is sketched in two distinct parts of this lecture. Symmetry and Chirality explains how the discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. The concepts of true chirality (time-invariant enantiomorphism) and false chirality (time-noninvariant enantiomorphism) that emerge provide an extension of Lord Kelvin's original definition of chirality to situations where motion is an essential ingredient thereby clarifying, inter alia, the nature of physical influences able to induce absolute enantioselection. Consideration of symmetry violations reveals that strict enantiomers (exactly degenerate) are interconverted by the combined CP operation. Raman optical activity surveys work, from first observation to current applications, on a new chiroptical spectroscopy that measures vibrational optical activity via Raman scattering of circularly polarized light. Raman optical activity provides incisive information ranging from absolute configuration and complete solution structure of smaller chiral molecules and oligomers to protein and nucleic acid structure of intact viruses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Li, Li; Hu, Chuanjiang; Shi, Bo; Wang, Yong
2016-05-10
A new host-guest system is formed between a benzene tricarboxamide linked zinc trisporphyrinate and a chiral monoalcohol (1-phenylethylalcohol). CD spectra show the chirality induction and inversion processes, which are controlled by the corresponding 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 coordination complexes. The binding constants calculated by UV-vis and CD spectral data are much larger than that for [Zn(TPP)] (TPP = tetraphenylporphyrin). The crystallographic structure of the host-guest complex reveals that multiple intramolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions could contribute to its high binding affinity to 1-phenylethylalcohol. The DFT calculations suggest that the spatial orientations of porphyrin moieties change from the 1 : 1 complex to the 1 : 2 complex. The chirality induction and inversion processes are rationalized by the summation of pairwise interactions among multichromophores according to pairwise additivity.
The chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subrahmanyam, V.
1994-01-01
The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a two-fold Kramers degeneracy. A non-zero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators. (author). 3 refs