Finite Amplitude Method for Charge-Changing Transitions in Axially-Deformed Nuclei
Mustonen, M T; Zenginerler, Z; Engel, J
2014-01-01
We describe and apply a version of the finite amplitude method for obtaining the charge-changing nuclear response in the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The method is suitable for calculating strength functions and beta-decay rates, both allowed and forbidden, in axially-deformed open-shell nuclei. We demonstrate the speed and versatility of the code through a preliminary examination of the effects of tensor terms in Skyrme functionals on beta decay in a set of spherical and deformed open-shell nuclei. Like the isoscalar pairing interaction, the tensor terms systematically increase allowed beta-decay rates. This finding generalizes previous work in semimagic nuclei and points to the need for a comprehensive study of time-odd terms in nuclear density functionals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalaf A. M.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The interacting boson model (sd-IBM1 with intrinsic coherent state is used to study the shape phase transitions from spherical U(5 to prolate deformed SU(3 shapes in Nd- Sm isotopic chains. The Hamiltonian is written in the creation and annihilation form with one and two body terms.For each nucleus a fitting procedure is adopted to get the best model parameters by fitting selected experimental energy levels, B(E2 transi- tion rates and two-neutron separation energies with the calculated ones.The U(5-SU(3 IBM potential energy surfaces (PES’s are analyzed and the critical phase transition points are identified in the space of model parameters.In Nd-Sm isotopic chains nuclei evolve from spherical to deformed shapes by increasing the boson number. The nuclei 150 Nd and 152 Sm have been found to be close to critical points.We have also studied the energy ratios and the B(E2 values for yrast band at the critical points.
Angular and axial deformities of the legs of children.
McDonough, M W
1984-12-01
Age is often a determining factor in establishing a treatment program for these axial and angular problems. As can be seen, the deformities of torsion are noticeable from early life. Any tibial torsion should be treated early, but an excessive medial range of motion in the infant leg with a corresponding adequate lateral range of motion of the limb may be cautiously observed. Medial femoral torsion is a normal early finding in the infant thigh. The problem becomes evident as the child matures without the corresponding reduction in femoral torsion, leading to a persistence of fetal or infantile alignment. The gait consequences are usually noticed at 4 to 8 years of age. The angular changes generally are a delayed finding noticed in stance. The bowleg may be associated with marked tibial torsion and picked up early but the Blount's patient has been traditionally definable at 2 years of age. Levin and Drennan may hasten the time of diagnosis with their radiographic criteria. Knock-knee is an alignment disturbance noticed during the early to mid-childhood years, age 4 to 8 years. The diagnosis is important, differentiating physiologic from torsion-related deformities, and treatment, if warranted, should not be delayed. Generally the earlier these problems are discovered, the more optimistic the prognosis. Since the pediatric limb is in a constant state of transition, there will be a perpetual argument as to the need or efficacy of various approaches to the problems of knock-knee and bowleg. If observation is the treatment of choice, the percentage of cases which go on to osteotomies and epiphyseal stapling will continue. For those with axial or angular deformities, degenerative arthritis of the knee may be forthcoming. Swanson, Greene, and Allis warned of problems becoming "unphysiologic." If we consider the epiphyseal malleability, not only to deformity but to correction, we can appreciate Lenoir's comment of "every day the problem goes untreated is a golden
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Choudhary
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We study the bias voltage dependent current characteristic in a deformed (8, 0 silicon carbide nanotube by applying self consistent non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism in combination with the density-functional theory to a two probe molecular junction constructed from deformed nanotube. The transmission spectra and electron density of states at zero bias shows a significant reduction in threshold in the case of both radially compressed and axially elongated nanotube. However, semiconductor to metal transition was not observed, though the results show large differences in current characteristic compared to a perfect nanotube.
Magnetic and axial-vector transitions of the baryon antidecuplet
Kim, H -Ch; Göke, K
2007-01-01
We report the recent results of the magnetic transitions and axial-vector transitions of the baryon antidecuplet within the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model. The dynamical model parameters are fixed by experimental data for the magnetic moments of the baryon octet, for the hyperon semileptonic decay constants, and for the singlet axial-vector constant. The transition magnetic moments $\\mu_{\\Lambda\\Sigma}$ and $\\mu_{N\\Delta}$ are well reproduced and other octet-decuplet and octet-antidecuplet transitions are predicted. In particular, the present calculation of $\\mu_{\\Sigma\\Sigma^*}$ is found to be below the upper bound $0.82\\mu_N$ that the SELEX collaboration measured very recently. The results explains consistently the recent findings of a new $N^*$ resonance from the GRAAL and Tohoku LNS group. We also obtain the transition axial-vector constants for the $\\Theta^+\\to KN$ from which the decay width of the $\\Theta^{+}$ pentaquark baryon is determined as a function of the pion-nucleon sigma term $\\Si...
Chaotic motion in axially symmetric potentials with oblate quadrupole deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Letelier, Patricio S. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramos-Caro, Javier, E-mail: javier@ime.unicamp.br [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopez-Suspes, Framsol, E-mail: framsol@gmail.com [Facultad de Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Santo Tomas and Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)
2011-10-03
By computing the Poincare's surfaces of section and Lyapunov exponents, we study the effect of introducing an oblate quadrupole in the dynamics associated with two generic spherical potentials of physical interest: the central monopole and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. In the former case we find saddle points in the effective potential, in contrast to the statements presented by Gueron and Letelier in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. The results we show in the second case have application in nuclear or atomic physics. In particular, we find values of oblate deformation leading to a disappearance of shell structure in the single-particle spectrum. -- Highlights: → We find chaotic motion around a monopole with oblate quadrupole deformation. → This corrects the statements introduced in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. → We present an alternative model for the potential due to an oblate deformed nuclei. → This leads to stochastic regions in the phase space of classical orbits. → It suggests that the shell structure of single-particle spectrum tends to disappear.
Deformation and failure mechanisms of 18650 battery cells under axial compression
Zhu, Juner; Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tomasz
2016-12-01
An important deformation mode during ground impacts of battery packs made of cylindrical battery cells is axial compression. This type of loading subjects the cell to a complex deformation pattern and failure mechanism. The design of endcaps plays an important role in such deformations. To explore the sequence of deformation and the underlying failure mechanisms, a combined experimental/numerical study was carried out. Tests were conducted on 18650 cells, and the deformation of each component was carefully investigated and documented. There are four different stages in the force-displacement curve, corresponding with deformation of various components in the endcap assembly. A short circuit happens at a displacement of 4 mm. To clarify these observations, a detailed Finite Element model was set up, covering the geometry and the mechanical property of almost all the components of the cell. Using the simulation results, the sequence of the axial compression was revealed, which was subsequently validated by Micro CT scans as well as analytical solutions. Based on the precise analysis of the mechanical behavior, the cause of the short circuit during axial loading was clarified. Two failure mechanisms in the separator at the top section of the cell explain the possible causes of short circuit.
Leviatan, A
2009-01-01
We consider several classes of symmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian in 3+1 dimensions, with axially-deformed scalar and vector potentials. The symmetries include the known pseudospin and spin limits and additional symmetries which occur when the potentials depend on different variables. Supersymmetries are observed within each class and the corresponding charges are identified.
Leviatan, A
2009-07-24
We consider several classes of symmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian in 3 + 1 dimensions, with axially deformed scalar and vector potentials. The symmetries include the known pseudospin and spin limits and additional symmetries which occur when the potentials depend on different variables. Supersymmetries are observed within each class and the corresponding charges are identified.
Analyses of axial, lateral and circumferential deformations of rock specimen in triaxial compression
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2008-01-01
The axial, lateral and circumferential strains were analyzed for a rock specimen subjected to shear failure in the form of a shear band bisecting the specimen in triaxial compression. Plastic deformation of the specimen stemmed from shear strain localization initiated at the peak shear stress. Beyond the onset of strain localization, the axial, lateral and circumferential strains were decomposed into two parts, respectively. One is the elas-tic strain described by general Hooke's law. The other is attributable to the plastic shear slips along shear band with a certain thickness dependent on the internal length of rock.The post-peak circumferential strain-axial strain curve of longer specimen is steeper than that of shorter specimen, as is consistent with the previous experiments. In elastic stage,the circumferential strain-axial strain curve exhibits nonlinear characteristic, as is in agreement with the previous experiment since confining pressure is loaded progressively until a certain value is reached. When the confining pressure is loaded completely, the circumferential strain-axial strain curve is linear in elastic and strain-softening stages. The predicted circumferential strain-axial strain curve in elastic and strain- softening stages agrees with the previous experiment.
Inflation-predictable behavior and co-eruption deformation at Axial Seamount
Nooner, Scott L.; Chadwick, William W.
2016-12-01
Deformation of the ground surface at active volcanoes provides information about magma movements at depth. Improved seafloor deformation measurements between 2011 and 2015 documented a fourfold increase in magma supply and confirmed that Axial Seamount’s eruptive behavior is inflation-predictable, probably triggered by a critical level of magmatic pressure. A 2015 eruption was successfully forecast on the basis of this deformation pattern and marked the first time that deflation and tilt were captured in real time by a new seafloor cabled observatory, revealing the timing, location, and volume of eruption-related magma movements. Improved modeling of the deformation suggests a steeply dipping prolate-spheroid pressure source beneath the eastern caldera that is consistent with the location of the zone of highest melt within the subcaldera magma reservoir determined from multichannel seismic results.
Hyer, M. W.; Paraska, P. J.
1990-01-01
The study focuses on the axisymmetric deformation response of unsymmetrically laminate cylinders loaded in axial compression by known loads. A geometrically nonlinear analysis is used. Though buckling is not studied, the deformations can be considered to be the prebuckling response. Attention is directed at three 16 layer laminates: a (90 sub 8/0 sub 8) sub T; a (0 sub 8/90 sub 8) sub T and a (0/90) sub 4s. The symmetric laminate is used as a basis for comparison, while the two unsymmetric laminates were chosen because they have equal but opposite bending-stretching effects. Particular attention is given to the influence of the thermally-induced preloading deformations that accompany the cool-down of any unsymmetric laminate from the consolidation temperature. Simple support and clamped boundary conditions are considered. It is concluded that: (1) The radial deformations of an unsymmetric laminate are significantly larger than the radial deformations of a symmetric laminate, although for both symmetric and unsymmetric laminates the large deformations are confined to a boundary layer near the ends of the cylinder; (2) For this nonlinear problem the length of the boundary layer is a function of the applied load; (3) The sign of the radial deformations near the supported end of the cylinder depends strongly on the sense (sign) of the laminate asymmetry; (4) For unsymmetric laminates, ignoring the thermally-induced preloading deformations that accompany cool-down results in load-induced deformations that are under predicted; and (5) The support conditions strongly influence the response but the influence of the sense of asymmetry and the influence of the thermally-induced preloading deformations are independent of the support conditions.
Shen, Hui-Shen
2010-06-01
Buckling and postbuckling analysis is presented for axially compressed microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic matrix of cytoplasm. The microtubule is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell which contains small scale effects. The surrounding elastic medium is modeled as a Pasternak foundation. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include the extension-twist and flexural-twist couplings. The thermal effects are also included and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The small scale parameter e (0) a is estimated by matching the buckling load from their vibrational behavior of MTs with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical results show that buckling load and postbuckling behavior of MTs are very sensitive to the small scale parameter e (0) a. The results reveal that the MTs under axial compressive loading condition have an unstable postbuckling path, and the lateral constraint has a significant effect on the postbuckling response of a microtubule when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large.
Strength and Deformation of Axially Loaded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Sheet Confined Concrete Columns
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李静; 钱稼茹; 蒋剑彪
2004-01-01
Experimental results of 29 axially loaded fiber-reinforced polymer sheet (FS) confined concrete columns and two reference plain concrete columns are introduced. Twenty four column specimens were confined with carbon fiber sheet (CFS) and five column specimens were hybrid confined with both CFS and glass fiber sheet (GFS). The influence of aspect ratio, FS material, initial axial force ratio, and FS confinement degree on the strength and deformation of columns were studied. Based on the experimental results, the equations of complete stress-strain curve of CFS confined concrete are proposed. These equations are suitable for the nonlinear analysis of square and rectangular section columns. Suggestions of applying FS to confine concrete columns are presented.
Watson's theorem and the $N\\Delta(1232)$ axial transition
Alvarez-Ruso, L; Nieves, J; Vacas, M J Vicente
2016-01-01
We present a new determination of the $N\\Delta$ axial form factors from neutrino induced pion production data. For this purpose, the model of Hernandez et al., Phys. Rev. D76, 033005 (2007) is improved by partially restoring unitarity. This is accomplished by imposing Watson's theorem on the dominant vector and axial multipoles. As a consequence, a larger $C_5^A(0)$, in good agreement with the prediction from the off-diagonal Goldberger-Treiman relation, is now obtained.
Mott-superfluid transition of q-deformed bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopeć, T.K., E-mail: kopec@int.pan.wroc.pl
2015-10-16
The effect of q-deformation of the bosonic algebra on the Mott-superfluid transition for interacting lattice bosons described by the Bose–Hubbard model is studied using mean-filed theory. It has been shown that the Mott state proliferates and the initial periodicity of the Mott lobes as a function of the chemical potential disappears as the q-deformation increases. The ground state phase diagram as a function of the q-parameter exhibits superfluid order, which intervenes in narrow regions between Mott lobes, demonstrating the new concept of statistically induced quantum phase transition. - Highlights: • We study the effect of q-deformed bosons on superfluid transition. • A mean-field theory is employed. • Bosons can change statistics due to deformation of the commutation rules. • Statistically induced quantum phase transition is found.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The effect of the deformation condition on the axial compressive precision forming process of tube with curling die was investigated by using a rigid-plastic FEM. The results show that the forming accuracy depends mainly on geometric condition rρ/d0, little on tube material properties and friction condition; the relative gap Δ/2rρ of double-walled tubes obtained decreases with increasing rρ/d0, and there is a parameter k for a given t0/d0 or rρ/t0, when rρ,/d0＞k, Δ/2rρ＜1,otherwise Δ/2rρ＞1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebran, J-P [CEA/DAM/DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Khan, E; Arteaga, D Pena [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, University Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Vretenar, D, E-mail: jean-paul.ebran@cea.fr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)
2011-09-16
The Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for axially deformed nuclei (RHFBz) is presented. The model involves a phenomenological Lagrangian with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings in the particle-hole channel and the central part of the Gogny force in the particle-particle channel. The RHFBz equations are solved by expansion in the basis of a deformed harmonic oscillator. Illustrative RHFBz calculations are performed for Neon isotopes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masafumi Noda
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Magnesium alloys can be used for reducing the weight of various structural products, because of their high specific strength. They have attracted considerable attention as materials with a reduced environmental load, since they help to save both resources and energy. In order to use Mg alloys for manufacturing vehicles, it is important to investigate the deformation mechanism and transition point for optimizing the material and vehicle design. In this study, we investigated the transition of the deformation mechanism during the high-temperature uniaxial tensile deformation of the AZ31 Mg alloy. At a test temperature of 523 K and an initial strain rate of 3×10−3 s-1, the AZ31 Mg alloy (mean grain size: ~5 μm exhibited stable deformation behavior and the deformation mechanism changed to one dominated by grain boundary sliding.
Deformation Behavior and TExture Evolution of Steel Alloys under Axial-Torsional Loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siriruk, A.; Kant, M.; Penumadu, D.; Garlea, E.; Vogel, S.
2011-06-01
Using hollow cylinder samples with suitable geometry obtained from round bar stock, the deformation behavior of bcc Fe based 12L14 steel alloy is evaluated under multi-axial conditions. A stacked strain gage rosette and extensometer mounted on the cylindrical surface at the mid height of the specimen provided strain tensor as a function of applied stress for pure tensile and torsion tests prior to yielding. This study examines elastic and yield behavior and effects of these with respect to texture evolution. Hollow cylinder specimen geometry (tubes) with small wall thickness and relatively (to its thickness) large inner diameter is used. The variation of observed yield surface in deviatoric plane and the effect on mode of deformation (tension versus torsion versus its combination) on stress-strain behavior is discussed. Bulk texture was studied using neutron time-of-flight diffractometer at High-Pressure-Preferred Orientation (HIPPO) - Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) instrument and the evolution of texture and related anisotropy for pure tension versus torsion are also included.
Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Vavruch, Ludvig; Tropp, Hans; Knutsson, Hans
2013-03-01
Reliable measurements of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis are vital, since they are used for assessing the degree of scoliosis, deciding upon treatment and monitoring the progression of the disease. However, commonly used two dimensional methods (e.g. the Cobb angle) do not fully capture the three dimensional deformity at hand in scoliosis, of which axial vertebral rotation (AVR) is considered to be of great importance. There are manual methods for measuring the AVR, but they are often time-consuming and related with a high intra- and inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present a fully automatic method for estimating the AVR in images from computed tomography. The proposed method is evaluated on four scoliotic patients with 17 vertebrae each and compared with manual measurements performed by three observers using the standard method by Aaro-Dahlborn. The comparison shows that the difference in measured AVR between automatic and manual measurements are on the same level as the inter-observer difference. This is further supported by a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.971-0.979), obtained when comparing the automatic measurements with the manual measurements of each observer. Hence, the provided results and the computational performance, only requiring approximately 10 to 15 s for processing an entire volume, demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed method.
Lungfish axial muscle function and the vertebrate water to land transition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela M Horner
Full Text Available The role of axial form and function during the vertebrate water to land transition is poorly understood, in part because patterns of axial movement lack morphological correlates. The few studies available from elongate, semi-aquatic vertebrates suggest that moving on land may be powered simply from modifications of generalized swimming axial motor patterns and kinematics. Lungfish are an ideal group to study the role of axial function in terrestrial locomotion as they are the sister taxon to tetrapods and regularly move on land. Here we use electromyography and high-speed video to test whether lungfish moving on land use axial muscles similar to undulatory swimming or demonstrate novelty. We compared terrestrial lungfish data to data from lungfish swimming in different viscosities as well as to salamander locomotion. The terrestrial locomotion of lungfish involved substantial activity in the trunk muscles but almost no tail activity. Unlike other elongate vertebrates, lungfish moved on land with a standing wave pattern of axial muscle activity that closely resembled the pattern observed in terrestrially locomoting salamanders. The similarity in axial motor pattern in salamanders and lungfish suggests that some aspects of neuromuscular control for the axial movements involved in terrestrial locomotion were present before derived appendicular structures.
The yielding transition in amorphous solids under oscillatory shear deformation
Leishangthem, Premkumar; Parmar, Anshul D. S.; Sastry, Srikanth
2017-01-01
Amorphous solids are ubiquitous among natural and man-made materials. Often used as structural materials for their attractive mechanical properties, their utility depends critically on their response to applied stresses. Processes underlying such mechanical response, and in particular the yielding behaviour of amorphous solids, are not satisfactorily understood. Although studied extensively, observed yielding behaviour can be gradual and depend significantly on conditions of study, making it difficult to convincingly validate existing theoretical descriptions of a sharp yielding transition. Here we employ oscillatory deformation as a reliable probe of the yielding transition. Through extensive computer simulations for a wide range of system sizes, we demonstrate that cyclically deformed model glasses exhibit a sharply defined yielding transition with characteristics that are independent of preparation history. In contrast to prevailing expectations, the statistics of avalanches reveals no signature of the impending transition, but exhibit dramatic, qualitative, changes in character across the transition. PMID:28248289
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sudhanshu Choudhary; S Qureshi
2012-10-01
We investigate electron transport properties in a deformed (8, 0) silicon carbide nanotube by applying self consistent non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism in combination with the density-functional theory to a two-probe molecular junction constructed from deformed nanotube. The results suggest significant reduction in threshold voltage in the case of both radially compressed and axially elongated (8, 0) SiCNTs, a large difference in current–voltage characteristics was observed. Analysis of frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) and transmission spectrum show bandgap reduction in deformed nanotubes. Deformation introduces electronic states near the Fermi level, enhancing the conduction properties of (8, 0) SiCNT. The FMOs and the orbitals corresponding to peaks in () around Fermi level obviously has some major contributions from the deformed site. However, localization of the electronic state near the Fermi level is weak in (8, 0) SiCNT, possibly because of its large bandgap.
C sub 6 sub 0 fullerene and its molecular complexes under axial and shear deformation
Spitsina, N G; Bashkin, I V; Meletov, K P
2002-01-01
We have studied the pristine C sub 6 sub 0 and its molecular complexes with the organic donors bis(ethylenedithio) tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET) and tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene (TMTSF) by means of ESR and Raman spectroscopy at high pressure. The important changes in the ESR signal of C sub 6 sub 0 were observed under axial pressure combined with shear deformation. It is shown that the treatment at a anisotropic pressure of 4 GPa results in a reduction in the symmetry of the C sub 6 sub 0 molecule and the formation of radicals. Treatment of the molecular complex of (ET) sub 2 centre dot C sub 6 sub 0 at a pressure of approx 4.5 GPa and a temperature of 150 deg. C leads to the formation of C sub 6 sub 0 dimers. The Raman spectra of the molecular complex C sub 6 sub 0 centre dot TMTSF centre dot 2(CS sub 2) were measured in situ at ambient temperature and pressures up to 9.5 GPa. The pressure behaviour of the Raman peaks reveals singularity at 5.0 +- 0.5 GPa related to the softening and splitting of so...
Axial Nucleon to Delta transition form factors on 2+1 flavor hybrid lattices
Alexandrou, C; Leontiou, Th; Negele, J W; Tsapalis, A; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.099901
2009-01-01
We correct the values of the dominant nucleon to Delta axial transition form factors CA_5 and CA_6 published in C. Alexandrou et.al., Phys. Rev. D 76,094511 (2007). The analysis error affects only the values obtained when using the hybrid action in the low Q^2 regime bringing them into agreement with those obtained with Wilson fermions.
Chiral perturbation theory study of the axial $N\\to\\Delta(1232)$ transition
Geng, L S; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente
2008-01-01
We have performed a theoretical study of the axial Nucleon to Delta(1232) ($N\\to\\Delta$) transition form factors up to one-loop order in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory within a formalism in which the unphysical spin-1/2 components of the $\\Delta$ fields are decoupled.
Influence of axial deformation of pipe string on down-hole operation%管柱轴向变形对井下作业的影响
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李旭阳
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the impact of axial deformation of string on different down-hole operating conditions along with the importance of the calculation on axial deformation for the establishment of calculation model of down-hole string axial deformation theory.%综合分析了管柱轴向变形对井下不同作业工况的影响，阐述了计算井下作业管柱轴向变形的重要性，为建立井下作业管柱轴向变形理论计算模型做了很好的铺垫。
Correction of the axial and appendicular deformities in a patient with Silver-Russel syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Al Kaissi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Scoliosis and limb length discrepancy are the major orthopaedic abnormalities in patients with Silver-Russel syndrome (SRS. In this paper, we describe a series of orthopaedic interventions in an attempt to overcome the progressive pathologic mechanism in a 7-year-old girl who manifested the full phenotypic features of SRS. Materials and Methods: Unilateral hip dislocation, progressive scoliosis and limb length discrepancy have been dealt with through Pemberton osteotomy, spinal fusion and Taylor-Spatial-Frame respectively. Results: In order to correct the axial and the appendicular deformities a sum of seven operations were performed (between the age of 7 years and 13 years. Pemberton osteotomy was performed to treat dislocation of her right hip because of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Spinal fusion (spondylodesis of segments Th3-L5 was done to correct her scoliosis. And, to overcome the limb length discrepancy of 15-cm we used Taylor-Spatial-Frame with percutaneous distal corticotomy of the femur, and the proximal tibia, as well as the foot, were performed. We were able to minimize the limb length discrepancy to 5 cm. The girl became able to walk with the aid of a below knee orthosis and through lifting the left limb with 5-cm height shoe. Conclusion: Limb lengthening surgery in patients with multiple malformation complex as in SRS is associated with high recurrence risk because of; muscular hypotonia, overtubulation of the long bones, and the poor bone regenerative quality. Our interventions were principally directed towards improving the cosmetic outlook, functions and the biomechanics.
Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kounnas, Costas [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: costas.kounnas@lpt.ens.fr; Partouche, Herve [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex (France)], E-mail: herve.partouche@cpht.polytechnique.fr
2008-04-11
We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a 'creation from nothing', due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase.
Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology
Kounnas, Costas; Partouche, Hervé
2008-04-01
We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a “creation from nothing”, due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase.
Disorder-Driven Metal-Insulator Transitions in Deformable Lattices
Di Sante, Domenico; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Ciuchi, Sergio
2017-01-01
We show that, in the presence of a deformable lattice potential, the nature of the disorder-driven metal-insulator transition is fundamentally changed with respect to the noninteracting (Anderson) scenario. For strong disorder, even a modest electron-phonon interaction is found to dramatically renormalize the random potential, opening a mobility gap at the Fermi energy. This process, which reflects disorder-enhanced polaron formation, is here given a microscopic basis by treating the lattice deformations and Anderson localization effects on the same footing. We identify an intermediate "bad insulator" transport regime which displays resistivity values exceeding the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit and with a negative temperature coefficient, as often observed in strongly disordered metals. Our calculations reveal that this behavior originates from significant temperature-induced rearrangements of electronic states due to enhanced interaction effects close to the disorder-driven metal-insulator transition.
Deformation Behavior across the Zircon-Scheelite Phase Transition.
Yue, Binbin; Hong, Fang; Merkel, Sébastien; Tan, Dayong; Yan, Jinyuan; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang
2016-09-23
The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO_{4}) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs. Zircon-type GdVO_{4} develops a (001) compression texture associated with dominant slip along ⟨100⟩{001} starting from 5 GPa. This (001) texture transforms into a (110) texture during the zircon-scheelite phase transition. Our observation demonstrates a martensitic mechanism for the zircon-scheelite transformation. This work will help us understand the local deformation history in the upper mantle and transition zone and provides fundamental guidance on material design and processing for zircon-type materials.
Deformation Behavior across the Zircon-Scheelite Phase Transition
Yue, Binbin; Hong, Fang; Merkel, Sébastien; Tan, Dayong; Yan, Jinyuan; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang
2016-09-01
The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4 ) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs. Zircon-type GdVO4 develops a (001) compression texture associated with dominant slip along ⟨100 ⟩{001 } starting from 5 GPa. This (001) texture transforms into a (110) texture during the zircon-scheelite phase transition. Our observation demonstrates a martensitic mechanism for the zircon-scheelite transformation. This work will help us understand the local deformation history in the upper mantle and transition zone and provides fundamental guidance on material design and processing for zircon-type materials.
Nucleon-to-Delta axial transition form factors in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory
Geng, L S; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente
2008-01-01
We report a theoretical study of the axial Nucleon to Delta(1232) ($N\\to\\Delta$) transition form factors up to one-loop order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We adopt a formalism in which the $\\Delta$ couplings obey the spin-3/2 gauge symmetry and, therefore, decouple the unphysical spin-1/2 fields. We compare the results with phenomenological form factors obtained from neutrino bubble chamber data and in quark models.
Köller, W; Funke, F; Hartmann, F
1981-04-01
49 specimens were studied in 67 axial compression tests; the duration test varied between 2 and 6 hours. All discs showed marked creep; after a big decrease in the first minutes the rate of creep decreases still slightly. Additional the results reveal a decreasing axial deformability with time. In the beginning of a test quickly the viscoelastic behavior alters to such a steady state that the disc behaves more like an elastic body. Loss of mass normally observed after compression tests is due to loss of liquid, but liquid absorption during mechanical load is possible too. The long term biochmechanical behavior is reproducible very well; a second experiment done with the same disc yields nearly the same results.
Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology
Kounnas, Costas
2007-01-01
We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. We find that an instanton allowing a double analytic continuation induces a probability to enter this inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a ''creation from nothing'', due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter happens to be viable in some range of the deformation parameters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Huilong; Wang, Jiayi; Zhou, Chengbo;
2015-01-01
Deformation and yield induced structure transitions of polyamide 6 (PA6) were detected with the combination of the wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) at 30 degrees C below glass transition temperature (T-g) of PA6. During deformation, gamma-alpha phase transition was found at ...
Transitional DDES computations of the NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott
2014-01-01
In the present article we describe CFD simulations of the well known NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions using a newly developed technique of combining turbulence modeling by the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) technique with laminar/turbulent transition modeling by a correlation...... based method. We demonstrate how the power production around the onset of stall is very dependent on the turbulence intensity in the inflow. Additionally, we compare with measurements and illustrate how the unsteady loads from the DDES simulations can provide valuable insight in the transient behavior...
Comparison of axial and radial electron beam-breakup transit-time oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwan, T.J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mostrom, M.A. [Mission Research Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-08-01
Comparison of two configurations of a novel high-power microwave generator is presented in this article. Coupling the beam-breakup instability with the transit-time effect of the electron beam in the cavity, rapid energy exchange between the electrons and cavity modes can occur. The dominant cavity modes in the axial and radial configurations are different but their growth rates are comparable. We found that the radial configuration can have a beam impedance less than 10 {Omega} and therefore more suitable for low-voltage and high power operation. Good agreements have been obtained between linear theory and simulation for both configurations.
Axial vector transition form factors of N → Δ in QCD
Kucukarslan, A.; Ozdem, U.; Ozpineci, A.
2016-12-01
The isovector axial vector form factors of N → Δ transition are calculated by employing Light-cone QCD sum rules. The analytical results are analyzed by both the conventional method, and also by a Monte Carlo based approach which allows one to scan all of the parameter space. The predictions are also compared with the results in the literature, where available. Although the Monte Carlo analysis predicts large uncertainties in the predicted results, the predictions obtained by the conventional analysis are in good agreement with other results in the literature.
Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar I. Abdelkarim
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite element (FE analysis using LS-DYNA software to conduct an extensive parametric study on CFFT. The effects of the FRP confinement ratio, the unconfined concrete compressive strength ( , column size, and column aspect ratio on the behavior of the CFFT under axial compressive loading were investigated during this study. A comparison between the behavior of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP and those with traditional FRP (carbon and glass with a high range of confinement ratios was conducted as well. A new hybrid FRP system combined with traditional and LRS-FRP is proposed. Generally, the CFFTs with LRS-FRP showed remarkable behavior under axial loading in strength and ultimate strain. Equations to estimate the concrete dilation parameter and dilation angle of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP tubes and hybrid FRP tubes are suggested.
Influence of angular momentum in axially symmetric potentials with octupole deformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Hua; SUN Zhen-Wu; ZHENG Ren-Rong
2009-01-01
The chaotic classical single-particle motion in an oblate octupole deformed potential with a non-zero z-component of angular momentum Lz is investigated. The stability analysis of the trajectories shows that with increasing rotation of the system, the unstable negative curvature regions of the effective potential surface decrease, which converts the chaotic motion of the system into a regular one.
Timing and Style of Deformation in the Floresta Massif, Axial Eastern Cordillera, Colombia
Saylor, J.; Stockli, D. F.; Mora, A.
2009-12-01
The Floresta Massif is one of the largest exposures of Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian rocks in the Eastern Cordillera. Estimates for the age of onset of shortening-related deformation in the Eastern Cordillera range from late Cretaceous to late Miocene (e.g., Hoorn et al., 1995; Bayona et al., 2008; Parra et al., 2009). The massif is typically interpreted as being exhumed along a high-angle reverse fault (the Soapaga fault) that reactivated Mesozoic extensional structures (e.g., Kammer and Sanchez, 2006). We examined these dual linked issued with new zircon U/Th-He (ZHe) data, new geological mapping and previously published apatite fission track (AFT) data from the Floresta Massif and the associated footwall strata. Previously, an overturned Paleozoic - Cretaceous sequence was mapped emplaced on Tertiary strata along the Soapaga fault. However, new geologic mapping identifies two previously unrecognized thrusts which place, from west to east, Paleozoic strata on Jurassic strata (Fault 3), Jurassic strata on Cretaceous strata (Fault 2) and Cretaceous strata on Tertiary strata (along the previously identified Fault 1). These results are confirmed by AFT and ZHe data. ZHe ages show no resetting in the Tertiary footwall strata, but show partial resetting in the Cretaceous strata and full resetting in the Jurassic and Paleozoic strata. Similarly, AFT data show older ages in the Cretaceous strata than in the Jurassic or Paleozoic strata. Fully reset ZHe ages from Jurassic strata show that exhumation of the Floresta Massif was ongoing by at least the early Oligocene (~ 30 Ma). However, this deformation post-dates an older episode of deformation associated with partially reset ZHe ages in the Cretaceous strata. Based on a decrease in lag time in detrital ZHe data, we infer that the earlier episode of deformation occurred in the mid - late Eocene (45 - 35 Ma).
Comparison between formulas of rotational band for axially symmetric deformed nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Xi; LEI Yi-An
2008-01-01
The experimental rotational spectra of the deformed nuclei available in even-even and odd-A nuclei in the rare-earth and actinide regions are systematically analyzed with several rotational spectra formulas,including Bohr-Mottelson's I(I+l)-expansion,Harris'w2-expansion,ab and abc formulas.It is shown that the simple 2-parameter ab formula is much better than the widely used 2-parameter Bohr-Mottelson's AB formula and Harris'αβ formula.The available data of the rotational spectra of both ground-state band in even-even nuclei and one-quaasiparticle band in odd-A nuclei can be conveniently and rather accurately reproduced by ab formula and abc formula.The moment of inertia and the variation with rotational frequency of angular momentum can be satisfactorily reproduced by ab and abc formulas.
Chabab, M; Lahbas, A; Oulne, M
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical study of a conjonction of $\\gamma$-rigid and $\\gamma$-stable collective motions in critical point symmetries of the phase transitions from spherical to deformed shapes of nuclei using exactly separable version of the Bohr Hamiltonian with deformation-dependent mass term. The deformation-dependent mass is applied simultaneously to $\\gamma$-rigid and $\\gamma$-stable parts of this famous collective Hamiltonian. Moreover, the $\\beta$ part of the problem is described by means of Davidson potential, while the $\\gamma$-angular part corresponding to axially symmetric shapes is treated by a Harmonic Osillator potential. The energy eigenvalues and normalized eigenfunctions of the problem are obtained in compact forms by making use of the asymptotic iteration method. The combined effect of the deformation-dependent mass and rigidity as well as harmonic oscillator stiffness parameters on the energy spectrum and wave functions is duly investigated. Also, the electric quadrupole tran...
Transition from frictional to viscous deformation in granitoid fault rocks
Peč, M.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.
2009-04-01
Fracturing of rocks in natural fault zones increases the permeability and produces extremely small grain sizes (jackets. Before deformation, the gouge material needs to be compacted. This is achieved by a set 1 of frictional deformation experiments at different temperatures (T = 24 °C, 300 °C, 500 °C, Pc = 500 MPa, strain rate = 10ˆ-4) to shear strains of approximately gamma = 2.5. In the subsequent experiments (set 2), potential viscous deformation processes are tested in the pre-deformed gouge. After initial frictional deformation (set 1) the samples are left at peak differential stress conditions for one week. Finally, in a third type of experiments (set 3), the peak differential stress was lowered after frictional deformation to a level similar to the confining pressure and held constant for one week. In set 1, the peak shear stresses are temperature independent (given the limited stress resolution of the Griggs apparatus; 300° C = 780 - 870 MPa, 500° C = 760 - 820 MPa). In set 2, the stress relaxation after frictional deformation is clearly temperature dependent (after one week at 300° C, the shear stress is approx. 370 MPa; at 500° C, approx. 230 MPa). In set 3, no creep was observed. Further investigation of this phenomenon is required but probably the differential stress was too low. Microstructural observations show a striking difference between samples of set 1 and set 2. The samples deformed by initial friction only (set 1) show angular clasts and many small grains. The grain size distribution is similar to that observed in natural gouge material from seismic faults and to experimentally cracked granitoid material (Keulen et al. 2007, Heilbronner and Keulen 2006). In the creep-deformed samples (set 2), we observe the disappearance of the grains of < 0.1 μm size, cementation of individual grains into larger ones, and lobate grain boundaries in rounded clasts. Thus, solution - precipitation processes have taken place in creep experiments of
Relativistic RPA in axial symmetry
Arteaga, D Pena; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034317
2009-01-01
Covariant density functional theory, in the framework of self-consistent Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) and Relativistic Random Phase approximation (RPA), is for the first time applied to axially deformed nuclei. The fully self-consistent RMF+RRPA equations are posed for the case of axial symmetry and non-linear energy functionals, and solved with the help of a new parallel code. Formal properties of RPA theory are studied and special care is taken in order to validate the proper decoupling of spurious modes and their influence on the physical response. Sample applications to the magnetic and electric dipole transitions in $^{20}$Ne are presented and analyzed.
Pérez, E A Coello
2015-01-01
We present a model-independent approach to electric quadrupole transitions of deformed nuclei. Based on an effective theory for axially symmetric systems, the leading interactions with electromagnetic fields enter as minimal couplings to gauge potentials, while subleading corrections employ gauge-invariant non-minimal couplings. This approach yields transition operators that are consistent with the Hamiltonian, and the power counting of the effective theory provides us with theoretical uncertainty estimates. We successfully test the effective theory in homonuclear molecules that exhibit a large separation of scales. For ground-state band transitions of rotational nuclei, the effective theory describes data well within theoretical uncertainties at leading order. In order to probe the theory at subleading order, data with higher precision would be valuable. For transitional nuclei, next-to-leading order calculations and the high-precision data are consistent within the theoretical uncertainty estimates. We also...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Pei
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Axial-flow pump with a two-way passage has been widely employed in irrigation and drainage projects. Because of the shape of the two-way inlet passage, the impeller easily induces vibration due to unstable turbulent flow. This vibration results in structural cracks and even hinders the safe operation of the pump. Deformation and stress distributions in the impeller were calculated using two-way coupled fluid–structure interaction simulations, and a quantitative analysis of blade deformation and stress is carried out to determine the structure critical region. The results show that the values of deformation and stress significantly decrease with an increasing flow rate and a decreasing head, and the maximum total deformation can be found in the impeller rim, while the maximum equivalent stress can be obtained near the impeller hub. The total deformations in the blade rim decrease from blade leading edge to trailing edge, and the equivalent stress in the blade hub initially increases and then declines, and in the end, it rapidly increases from the blade outlet to inlet. These results reveal the deformation and stress in the impeller to ensure reliability and specific theoretical guidance for the structural optimization design of a pump device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouyang, Bin; Lan, Guoqiang; Song, Jun, E-mail: jun.song2@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada); Guo, Yinsheng [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Mi, Zetian [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0E9 (Canada)
2015-11-09
First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the phase stability and transition within four monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) systems, i.e., MX{sub 2} (M = Mo or W and X = S or Se) under coupled electron doping and lattice deformation. With the lattice distortion and electron doping density treated as state variables, the energy surfaces of different phases were computed, and the diagrams of energetically preferred phases were constructed. These diagrams assess the competition between different phases and predict conditions of phase transitions for the TMDs considered. The interplay between lattice deformation and electron doping was identified as originating from the deformation induced band shifting and band bending. Based on our findings, a potential design strategy combining an efficient electrolytic gating and a lattice straining to achieve controllable phase engineering in TMD monolayers was demonstrated.
Brittle ductile transition in experimentally deformed basalt under oceanic crust conditions
Violay, M.; Gibert, B.; Mainprice, D.; Evans, B.; Pezard, P. A.; Flovenz, O.
2009-04-01
The mid-ocean ridge system is the largest continuous volcanic feature on Earth, with significant interactions between tectonic activity, volcanism and sea-water circulation. Iceland is the biggest landmass straddling a mid-ocean ridge. The associated tectonic and volcanic settings resulting from the active rifting provide in this geodynamic context a major heat source for the geothermal exploitation. High-pressure, high-temperature, conventional triaxial compression experiments have been conducted in a Paterson Press to explore the brittle-ductile transition of oceanic crustal rocks under in situ conditions at depth (3-10 Km). The study provides some insights into the prospect of producing geothermal fluids from deep wells drilled into a reservoir at temperatures and pressures of supercritical water (T>400°C). We present a series of 20 axial compression deformation experiments performed on jacketed basalt cores of 10 mm diameter and 20 mm long. The experiments were performed at 100 and 300 MPa, with temperatures ranging from 400°C to 900°C, and pore pressures ranging from 0 to 100 MPa, a constant strain rate of 1 × 10- 5 s- 1 and up to strains of 15%. Two different types of basalts were selected for their simple compositions, low alteration degree and very low porosity (3%). The two samples differed in their percentage of glass, being zero in one case and 15% in the other. For the vitreous sample at a confining pressure of 100 and 300 MPa, our experiments show that deformation takes place by three deformation modes; (1) brittle fracture at 400°C with a maximal strength of 900 MPa, corresponding to failure by localized rupture, (2) strain-hardening at small strains and followed by slipping on a localized fracture plane at a constant strength around 250 MPa at higher strains, for temperatures ranging from 500°C to 700°C, (3) distributed ductile flow at differential stresses from 50 to 100 MPa and temperature from 800 to 900°C. For the non glassy sample, the
Study of the neutron scattering at low energias by strongly deformed transition nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez Diaz, J.R.; Cabezas, R.; Fernandez, F.
1981-01-01
In the paper, a study is made of the 1,5 Mev and 2,47 Mev neutron scattering at /sup 186/W and /sup 152/Sm nuclei. The inelastic scattering cross-section of the 2+ and 4+ levels of /sup 152/Sm are calculated and an analysis is made of how they are influenced by the spin orbital deformation potential. The inelastic and elastic cross-section at the /sup 186/W nucleus are also calculated, taking into account the Hauser-Feshbach scattering and the non-axiality of this nucleus. An analysis is made of the obtained results and they are compared with the experiment.
Wehrens, Philip; Berger, Alfons; Peters, Max; Spillmann, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco
2016-12-01
Mid-crustal deformation is classically characterized by the transition from ductile to brittle deformation defining the frictional-to-viscous transition (FVT). Here we investigate an exhumed continental mid-crustal basement section in order to envisage the relationship between ductile and brittle deformation at the FVT. Our detailed study from km- to micro-scale shows that, under greenschist metamorphic conditions, deformation is accommodated by a dense network of highly-localized ductile shear zones. In the investigated case it is not quartz which defines the overall ductile deformation behavior but the viscous granular deformation in shear zones with an ultrafine-grained polymineralic matrix consisting of quartz, feldspar, sheet silicates and epidote. During viscous granular flow mass transfer processes under the presence of fluids promote a chemo-mechanical mixing, resulting in grain size reduction and reaction softening. Coeval with this ductile deformation, fluid-assisted embrittlement occurs, as indicated by biotite-coated fractures, cataclasites and injection of non-cohesive polymineralic gouge material into secondary fractures inside the host rock. The embrittlement during predominant ductile deformation occurs in cycles, i.e. prolonged periods of slow viscous granular flow are interrupted by rapid brittle deformation. We interpret this fluid-assisted cyclic embrittlement evidenced by injection of the fluidized material into off-fault fractures as an alternative equivalent to pseudotachylites and as a microstructural indicator for paleo-seismic activity. With exhumation and associated cooling, localized deformation persists in the ultrafine-grained polymineralic shear zones but progressively transitions to cataclastic flow and finally to pressure-dependent frictional flow; always showing cycles of slow interseismic flow and fast seismic injection events. Overall, in the granitic crust of the Aar-massif, brittle and ductile deformation coexist up to
Deformation mechanisms of NiAl cyclicly deformed near the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature
Cullers, Cheryl L.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1993-01-01
The intermetallic compound NiAl is one of many advanced materials which is being scrutinized for possible use in high temperature, structural applications. Stoichiometric NiAl has a high melting temperature, excellent oxidation resistance, and good thermal conductivity. Past research has concentrated on improving monotonic properties. The encouraging results obtained on binary and micro-alloyed NiAl over the past ten years have led to the broadening of NiAl experimental programs. The purpose of this research project was to determine the low cycle fatigue properties and dislocation mechanisms of stoichiometric NiAl at temperatures near the monotonic brittle-to-ductile transition. The fatigue properties were found to change only slightly in the temperature range of 600 to 700 K; a temperature range over which monotonic ductility and fracture strength increase markedly. The shape of the cyclic hardening curves coincided with the changes observed in the dislocation structures. The evolution of dislocation structures did not appear to change with temperature.
Jones, K E; Pierce, S E
2016-03-01
Ecological diversification into new environments presents new mechanical challenges for locomotion. An extreme example of this is the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. Here, we examine the implications of life in a neutrally buoyant environment on adaptations of the axial skeleton to evolutionary increases in body size. On land, mammals must use their thoracolumbar vertebral column for body support against gravity and thus exhibit increasing stabilization of the trunk as body size increases. Conversely, in water, the role of the axial skeleton in body support is reduced, and, in aquatic mammals, the vertebral column functions primarily in locomotion. Therefore, we hypothesize that the allometric stabilization associated with increasing body size in terrestrial mammals will be minimized in secondarily aquatic mammals. We test this by comparing the scaling exponent (slope) of vertebral measures from 57 terrestrial species (23 felids, 34 bovids) to 23 semi-aquatic species (pinnipeds), using phylogenetically corrected regressions. Terrestrial taxa meet predictions of allometric stabilization, with posterior vertebral column (lumbar region) shortening, increased vertebral height compared to width, and shorter, more disc-shaped centra. In contrast, pinniped vertebral proportions (e.g. length, width, height) scale with isometry, and in some cases, centra even become more spool-shaped with increasing size, suggesting increased flexibility. Our results demonstrate that evolution of a secondarily aquatic lifestyle has modified the mechanical constraints associated with evolutionary increases in body size, relative to terrestrial taxa.
Kiani, Keivan
2015-11-01
This study is devoted to examine load-bearing capacity of a nanosystem composed of two adjacent perpendicular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which are embedded in an elastic matrix. Accounting for the nonlocality and the intertube van der Waals forces, the governing equations are established based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko, and higher-order beam theories. These are sets of coupled integro-ordinary differential equations whose analytical solutions are unavailable. Hence, an efficient meshless methodology is proposed and the discrete governing equations are obtained via Galerkin approach. By solving the resulting set of eigenvalue equations, the axial buckling load of the elastically embedded nanosystem is evaluated. The roles of the radius and slenderness ratio of the constitutive SWCNTs, free distance between two tubes, small-scale parameter, aspect ratio, transverse and rotational stiffness of the surrounding matrix on the axial buckling load of the nanosystem are comprehensively addressed. The obtained results can be regarded as a pivotal step for better understanding the mechanism of elastic buckling of more complex systems such as elastically embedded-orthogonal membranes or even forests of SWCNTs.
Shirakura, T.; Matsubara, F.; Suzuki, N.
2014-10-01
The spin structure of an axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model in two dimensions (2D) is a renewed problem because different Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methods predicted different spin orderings. The usual equilibrium simulation predicts the occurrence of a floating incommensurate (IC) Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type phase, which never emerges in non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) simulations. In this paper, we first examine previously published results of both methods, and then investigate a higher transition temperature Tc1 between the IC and paramagnetic phases. In the usual equilibrium simulation, we calculate the chain magnetization on larger lattices (up to 512×512 sites) and estimate Tc1≈1.16J with frustration ratio κ (≡-J2/J1)=0.6. We examine the nature of the phase transition in terms of the Binder ratio gL of spin overlap functions and the correlation-length ratio ξ /L. In the NER simulation, we observe the spin dynamics in equilibrium states by means of an autocorrelation function and also observe the chain magnetization relaxations from the ground and disordered states. These quantities exhibit an algebraic decay at T ≲1.17J. We conclude that the two-dimensional ANNNI model actually admits an IC phase transition of the KT type.
Böhm, Harald; Stief, Felix; Sander, Klaus; Hösl, Matthias; Döderlein, Leonhard
2015-09-01
Malaligned knees are predisposed to the development and progression of unicompartmental degenerations because of the excessive load placed on one side of the knee. Therefore, guided growth in skeletally immature patients is recommended. Indication for correction of varus/valgus deformities are based on static weight bearing radiographs. However, the dynamic knee abduction moment during walking showed only a weak correlation to malalignment determined by static radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to measure the effects of guided growth on the normalization of frontal plane knee joint moments during walking. 15 legs of 8 patients (11-15 years) with idiopathic axial varus or valgus malalignment were analyzed. 16 typically developed peers served as controls. Instrumented gait analysis and clinical assessment were performed the day before implantation and explantation of eight-plates. Correlation between static mechanical tibiofemoral axis angle (MAA) and dynamic frontal plane knee joint moments and their change by guided growth were performed. The changes in dynamic knee moment in the frontal plane following guided growth showed high and significant correlation to the changes in static MAA (R=0.97, pknee moment before treatment showed a more pathological one after treatment. In conclusion, the changes in the dynamic load situation during walking can be predicted from the changes in static alignment. If pre-surgical gait analysis reveals a natural load situation, despite a static varus or valgus deformity, the intervention must be critically discussed.
Plastic Deformation of Transition Zone Minerals: Effect of Temperature on Dislocation Mobility
Ritterbex, S.; Carrez, P.; Gouriet, K.; Cordier, P.
2014-12-01
Mantle convection is the fundamental process by which the Earth expels its internal heat. It is controlled at the microscopic scale by the motion of crystal defects responsable for plastic deformation at high temperature and pressure conditions of the deep Earth. In this study we focus on dislocations which are usually considered as the most efficient defects contributing to intracrystalline deformation. The influence of temperature is a key parameter in determining the behaviour of dislocations. We propose a model to describe the temperature-dependent mobility of dislocations based on a computational materials science approach, connecting the atomic to the grain scale. This provides elementary knowledge to both interpret seismic anisotropy and to improve geodynamic modelling. Here we focus on plastic deformation of the transition zone minerals wadsleyite and ringwoodite, dominating the boundary separating the upper from the lower mantle, a region over which the viscosity is thought to increase rapidly. Using the Peierls-Nabarro-Galerkin model enabled us to select potential glide planes, to predict the dislocation core structures and fundamental properties of both Mg2SiO4 high-pressure polymorphs integrating the non-elastic nature of dislocations from atomic scale based calculations. Macroscopic deformation results from the mobility of these distinct dislocations. High finite mantle temperatures activates unstable double-kink configurations on the dislocation line which allow the dislocation to move under stress. The original contribution of the present work is the formulation of a mobility law for dissociated dislocations as they occur in wadsleyite and ringwoodite. This permits us to predict the critical activation enthalpy required to overcome lattice friction associated to the onset of glide. From this, the effective glide velocities can be derived as a function of stress and temperature leading to the first lower bound estimates of transition zone viscosities
Deformation-induced structural transition in body-centred cubic molybdenum.
Wang, S J; Wang, H; Du, K; Zhang, W; Sui, M L; Mao, S X
2014-03-07
Molybdenum is a refractory metal that is stable in a body-centred cubic structure at all temperatures before melting. Plastic deformation via structural transitions has never been reported for pure molybdenum, while transformation coupled with plasticity is well known for many alloys and ceramics. Here we demonstrate a structural transformation accompanied by shear deformation from an original -oriented body-centred cubic structure to a -oriented face-centred cubic lattice, captured at crack tips during the straining of molybdenum inside a transmission electron microscope at room temperature. The face-centred cubic domains then revert into -oriented body-centred cubic domains, equivalent to a lattice rotation of 54.7°, and ~15.4% tensile strain is reached. The face-centred cubic structure appears to be a well-defined metastable state, as evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy and nanodiffraction, the Nishiyama-Wassermann and Kurdjumov-Sachs relationships between the face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic structures and molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings reveal a deformation mechanism for elemental metals under high-stress deformation conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Yao;
2015-01-01
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a bio-based and compostable thermoplastic polyester that has rapidly evolved into a competitive commodity material over the last decade. One key bottleneck in expanding the field of application of PLA is the control of its structure and properties. Therefore, in situ...... by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The obtained results showed that the deformation and yield stress of glassy PLA are strongly dependent on the stretching temperatures together with the transition from mesophase to mesocrystal and the formation of cavities. With the increase in drawing temperature...
Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Deformed Nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
1996-07-01
We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Partial dynamical symmetry in deformed nuclei
Leviatan, A
1996-01-01
We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei.
Shell model method for Gamow-Teller Transitions in heavy, deformed nuclei
Gao, Z C; Sun, Y; Gao, Zao-Chun; Sun, Yang
2006-01-01
A method for calculation of Gamow-Teller transition rates is developed by using the concept of the Projected Shell Model (PSM). The shell model basis is constructed by superimposing angular-momentum-projected multi-quasiparticle configurations, and nuclear wave functions are obtained by digonalizing the two-body interactions in these projected states. Calculation of transition matrix elements in the PSM framework is discussed in detail, and the effects caused by the Gamow-Teller residual forces and by configuration-mixing are studied. With this method, it may become possible to perform a state-by-state calculation for beta-decay and electron-capture rates in heavy, deformed nuclei at finite temperatures. Our first example indicates that, while experimentally known Gamow-Teller transition rates from the ground state of the parent nucleus are reproduced, stronger transitions from some low-lying excited states are predicted to occur, which may considerably enhance the total decay rates once these nuclei are expo...
Métois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Copley, Alex
2016-04-01
The increasing number of GPS measurements in the Balkan Peninsula over the last decades has brought new insights on the kinematic of the Eurasian plate there, revealing a significant ( 5 mm/yr) clockwise rotation motion of the entire region around the Scutari-Pec line in North Albania [Métois et al. 2015]. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in this seismically active area are consistent with this deformation pattern. In this study, we use simple dynamic models based on the thin viscous sheet approximation to test the influence of realistic kinematic boundary conditions and gradients of gravitational potential energy on the predicted surface deformation in the region. In addition, we compare the surface velocity field with maps of azimuthal anisotropy at depth to assess whether mantle motions may drive part of the observed lithosphere deformation. We show that the observed shearing and rotation around Albania can be explained at the first order by kinematic boundary conditions applied on a viscous lithosphere (η ˜ 2.1021Pa.s), while GPE gradients may control the smaller-scale patterns of deformation. Our models appear to be very sensitive to the abrupt velocity-change imposed across the Kefalonia fault in northern Greece where the subduction to collision transition takes place. We propose that the large-scale shearing of the region observed in the GPS data results mainly from this lithospheric tearing, that is one of the most active structure in the area. This hypothesis implies that the slab tearing initiation would have been an important controlling factor on the tectonic history of the Balkans and that the current velocity gradient across the Kefalonia fault is probably sufficient to trigger a large scale shearing propagating up to central Serbia.
Figiel, Łukasz; Dunne, Fionn P. E.; Buckley, C. Paul
2010-01-01
Layered-silicate nanoparticles offer a cost-effective reinforcement for thermoplastics. Computational modelling has been employed to study large deformations in layered-silicate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites near the glass transition, as would be experienced during industrial forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding. Non-linear numerical modelling was applied, to predict the macroscopic large deformation behaviour, with morphology evolution and deformation occurring at the microscopic level, using the representative volume element (RVE) approach. A physically based elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model, describing the behaviour of the PET matrix within the RVE, was numerically implemented into a finite element solver (ABAQUS) using an UMAT subroutine. The implementation was designed to be robust, for accommodating large rotations and stretches of the matrix local to, and between, the nanoparticles. The nanocomposite morphology was reconstructed at the RVE level using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that placed straight, high-aspect ratio particles according to the specified orientation and volume fraction, with the assumption of periodicity. Computational experiments using this methodology enabled prediction of the strain-stiffening behaviour of the nanocomposite, observed experimentally, as functions of strain, strain rate, temperature and particle volume fraction. These results revealed the probable origins of the enhanced strain stiffening observed: (a) evolution of the morphology (through particle re-orientation) and (b) early onset of stress-induced pre-crystallization (and hence lock-up of viscous flow), triggered by the presence of particles. The computational model enabled prediction of the effects of process parameters (strain rate, temperature) on evolution of the morphology, and hence on the end-use properties.
Lifshitz topological transitions, induced by doping and deformation in single-crystal bismuth wires
Nikolaeva, A. A.; Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Para, Gh. I.
2017-02-01
The features associated with the manifestation of Lifshitz electron topological transitions (ETT) in glass-insulated bismuth wires upon qualitative changes to the topology of the Fermi surface are investigated. The variation of the energy spectrum parameters was implemented by doping Bi with an acceptor impurity Sn and using elastic strain of up to 2%, relative to the elongation in the weakly-doped p-type Bi wires. Pure and doped glass-insulated single-crystal bismuth with different diameters and (1011) orientations along the axis were prepared by the Ulitovsky liquid phase casting method. For the first time, ETT-induced anomalies are observed along the temperature dependences of the thermoemf α(T) as triple-changes of the α sign (given heavy doping of Bi wires with an acceptor impurity Sn). The concentration and energy position of the Σ-band given a high degree of bismuth doping with Sn was assessed using the Shubnikov-de Haas effect oscillations, which were detected both from L-electrons and from T-holes in magnetic fields of up to 14 T. It is shown that the Lifshitz electron-topological transitions with elastic deformation of weakly-doped p-type Bi wires are accompanied by anomalies along the deformation dependences of the thermoemf at low temperatures. The effect is interpreted in terms of the formation of a selective scattering channel of L-carriers into the T-band with a high density of states, which is in good agreement with existing theoretical ETT models.
Cano-Lozano, José Carlos; Martínez-Bazán, Carlos; Magnaudet, Jacques; Tchoufag, Joël
2016-09-01
We report on a series of results provided by three-dimensional numerical simulations of nearly spheroidal bubbles freely rising and deforming in a still liquid in the regime close to the transition to path instability. These results improve upon those of recent computational studies [Cano-Lozano et al., Int. J. Multiphase Flow 51, 11 (2013), 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2012.11.005; Phys. Fluids 28, 014102 (2016), 10.1063/1.4939703] in which the neutral curve associated with this transition was obtained by considering realistic but frozen bubble shapes. Depending on the dimensionless parameters that characterize the system, various paths geometries are observed by letting an initially spherical bubble starting from rest rise under the effect of buoyancy and adjust its shape to the surrounding flow. These include the well-documented rectilinear axisymmetric, planar zigzagging, and spiraling (or helical) regimes. A flattened spiraling regime that most often eventually turns into either a planar zigzagging or a helical regime is also frequently observed. Finally, a chaotic regime in which the bubble experiences small horizontal displacements (typically one order of magnitude smaller than in the other regimes) is found to take place in a region of the parameter space where no standing eddy exists at the back of the bubble. The discovery of this regime provides evidence that path instability does not always result from a wake instability as previously believed. In each regime, we examine the characteristics of the path, bubble shape, and vortical structure in the wake, as well as their couplings. In particular, we observe that, depending on the fluctuations of the rise velocity, two different vortex shedding modes exist in the zigzagging regime, confirming earlier findings with falling spheres. The simulations also reveal that significant bubble deformations may take place along zigzagging or spiraling paths and that, under certain circumstances, they dramatically alter
Chen, Long
2016-01-01
Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal a $\\Omega$ -deformed space-time structure, $\\Omega:=1-2\\rho/\\rho_c$, where $\\Omega0$ means a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the space-time transition point, $\\rho=\\rho_c/2$, but we find it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large $k$-modes at that time. However if we loose the condition and give the initial value near after $\\Omega=0$, e.g. $\\Omega\\simeq 0.2$, the vacuum state can be well defined and furthermore the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that if the energy density is not too small compared with $\\rho_c/2$ when the considered $k$-mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blue shift. But when co...
Inflationary spectra from a near Ω -deformed spacetime transition point in loop quantum cosmology
Chen, Long; Zhu, Jian-Yang
2016-09-01
Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal an Ω -deformed spacetime structure, Ω ≔1 -2 ρ /ρc , where Ω 0 indicates a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the spacetime transition point, ρ =ρc/2 , but we find that it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large k modes at that time. However, if we loosen the condition and give the initial value slightly after Ω =0 , e.g., Ω ≃0.2 , the vacuum state can be well defined and, furthermore, the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that, if the energy density is not too small in relation to ρc/2 when the considered k mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blueshift. However, when compared to other observations, since the energy densities when the modes crossed the horizon were significantly smaller than ρc, the results we get agree with previous work in the literature and with the classical inflation theory.
Large epitaxial bi-axial strain induces a Mott-like phase transition in VO{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei, E-mail: jl5tk@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)
2014-08-18
The metal insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) has been an important topic for recent years. It has been generally agreed upon that the mechanism of the MIT in bulk VO{sub 2} is considered to be a collaborative Mott-Peierls transition, however, the effect of strain on the phase transition is much more complicated. In this study, the effect of the large strain on the properties of VO{sub 2} films was investigated. One remarkable result is that highly strained epitaxial VO{sub 2} thin films were rutile in the insulating state as well as in the metallic state. These highly strained VO{sub 2} films underwent an electronic phase transition without the concomitant Peierls transition. Our results also show that a very large tensile strain along the c-axis of rutile VO{sub 2} resulted in a phase transition temperature of ∼433 K, much higher than in any previous report. Our findings elicit that the metal insulator transition in VO{sub 2} can be driven by an electronic transition alone, rather the typical coupled electronic-structural transition.
Moon, Chang-Bum
2016-01-01
We study a global nuclear structure in the framework of experimental observables. With the aid of large nuclear structure data at the national nuclear data center, NNDC, we present the distinctive systematic patterns emerged in the first 2+ excited energies, E(2+) and their energy ratios to the first 4+ levels, R = E(4+)/E(2+), in the even-even nuclei, over 50 < Z < 82 for protons, and 50 < N < 126 for neutrons. We introduce the so-called pseudo-shell configurations from the subshells mixture in order to explain a semi-double shell closure, a shape phase transition, and a reinforced deformation. It is found that the reinforced deformation arises when Z = 64 or 66 correlates with N = 90 and reaches its maximum, indicating R = 3.3. Such a saturated reinforced deformation spans over Z = 58 to 72 and N = 100 to 106 as showing its center at Z = 64 or 66 and at N = 102 or 104. We define this reinforced deformation 'a ferro-deformation' like a ferro-magnetism in condensed matter physics. The shape coexis...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John
2016-01-01
musculature involvement in the majority of myopathies in which paraspinal musculature was examined. Even in diseases named after a certain pattern of non-axial muscle affection, such as facioscapulohumeral and limb girdle muscular dystrophies, affection of the axial musculature was often severe and early...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗哉; 陆艺; 郭斌; 范伟军
2012-01-01
A phenomenon was found by experimental results that the same size of cylindrical parts had different radial and axial thermal deformations under the same conditions. And the traditional therodynamic theory could not explain this phenomenon. The relationship between volume expansion coefficient and linear expansion coefficient of crystal was built up by using the Lattice vibration theory of solid--state physics. Based on this relationship, a radial thermal deformation of cylindrical model was set up. The model was different with the traditional model. The experimental results show that the value which calculated by the model is closer to the experimental results than that by the tradition- al model, and cylindrical parts have different radial and axial thermal expansion coefficient. Tradition- al model of axial thermal deformation can not be used in micro--field when calculating the radial thermal deformation of cylindrical parts.%通过实验发现了直径和长度相同的轴在径向和轴向具有不同的热变形量,传统的热力学理论不能解释这一现象。利用固体物理学晶格振动理论,推导了晶体体积膨胀系数与线膨胀系数之间的关系;将金属材料近似为晶体材料,利用线膨胀系数与体积膨胀系数的关系并结合对材料线膨胀系数研究的成果,建立了轴类零件径向热变形模型,理论分析证实了轴类零件径向热膨胀系数与轴向热膨胀系数不同。实验结果表明：轴类零件径向热变形模型计算结果较传统热力学计算结果更接近实验结果,且径向和轴向具有不同的热膨胀系数,在高精度领域,轴类零件的径向热变形不能使用轴向热膨胀系数进行计算。
Li, Hua; Wu, Tao
2016-10-01
A diffuse-interface model is presented in this paper for simulation of the evolution of phase transition between the liquid solution and solid gel states for physical hydrogel with nonlinear deformation. The present domain covers the gel and solution states as well as a diffuse interface between them. They are indicated by the crosslink density in such a way that the solution phase is identified as the state when the crosslink density is small, while the gel as the state if the crosslink density becomes large. In this work, a novel order parameter is thus defined as the crosslink density, which is homogeneous in each distinct phase and smoothly varies over the interface from one phase to another. In this model, the constitutive equations, imposed on the two distinct phases and the interface, are formulated by the second law of thermodynamics, which are in the same form as those derived by a different approach. The present constitutive equations include a novel Ginzburg-Landau type of free energy with a double-well profile, which accounts for the effect of crosslink density. The present governing equations include the equilibrium of forces, the conservations of mass and energy, and an additional kinetic equation imposed for phase transition, in which nonlinear deformation is considered. The equilibrium state is investigated numerically, where two stable phases are observed in the free energy profile. As case studies, a spherically symmetrical solution-gel phase transition is simulated numerically for analysis of the phase transition of physical hydrogel.
Axial dispersion in flowing red blood cell suspensions
Podgorski, Thomas; Losserand, Sylvain; Coupier, Gwennou
2016-11-01
A key parameter in blood microcirculation is the transit time of red blood cells (RBCs) through an organ, which can influence the efficiency of gas exchange and oxygen availability. A large dispersion of this transit time is observed in vivo and is partly due to the axial dispersion in the flowing suspension. In the classic Taylor-Aris example of a solute flowing in a tube, the combination of molecular diffusion and parabolic velocity profile leads to enhanced axial dispersion. In suspensions of non-Brownian deformable bodies such as RBCs, axial dispersion is governed by a combination of shear induced migration and shear-induced diffusion arising from hydrodynamic interactions. We revisit this problem in the case of RBC pulses flowing in a microchannel and show that the axial dispersion of the pulse eventually saturates with a final extension that depends directly on RBC mechanical properties. The result is especially interesting in the dilute limit since the final pulse length depends only on the channel width, exponent of the migration law and dimensionless migration velocity. In continuous flow, the dispersion of transit times is the result of complex cell-cell and cell-wall interactions and is strongy influenced by the polydispersity of the blood sample. The authors acknowledge support from LabEx TEC21 and CNES.
Vattré, A.; Denoual, C.
2016-07-01
A thermodynamically consistent framework for combining nonlinear elastoplasticity and multivariant phase-field theory is formulated at large strains. In accordance with the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the Helmholtz free energy and time-dependent constitutive relations give rise to displacive driving forces for pressure-induced martensitic phase transitions in materials. Inelastic forces are obtained by using a representation of the energy landscape that involves the concept of reaction pathways with respect to the point group symmetry operations of crystal lattices. On the other hand, additional elastic forces are derived for the most general case of large strains and rotations, as well as nonlinear, anisotropic, and different elastic pressure-dependent properties of phases. The phase-field formalism coupled with finite elastoplastic deformations is implemented into a three-dimensional Lagrangian finite element approach and is applied to analyze the iron body-centered cubic (α-Fe) into hexagonal close-packed (ɛ-Fe) phase transitions under high hydrostatic compression. The simulations exhibit the major role played by the plastic deformation in the morphological and microstructure evolution processes. Due to the strong long-range elastic interactions between variants without plasticity, a forward α → ɛ transition is energetically unfavorable and remains incomplete. However, plastic dissipation releases considerably the stored strain energy, leading to the α ↔ ɛ ↔α‧ (forward and reverse) polymorphic phase transformations with an unexpected selection of variants.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robin, J
2003-12-01
While the superdeformation phenomenon has been observed many times in different mass regions, the excitation energy and angular momentum are not known for most of the superdeformed bands, mainly in the A {approx} 150 mass region. We have thus undertaken the search for and study of linking transitions between super and normal deformed potential wells in the Tb{sup 151} nucleus with the EUROBALL-IV spectrometer based at the subatomic research institute of Strasbourg. This nucleus presents the peculiarity of having an excited superdeformed band identical to the yrast one of Dy{sup 152}, which has recently been linked to normal deformed states. As the Dy{sup 152} nucleus exhibits a shape coexistence in the first potential well, we have also searched for collective rotational bands with prolate but moderate shape, coexisting with the oblate structure of Tb{sup 151}. The discovery of new superdeformed bands in the Tb{sup 151,152} isotopes, the extension to lower and higher spins of the previously known bands, and mean field calculations with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential have contributed to improve our knowledge as well as raise new questions on the orbitals configuration assignments of these bands. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张麒蛰; 卓卫东; 范立础
2013-01-01
In order to obtain the axial bearing capacity of a batter pile , the calculation formula for the axially bearing capacity of a batter pile was deduced based on the non-uniform distribution char-acteristics of the friction resistance around the batter pile shaft and the mechanism of pile -soil deformation compatibility .The results calculated by the proposed formula and the method given by the design code of pile were compared to explore the influence of the factors , such as pile inclina-tion, diameter, length and utmost friction resistance around pile shaft , on axial bearing capacity. The calculated results showed that the value of the pile axially bearing capacity calculated by the proposed formula decreased with the increase of pile inclination .For different pile diameters , the pile axially bearing capacity was 7%smaller than that calculated by the code's formula.The shorter of the pile length or the lesser of the utmost friction resistance of the pile was , the smaller bearing capacity calculated by the code's formula was than the values calculated by the proposed formula . Finally , with the increase of the pile length or utmost friction resistance , the value of bearing capaci-ty calculated by this proposed formula was greater than the value calculated by the code's formula. The proposed formula also takes into account of the influence of pile inclination and the mechanism of pile-soil deformation compatibility .It can be a reference to calculate axial bearing capacity of bat-ter piles.%为进一步研究斜桩轴向承载力计算方法，基于斜桩的桩周摩阻力不均匀分布的特性和桩-土受力变形协调的原则，推导了斜桩轴向承载力计算公式，通过对比本文公式与规范公式的计算结果，揭示了桩身倾角、桩径、桩长和桩侧极限摩阻力等因素对斜桩轴向容许承载力的影响规律。结果表明：鉴于规范公式未考虑斜桩桩身倾角对承载力的影响，本文公式计算得
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO; ShuYun; LIU; JunLai; HU; Ling
2007-01-01
OM (optical microscope)/TEM (transmission electron microscope) micro- and submicrostructural analysis of hornblende rocks sheared at high temperatures from the Diancangshan area, western Yunnan reveals evidence for deformation in the brittle-ductile transition of hornblende at middle crustal level (about 637℃ and 0.653 GPa) and mechanisms of deformation in the transitional regime are further discussed. Sheared hornblende rocks at middle crustal level have typical mylonitic microstructures, shown by coarse porphyroclasts and fine matrix grains. Different mineral phases in the rocks show distinct deformation characteristics. Hornblende and feldspar grains are intensely deformed with obvious grainsize reduction, but quartz grains are recrystallized dominantly by grain growth. Hornblende grains show typical brittle-ductile transition nature. Initial crystallographic orientations of porphyroclasts have strong effects on the behavior of grains during deformation. There are mainly two types of porphyroclasts, type I "hard" porphyroclasts and type II "soft" porphyroclasts, with [001] perpendicular and parallel to external shear stresses respectively. "Hard" porphyroclasts generally occur as competent grains that are rarely deformed or sometimes deformed by fracturing and dislocation tangling. "Soft" porphyroclasts are highly deformed primarily by dislocation tangling (as shown in the cores of the porphyroclasts), but twinning, dislocation glide and climb probably due to hydrolytic weakening also contribute to dynamic recrystallization of the porphyroclasts into fine grains in the matrix. The micro- and submicrostructures of the two types of porphyroclasts and fine-grained matrix provide powerful evidence for the behavior of brittle-ductile transition of hornblende grains. It is concluded that twinning nucleation is one of the most important processes that operate during dynamic recrystallization of hornblende crystals at the brittle-ductile transition. (100) [001] twin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Böyükata M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum phase transitions in odd-nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model with a description based on the concept of intrinsic states. We consider the case of a single j=9/2 odd-particle coupled to an even-even boson core that performs a transition from spherical to deformed prolate and to deformed gamma-unstable shapes varying a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core is discussed along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point.
Fcc-bcc transition for Yukawa interactions determined by applied strain deformation
Hoy, Robert S.; Robbins, Mark O.
2004-01-01
Calculations of the work required to transform between bcc and fcc phases yield a high-precision bcc-fcc transition line for monodisperse point Yukawa (screened-Couloumb) systems. Our results agree qualitatively but not quantitatively with previously published simulations and phenomenological criteria for the bcc-fcc transition. In particular, the bcc-fcc-fluid triple point lies at a higher inverse screening length than previously reported.
Lajnef, N.; Burgueño, R.; Borchani, W.; Sun, Y.
2014-05-01
A major obstacle limiting the development of deployable sensing and actuation solutions is the scarcity of power. Converted energy from ambient loading using piezoelectric scavengers is a possible solution. Most of the previously developed research focused on vibration-based piezoelectric harvesters which are typically characterized by a response with a narrow natural frequency range. Several techniques were used to improve their effectiveness. These methods focus only on the transducer’s properties and configurations, but do little to improve the stimuli from the source. In contrast, this work proposes to focus on the input deformations generated within the structure, and the induction of an amplified amplitude and up-converted frequency toward the harvesters’ natural spectrum. This paper introduces the concept of using mechanically-equivalent energy converters and frequency modulators that can transform low-amplitude and low-rate service deformations into an amplified vibration input to the piezoelectric transducer. The introduced concept allows energy conversion within the unexplored quasi-static frequency range (≪1 Hz). The post-buckling behavior of bilaterally constrained columns is used as the mechanism for frequency up-conversion. A bimorph cantilever polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam is used for energy conversion. Experimental prototypes were built and tested to validate the introduced concept and the levels of extractable power were evaluated for different cases under varying input frequencies. Finally, finite element simulations are reported to provide insight into the scalability and performance of the developed concept.
Caporaso, Nicola; Cirafici, Michele; Griguolo, Luca; Pasquetti, Sara; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.
2006-01-01
We examine the problem of counting bound states of BPS black holes on local Calabi-Yau threefolds which are fibrations over a Riemann surface by computing the partition function of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the Riemann surface. We study in detail the genus zero case and obtain, at finite N, the instanton expansion of the gauge theory. It can be written exactly as the partition function for U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory on a Lens space, summed over all non-trivial vacua, plus a tower of non-perturbative instanton contributions. The correspondence between two and three dimensional gauge theories is elucidated by an explicit mapping between two-dimensional Yang-Mills instantons and flat connections on the Lens space. In the large N limit we find a peculiar phase structure in the model. At weak string coupling the theory reduces exactly to the trivial flat connection sector with instanton contributions exponentially suppressed, and the topological string partition function on the resolved conifold is reproduced in this regime. At a certain critical point all non-trivial vacua contribute, instantons are enhanced and the theory appears to undergo a phase transition into a strong coupling regime. We rederive these results by performing a saddle-point approximation to the exact partition function. We obtain a q-deformed version of the Douglas-Kazakov equation for two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on the sphere, whose one-cut solution below the transition point reproduces the resolved conifold geometry. Above the critical point we propose a two-cut solution that should reproduce the chiral-antichiral dynamics found for black holes on the Calabi-Yau threefold and the Gross-Taylor string in the undeformed limit. The transition from the strong coupling phase to the weak coupling phase appears to be of third order.
Superposed deformation straddling the continental-oceanic transition in deep-water Angola
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cramez, C. [TotalFina Elf Exploration and Production, Paris La Defense (France); Jackson, M.P.A. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology
2000-12-01
The Angolan margin is the type area for raft tectonics. New seismic data reveal the contractional buffer for this thin-skinned extension. A 200-km-long composite section from the Lower Congo Basin and Kwanza Basin illustrates a complex history of superposed deformation caused by: (1) progradation of the margin; and (2) episodic Tertiary epeirogenic uplift. Late Cretaceous tectonics was driven by a gentle slope created by thermal subsidence; extensional rafting took place updip, contractional thrusting and buckling downdip; some distal folds were possibly unroofed to form massive salt walls. Oligocene deformation was triggered by gentle kinking of the Atlantic Hinge Zone as the shelf and coastal plain rose by 2 or 3 km; relative uplift stripped Paleogene cover off the shelf, provided space for Miocene progradation, and steepened the continental slope, triggering more extension and buckling. In the Neogene, a subsalt half graben was inverted or reactivated, creating keystone faults that may have controlled the Congo Canyon; a thrust duplex of seaward-displaced salt jacked up the former abyssal plain, creating a plateau of salt 3-4 km thick on the present lower slope. The Angola Escarpment may be the toe of the Angola thrust nappe, in which a largely Cretaceous roof of gently buckled strata, was transported seawards above the thickened salt by up to {approx}20 km. (author)
The geometry of a deformed carbonate slope-basin transition: The Ventoux-Lure fault zone, SE France
Ford, Mary; Stahel, U.
1995-12-01
The Ventoux-Lure fault zone (VLFZ) is a 70 km-long, E-W trending triangle zone of folds and thrusts in the Alpine foreland of SE France. The VLFZ corresponds to the site of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate slope-basin transition and it provides a good example of a deformed basin margin where, (1) compression was at a high angle to the basin margin; (2) deformation was mainly controlled by the mechanical stratigraphy and not by fault reactivation; and (3) inversion was a gradual process (from Middle Cretaceous) with deformation concentrated mainly in the basin to the north (as evidenced by growth strata) until the last (post-Burdigalian) stages when the slope carbonates to the south were thrust northward on the Ventoux-Lure Thrust (VLT). Within the eastern half of this zone structural geometries become increasingly complex from east to west, showing a progression from triangle zone to tectonic wedging geometries in which erosion of the emergent thrust sheets played an important role. This lateral variation was due to the obliquity of the eastern VLT to the Vocontian folds and the increase in displacement westward from a tip point south of Sisteron. The western sector of the VLFZ shows less N-S shortening and evidence of strike slip. On a regional scale, Late Cretaceous N-S shortening, contemporaneous with reactivation of NE-SW faults, may have been caused by the eastward migration of the Iberian-Briançonnais plate to the south of the European plate. The post-Burdigalian displacement of the VLT is correlated with the late Alpine SW emplacement on the Digne Thrust to the east. Within the French Alpine foreland the dextral NE-SW Durance Fault separated a zone where SW directed displacement was accommodated principally on the Digne Thrust from an area to the west, including the VLFZ, of more diffuse SW-NE shortening.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Odd-Mass Nuclei
Leviatan, A; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-even nuclei are investigated in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Classical and quantum analysis show that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially near the critical point. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of spherical to axially-deformed transitions in odd-proton nuclei Pm, Eu and Tb (Z=61, 63, 65) is presented.
Nevitt, J. M.; Pollard, D. D.; Warren, J. M.
2013-12-01
Examining fault-related deformation under brittle-ductile conditions and across different lithologies has implications for seismic hazard analysis, since earthquakes are thought to nucleate near the brittle-ductile transition and fault slip distributions are influenced by lithologic variations. This presentation focuses on two outcrops containing lithologic heterogeneities - the Seven Gables (SG) outcrop and the Sheared Schlieren (SS) outcrop - to investigate the relationship between lithology and deformation. This is accomplished through a combination of field observations, micro-structural/-chemical analyses, and mechanics-based finite element models. The SG and SS outcrops are located in the Bear Creek field area (central Sierra Nevada, CA), which consists of a medium- to fine-grained biotite-hornblende granodiorite with a weak regional foliation trending approximately northwest. The field area contains abundant faults, which microstructural observations suggest were active near the brittle-ductile transition. Furthermore, leucocratic dikes, volcanic xenoliths, and schlieren are abundant throughout the granodiorite, making it lithologically heterogeneous at the decimeter- to meter-scale. The SG outcrop allows comparison of granodiorite rheology to that of a leucocratic dike, both of which are ductilely deformed within a contractional fault step. Both lithologies contain plagioclase, K-feldspar, and quartz, with the granodiorite also containing biotite, hornblende, and sphene. The 10 cm wide right step occurs between two left-lateral faults, measuring 1 and 2 m in length, respectively. A 4 cm thick leucocratic dike runs directly through the center of the step at an angle of 70° to the faults, as measured in the plane of the outcrop. Microstructural analysis indicates that the dominant quartz slip system within the center of the step is basal . The SS outcrop contains a schlieren that is ductilely sheared in the near-tip region of a left-lateral fault. The
Stoitsov, M. V.; Schunck, N.; Kortelainen, M.; Michel, N.; Nam, H.; Olsen, E.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S.
2013-06-01
We describe the new version 2.00d of the code HFBTHO that solves the nuclear Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (HF) or Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) problem by using the cylindrical transformed deformed harmonic oscillator basis. In the new version, we have implemented the following features: (i) the modified Broyden method for non-linear problems, (ii) optional breaking of reflection symmetry, (iii) calculation of axial multipole moments, (iv) finite temperature formalism for the HFB method, (v) linear constraint method based on the approximation of the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) matrix for multi-constraint calculations, (vi) blocking of quasi-particles in the Equal Filling Approximation (EFA), (vii) framework for generalized energy density with arbitrary density-dependences, and (viii) shared memory parallelism via OpenMP pragmas. Program summaryProgram title: HFBTHO v2.00d Catalog identifier: ADUI_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUI_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167228 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2672156 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN-95. Computer: Intel Pentium-III, Intel Xeon, AMD-Athlon, AMD-Opteron, Cray XT5, Cray XE6. Operating system: UNIX, LINUX, WindowsXP. RAM: 200 Mwords Word size: 8 bits Classification: 17.22. Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Catalog identifier of previous version: ADUI_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 43 Nature of problem: The solution of self-consistent mean-field equations for weakly-bound paired nuclei requires a correct description of the asymptotic properties of nuclear quasi-particle wave functions. In the present implementation, this is achieved by using the single-particle wave functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauschild, K.; Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
The observation of one-step `primary` gamma-ray transitions directly linking the superdeformed (SD) states to the normal deformed (ND) low-lying states of known excitation energies (E{sub x}), spins and parities (J{sup {pi}}) is crucial to determining the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} of the SD states. With this knowledge one can begin to address some of the outstanding problems associated with SD nuclei, such as the identical band issue, and one can also place more stringent restrictions on theoretical calculations which predict SD states and their properties. Brinkman, et al., used the early implementation of the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer array (32 detectors) and proposed a single, candidate {gamma} ray linking the {sup 194}Pb yrast SD band to the low-lying ND states in {sup 194}Pb. Using 55 detectors in the GAMMASPHERE array Khoo, et al., observed multiple links between the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg and the low-lying level scheme and conclusively determined E{sub x} and J of the yrast SD states. Here the authors report on an experiment in which Gammasphere with 88 detectors was used and the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} values of the yrast SD states in {sup 194}Pb were uniquely determined. Twelve one-step linking transitions between the yrast SD band and low-lying states in {sup 194}Pb have been identified, including the transition proposed by Brinkman. These transitions have been placed in the level scheme of {sup 194}Pb using coincidence relationships and agreements between the energies of the primary transitions and the energy differences in level spacings. Furthermore, measurements of angular asymmetries have yielded the multipolarities of the primaries which have allowed J{sup {pi}} assignments of the {sup 194}Pb SD states to be unambiguously determined for the first time without a priori assumptions about the character of SD bands. A study performed in parallel to this work using the EUROGAM-II array reports similar, but somewhat less extensive, results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玉银; 耿悦; 张素梅
2011-01-01
针对钢管混凝土拱桥中普遍采用的钢管微膨胀高性能混凝土,考虑轴压比、加载龄期等因素的影响,进行了圆钢管微膨胀混凝土轴心受压短柱的长期变形试验研究。采用逐步积分法,将5种不同混凝土收缩、徐变模型进行适当修正,应用于钢管微膨胀混凝土轴心受压短柱的长期变形分析,并将分析结果与试验结果进行对比。分析了含钢率、加载龄期、持荷时间、混凝土强度等因素对钢管微膨胀混凝土构件长期静力性能的影响。研究结果表明：修正后的EC2,MC90及AFREM模型在分析加载龄期不超过28d的钢管微膨胀混凝土构件在轴向荷载作用下的长期变形性能时具有较高的精度;核心混凝土时效作用对钢管微膨胀混凝土构件长期静力响应的影响显著。%Aimed at high performance concrete-filled steel tubular（CFST） with expansive additive which has been widely adopted in CFST arch bridges,considering the influence of axial compression ratio and loading age,test study of long-term deformation of circular CFST stubs with expansive additive under axial loading was carried out.Using step-by-step integration method,5 different concrete models of shrinkage and creep were modified,then modified models were applied to long-term deformation analysis of CFST stubs with expansive additive.Analysis result and test result were compared.The influences of ratio of steel area over concrete area,loading age,duration of loading,strength of the core concrete,etc.on the long-term static performance of these CFST specimens were analyzed.Results show that the modified models EC2,MC90 and AFREM can well predict the long-term deformation performance of CFST stubs with expansive additive loaded before 28 days.Time-effects of core concrete have considerable influence on the long-term static response of CFST specimens with expansive additive.
Nitinol stent design - understanding axial buckling.
McGrath, D J; O'Brien, B; Bruzzi, M; McHugh, P E
2014-12-01
Nitinol׳s superelastic properties permit self-expanding stents to be crimped without plastic deformation, but its nonlinear properties can contribute towards stent buckling. This study investigates the axial buckling of a prototype tracheobronchial nitinol stent design during crimping, with the objective of eliminating buckling from the design. To capture the stent buckling mechanism a computational model of a radial force test is simulated, where small geometric defects are introduced to remove symmetry and allow buckling to occur. With the buckling mechanism ascertained, a sensitivity study is carried out to examine the effect that the transitional plateau region of the nitinol loading curve has on stent stability. Results of this analysis are then used to redesign the stent and remove buckling. It is found that the transitional plateau region can have a significant effect on the stability of a stent during crimping, and by reducing the amount of transitional material within the stent hinges during loading the stability of a nitinol stent can be increased.
Dynamic response of the occipito-atlanto-axial (C0-C1-C2) complex in right axial rotation.
Chang, H; Gilbertson, L G; Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Clark, C R; Patwardhan, A
1992-05-01
The torque-angular deformation in right axial rotation until failure of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex subjected to variable loading rate (dynamic) axial torque was characterized using a biaxial MTS system. A special fixture and gear box that permitted right axial rotation of the specimen until failure without imposing any additional constraints were used to obtain the data. The specimens were divided into three groups and tested until failure at three different dynamic loading rates: 50, 100, and 400 degrees/s. A previous study by the authors provided data for quasi-static (4 degrees/s) loading conditions. The torque versus rotation curves can be divided into two straight regions and two transition zones. The plots clearly indicated that at loading rates higher than 4 degrees/s, the specimens became stiffer in the region of steadily increasing resistance prior to failure. The increase in stiffness was maximum at 100 degrees/s. The stiffness decreased somewhat at 400 degrees/s in comparison with 100 degrees/s, but this decrease was not significant. The resulting torque-right axial rotation curves were also examined to estimate the magnitude of maximum resistance (torque) and the corresponding angular rotation value. The average maximum resistance torque increased from 13.6 Nm at 4 degrees/s to 27.8 Nm at 100 degrees/s. The corresponding right angular rotation data (65-78 degrees), however, did not show any significant variation with loading rate. Posttest dissection of the specimens indicated that the type of injury observed was related to the rate of axial loading imposed on a specimen during testing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Indication of Negative Triaxial Deformation in the Very Neutron-Deficient Odd-A Re Isotopes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周小红; 许甫荣; 郑勇; 张玉虎
2003-01-01
For the 9/2-[514] bands in light odd-A Re isotopes, the energy signature splitting and its relation with the signature dependence of M1 transition matrix elements are investigated in connection with the deviation of nuclear shape from axial symmetry. By comparing the energy signature splittings and relative magnetic transition rates between the experimental values and the theoretical calculations assuming axially symmetric shapes, it is found that discrepancies increase with the decreasing neutron number. These discrepancies strongly suggest an appreciable negative γ deformation for the very neutron-deficient odd-A Re isotopes.
Yin, Hao; He, Yongjun; Sun, Qingping
2014-07-01
Distinctive temperature and stress oscillations can be observed in superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) when they subject to displacement-controlled cyclic phase transition. In this paper, we examine the effect of the deformation frequency on the thermal and mechanical responses of the polycrystalline superelastic NiTi rods under stress-induced cyclic phase transition. By synchronized measurement of the evolutions in overall temperature and stress-strain curve over the frequency range of 0.0004-1 Hz (corresponding average strain rate range of 4.8×10-5/s-1.2×10-1/s) in stagnant air, it was found that both the temperature evolution and the stress-strain curve vary significantly with the frequency and the number of cycles. For each frequency, steady-state cyclic thermal and mechanical responses of the specimen were reached after a transient stage, exhibiting stabilization. In the steady-state, the average temperature oscillated around a mean temperature plateau which increased monotonically with the frequency and rose rapidly in the high frequency range due to the rapid accumulation of hysteresis heat. The oscillation was mainly caused by the release and absorption of latent heat and increased with the frequency, eventually reaching a saturation value. The variations in the stress responses followed similar frequency dependence as the temperature. The steady-state stress-strain hysteresis loop area, as a measure of the material's damping capacity, first increased then decreased with the frequency in a non-monotonic manner. The experimental data were analyzed and discussed based on the simplified lumped heat transfer analysis and the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, incorporating the inherent thermomechanical coupling in the material's response. We found that, for given material's properties and specimen geometries, all such frequency-dependent variations in temperature, stress and damping capacity were essentially determined by the competition between the time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legarra, E., E-mail: estibaliz.legarra@ehu.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Apiñaniz, E. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jimenez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Avda. Gregorio del amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2014-02-15
Highlights: • Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} alloys were disordered by means of planetary ball milling technique. • Paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition is observed with disordering. • Si addition hinders the disordering process and the increase of the lattice parameter. • Si addition promotes the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. -- Abstract: We have used Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to study the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the structural and magnetic properties of the mechanically deformed Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} alloys. The results indicate that ternary alloys also present the magnetic transition with disordering observed in binary Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} alloys. Besides, Si introduction has two opposite contributions. From a structural point of view, hinders the disordering process, but, from a magnetic point of view promotes the magnetic transition.
Kosogor, Anna
2016-06-01
An influence of axial mechanical stress on the hysteresis of martensitic transformation and ordinary magnetostriction of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy has been described in the framework of a Landau-type theory of phase transitions. It has been shown that weak stress can noticeably reduce the hysteresis of martensitic transformation. Moreover, the anhysteretic deformation can be observed when the applied mechanical stress exceeds a critical stress value. The main theoretical results were compared with recent experimental data. It is argued that shape memory alloys with extremely low values of shear elastic modulus are the candidates for the experimental observation of large anhysteretic deformations.
Microscopic derivation of nuclear rotation-vibration model, axially symmetric case
Gulshani, Parviz
2015-01-01
We derive from first principles the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude, and provides microscopic expressions for the interaction operators among the rotation, vibration, and intrinsic motions, for the moment of inertia, vibration mass, and for the deformation variables. The method uses canonical transformations to collective co-ordinates, followed by a constrained variational method, with the associated constraints imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For deformed harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms for the energies, moments of inertia, quadrupole moments and transition...
Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki
2015-01-01
Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial vector states, we study whether the observed axial vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial vector meson family. In this paper we carry out analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial vector mesons, which are valuable to further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial vector mesons.
Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems
Petrellis, D; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L=0,2 (s,d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kunle Adegoke; Helmut Büttner
2010-02-01
We have investigated the one-dimensional spin-1/2 axial next-nearest-neighbour Ising (ANNNI) model in two orthogonal magnetic fields at zero temperature. There are four different possible ground state configurations for the ANNNI model in a longitudinal field, in the thermodynamic limit. The inclusion of a transverse field introduces quantum fluctuations which destroy the existing spin order along certain critical lines. The effects of the fluctuations in three of the four ordered regions were investigated using the finite-size scaling technique. The phase boundaries of the ANNNI model in two orthogonal magnetic fields were thus determined numerically. For certain limits of the Hamiltonian we compared the obtained results with the existing literature and our results were in good agreement with the results in the existing literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mayu Sugiyama
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of
Xing, Hui; Dong, Xianglei; Wu, Hongjing; Hao, Guanhua; Wang, Jianyuan; Chen, Changle; Jin, Kexin
2016-05-01
We report the results of a phase-field study of degenerate seaweed to tilted dendrite transition and their growth dynamics during directional solidification of a binary alloy. Morphological selection maps in the planes of (G, Vp) and (ε4, Vp) show that lower pulling velocity, weaker anisotropic strength and higher thermal gradient can enhance the formation of the degenerate seaweed. The tip undercooling shows oscillations in seaweed growth, but it keeps at a constant value in dendritic growth. The M-S instability on the tips and the surface tension anisotropy of the solid-liquid interface are responsible for the formation of the degenerate seaweed. It is evidenced that the place where the interfacial instability occurs determines the morphological transition. The transient transition from degenerate seaweed to tilted dendrite shows that dendrites are dynamically preferred over seaweed. For the tilted dendritic arrays with a large tilted angle, primary spacing is investigated by comparing predicted results with the classical scaling power law, and the growth direction is found to be less sensitive to the pulling velocity and the primary spacing. Furthermore, the effect of the initial interface wavelength on the morphological transition is investigated to perform the history dependence of morphological selection.
Phase transitions in the $sdg$ interacting boson model
Van Isacker, P; Zerguine, S
2009-01-01
A geometric analysis of the $sdg$ interacting boson model is performed. A coherent-state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ($\\beta_2$), axial hexadecapole ($\\beta_4$) and triaxial ($\\gamma_2$). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic $sdg$ hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical ${\\rm U}(5)\\otimes{\\rm U}(9)$, the (prolate and oblate) deformed ${\\rm SU}_\\pm(3)$ and the $\\gamma_2$-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the $sd$ version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.
Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Flemming H Gravesen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes
2009-01-01
The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.
Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing.
Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr
2009-01-14
The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.
Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans
2009-01-01
force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...
Guillaume, B.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Husson, L.; Royden, L. H.
2012-04-01
We use three-dimensional dynamically self-consistent laboratory models to analyze relationships between surface evolution and deep dynamics at convergent margins. Our models are setup with a viscous plate of silicone (lithosphere) subducting under negative buoyancy in a viscous layer of glucose syrup (upper mantle). We focus on the subduction of a laterally heterogeneous lithosphere characterized by an abrupt transition of density using negatively and positively buoyant silicone to reproduce oceanic and continental subduction, respectively. We quantify and establish relationships between the subduction dynamics and resulting slab geometry, trench kinematics and pattern of horizontal/vertical deformation for both the overriding plate and the upper mantle. Assuming that our modeling results can be representative of the natural behavior of subduction zones, we compare them to the Neogene to Quaternary evolution of the Hellenic subduction zone. We more particularly focus on the deformation and topography of the Hellenic upper plate, which may have been influenced by the difference in subduction dynamics north and south of the Kephalonia Transform Zone, with a slowly subducting Adriatic continental lithosphere in the north and a rapidly subducting Ionian oceanic lithosphere in the south.
Caporaso, N; Griguolo, L; Pasquetti, S; Seminara, D; Szabó, R J; Caporaso, Nicola; Cirafici, Michele; Griguolo, Luca; Pasquetti, Sara; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.
2006-01-01
We examine the problem of counting bound states of BPS black holes on local Calabi-Yau threefolds which are fibrations over a Riemann surface by computing the partition function of $q$-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the Riemann surface. We study in detail the genus zero case and obtain, at finite $N$, the instanton expansion of the gauge theory. It can be written exactly as the partition function for $U(N)$ Chern-Simons gauge theory on a Lens space, summed over all non-trivial vacua, plus a tower of non-perturbative instanton contributions. The correspondence between two and three dimensional gauge theories is elucidated by an explicit mapping between two-dimensional Yang-Mills instantons and flat connections on the Lens space. In the large $N$ limit we find a peculiar phase structure in the model. At weak string coupling the theory reduces exactly to the trivial flat connection sector with instanton contributions exponentially suppressed, and the topological string partition function on the resolved conifold ...
The Welding Process and Deformation Control of Large Axial-Flow Compressor Casing%大型轴流压缩机机壳焊接工艺及变形控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐金; 梁彦荣; 杨建伟; 张璞姚刚
2013-01-01
In this paper, the structure features of large type axial compressor welding casing was analyzed. The welding process method of (Ar) 80% + (CO2) 20%argon-rich mixed gas shielded arc welding was selected, then relative process testing was carried out according to standards. Finally the casing welding distortion was effective controlled by logical sequence of welding, and the performance indexes after welding all met the design requirements.% 分析了大型轴流压缩机焊接机壳的结构特点，选择（Ar）80%＋（CO2）20%富氩混合气体保护焊的焊接工艺方法，并按标准进行了相关工艺试验，通过合理的拼装顺序有效控制了机壳的焊接变形，焊后各项指标达到设计要求。
Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; Rajak, Dipen Kumar; Das, S.
2016-08-01
The objective of this research is to produce superior quality aluminum alloy foam with low relative density and higher resistance against compression deformation. This investigation has studied crash energy capacities of unfilled and filled aluminum alloy foams in mild steel tubes. The foam has been prepared by the melt route process with an addition of 5wt.% silicon carbide particles. The fabricated aluminum alloy foams were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Material Pro analyzer. It was observed that the foam-filled tubes could absorb more energy as compared to the unfilled tubes before reaching the complete densification point. Also, the aluminum alloy foams had better energy absorption capacity during the crash or impact loading. This article demonstrates the excellent ability of aluminum alloy foam application in the field where there is a need to absorb crash energy. It is to be noted that the amount of energy absorption will be greater for low-density foam filled in thin-wall rectangular section tubes. We have seen an increasing trend in the application of aluminum foams inside the thin-wall mild steel tubes for maximum energy absorption.
Altered Axial Skeletal Development
The axial skeleton is routinely examined in standard developmental toxicity bioassays and has proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of chemical agents. Dysmorphogenesis in the skull, vertebral column and ribs has been described in both human populations and in laboratory anima...
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF AXIAL FEED BAR ROLLING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
C.G. Xu; G.H. Liu; G.S. Ren; Z. Shen; C.P. Ma; W. W. Ren
2007-01-01
A flexible technique of hot working of bars by axial feed rolling was introduced. The processdeformation, strain field, stress field, and temperature field of the parts are analyzed by finite elementmethod (FEM)-simulation software DEFORM-3D. The material flow rule and tool load have beeninvestigated.
Boland, J. N.
1986-04-01
Attempts to improve the accuracy of experimentation in the Griggs-type piston-cylinder deformation apparatus are most welcome and the recent study by Kirby and Kronenberg [1984] on the deformation of clinopyroxenite has the potential for useful quantitative manipulation of rheological data. However, there are many apparent inconsistencies and data-handling inaccuracies in this work that require clarification before further use can be made of the data. The following comments relate specifically to (1) the presentation and/or selection of data, (2) rheological relationships, (3) semibrittle behavior, reproducibility and instability, and (4) single versus multiple mechanisms of deformation.
Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation
Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.
2016-07-01
This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walt Wells
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.
Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements
Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.
2001-01-01
This paper describes a videogrammetric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.
Electric quadrupole transitions of the Bohr Hamiltonian with Manning-Rosen potential
Chabab, M; Lahbas, A; Oulne, M
2016-01-01
Analytical expressions of the wave functions are derived for a Bohr Hamiltonian with the Manning{Rosen potential in the cases of {\\gamma}-unstable nuclei and axially symmetric prolate deformed ones with {\\gamma}=0. By exploiting the results we have obtained in a recent work on the same theme Ref. [1], we have calculated the B(E2) transition rates for 34 {\\gamma}-unstable and 38 rotational nuclei and compared to experimental data, revealing a qualitative agreement with the experiment and phase transitions within the ground state band and showing also that the Manning-Rosen potential is more appropriate for such calculations than other potentials.
Electric quadrupole transitions of the Bohr Hamiltonian with Manning-Rosen potential
Chabab, M.; El Batoul, A.; Lahbas, A.; Oulne, M.
2016-09-01
Analytical expressions of the wave functions are derived for a Bohr Hamiltonian with the Manning-Rosen potential in the cases of γ-unstable nuclei and axially symmetric prolate deformed ones with γ ≈ 0. By exploiting the results we have obtained in a recent work on the same theme Ref. [1], we have calculated the B (E 2) transition rates for 34 γ-unstable and 38 rotational nuclei and compared to experimental data, revealing a qualitative agreement with the experiment and phase transitions within the ground state band and showing also that the Manning-Rosen potential is more appropriate for such calculations than other potentials.
Slow axial drift in three-dimensional granular tumbler flow
Zaman, Zafir; D'Ortona, Umberto; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.
2013-07-01
Models of monodisperse particle flow in partially filled three-dimensional tumblers often assume that flow along the axis of rotation is negligible. We test this assumption, for spherical and double cone tumblers, using experiments and discrete element method simulations. Cross sections through the particle bed of a spherical tumbler show that, after a few rotations, a colored band of particles initially perpendicular to the axis of rotation deforms: particles near the surface drift toward the pole, while particles deeper in the flowing layer drift toward the equator. Tracking of mm-sized surface particles in tumblers with diameters of 8-14 cm shows particle axial displacements of one to two particle diameters, corresponding to axial drift that is 1-3% of the tumbler diameter, per pass through the flowing layer. The surface axial drift in both double cone and spherical tumblers is zero at the equator, increases moving away from the equator, and then decreases near the poles. Comparing results for the two tumbler geometries shows that wall slope causes axial drift, while drift speed increases with equatorial diameter. The dependence of axial drift on axial position for each tumbler geometry is similar when both are normalized by their respective maximum values.
Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.
Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L
2014-10-01
Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.
Microscopic description of octupole shape-phase transitions in light actinides and rare-earth nuclei
Nomura, K; Niksic, T; Lu, Bing-Nan
2014-01-01
A systematic analysis of low-lying quadrupole and octupole collective states is presented, based on the microscopic energy density functional framework. By mapping the deformation constrained self-consistent axially symmetric mean-field energy surfaces onto the equivalent Hamiltonian of the $sdf$ interacting boson model (IBM), that is, onto the energy expectation value in the boson condensate state, the Hamiltonian parameters are determined. The study is based on the global relativistic energy density functional DD-PC1. The resulting IBM Hamiltonian is used to calculate excitation spectra and transition rates for the positive- and negative-parity collective states in four isotopic chains characteristic for two regions of octupole deformation and collectivity: Th, Ra, Sm and Ba. Consistent with the empirical trend, the microscopic calculation based on the systematics of $\\beta_{2}$-$\\beta_{3}$ energy maps, the resulting low-lying negative-parity bands and transition rates show evidence of a shape transition be...
Kanada-Enyo, Y
2004-01-01
Systematic analysis of the deformations of proton and neutron densities in even-even C isotopes was done based on the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The $E2$ transition strength was discussed in relation to the deformation. We analyze the $B(E2;2^+_1\\to 0^+_1)$ in $^{16}$C, which has been recently measured to be abnormally small. The results suggest the difference of the deformations between proton and neutron densities in the neutron-rich C isotopes. It was found that stable proton structure in C isotopes plays an important role in the enhancement the neutron skin structure as well as in the systematics of $B(E2)$ in the neutron-rich C.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张智明; 梅顺齐; 肖人彬; 刘青松
2011-01-01
多倍捻锭子利用磁场作用力传递转矩,它的结构参数、永磁体分布影响磁力的大小变化,因此需要进行轴向磁力计算.针对轴向磁力传动结构,由经验求解法和等效磁荷原理建立磁力计算数学模型,采用有限元分析软件,通过仿真与计算,探讨磁力线、磁感应强度和磁场强度分布,研究不同计算方法时的磁转矩值,为轴向磁力传动结构优化设计和磁路分布提供依据,具有重要的实际应用价值.%The torque of multi-twisting spindle is transmitted by magnetic field.Calculation of axial magnetic force is necessary because of magnetic force varied with the spindle's structure parameters and permanent magnet distribution.The mathematic model is constructed with the experience solution and the principle of equivalent magnetic charge in view of the structure of axial magnetic transmitting.The ANSYS software is adopted for simulation and calculation of magnetic force to get the distribution of magnetic force linc,magnetic field intensity and magnetic flux intensity.These analysis benefit from the optimize design of axial magnetic transmitting machine and the permanent magnet distributing and is important practical applications.
Build Axial Gradient Field by Using Axial Magnetized Permanent Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Axial magnetic field produced by an axial magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent rings, if they are magnetized in the same directions, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced. If they are magnetized in opposite direction,an axial gradient magnetic field can be generated, with the field range changing from -B0 to B0. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field was fabricated, the measured results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. For wider usage,it is desirable for the field gradient to be changed. Some methods to produce the variable gradient field are presented. These kinds of axial gradient magnetic field can also be used as a beam focusing for linear accelerator if the periodic field can be produced along the beam trajectory. The axial magnetic field is something like a solenoid, large stray field will leak to the outside environment if no method is taken to control them. In this paper, one method is illustrated to shield off the outside leakage field.
Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay
Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos
2016-04-01
Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures
Notari, Alessio
2016-01-01
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...
Axial stress localization facilitates pressure propagation in gelled pipes
Norrman, Jens; Skjæraasen, Olaf; Oschmann, Hans-Jörg; Paso, Kristofer; Sjöblom, Johan
2016-03-01
Paraffin wax-oil gels are unique rheological fluids which undergo shear degradation starting at a deformation (shear strain level) of approximately 1%. Flow commencement in pipelines filled with wax-oil gels is a complex hydrodynamic process involving propagation of acoustic, diffusive, and rheological degradation pressure wave fronts. Dynamic simulation informed by qualified rheological relations provides useful insight into the physical nature of these flow processes. Eulerian simulations are presented which emulate known physical phenomena and essential characteristics of wax-gel flow dynamics. A constitutive rheological equation set accounts for deformation-driven reduction in yield stress and viscosity terms. No explicit time-dependent rheological parameters are utilized in the equations. Rheological yielding alters the nature of the dominant pressure wave from inherently diffusive towards self-sharpening. Axial stress localization effectively sequentializes the gel breakage process, quantified by reduced length of the pressure wave-front zone. Ultimately, axial stress localization allows flow in longer pipe segments, albeit with a concomitant time delay. Viscous behavior and yielding degradation behavior are shown to account for upward and downward concavity in transient axial pressure profiles, respectively. Overall, a unique synergy between gel compressibility and gel degradation is revealed. Deformation-coupled interaction between compressibility and degradation allows pressure propagation and subsequent sustained flow through a gel material which is otherwise immobile in the incompressible case.
Aspects of Transition in Turbomachines
Hodson, H. P.
2007-01-01
This talk provides a description of several types of transition encountered in turbomachines. It is based largely on personal experience of the detection of transition in turbomachines. Examples are taken from axial compressors, axial turbines and radial turbines. The illustrations are concerned with transition in steady and unsteady boundary layers that develop under the influence of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow fields.
Michel, Rabinowicz; Micha, Bystricky; Martin, Schmocker; Michael, Toplis; Alexis, Rigo; Hugo, Perfettini
2010-05-01
Laboratory experiments generally show that high temperature shear deformation of rocks rich in interstitial fluid leads to the development of long fluid veins parallel to R1 and R2 Riedel directions. This contradicts results of numerous mathematical models suggesting that deformation of a rock with a purely viscous solid rheology triggers fluid banding on planes orthogonal to the direction of maximal extension . High-temperature shear laboratory experiments on a sub-micron flint conducted in an internally heated Paterson apparatus with torsion capabilities (Schmocker et al. 2003; Schmocker 2002) reveal that: (i) flint deforms by grain boundary sliding and dissolution precipitation processes, leading to the development of fluid banding orthogonal to up to a strain of about 0.1-0.2; (ii) R1 and R2 fluid veins form beyond these strains, crossing the first generation of bands formed at low , (iii) during the whole deformation process, the strain rate remains perfectly uniform through the entire sample. In order to understand and rationalize these observations, one dimensional numerical modelling of fluid-rock separation during shear has been performed. The model assumes a constant strain rate and uses the interstitial fluid dependence of pressure-solution viscosity of quartz. When shearing is initiated, fluid and solid pressures are equal (pf = ps). Thereafter in zones of compaction, i.e. zones from which fluid is expelled, pf drops and the solid viscosity rises sharply. Although strain rate is uniform across the bulk sample, local stress sharply rises in the compaction bands but remains low in zones of fluid segregation. Indeed, the model shows that, in the zones of compaction, both the deviatoric stress and the excess pressure (pf - ps) have the same amplitude. Their value exceeds the bulk shear stress necessary to maintain the strain rate constant through the entire sample by a factor of about 5. To maintain a high strain rate during shear, laboratory experiments
Study of axial magnetic effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.
Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hackley, T.A.
1987-03-31
A method is described for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies, each body presenting an annular abutment surface. The respective bodies are arranged so that their respective annular abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another, defining a space therebetween, wherein a deformable gasket is disposed within the space. The method comprises: providing one of the bodies with an annular projection; providing the other body with threads for receiving an annular locknut which can be tightened to bear against the annular projection of the one body; applying an external axial forced to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies; immobilizing the bodies relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies by hand-tightening an annular locknut via the threads of the other body until the locknut abuts the annular projection of the one body, substantially preventing relative axial movement between the bodies when the external axial force is withdrawn; and withdrawing the external axial force applied to the bodies, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal.
The Nuclear Shape Phase Transitions Studied within the Geometric Collective Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalaf A. M.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In the framework of the Geometric Collective Model (GCM, quantum phase transition between spherical and deformed shapes of doubly even nuclei are investigated. The validity of the model is examined for the case of lanthanide chains Nd / Sm and actinide chains Th / U. The parameters of the model were obtained by performing a computer simulated search program in order to obtain minimum root mean square deviations be- tween the calculated and the experimental excitation energies. Calculated potential en- ergy surfaces (PES’s describing all deformation effects of each nucleus are extracted. Our systematic studies on lanthanide and actinide chains have revealed a shape transi- tion from spherical vibrator to axially deformed rotor when moving from the lighter to the heavier isotopes.
Notari, Alessio; Tywoniuk, Konrad
2016-12-01
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term phi/fγ F ~F, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρR, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff fγ, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if fγ is smaller than the field excursion phi0 by about a factor of at least Script O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4-5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with fγ. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρR rather than dot phi2/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/fγ to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/fG to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed phi0~ fG.
Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.
2014-09-01
The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.
2004-01-01
Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales of...
... to follow the surgeon’s instructions for postsurgical care. Prevention To help prevent a recurrence of Haglund’s deformity: wear appropriate shoes; avoid shoes with a rigid heel back use arch supports or orthotic devices perform stretching exercises to prevent the Achilles tendon from tightening ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Neng-hui; WANG Jian-jun; CHENG Chang-jun
2007-01-01
Under the consideration of harmonic fluctuations of initial tension and axially velocity, a nonlinear governing equation for transverse vibration of an axially accelerating string is set up by using the equation of motion for a 3-dimensional deformable body with initial stresses. The Kelvin model is used to describe viscoelastic behaviors of the material. The basis function of the complex-mode Galerkin method for axially accelerating nonlinear strings is constructed by using the modal function of linear moving strings with constant axially transport velocity. By the constructed basis functions, the application of the complex-mode Galerkin method in nonlinear vibration analysis of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string is investigated. Numerical results show that the convergence velocity of the complex-mode Galerkin method is higher than that of the real-mode Galerkin method for a variable coefficient gyroscopic system.
Evaluation of various Deformable Image Registrations for Point and Volume Variations
Han, Su Chul; Park, Seungwoo; Lee, Soon Sung; Jung, Haijo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Yi, Chul Young; Kim, Kum Bae
2015-01-01
The accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) has a significant dosimetric impact in radiation treatment planning. We evaluated accuracy of various DIR algorithms using variations of the deformation point and volume. The reference image (Iref) and volume (Vref) was first generated with virtual deformation QA software (ImSimQA, Oncology System Limited, UK). We deformed Iref with axial movement of deformation point and Vref depending on the types of deformation that are the deformation1 is to increase the Vref (relaxation) and the deformation 2 is to decrease . The deformed image (Idef) and volume (Vdef) acquired by ImSimQA software were inversely deformed to Iref and Vref using DIR algorithms. As a result, we acquired deformed image (Iid) from Idef and volume (Vid) from Vdef. The DIR algorithms were the Horn Schunk optical flow (HS), Iterative Optical Flow (IOF), Modified Demons (MD) and Fast Demons (FD) with the Deformable Image Registration and Adaptive Radiotherapy Toolkit (DIRART) of MATLAB. The imag...
Deformed suq(2) with deformed Coriolis effect description of superdeformed nuclei in A ~ 190 region
Alharbi, Hamoud; Alhendi, Hamad; Aloyayd, Turki
2015-04-01
The deformed suq(2) model with Coriolis effect is applied to 79 superdeformed bands in the region A ~ 190. The transition energies and the moments of inertia are calculated within the model and their validity is investigated by comparing them with the experimental data. The effect of deformation of Coriolis effect in the transition energies and the moments of inertia was investigated. A comparison between the suq(2) with and without deformed Coriolis effect is made and shows significant improvements in fitting the experimental data. It was shown that deformation of improve the standard deviation of the transition energies up to 80%. Correlation between the deformation parameter ? and the excesses of neutrons over protons, S, has been observed. This correlation shows a decaying behavior. As a result, the deformation of Coriolis effect becomes weak with the increase of S.
Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)
Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.
2012-04-01
The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle
Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals
Gissinger, Christophe; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in presence of an heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m = 0 axial dipolar field is replaced by an hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m = 1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of the Earth's dynamo.
Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals.
Gissinger, Christophe; Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel
2012-06-08
Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in the presence of heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m=0 axial dipolar field is replaced by a hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m=1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of Earth's dynamo.
Axial Current and Noether Charge
Mahato, Prasanta
2012-01-01
A decade ago, a Lagrangian density has been proposed by the author where only the local symmetries of the Lorentz subgroup of (A)ds group is retained. This formalism has been found to produce some results encompassing that of standard Einstein-Hilbert formalism. In the present article, the conserved axial vector matter currents, constructed in some earlier paper, have been found to be a result of Noether's theorem. PACS: 04.20.Fy, 04.20.Cv, 11.40.-q Keywords: Torsion, Axial Current, Noether's Theorem
Axial compression physical testing of traditional and bird beak SHS T-joints
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈誉; 王江
2015-01-01
The static tests of nine traditional and bird beak square hollow structure (SHS) T-joints with differentβ values and connection types under axial compression at brace end were carried out. Experimental test schemes, failure modes of specimens, jack load−vertical displacement curves, jack load−deformation of chord and strain intensity distribution curves of joints were presented. The effects ofβ and connection types on axial compression property of joints were studied. The results show that the ultimate axial compression capacity of common bird beak SHS T-joints and diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is larger than that of traditional SHS T-joint specimens with big values ofβ. The ultimate axial compression capacity of diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is larger than that of common bird beak SHS T-joints. Asβ increases, the increase of the ultimate axial compression capacity of diamond bird beak SHS T-joints over that of common bird beak joints grows. The ultimate axial compression capacity and the initial axial stiffness of all kinds of joints increase asβincreases, and the initial axial stiffness of the diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is the largest. The ductilities of common bird beak and diamond bird beak SHS T-joints increase asβ increases, but the ductility of the traditional SHS T-joints decreases asβ increases.
Plasticity around an Axial Surface Crack in a Cylindrical Shell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1979-01-01
and Ratwani,3–5 it generalises Dugdale's assumption of a concentrated yield zone in the plane of the crack but, contrary to that model, transverse shear effects are included and a continuous stress distribution is assumed in the yield zone. The inherent difficulties arising from the use of shell theory...... field in an axially cracked cylindrical shell arising from use of classical eighth order shallow shell theory is removed when use is made of a tenth order shell theory which accounts for transverse shear deformations. Although the membrane stresses are only moderately affected, the influence...... on the bending stresses is considerable. In the case of surface cracks moments are induced due to the eccentricity of the crack and transverse shear effects should therefore be included. A plasticity model for a rectangular axial surface crack is developed. Like a previous surface crack model by Erdogen...
Axial structure of the nucleon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner
2002-01-01
We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.
Thermophoresis of Axially Symmetric Bodies
2007-11-02
Sweden Abstract. Thermophoresis of axially symmetric bodies is investigated to first order in the Knudsen-mimber, Kn. The study is made in the limit...derived. Asymptotic solutions are studied. INTRODUCTION Thermophoresis as a phenomenon has been known for a long time, and several authors have approached
Influence of Transverse Shear on an Axial Crack in a Cylindrical Shell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1978-01-01
An axial crack in a cylindrical shell is investigated by use of a 10th order shell theory, which accounts for transverse shear deformations as well as a special kind of orthotropy. The symmetric problem is formulated in terms of two coupled singular integral equations, which are solved numerically...
Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory
Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.
2012-12-01
Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In
EFFECTIVE STRESS AND STRAIN IN FINITE DEFORMATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周喆; 秦伶俐; 黄文彬; 王红卫
2004-01-01
Whether the concept of effective stress and strain in elastic-plastic theory is still valid under the condition of finite deformation was mainly discussed. The uni-axial compression experiments in plane stress and plane strain states were chosen for study. In the two kinds of stress states, the stress- strain curve described by logarithm strain and rotated Kirchhoff stress matches the experiments data better than the curves defined by other stressstrain description.
Optimization of axial blowers. Optimierung von Axial-Ventilatoren
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolte, W.
1992-08-01
For the optimum possible design of axial blowers, trials are evaluated in the article, which are based on the grid profile examined by N. Scholz. The computation for the pressure number and the primary degree of efficiency are shown as well as the evaluation of the effect of the Reynolds and mach number on the degree of efficiency and determination of the secondary losses. In a final example, the dimensions of a blower are computed from the data determined during the trials. (orig.).
View of the Axial Field Spectrometer
1980-01-01
The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.
Nonaxial hexadecapole deformation effects on the fission barrier
Kardan, A.; Nejati, S.
2016-06-01
Fission barrier of the heavy nucleus 250Cf is analyzed in a multi-dimensional deformation space. This space includes two quadrupole (ɛ2,γ) and three hexadecapole deformation (ɛ40,ɛ42,ɛ44) parameters. The analysis is performed within an unpaired macroscopic-microscopic approach. Special attention is given to the effects of the axial and non-axial hexadecapole deformation shapes. It is found that the inclusion of the nonaxial hexadecapole shapes does not change the fission barrier heights, so it should be sufficient to minimize the energy in only one degree of freedom in the hexadecapole space ɛ4. The role of hexadecapole deformation parameters is also discussed on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop (LSD) macroscopic and the Strutinsky shell energies.
Experimental deformation in sandstone, carbonates and quartz aggregate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheung, Cecilia See Nga [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2015-05-01
The first part of my thesis is mainly focused on the effect of grain size distribution on compaction localization in porous sandstone. To identify the microstructural parameters that influence compaction band formation, I conducted a systematic study of mechanical deformation, failure mode and microstructural evolution in Bleurswiller and Boise sandstones, of similar porosity (~25%) and mineralogy but different sorting. Discrete compaction bands were observed to develop over a wide range of pressure in the Bleurswiller sandstone that has a relatively uniform grain size distribution. In contrast, compaction localization was not observed in the poorly sorted Boise sandstone. My results demonstrate that grain size distribution exerts important influence on compaction band development, in agreement with recently published data from Valley of Fire and Buckskin Gulch, as well as numerical studies. The second part aimed to improve current knowledge on inelastic behavior, failure mode and brittle-ductile transition in another sedimentary rock, porous carbonates. A micritic Tavel (porosity of ~13%) and an allochemical Indiana (~18%) limestones were deformed under compaction in wet and dry conditions. At lower confining pressures, shear localization occurred in brittle faulting regime. Through transitional regime, the deformation switched to cataclastic flow regime at higher confining pressure. Specifically in the cataclastic regime, the (dry and wet) Tavel and dry Indiana failed by distributed cataclastic flow, while in contrast, wet Indiana failed as compaction localization. My results demonstrate that different failure modes and mechanical behaviors under different deformation regimes and water saturation are fundamental prior to any geophysical application in porous carbonates. The third part aimed to focus on investigating compaction on quartz aggregate starting at low (MPa) using X-ray diffraction. We report the diffraction peak evolution of quartz with increasing
Axial Hall effect and universality of holographic Weyl semi-metals
Copetti, Christian; Landsteiner, Karl
2016-01-01
The holographic Weyl semimetal is a model of a strongly coupled topological semi-metal. A topological quantum phase transition separates a topological phase with non-vanishing anomalous Hall conductivity from a trivial state. We investigate how this phase transition depends on the parameters of the scalar potential (mass and quartic self coupling) finding that the quantum phase transition persists for a large region in parameter space. We then compute the axial Hall conductivity. The algebraic structure of the axial anomaly predicts it to be 1/3 of the electric Hall conductivity. We find that this holds once a non-trivial renormalization effect on the external axial gauge fields is taken into account. Finally we show that the phase transition also occurs in a top-down model based on a consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity.
An exact dynamic stiffness matrix for axially loaded double-beam systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Li Xiaobin; Xu Shuangxi; Wu Weiguo; Li Jun
2014-06-01
An exact dynamic stiffness method is presented in this paper to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the axially loaded double-beam systems,which consist of two homogeneous and prismatic beams with a distributed spring in parallel between them.The effects of the axial force, shear deformation and rotary inertia are considered, as shown in the theoretical formulation. The dynamic stiffness influence coefficients are formulated from the governing differential equations of the axially loaded double-beam system in free vibration by using the Laplace transform method. An example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, in which ten boundary conditions are investigated and the effect of the axial force on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the double-beam system are further discussed.
Axial Spondyloarthritis: An Evolving Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelly Ziadé
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA is the prototype of a family of inter-related yet heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical and genetic manifestations: the spondyloarthritides (SpAs. The condition mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton, and has a clear classification scheme, wider epidemiological data, and distinct therapeutic guidelines when compared with other SpAs. However, the concept of AxSpA has not been immutable over time and has evolved tremendously on many levels over the past decades. This review identifies the evolution of the AxSpA concept at two levels. First, at the level of classification, the old classifications and rationales leading to the current Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification are reviewed, and the advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Second, at the therapeutic level, current and future treatments are described and treatment strategies are discussed.
[Axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis].
Nordström, Dan; Kauppi, Markku
2010-01-01
Current classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis do not allow diagnosis before radiographic changes are visible in sacroiliacal joints. The the new axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) criteria include axial SpA without radiographic changes as well as established ankylosing spondylitis, recognizing them as a continuum of the same disease. This is of major importance as the burden of early SpA is comparable to that of later stage disease. Diagnosis relies on inflammatory MRI findings which is the most significant change compared to earlier criteria. Emerging data on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blocking therapies already in early but also in established disease have given new promising alternatives for treatment of this often very cumbersome disease, that rarely responds to classic DMARDs.
Skyrme RPA for spherical and axially symmetric nuclei
Repko, Anton; Nesterenko, V O; Reinhard, P -G
2015-01-01
Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is the basic method for calculation of excited states of nuclei over the Hartree-Fock ground state, suitable also for energy density functionals (EDF or DFT). We developed a convenient formalism for expressing densities and currents in a form of reduced matrix elements, which allows fast calculation of spectra for spherical nuclei. All terms of Skyrme functional were taken into account, so it is possible to calculate electric, magnetic and vortical/toroidal/compression transitions and strength functions of any multipolarity. Time-odd (spin) terms in Skyrme functional become important for magnetic M1 and isovector toroidal E1 transitions. It was also found that transition currents in pygmy region (low-lying part of E1 resonance) exhibit isoscalar toroidal flow, so the previously assumed picture of neutron-skin vibration is not the only mechanism present in pygmy transitions. RPA calculations with heavy axially-symmetric nuclei now become feasible on ordinary PC. Detailed formul...
Golimumab for treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.
Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis
2016-02-01
Axial spondyloarthritis comprises two forms: nonradiographic (nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) and radiographic (better known as ankylosing spondylitis), which are often considered as two stages of one disease. Historically, all currently available TNF-α inhibitors were first investigated in ankylosing spondylitis and later on in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This year, EMA has granted golimumab approval for the treatment of active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis based on the recently published data from the GO-AHEAD study. This article summarizes recent data on efficacy and safety of golimumab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李世荣; 万泽青; 张静华
2014-01-01
The free vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) beams is studied based on both the classical and the first-order shear deformation beam theories. The equations of motion for the FGM beams are derived by considering the shear deforma-tion and the axial, transversal, rotational, and axial-rotational coupling inertia forces on the assumption that the material properties vary arbitrarily in the thickness direction. By using the numerical shooting method to solve the eigenvalue problem of the coupled ordinary differential equations with different boundary conditions, the natural frequen-cies of the FGM Timoshenko beams are obtained numerically. In a special case of the classical beam theory, a proportional transformation between the natural frequencies of the FGM and the reference homogenous beams is obtained by using the mathematical similarity between the mathematical formulations. This formula provides a simple and useful approach to evaluate the natural frequencies of the FGM beams without dealing with the tension-bending coupling problem. Approximately, this analogous transition can also be extended to predict the frequencies of the FGM Timoshenko beams. The numerical results obtained by the shooting method and those obtained by the analogous transformation are presented to show the effects of the material gradient, the slenderness ratio, and the boundary conditions on the natural frequencies in detail.
Finite deformations of an electroelastic circular cylindrical tube
Melnikov, Andrey; Ogden, Ray W.
2016-12-01
In this paper the theory of nonlinear electroelasticity is used to examine deformations of a pressurized thick-walled circular cylindrical tube of soft dielectric material with closed ends and compliant electrodes on its curved boundaries. Expressions for the dependence of the pressure and reduced axial load on the deformation and a potential difference between, or uniform surface charge distributions on, the electrodes are obtained in respect of a general isotropic electroelastic energy function. To illustrate the behaviour of the tube, specific forms of energy functions accounting for different mechanical properties coupled with a deformation independent quadratic dependence on the electric field are used for numerical purposes, for a given potential difference and separately for a given charge distribution. Numerical dependences of the non-dimensional pressure and reduced axial load on the deformation are obtained for the considered energy functions. Results are then given for the thin-walled approximation as a limiting case of a thick-walled cylindrical tube without restriction on the energy function. The theory described herein provides a general basis for the detailed analysis of the electroelastic response of tubular dielectric elastomer actuators, which is illustrated for a fixed axial load in the absence of internal pressure and fixed internal pressure in the absence of an applied axial load.
Deformation and fatigue behaviors of carburized automotive gear steel and predictions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonglae Jo
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of carburized components such as automotive transmission gears is very complex due to hardness and microstructure difference, residual stresses and multi-axial stress states developed between the case and the core. In addition, automotive gears in service, commonly used in helical type, are actually subjected to complex stress conditions such as bending, torsion, and contact stress states. This study presents experimental and analytical results on deformation behavior of carburized steels, widely used in automotive gears, under cyclic stress conditions including axial and torsion loadings. Axial fatigue tests and rotating bending fatigue tests are also included. Predictions of cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of the carburized steel with two-layer model are compared with experimental results. The carburized steel investigated in this study exhibited cyclic softening under both axial loading and torsional loading. Predicted results with simple two-layer model for the cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors were comparatively similar to the experimental data.
Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for deformed nuclei
Ebran, J -P; Arteaga, D Pena; Vretenar, D
2010-01-01
The Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model for axially deformed nuclei (RHFBz) is introduced. The model is based on an effective Lagrangian with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings in the particle-hole channel, and the pairing part of the Gogny force is used in the pairing channel. The RHFBz quasiparticle equations are solved by expansion in the basis of a deformed harmonic oscillator. Illustrative RHFBz calculations are performed for Carbon, Neon and Magnesium isotopes. The effect of the explicitly including the pion field is investigated for binding energies, deformation parameters, and charge radii.
An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy
Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.
2010-01-01
Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions
Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju
2010-01-01
find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....
Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation
Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James
2016-01-01
Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.
Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length
Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.
2006-01-01
Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roccaz, J
2006-07-15
The atomic nucleus can adopt a very elongated shape with an axis ratio 2:1, this is the superdeformation phenomenon. Nowadays more than 300 superdeformed bands have been identified at high spin, but the determination of excitation energies, spins and parities of the associated states have been established for only one tenth of these bands. The former quantities (E{sup *}, I, {pi}) can only be determined via the linking gamma-transitions between the superdeformed (sd) and the normally deformed (nd) states. Within the framework of this thesis, we have investigated the Hg{sup 192} nucleus in order to establish E{sup *}, I and {pi}. This nucleus is predicted to be doubly magic at superdeformation and hence is taken as a reference in the mass {approx} 190 region. The experiment was carried out at Strasbourg using the Euroball-IV array and the vivitron accelerator. The obtained results are not convincing and seem to be at the limit of the performances of Euroball. Next generation of arrays will abandon the Compton-shields and use tracking concept to reconstruct the trajectories of incident photons, and therefore we expect a huge increase of efficiency. The second part of this work was focused on the research and development work for the AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) project. We have performed simulations with the GEANT-4 code and developed tracking methods to reconstruct pair-creation events. The full AGATA will be operational around 2015 and will enhance by around two orders of magnitude the observational limits. (author)
System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology
Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.
Schmid, Florian; Schlindwein, Vera
2016-07-01
While nascent oceanic lithosphere at slow to fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MOR) is relatively well studied, much less is known about the lithospheric structure and properties at ultraslow MORs. Here we present microearthquake data from a 1 year ocean bottom seismometer deployment at the amagmatic, oblique supersegment of the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. A refraction seismic experiment was performed to constrain upper lithosphere P-velocities and results were used to construct a 1D velocity model for earthquake location. Earthquake foci were located individually and subsequently relocated relative to each other to sharpen the image of seismically active structures. Frequent earthquake activity extends to 31 km beneath the seafloor, indicating an exceptionally thick brittle lithosphere and an undulating brittle-ductile transition that implies significant variations in the along-axis thermal structure of the lithosphere. We observe a strong relation between petrology, microseismicity distribution, and topography along the ridge axis: Peridotite-dominated areas associate with deepest hypocenters, vast volumes of lithosphere that deforms aseismically as a consequence of alteration, and the deepest axial rift valley. Areas of basalt exposure correspond to shallower hypocenters, shallower and more rugged axial seafloor. Focal mechanisms deviate from pure extension and are spatially variable. Earthquakes form an undulating band of background seismicity and do not delineate discrete detachment faults as common on slow spreading ridges. Instead, the seismicity band sharply terminates to the south, immediately beneath the rift boundary. Considering the deep alteration, large steep boundary faults might be present but are entirely aseismic.
Shimada, Mitsuhiro; Tagami, Shingo; Matsumoto, Takuma; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R; Yahiro, Masanobu
2016-01-01
We perform simultaneous analysis of (1) matter radii, (2) $B(E2; 0^+ \\rightarrow 2^+ )$ transition probabilities, and (3) excitation energies, $E(2^+)$ and $E(4^+)$, for $^{24-40}$Mg by using the beyond mean-field (BMF) framework with angular-momentum-projected configuration mixing with respect to the axially symmetric $\\beta_2$ deformation with infinitesimal cranking. The BMF calculations successfully reproduce all of the data for $r_{\\rm m}$, $B(E2)$, and $E(2^+)$ and $E(4^+)$, indicating that it is quite useful for data analysis, particularly for low-lying states. We also discuss the absolute value of the deformation parameter $\\beta_2$ deduced from measured values of $B(E2)$ and $r_{\\rm m}$. This framework makes it possible to investigate the effects of $\\beta_2$ deformation, the change in $\\beta_2$ due to restoration of rotational symmetry, $\\beta_2$ configuration mixing, and the inclusion of time-odd components by infinitesimal cranking. Under the assumption of axial deformation and parity conservation,...
Shimada, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Shin; Tagami, Shingo; Matsumoto, Takuma; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Yahiro, Masanobu
2016-06-01
We perform simultaneous analysis of (1) matter radii, (2) B (E 2 ;0+→2+) transition probabilities, and (3) excitation energies, E (2+) and E (4+) , for Mg-4024 by using the beyond-mean-field (BMF) framework with angular-momentum-projected configuration mixing with respect to the axially symmetric β2 deformation with infinitesimal cranking. The BMF calculations successfully reproduce all of the data for rm,B (E 2 ) , and E (2+) and E (4+) , indicating that it is quite useful for data analysis; particularly for low-lying states. We also discuss the absolute value of the deformation parameter β2 deduced from measured values of B (E 2 ) and rm. This framework makes it possible to investigate the effects of β2 deformation, the change in β2 due to restoration of rotational symmetry, β2 configuration mixing, and the inclusion of time-odd components by infinitesimal cranking. Under the assumption of axial deformation and parity conservation, we clarify which effect is important for each of the three measurements and propose the kinds of BMF calculations that are practical for each of the three kinds of observables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Svenonius
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Many languages have specialized locative words or morphemes translating roughly into words like ‘front,’ ‘back,’ ‘top,’ ‘bottom,’ ‘side,’ and so on. Often, these words are used instead of more specialized adpositions to express spatial meanings corresponding to ‘behind,’ ‘above,’ and so on. I argue, on the basis of a cross-linguistic survey of such expressions, that in many cases they motivate a syntactic category which is distinct from both N and P, which I call AxPart for ‘Axial Part’; I show how the category relates to the words which instantiate it, and how the meaning of the construction is derived from the combination of P[lace] elements, AxParts, and the lexical material which expresses them.
Unsteady Flows in Axial Turbomachines
Marble, F. E.; Rannie, W. D.
1957-01-01
Of the various unsteady flows that occur in axial turbomachines certain asymmetric disturbances, of wave length large in comparison with blade spacing, have become understood to a certain extent. These disturbances divide themselves into two categories: self-induced oscillations and force disturbances. A special type of propagating stall appears as a self-induced disturbance; an asymmetric velocity profile introduced at the compressor inlet constitutes a forced disturbance. Both phenomena have been treated from a unified theoretical point of view in which the asymmetric disturbances are linearized and the blade characteristics are assumed quasi-steady. Experimental results are in essential agreement with this theory wherever the limitations of the theory are satisfied. For the self-induced disturbances and the more interesting examples of the forced disturbances, the dominant blade characteristic is the dependence of total pressure loss, rather than the turning angle, upon the local blade inlet angle.
Induced axial chirality in biocatalytic asymmetric ketone reduction.
Agudo, Rubén; Roiban, Gheorghe-Doru; Reetz, Manfred T
2013-02-06
Catalytic asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones of type 4-alkylidene cyclohexanone with formation of the corresponding axially chiral R-configurated alcohols (up to 99% ee) was achieved using alcohol dehydrogenases, whereas chiral transition-metal catalysts fail. Reversal of enantioselectivity proved to be possible by directed evolution based on saturation mutagenesis (up to 98% ee (S)). Utilization of ketone with a vinyl bromide moiety allows respective R- and S-alcohols to be exploited as key compounds in Pd-catalyzed cascade reactions.
Axial range of conjugate adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy
Paudel, Hari P; Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas
2015-01-01
We describe an adaptive optics technique for two-photon microscopy in which the deformable mirror used for aberration compensation is positioned in a plane conjugate to the plane of the aberration. We demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment that this technique yields a large field of view advantage in comparison to standard pupil-conjugate adaptive optics. Further, we show that the extended field of view in conjugate AO is maintained over a relatively large axial translation of the deformable mirror with respect to the conjugate plane. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and prospects for the conjugate AO technique in two-photon biological microscopy.
Dávila, A.; Márquez, S.; Landgrave, E.; Vázquez, Z.; Vera, K.; Caudillo, C.
2015-06-01
A computerized system for real-time displacement visualization using carrier fringes in an electronic speckle in-plane sensitive interferometer allows force calibration for micro-displacement analysis of rat bones and verification of axial loading conditions. Once the force has been calibrated and the load is applied along the bone axis, the difference-of-phase method is used to obtain the phase map, which after phase unwrapping, allows the evaluation of the displacements produced by the bone deformation. The proposed method avoids common loading mistakes using first carrier fringes to assure that the loads are within the measuring capabilities of the in-plane interferometer and the Carré phase-stepping method to compensate for linear phase step miscalibration. The experimental results obtained with the calibration of loading forces and axial loading verification show the advantages of the system proposed here over a system which uses a cantilever configuration to make a similar bone deformation analysis.
Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis
Machado, P.M.
2016-01-01
This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment
Simultaneous Optical Measurements of Axial and Tangential Steady-State Blade Deflections
Kurkov, Anatole P.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.
1999-01-01
Currently, the majority of fiber-optic blade instrumentation is being designed and manufactured by aircraft-engine companies for their own use. The most commonly employed probe for optical blade deflection measurements is the spot probe. One of its characteristics is that the incident spot on a blade is not fixed relative to the blade, but changes depending on the blade deformation associated with centrifugal and aerodynamic loading. While there are geometrically more complicated optical probe designs in use by different engine companies, this paper offers an alternate solution derived from a probe-mount design feature that allows one to change the probe axial position until the incident spot contacts either a leading or a trailing edge. By tracing the axial position of either blade edge one is essentially extending the deflection measurement to two dimensions, axial and tangential. The blade deflection measurements were obtained during a wind tunnel test of a fan prototype.
Auchter, Neal C.; Romans, Brian W.; Hubbard, Stephen M.
2016-07-01
Slope sediments on passive and active margins deform and fail across a broad range of scales ranging from loading and sediment remobilization near the sediment-water interface to submarine landslides and mass movements that incorporate significant volumes of slope deposits. Deformational styles are characterized by updip extension and downdip compressional features that occur above a detachment surface. Conditions for failure and deformation include the presence of weak layer(s) that serve as a detachment surface, competency contrasts that allow for detachment and downslope movement, deformation above a detachment surface, and a triggering mechanism(s) that initiates failure. Slope failure processes and products are well documented at scales resolvable by seismic-reflection surveys and in instances of extensive downslope failure, but the processes and products associated with intermediate-scale slope deformation are poorly understood. Intrastratal deformation is defined as stratigraphically isolated zones of deformation bounded above and below by concordant and undeformed strata. In this study, outcrop examples of intrastratal deformation from the Upper Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation are used to elucidate the influence of depositional architecture on slope deformation. The facies distribution associated with compensational stacking of lobe deposits is shown to have a first-order control on the location and style of deformation. Detachment planes that form in mudstone deposits associated with lobe fringe and interlobe deposits are spatially limited and deformation is restricted to interbedded sandstone and mudstone associated with off-axial lobe positions. Downslope translation was arrested by stratigraphic buttresses associated with more sandstone-prone axial deposits. Emplacement of a regionally extensive mass transport deposit is interpreted as the triggering mechanism for contemporaneous intrastratal deformation of > 60 m of underlying stratigraphy. A vertical
Deformations of crystal frameworks
Borcea, Ciprian S
2011-01-01
We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.
Axial dependence of optical weak measurements in the critical region
Araujo, Manoel P; Maia, Gabriel G
2015-01-01
The interference between optical beams of different polarizations plays a fundamental role in reproducing the optical analog of the electron spin weak measurement. The extraordinary point in optical weak measurements is represented by the possibility to estimate with great accuracy the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift by measuring the distance between the peak of the outgoing beams for two opposite rotation angles of the polarizers located before and after the dielectric block. Starting from the numerical calculation of the GH shift, which clearly shows a frequency crossover for incidence near to the critical angle, we present a detailed study of the interference between s and p polarized waves in the critical region. This allows to determine in which conditions it is possible to avoid axial deformations and reproduce the GH curves. In view of a possible experimental implementation, we give the expected weak measurement curves for Gaussian lasers of different beam waist sizes propagating through borosilicate (BK7) an...
Study on Constitutive Model for Root System of Korshinsk peashrub in Axial Tension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-jian Feng
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Constitutive model for root system of Korshinsk peashrub (Caragana korshinskii Kom. in axial tension is an important tool for analyzing the mechanism of soil reinforcement of root system. This model enables a mechanical analysis on strength and deformation of root system and root-soil complex. We carried out axial tension test of root system of Korshinsk peashrub in this paper and discussed the stress-strain relation. Based on the experimental results, the constitutive model for root system of Korshinsk peashrub in axial tension was established. Results showed that: (1 When the strain was smaller than 4%, the stress-strain relation was linear for single root, corresponding to linear elastic deformation; when the strain was larger than 4%, the single root underwent plastic deformation; (2 Elastic modulus of the root system was related to root diameter by a power function. The smaller the root diameter, the higher the elastic modulus was; (3 Root diameter was related to the ultimate tensile strength of root also by a power function. The smaller the root diameter, the higher the ultimate tensile strength of root was; (4 The tensile stress-strain curve of the root system divided into ascending segment and descending segment, which was fitted by parabola and curvilinear model, respectively.
Axial-torsional fatigue: A study of tubular specimen thickness effects
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1990-01-01
A room-temperature experimental program was conducted on AISI type 316 stainless steel to determine the effect of wall thickness on the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life of thin-wall, tubular, axial-torsional fatigue specimens. The following experimental variables were examined in this study: the depth of the surface work-hardened layer produced in specimen machining, and the effects of strain range and axial-torsional strain phasing. Tubular fatigue specimens were fabricated with wall thicknesses of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. One as-fabricated specimen from each wall thickness was sectioned for microstructural examination and microhardness measurement. A specimen of each wall thickness was tested at each of three conditions - high strain range in-phase, low strain range in-phase, and low strain range out-of-phase - for a total of nine axial-torsional fatigue experiments. The machining-induced work-hardened zone, as a percentage of the gage section material, was found to have a minimal effect on both deformation behavior and fatigue life. Also, little or no variation in fatigue life or deformation behavior as a function of wall thickness was observed. Out-of-phase fatigue tests displayed shorter fatigue lives and more cyclic hardening than in-phase tests.
Computational Study of Axial Fatigue for Peripheral Nitinol Stents
Meoli, Alessio; Dordoni, Elena; Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo
2014-07-01
Despite their success as primary treatment for vascular diseases, Nitinol peripheral stents are still affected by complications related to fatigue failure. Hip and knee movements during daily activities produce large and cyclic deformations of the superficial femoral artery, that concomitant to the effects of pulsatile blood pressure, may cause fatigue failure in the stent. Fatigue failure typically occurs in cases of very extended lesions, which often require the use of two or more overlapping stents. In this study, finite element models were used to study the fatigue behavior of Nitinol stents when subjected to cyclic axial compression in different conditions. A specific commercial Nitinol stent was chosen for the analysis and subjected to cyclic axial compression typical of the femoral vascular region. Three different configurations were investigated: stent alone, stent deployed in a tube, and two overlapping stents deployed in a tube. Results confirm that stent oversizing has an influence in determining both the mean and amplitude strains induced in the stent and plays an important role in determining the fatigue response of Nitinol stents. In case of overlapping stents, numerical results suggest higher amplitude strains concentrate in the region close to the overlapping portion where the abrupt change in stiffness causes higher cyclic compression. These findings help to explain the high incidence of stent fractures observed in various clinical trials located close to the overlapping portion.
MacTaggart, Jason N; Phillips, Nicholas Y; Lomneth, Carol S; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Bowen, Robert; Baxter, B Timothy; Johanning, Jason; Longo, G Matthew; Desyatova, Anastasia S; Moulton, Michael J; Dzenis, Yuris A; Kamenskiy, Alexey V
2014-07-18
High failure rates of femoropopliteal artery reconstruction are commonly attributed to complex 3D arterial deformations that occur with limb movement. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for accurate assessment of these deformations. Custom-made stainless-steel markers were deployed into 5 in situ cadaveric femoropopliteal arteries using fluoroscopy. Thin-section CT images were acquired with each limb in the straight and acutely bent states. Image segmentation and 3D reconstruction allowed comparison of the relative locations of each intra-arterial marker position for determination of the artery's bending, torsion and axial compression. After imaging, each artery was excised for histological analysis using Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining. Femoropopliteal arteries deformed non-uniformly with highly localized deformations in the proximal superficial femoral artery, and between the adductor hiatus and distal popliteal artery. The largest bending (11±3-6±1 mm radius of curvature), twisting (28±9-77±27°/cm) and axial compression (19±10-30±8%) were registered at the adductor hiatus and the below knee popliteal artery. These deformations were 3.7, 19 and 2.5 fold more severe than values currently reported in the literature. Histology demonstrated a distinct sub-adventitial layer of longitudinally oriented elastin fibers with intimal thickening in the segments with the largest deformations. This endovascular intra-arterial marker technique can quantify the non-uniform 3D deformations of the femoropopliteal artery during knee flexion without disturbing surrounding structures. We demonstrate that 3D arterial bending, torsion and compression in the flexed lower limb are highly localized and are substantially more severe than previously reported.
New Anomaly of the Axial-Vector Current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Han-Xin
2001-01-01
By computing the axial-vector current operator equation, we find the anomalous axial-vector curl equation besides the well-known anomalous axial-vector divergence equation (the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly) and discuss its implication.``
Growth-induced axial buckling of a slender elastic filament embedded in an isotropic elastic matrix
O'Keeffe, Stephen G.
2013-11-01
We investigate the problem of an axially loaded, isotropic, slender cylinder embedded in a soft, isotropic, outer elastic matrix. The cylinder undergoes uniform axial growth, whilst both the cylinder and the surrounding elastic matrix are confined between two rigid plates, so that this growth results in axial compression of the cylinder. We use two different modelling approaches to estimate the critical axial growth (that is, the amount of axial growth the cylinder is able to sustain before it buckles) and buckling wavelength of the cylinder. The first approach treats the filament and surrounding matrix as a single 3-dimensional elastic body undergoing large deformations, whilst the second approach treats the filament as a planar, elastic rod embedded in an infinite elastic foundation. By comparing the results of these two approaches, we obtain an estimate of the foundation modulus parameter, which characterises the strength of the foundation, in terms of the geometric and material properties of the system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deformable Nanolaminate Optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K
2006-05-12
We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.
Canny edge-based deformable image registration
Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping
2017-02-01
This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.
Permanent Deformation of Highway Subgrade Soils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and preliminary testing performed on a subgrade soil, a testing methodology for repeated load testing was established. This testing protocol was verified using data from subgrade soil. The successful application of this testing protocol on the two subgrade soils proves that it can provide consistent, reliable results. A power model was used to fit the accumulated axial strain over load repetitions with the first hundred cycles excluded from the data set. A number of factors influencing the accumulation of permanent deformation were investigated. The results indicate that confining pressure, load frequency and density are relatively minor contributors to deformation accumulation. Moisture content, deviator stress and first cycle freeze-thaw are major factors governing permanent deformation. The effects of stress history resulting from staged loading are dependent upon the level of applied deviator stress. The interpretation of the rich and consistent deformation data derived from this testing protocol provide valuable insights for transportation engineers relative to the design, construction, operation and maintenance strategy of highway subgrades as well as railway roadbeds.
Self-deformation in a dc driven helium jet micro discharge
Xu, Shaofeng
2016-01-01
We report on the experimental observation of three dimensional self-deformation in an atmospheric micro discharge of the helium microjet through a tube into the ambient air upon a water electrode. The geometry of the discharge system is axial symmetric. While decreasing the discharge current, three dimensional collective motion of plasma filaments are directly observed. The three dimensional configuration of the discharge self changed from an axial symmetrical horn to a rectangular horn when the water acts as a cathode.
Self-deformation in a direct current driven helium jet micro discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X., E-mail: xxzhong@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks and Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2016-01-15
We report on the experimental observation of three dimensional self-deformation in an atmospheric micro discharge of the helium microjet through a tube into the ambient air upon a water electrode. The geometry of the discharge system is axial symmetric. While decreasing the discharge current, three dimensional collective motion of plasma filaments is directly observed. The three dimensional configuration of the discharge self changed from an axial symmetrical horn to a rectangular horn when the water acts as a cathode.
Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography
Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin
2016-01-01
Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...
Axial thermal rotation of slender rods.
Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa
2011-05-06
Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain's axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.
How to diagnose axial spondyloarthritis early
Rudwaleit, M.; van der Heijde, D.; Khan, M.; Braun, J.; Sieper, J.
2004-01-01
Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP), the leading symptom of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), precedes the development of radiographic sacroiliitis, sometimes by many years.
Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaspiris Angelos
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.
Numerical simulation of axial flow compressors.
Jesuino Takachi Tomita
2002-01-01
This work deals with the numerical simulation of axial flow compressors, from design to performance prediction. The stage performance prediction uses the meanline flow properties. Stage-stacking is used to analyse a multi-stage compressor. A computer program, written in FORTRAN, was developed and is able to design an axial flow compressor given air mass flow, total pressure ratio, overall efficiency and design speed. All geometrical data relevant to the compressor performance prediction is ca...
Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang
2002-01-01
It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.
Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings
Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2017-04-01
The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drives for diesel engines by capturing both their spatial periodicity and axial motion. The Method of Varying Amplitudes is employed in the analysis. It is shown that the compound wave traveling in the axially moving periodic string comprises many components with different frequencies and wavenumbers. This is in contrast to non-moving periodic structures, for which all components of the corresponding compound wave feature the same frequency. Due to this "multi-frequency" character of the wave motion, the conventional notion of frequency band-gaps appears to be not applicable for the moving periodic strings. Thus, for such structures, by frequency band-gaps it is proposed to understand frequency ranges in which the primary component of the compound wave attenuates. Such frequency band-gaps can be present for a moving periodic string, but only if its axial velocity is lower than the transverse wave speed, and, the higher the axial velocity, the narrower the frequency band-gaps. The revealed effects could be of potential importance for applications, e.g. they indicate that due to spatial inhomogeneity, oscillations of axially moving periodic chains always involve a multitude of frequencies.
An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law
Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S
2015-01-01
The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pena Arteaga, D.
2007-06-25
Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)
High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors
Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.
2010-02-23
An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavrov Kirill
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The hyperelastic orthotropic material model is proposed to describe the nonlinear behavior of concrete under monotonic multiaxial loading with taking into account the tension-compression anisotropy. The orthotropy is introduced for the correct description of concrete cracking. The hyperelasticity provides unconditional thermodynamical consistency and advantages in numerical solving of boundary value problems. Identification of model parameters is based on four experimental deformation diagrams of concrete: axial stress - axial strain and axial stress - transverse strain under uniaxial tension and compression. The results of the hyperelastic orthotropic model are compared with Karpenko’s orthotropic model and experimental data for multiaxial loading.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha
2005-03-01
Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.
Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy
2016-09-01
We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.
Fluctuations as stochastic deformation
Kazinski, P. O.
2008-04-01
A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.
Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...
Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter
2016-06-14
An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Mingxin, E-mail: mingxin.huang@arcelormittal.com [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E.J. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Bouaziz, Olivier [ArcelorMittal Research, Voie Romaine-BP30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Zwaag, Sybrand van der [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)
2009-07-15
A new unified description for the steady state deformation stress in single and polycrystalline metals and for various deformation conditions is presented. The new formulation for dislocation controlled deformation stems from the field of irreversible thermodynamics. The model applies to conditions of dynamic recovery as well as dynamic recrystallization and has been validated for constant strain rate and creep loading conditions. Unlike existing approaches, the new model captures transitions between deformation mechanisms within a single formulation. For conditions of dynamic recrystallization, the average dislocation density is found to be a function of the shear strain rate and a term combining the dislocation climb velocity and the grain boundary velocity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Songqing; Li Yongchi; Hu Xiuzhang; Zheng Jijia
2000-01-01
The Initial Imperfection Amplified Criterion is applied to investigate the geometric nonlinear dynamic buckling of statically preloaded ring-stiffened cylindrical shells under axial fluid-solid impact. Tak ing account of the effects of large deformation and initial geometric imperfection, the governing equations are obtained by the Galerkin method and solved by the Runge-Kutta method. The effects of static preloading (uniform external radial pressure) on the buckling features and the load-carrying ability of ring-stiffened cy lindrical shells against axial impact are discussed.
Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.
Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U
1993-12-15
Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features.
Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, F.
1996-12-01
The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.
Soft-impact dynamics of deformable bodies
Andreaus, Ugo; Chiaia, Bernardino; Placidi, Luca
2013-03-01
Systems constituted by impacting beams and rods of non-negligible mass are often encountered in many applications of engineering practice. The impact between two rigid bodies is an intrinsically indeterminate problem due to the arbitrariness of the velocities after the instantaneous impact and implicates an infinite value of the contact force. The arbitrariness of after-impact velocities is solved by releasing the impenetrability condition as an internal constraint of the bodies and by allowing for elastic deformations at contact during an impact of finite duration. In this paper, the latter goal is achieved by interposing a concentrate spring between a beam and a rod at their contact point, simulating the deformability of impacting bodies at the interaction zones. A reliable and convenient method for determining impact forces is also presented. An example of engineering interest is carried out: a flexible beam that impacts on an axially deformable strut. The solution of motion under a harmonic excitation of the beam built-in base is found in terms of transverse and axial displacements of the beam and rod, respectively, by superimposition of a finite number of modal contributions. Numerical investigations are performed in order to examine the influence of the rigidity of the contact spring and of the ratio between the first natural frequencies of the beam and the rod, respectively, on the system response, namely impact velocity, maximum displacement, spring stretching and contact force. Impact velocity diagrams, nonlinear resonance curves and phase portraits are presented to determine regions of periodic motion with impacts and the appearance of chaotic solutions, and parameter ranges where the functionality of the non-structural element is at risk.
Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography
Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin
2016-12-01
Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.
Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.
Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin
2016-12-01
Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.
Reducing axial mixing in flotation columns
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Taweel, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Moharam, M.R.; Hassan, T.A. [Al Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); El Mofty, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)
1995-10-01
The axial mixing characteristics of a pilot-scale flotation column were investigated with the objective of identifying means to mitigate the extent of axial mixing that adversely affects its grade/recovery performance. A wide range of design and operating conditions wa investigated and the experimental results, obtained using the dynamic response method, were analyzed using three axial mixing models. The dynamic response of the column can best be described using the axial dispersion model. The results obtained suggest that the value of the axial dispersion coefficient, E{sub L}, can be significantly reduced by judicial selection of hydrodynamic conditions and/or the use of column inserts that suppress the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to the operation of conventional flotation columns. Up to 40% reduction in the value of E{sub L} was thus obtained by using spargers that produce more uniform bubble sizes, while up to 30% reductions were obtained by controlling the residual frother concentration. 33 refs., 7 figs.
Axial-torsional fatigue - A study of tubular specimen thickness effects
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1993-01-01
Experiments were carried out at room temperature on AISI type 316 stainless steel to determine the effect of wall thickness on the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life of thin-wall tubular axial-torsional fatigue specimens. The experimental variables examined included the depth of the surface work-hardened layer produced in specimen machining, and the effects of strain range and axial-torsional strain phasing. Tubular fatigue specimens had wall thicknesses of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. One as-fabricated specimen from each wall thickness was sectioned for microstructural examination and microhardness measurement. A specimen of each wall thickness was tested in axial-torsional fatigue experiments for each of the three conditions: high strain range in-phase, low strain range in-phase, and low strain range out-of-phase. The machining-induced work-hardened zone, as a percentage of the gage section material, was found to have a minimal effect on both deformation behavior and fatigue life. Out-of-phase fatigue tests displayed shorter fatigue lives and more cyclic hardening than in-phase tests.
Axial offset as measure of stability of light water nuclear reactor during capacity maneuvering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark V. Nikolsky
2015-03-01
Full Text Available High reliability and security of power unit are required during operation of power unit while maneuvering. They depend on the stability of reactor when transition from one power level to another. The axial offset is a quantitative measure of the reactor stability. It is shown that change of the active core inlet coolant temperature yields an uncontrollable disturbance affecting the axial offset and therefore the reactor stability. To insure the reactor stability the compromise-combined power control method is proposed. Analysis of the influence of temperature of coolant at the magnitude of the axial offset for different regulatory programs is carried out. The change in the depth of immersion of regulators in the active zone for different regulatory programs when the reactor plant daily capacity maneuver is studied.
The Classical Thermodynamics of Deformable Materials
McLellan, A. G.
2011-02-01
Part I. The Mathematical Foundations of Finite Strain Theory: 1. Introduction; 2. Mathematical description of homogeneous deformations; 3. Infinitesimal deformation; 4. Transformations describing deformations of a material medium; 5. Forces; 6. Boundary conditions and work; 7. Another unique factorisation of D; 8. Virtual work; 9. Transformation of cartesian tensors; Part II. Non-Hydrostatic Thermodynamics: 10. The thermodynamic basis; 11. Thermodynamic relations; 12. Thermodynamic functions, equations of state; 13. Thermodynamic quantities, definitions, and geometrical situation; 14. Thermal expansion coefficients; 15. Specific heats; 16. Elastic stiffness and compliances; 17. Tensorial forms for the elastic stiffness and compliance matrices; 18. The effects of symmetry on the thermodynamic properties of crystals; 19. Equilibrium and stability conditions for thermodynamic systems; 20. Equilibrium conditions for diffusion in phases under non-hydrostatic stresses; 21. The equilibrium of a stressed solid in contact with a solution of the solid; 22. The thermodynamic stability of a phase; 23. Discussion of the elastic stability conditions; 24. Phase transitions and instability; 25. An example of a phase transition involving a simple shear; 26. Limiting the values of thermodynamic quantities at an instability; 27. The a-β quartz transition; 28. The thermodynamic theory of the growth of Dauphiné twinning in quartz under stress; 29. The tetragonal/cubic ferroelectric transition of barium titanate; References; Index.
Intracrystalline deformation of calcite
de Bresser, Hans
1991-01-01
It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where 'd
The Spherical Deformation Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobolth, Asgar
2003-01-01
Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...
Schwerdtfeger, W; Wimmer, K; Habs, D; Mach, H; Rodriguez, T R; Bildstein, V; Egido, J L; Fraile, L M; Gernhäuser, R; Hertenberger, R; Heyde, K; Hoff, P; Hübel, H; Köster, U; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Lutter, R; Morgan, T; Ring, P
2008-01-01
The 1789 keV level in 30Mg was identified as the first excited 0^+ state by measuring its E0 transition to the ground state. The measured small value of rho^2(E0,0^+_2 --> 0^+_1) = 5.7(14) x 10^-3 implies a very small mixing of competing configurations with largely different intrinsic quadrupole deformation near N=20. Axially symmetric Beyond-Mean-Field configuration mixing calculations identify the ground state of 30Mg to be based on neutron configurations below the N=20 shell closure, while the excited 0^+ state mainly consists of a two neutrons excitated into the nu1 f_{7/2} orbital. Using a two-level model, a mixing amplitude of 0.08(4) can be derived.
Improving the lattice axial vector current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics
2015-11-15
For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.
Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator
Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.
Axial symmetry and conformal Killing vectors
Mars, M; Mars, Marc; Senovilla, Jose M.M.
1993-01-01
Axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformal symmetry are studied and it is shown that, if there is no further conformal symmetry, the axial Killing vector and the conformal Killing vector must commute. As a direct consequence, in conformally stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes, no restriction is made by assuming that the axial symmetry and the conformal timelike symmetry commute. Furthermore, we prove that in axisymmetric spacetimes with another symmetry (such as stationary and axisymmetric or cylindrically symmetric spacetimes) and a conformal symmetry, the commutator of the axial Killing vector with the two others mush vanish or else the symmetry is larger than that originally considered. The results are completely general and do not depend on Einstein's equations or any particular matter content.
Atlanto-axial infection after acupuncture.
Robinson, A; Lind, C R P; Smith, R J; Kodali, V
2015-12-11
A 67-year-old man presented with neck cellulitis following acupuncture for cervical spondylosis. Blood cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Increased neck pain and bacteraemia prompted MRI, which showed atlanto-axial septic arthritis without signs of infection of the tissues between the superficial cellulitic area and the atlanto-axial joint, thus making direct extension of infection unlikely. It is more likely that haematogenous spread of infection resulted in seeding in the atlanto-axial joint, with the proximity of the arthritis and acupuncture site being coincidental. Acupuncture is a treatment option for some indolent pain conditions. As such, acupuncture services are likely to be more frequently utilised. A history of acupuncture is rarely requested by the admitting doctor and seldom offered voluntarily by the patient, especially where the site of infection due to haematogenous spread is distant from the needling location. Awareness of infectious complications following acupuncture can reduce morbidity through early intervention.
Improving the lattice axial vector current
Horsley, R; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Zanotti, J M
2015-01-01
For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order $O(a)$ effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Dong
2013-02-01
Full Text Available According to thermo-elastic deformation theory, take the temperature field analysis results of hydrostatic pressure mechanical seal as volume load to resolve the problem of thermal-structure coupling deformation of rotating and stationary rings in ANSYS software. The distribution laws of thermal strain, thermal stress and thermal-structure coupling deformation are obtained. The effects of working, material and structural parameters on axial, radial thermal deformation and deformation taper of the end faces are discussed in detail, and the main affecting factors are found out. Measures and structural constraint programs to control the thermal deformation are put forward. Base on the theory of thermal deformation compensation, the rotating and stationary rings are optimized, and the thermal deformation before and after their optimization are solved respectively and analyzed comparatively to verify the feasibility of the optimization program.
Deformations of Superconformal Theories
Cordova, Clay; Intriligator, Kenneth
2016-01-01
We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in $d \\geq 3$ dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformat...
Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E
2003-09-01
Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.
Axial Nucleon form factors from lattice QCD
Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Harraud, P A; Guichon, P; Jansen, K; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M
2010-01-01
We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length $L=2.1$ fm and $L=2.8$ fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely $a=0.089$ fm, $a=0.070$ fm and $a=0.056$ fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.
Optimization of Axial Intensity Point Spread Function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Haifeng; GAN Fuxi; CHEN Zhongyu
2001-01-01
It is known that for the converged laser beam, the axial intensity distribution corresponds to a Gaussian curve, that is, the intensity on the focal plane is the peak intensity. When it defocuses, the intensity would decrease rapidly. In optical data storage, for instance, we expect the intensity within a certain distance to be almost equal. In this paper, we propose to use a pure phase superresolution apodizer to optimize the axial intensity distribution of the converged laser beam and at the same time improve the resolution. The intensity point spread function remains almost identical in a wide range within the focal depth.
«FLARES» IN AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sh. F. Erdes
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.
Survey of Reflection-Asymmetric Nuclear Deformations
Olsen, Erik; Cao, Yuchen; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas
2016-09-01
Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking it is possible for a nucleus to have a deformed shape in its ground state. It is theorized that atoms whose nuclei have reflection-asymmetric or pear-like deformations could have non-zero electric dipole moments (EDMs). Such a trait would be evidence of CP-violation, a feature that goes beyond the Standard Model of Physics. It is the purpose of this project to predict which nuclei exhibit a reflection-asymmetric deformation and which of those would be the best candidates for an EDM measuring experiment. Using nuclear Density Functional Theory along with the new computer code AxialHFB and massively parallel computing we calculated ground state nuclear properties for thousands of even-even nuclei across the nuclear chart: from light to superheavy and from stable to short-lived systems. Six different Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) were used to assess systematic errors in our calculations. These results are to be added to the website Massexplorer (http://massexplorer.frib.msu.edu/) which contains results from earlier mass table calculations and information on single quasiparticle energies.
Axial dipolar dynamo action in the Taylor-Green vortex.
Krstulovic, Giorgio; Thorner, Gentien; Vest, Julien-Piera; Fauve, Stephan; Brachet, Marc
2011-12-01
We present a numerical study of the magnetic field generated by the Taylor-Green vortex. We show that periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic realistic boundary conditions by prescribing the symmetries of the velocity and magnetic fields. This gives insight into some problems of central interest for dynamos: the possible effect of velocity fluctuations on the dynamo threshold, and the role of boundary conditions on the threshold and on the geometry of the magnetic field generated by dynamo action. In particular, we show that an axial dipolar dynamo similar to the one observed in a recent experiment can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the symmetries of the magnetic field. The nonlinear saturation is studied and a simple model explaining the magnetic Prandtl number dependence of the super- and subcritical nature of the dynamo transition is given.
Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals.
Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen
2014-07-16
Spin-polarized triangular graphene nanoflakes (t-GNFs) serve as ideal building blocks for the long-desired ferromagnetic graphene superlattices, but they are always assembled to planar structures which reduce its mechanical properties. Here, by joining t-GNFs in a spiral way, we propose one-dimensional graphene spirals (GSs) with superior mechanical properties and tunable electronic structures. We demonstrate theoretically the unique features of electron motion in the spiral lattice by means of first-principles calculations combined with a simple Hubbard model. Within a linear elastic deformation range, the GSs are nonmagnetic metals. When the axial tensile strain exceeds an ultimate strain, however, they convert to magnetic semiconductors with stable ferromagnetic ordering along the edges. Such strain-induced phase transition and tunable electron spin-polarization revealed in the GSs open a new avenue for spintronics devices.
Study on Interaction Relationship for Submarine Pipeline with Axial Corrosion Defects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yan-fei; LI Xin; ZHOU Jing; GUAN Jiong
2008-01-01
Corrosion is one of the main reasons to cause the operation accident of submarine oil and gas transmission pipelines. As the major corrosion pattern in submarine pipelines, the effects of corrosion clusters consisting of the adjacent corrosion defects on failure pressure are investigated through non-linear large-deformation finite element method. Typically, the failure behavior and limit strength of submarine pipeline with axial groove-groove corrosion defect pair exposed to internal pressure are analyzed. The effects of corrosion depth and axial spacing between a pair of corrosion defects on failure pressure are concluded. An interaction relationship for corrosion defects in pipelines, as well as prediction formulations for assessing the remaining strength of corroded pipelines are proposed. The expressions based on the proposed interaction relationship give more accurate results than the methods used in the existing design guidelines.
LOAD CARRYING CAPABILITY OF LIQUID FILLED CYLINDRICAL SHELL STRUCTURES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
QASIM H. SHAH
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Empty and water filled cylindrical Tin (Sn coated steel cans were loaded under axial compression at varying loading rates to study their resistance to withstand accidental loads. Compared to empty cans the water filled cans exhibit greater resistance to axially applied compression loads before a complete collapse. The time and load or stroke and load plots showed three significant load peaks related to three stages during loading until the cylinder collapse. First peak corresponds to the initial structural buckling of can. Second peak occurs when cylindrical can walls gradually come into full contact with water. The third peak shows the maximum load carrying capability of the structure where pressurized water deforms the can walls into curved shape until can walls fail under peak pressure. The collapse process of water filled cylindrical shell was further studied using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH technique in LSDYNA. Load peaks observed in the experimental work were successfully simulated which substantiated the experimental work.
Deformation change in light iridium nuclei from laser spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verney, D.; Le Blanc, F.; Obert, J.; Oms, J.; Puteaux, J.C.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. [IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Paris Sud-XI, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Cabaret, L.; Duong, H.T.; Pinard, J. [CNRS, Laboratoire Aime Cotton, Orsay Cedex (France); Crawford, J.E.; Lee, J.K.P. [McGill University, Physics Department, Montreal (Canada); Fricke, B.; Rashid, K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Genevey, J.; Ibrahim, F. [IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble Cedex (France); Huber, G.; Krieg, M.; Sebastian, V. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Le Scornet, G.; Lunney, D. [IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Paris Sud-XI, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, Orsay Cedex (France)
2006-12-15
Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron-deficient and stable Ir isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup installed at ISOLDE-CERN. The radioactive Ir atoms were obtained from successive decays of a mass-separated Hg beam deposited onto a carbon substrate after deceleration to 1kV and subsequently laser desorbed. A three-color, two-step resonant scheme was used to selectively ionize the desorbed Ir atoms. The hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) of the first transition of the ionization path 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 24}F{sub 9/2}{yields}5d{sup 7}6s6p{sup 6}F{sub 11/2} at 351.5nm were measured for {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and the stable {sup 191,193}Ir. The nuclear magnetic moments {mu}{sub I} and the spectroscopic quadrupole moments Q{sub s} were obtained from the HFS spectra and the change of the mean square charge radii from the IS measurements. The sign of {mu}{sub I} was experimentally determined for the first time for the masses 182{<=}A{<=}189 and the isomeric state {sup 186}Ir{sup m}. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments of {sup 182}Ir and {sup 183}Ir were measured also for the first time. A large mean square charge radius change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} and between {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} was observed corresponding to a sudden increase in deformation: from {beta}{sub 2}{approx_equal}+0.16 for the heavier group A = 193, 191, 189, 187 and 186m to {beta}{sub 2}{>=}+0.2 for the lighter group A=186g, 185, 184, 183 and 182. These results were analyzed in the framework of a microscopic treatment of an axial rotor plus one or two quasiparticle(s). This sudden deformation change is associated with a change in the proton state that describes the odd-nuclei ground state or that participates in the coupling with the neutron in the odd-odd nuclei. This state is identified with the {pi}3/2 {sup +}[402 ] orbital for the heavier group and with the {pi}1/2{sup -}[541 ] orbital stemming from the 1h
Evans, D
1975-08-01
A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.
Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers
Encke, W.
1947-01-01
A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.
Excitation modes in non-axial nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A.; Ginnochio, J.N.
1990-01-01
Excitation modes of non-axial quadrupole shapes are investigated in the framework of interacting boson models. Both {gamma}-unstable and {gamma}-rigid nuclear shapes are considered for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 6 refs.
Ankylosing Spondylitis versus Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glintborg, Bente; Sørensen, Inge J; Østergaard, Mikkel
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To compare baseline disease activity and treatment effectiveness in biologic-naive patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who initiate tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment and to study the role of potential confounders...
Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2017-01-01
The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...
The Analysis of Fluid Pressure Impact on String Force and Deformation in Oil and Gas Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Baokui
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Fluid pressure is a crucial factor to tubular string strength and deformation in oil and gas wells, and it is the most difficult factor to deal with. When the string constrained by downhole tools, such as packers, action pattern of fluid on string is changed. Calculation methods of string stress and deformation given by engineering handbooks doesn’t distinguish these issues in detail. So mistakes are often made when these methods are used. Tangled concepts lead to large calculation error. In this paper, the influence of fluid pressure on string axial force and deformation, buoyancy treatment in packed condition, are discussed roundly both in vertical wells and directional wells. Practical calculating method of string axial force through the hook load is presented, and element buoyancy in different borehole trajectory is given. It is found that the traditional simplified buoyancy coefficient method, which is used to calculate string axial force and axial extension, can only be used in vertical wells with tubular string suspended freely, because in this condition buoyancy acts on the bottom of string. If the string is constrained by downhole tools, such as packer or anchor, buoyancy could not be treated as usual. In directional well the buoyancy not only changes string axial force but induces shear stress in string cross section. When calculating the influence of fluid on string, operation sequence and constraints from borehole and downhole tools should be considered comprehensively.
Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Jun; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun
2008-01-01
Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6x19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the other end, we established the boundary conditions for solving the model. In addition, we numerically simulated the stress and deformation of the wire, obtaining the deformation distribution of each wire within the wire rope under different laying directions.At the end, a tensile test of the 6x19 IWS wire rope was carried out and the results of simulation and experiment compared.
Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H
2010-01-19
Anterior tibial loading is a major factor involved in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanism during ski impact landing. We sought to investigate the direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact of intact knee joints without quadriceps activation. Twelve porcine knee specimens were procured. Four specimens were used as non-impact control while the remaining eight were mounted onto a material-testing system at 70 degrees flexion and subjected to simulated landing impact, which was successively repeated with incremental actuator displacement. Four specimens from the impacted group underwent pre-impact MRI for tibial plateau angle measurements while the other four were subjected to histology and microCT for cartilage morphology and volume assessment. The tibial plateau angles ranged from 29.4 to 38.8 degrees . There was a moderate linear relationship (Y=0.16X; R(2)=0.64; p<0.001) between peak axial impact compressive load (Y) and peak anterior tibial load (X). The anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group sustained surface cartilage fraying, superficial clefts and tidemark disruption, compared to the control group. MicroCT scans displayed visible cartilage deformation for both anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group. Due to the tibial plateau angle, increased axial impact compressive load can directly elevate anterior tibial load and hence contribute to ACL failure during simulated landing impact. Axial impact compressive load resulted in shear cartilage damage along anterior-posterior tibial plateau regions, due to its contribution to anterior tibial loading. This mechanism plays an important role in elevating ACL stress and cartilage deformation during impact landing.
Spatial fluctuations in transient creep deformation
Laurson, Lasse; Rosti, Jari; Koivisto, Juha; Miksic, Amandine; Alava, Mikko J.
2011-07-01
We study the spatial fluctuations of transient creep deformation of materials as a function of time, both by digital image correlation (DIC) measurements of paper samples and by numerical simulations of a crystal plasticity or discrete dislocation dynamics model. This model has a jamming or yielding phase transition, around which power law or Andrade creep is found. During primary creep, the relative strength of the strain rate fluctuations increases with time in both cases—the spatially averaged creep rate obeys the Andrade law epsilont ~ t - 0.7, while the time dependence of the spatial fluctuations of the local creep rates is given by Δepsilont ~ t - 0.5. A similar scaling for the fluctuations is found in the logarithmic creep regime that is typically observed for lower applied stresses. We review briefly some classical theories of Andrade creep from the point of view of such spatial fluctuations. We consider these phenomenological, time-dependent creep laws in terms of a description based on a non-equilibrium phase transition separating evolving and frozen states of the system when the externally applied load is varied. Such an interpretation is discussed further by the data collapse of the local deformations in the spirit of absorbing state/depinning phase transitions, as well as deformation-deformation correlations and the width of the cumulative strain distributions. The results are also compared with the order parameter fluctuations observed close to the depinning transition of the 2d linear interface model or the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson equation.
The effect of cross-link distributions in axially-ordered, cross-linked networks
Bennett, C. Brad; Kruczek, James; Rabson, D. A.; Matthews, W. Garrett; Pandit, Sagar A.
2013-07-01
Cross-linking between the constituent chains of biopolymers has a marked effect on their materials’ properties. In certain of these materials, such as fibrillar collagen, increases in cross-linking lead to an increase in the melting temperature. Fibrillar collagen is an axially-ordered network of cross-linked polymer chains exhibiting a broadened denaturation transition, which has been explained in terms of the successive denaturation with temperature of multiple species. We model axially-ordered, cross-linked materials as stiff chains with distinct arrangements of cross-link-forming sites. Simulations suggest that systems composed of chains with identical arrangements of cross-link-forming sites exhibit critical behavior. In contrast, systems composed of non-identical chains undergo a crossover. This model suggests that the arrangement of cross-link-forming sites may contribute to the broadening of the denaturation transition in fibrillar collagen.
Morozov, A. Yu.
2012-10-01
We briefly review problems arising in the study of the beta deformation, which turns out to be the most difficult element in a number of modern problems: the deviation of β from unity is connected with the "exit from the free-fermion point" in two-dimensional conformal theories, from the symmetric graviphoton field with ∈2 = -∈1 in instanton sums in four-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories, with the transition from matrix models to beta ensembles, from HOMFLY polynomials to superpolynomials in the Chern-Simons theory, from quantum groups to elliptic and hyperbolic algebras, and so on. We mainly attend to issues related to the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence and its possible generalizations.
Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure
Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James
2016-10-01
The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.
Extremely deformable structures
2015-01-01
Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...
The deformation and fracture of thick thermal barrier coatings
Gao, Husheng
Plasma-sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBCs) are being developed for thermal protection of diesel engine components in high temperature service. Comparing to thin thermal barrier coatings used in gas turbine industry, increased thickness causes some TTBCs failure to occur within the bulk of the coating materials and away from the interface. This necessitated the study of mechanical properties of the coating materials independent of the substrate. In order to enhance the performance and to predict the life of TTBCs, we have to understand the materials response under multiaxial stress states, the deformation mechanisms, failure criteria, and the constitutive relations. In this study, the deformation behavior, the deformation mechanisms, and the failure criteria were investigated. The results shows that under combined axial and shear loading, thin walled tubular specimens of ceramic coatings failed in one of two modes, a tensile failure perpendicular to the maximum principal stress when s1≥sTf or a shear failure through the thickness when s3≤sCf . Two apparatuses for in situ SEM torsion and compression testing were developed for deformation mechanisms investigation. The deformation mechanisms were identified as tensile microcracking, crack closing, and crack sliding. A model has been developed for the constitution relation of functionally graded TTBCs. It is shown that with a few simple experiments, this model can be used to predict the cyclic deformation behavior of the functionally graded TTBCs.
Deformation in nanocrystalline metals
Helena Van Swygenhoven; Julia R. Weertman
2006-01-01
It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic...
Masi, Alfonse T.
2014-01-01
Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hype...
Surface nanoscale axial photonics: Robust fabrication of high quality factor microresonators
Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y; Fini, J M; Liu, X; Monberg, E M; Taunay, T F
2011-01-01
Recently introduced Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP) makes it possible to fabricate high Q-factor microresonators and other photonic microdevices by dramatically small deformation of the optical fiber surface. To become a practical and robust technology, the SNAP platform requires methods enabling reproducible modification of the optical fiber radius at nanoscale. In this Letter, we demonstrate super-accurate fabrication of high Q-factor microresonators by nanoscale modification of the optical fiber radius and refractive index using the CO2 laser and the UV excimer laser beam exposures. The achieved fabrication accuracy is better than 2 angstroms in variation of the effective fiber radius.
Nonlinear Constitutive Equation for Green Sand Considering the Tri-axial Compression Behavior
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾攀; 孔劲
2004-01-01
The compression characteristics of green sand were investigated experimentally, including the squeezing and yielding during deformation. An expression was developed for the transient compression modulus of sand during compression. Based on the hypothesis put forward of the compression state, the differential equation for the nonlinear constitutive equation was deduced by introducing a move-yield potential function. The state constitutive equation under the tri-axial experiment is further studied according to the sand attributes, considering the differential form of Hooke's law and the Mohr-Coulomb condition. The related experiment data are applied to verify the proposed constitutive model of sand.
A Constitutive Model for Uni-axial Compaction of Non-adhesive Corn Stalk Powder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Dong; Sun Yanling
2004-01-01
In order to study mechanical behaviors of corn stalk powder during the compaction, the yield criterion for corn stalk powder is proposed with a plasticity theory. From the stress-strain curves of uni-axial compaction test for corn stalk powder, the constitutive model, in which the equations are modified by experiments on corn stalk powder, is adopted to describe plastic behaviors of powder, and is discussed based on the incremental theory and deformation theory. The numerical results agree well with the experimental ones.
Role of deformation on giant resonances within the QRPA approach and the Gogny force
Peru, S
2008-01-01
Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations have been performed, in which the same Gogny D1S effective force has been used for both the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov mean field and the QRPA approaches. Giant resonances calculated in deformed $^{26-28}$Si and $^{22-24}$Mg nuclei as well as in the spherical $^{30}$Si and $^{28}$Mg isotopes are presented. Theoretical results for isovector-dipole and isoscalar monopole, quadrupole, and octupole responses are presented and the impact of the intrinsic nuclear deformation is discussed.
Exotic octupole deformation in proton-rich Z=N nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takami, Satoshi; Yabana, K. [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Matsuo, M.
1998-03-01
We study static non-axial octupole deformations in proton-rich Z=N nuclei, {sup 64}Ge, {sup 68}Se, {sup 72}Kr, {sup 76}Sr, {sup 80}Zr and {sup 84}Mo, by using the Skyrme Hartree-Fock plus BCS method with no restrictions on the nuclear shape. The calculation predicts that the oblate ground state in {sup 68}Se is extremely soft for the Y{sub 33} triangular deformation, and that in {sup 80}Zr the low-lying local minimum state coexisting with the prolate ground state has the Y{sub 32} tetrahedral deformation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurdal, G.; Beausang, C. W.; Brenner, D. S.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Crider, B.; Heinz, A.; Williams, E.; Hartley, D. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Raabe, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Saladin, J. X.; Physics; Yale Univ.; Clark Univ.; Univ. of Richmond; United States Naval Academy; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Pittsburgh
2008-01-01
Internal conversion coefficients have been measured for transitions in both normal deformed and triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 167}Lu using the Gammasphere and ICE Ball spectrometers. The results for all in-band transitions are consistent with E2 multipolarity. Upper limits are determined for the internal conversion coefficients for linking transitions between TSD Band 2 and TSD Band 1, the n{sub w} = 1 and n{sub w} = 0 wobbling bands, respectively.
Detailing of deformation processes in polymeric crystals
Slutsker, A. I.; Vettegren', V. I.; Kulik, V. B.; Hilarov, V. L.; Polikarpov, Yu. I.; Karov, D. D.
2015-11-01
Structural changes in polymer crystals (polyethylene, polyimide, and others) have been studied using the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy methods under different influences: tensile loading along the chain molecule axis and heating from 90 to 350 K. An increase in the molecule axial length under loading and a decrease in the molecule axial length upon heating have been identified and measured using X-ray diffraction. A decrease in the skeletal vibration frequency during loading and heating has been identified and measured using Raman spectroscopy, which indicates an increase in the molecule contour length in both cases. A technique for determining the change in the polyethylene molecule contour length in the crystal from the measured change in the skeletal vibration frequency has been justified. The contributions of two components, namely, skeletal (carbon-carbon) bond stretching and the change (an increase during stretching and a decrease during heating) in the angle between skeletal bonds, to the longitudinal deformation of polyethylene crystals, have been quantitatively estimated. It has been shown that the negative thermal expansion (contraction) of the polymer crystal is caused by the dominant contribution of the decrease in the bond angle.
Electron states in quantum rings with structural distortions under axial or in-plane magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Planelles, J [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, Box 224, E-12080 Castello (Spain); Rajadell, F [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, Box 224, E-12080 Castello (Spain); Climente, J I [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, Box 224, E-12080 Castello (Spain)
2007-09-19
A comprehensive study of anisotropic quantum rings, QRs, subject to axial and in-plane magnetic field, both aligned and transverse to the anisotropy direction, is carried out. Elliptical QRs for a wide range of eccentricity values and also perfectly circular QRs including one or more barriers disturbing the QR current are considered. These models mimic anisotropic geometry deformations and mass diffusion occurring in the QR fabrication process. Symmetry considerations and simplified analytical models supply physical insight into the obtained numerical results. Our study demonstrates that, except for unusual extremely large eccentricities, QR geometry deformations only appreciably influence a few low-lying states, while the effect of barriers disturbing the QR current is stronger and affects all studied states to a similar extent. We also show that the response of the electron states to in-plane magnetic fields provides accurate information on the structural anisotropy.
Structure and properties of copper after large strain deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodak, Kinga; Molak, Rafal M.; Pakiela, Zbigniew
2010-05-15
Structure and properties of Cu in dependence on strain (from {epsilon}{proportional_to} 0.9 to {epsilon}{proportional_to} 15) during multi-axial compression processing at room temperature was investigated. The evolution of dislocation structure, misorientation distribution and crystallite size were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) facility. The mechanical properties of yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and uniform elongation was performed on MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation method (DIC). The structure-flow stress relationship of multi-axial compression processing material at strains {epsilon}{proportional_to} 3.5 and {epsilon}{proportional_to} 5.5 is discussed. It is found that processing does not produce any drastic changes in deformation structure and the microstructural refinement is slow. These results indicate that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role during multi-axial compression process in this range of deformation (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Lifetime measurements of Triaxial Strongly Deformed bands in $^{163}$Tm
wang, X; Moore, E F; Garg, U; Gu, Y; Frauendorf, S; Carpenter, M P; Ghugre, S S; Hammond, N J; Lauritsen, T; Li, T; Mukherjee, G; Pattabiraman, N S; Seweryniak, D; Zhu, S
2007-01-01
With the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, quadrupole transition moments, $Q_t$, were determined for the two recently proposed Triaxial Strongly Deformed (TSD) bands in $^{163}$Tm. The measured $Q_t$ moments indicate that the deformation of these bands is larger than that of the yrast, signature partners. However, the measured values are smaller than those predicted by theory. This observation appears to be valid for TSD bands in several nuclei of the region
Deformation quantization of principal bundles
Aschieri, Paolo
2016-01-01
We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.
Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor
Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.
Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection
Bourg, N; Dupuis, G; Barroca, T; Bon, P; Lécart, S; Fort, E; Lévêque-Fort, S
2014-01-01
Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Herein we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) can be captured using a hig-NA objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometer precision. We introduce a new technique for 3D nanoscopy that combines direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM) imaging with dedicated detection of SAF emission. We demonstrate that our approach of a Direct Optical Nanoscopy with Axially Localized Detection (DONALD) yields a typical isotropic 3D localization precision of 20 nm.
Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor
Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.
1994-01-01
A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.
Nuclear deformations in the A approx. = 80-100 region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galeriu, D.; Bucurescu, D.; Ivascu, M.
1986-04-01
The occurrence of highly deformed nuclei in the A approx.80 and A approx.= 100 mass regions has been investigated in the framework of the Strutinsky approach with a Nilsson-type potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopy mass formula, including elongation, necking and ..gamma.. deformation. Special emphasis was given to the spin-orbit potential parameters, which have large variations at the magic numbers and also depend on the shell filling. Good reproduction of the masses, deformations and shape transition was achieved in both mass regions. The phenomena of shape coexistence are also supported by the calculated potential energy surfaces. The odd-particle influence in driving the nucleus to deformed shapes is demonstrated. The results obtained are rather similar to those of the more elaborated Yukawa shell-model calculations, and show for the first time that a Nilsson-type model can also account for the large deformations of the light Kr, Sr and Zr nuclei.
Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells
2014-01-01
Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural fr...
Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines
Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J
2008-01-01
Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators
Consistent formulation of the spacelike axial gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burnel, A.; Van der Rest-Jaspers, M.
1983-12-15
The usual formulation of the spacelike axial gauge is afflicted with the difficulty that the metric is indefinite while no ghost is involved. We solve this difficulty by introducing a ghost whose elimination is such that the metric becomes positive for physical states. The technique consists in the replacement of the gauge condition nxA = 0 by the weaker one partial/sub 0/nxAroughly-equal0.
Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection
Bourg, N.; Mayet, C.; Dupuis, G.; Barroca, T.; Bon, P.; Lécart, S.; Fort, E.; Lévêque-Fort, S.
2015-09-01
Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Here, we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called supercritical-angle fluorescence can be captured using a high-numerical-aperture objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometre precision. We introduce a new technique for three-dimensional nanoscopy that combines direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) with dedicated detection of supercritical-angle fluorescence emission. We demonstrate that our approach of direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection (DONALD) typically yields an isotropic three-dimensional localization precision of 20 nm within an axial range of ∼150 nm above the coverslip.
Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.
Gelfer, Gita; Perry, Lisa; Deodhar, Atul
2016-01-01
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton that includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Patients with AS experience chronic pain due to sacroiliac joint and spinal inflammation, and may develop spinal ankylosing with syndesmophyte formation. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) have shown promise in the management of AS and axSpA by targeting the underlying inflammatory process, and providing symptomatic relief. Whether they alter the progression of the disease is uncertain. Golimumab is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets and downregulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The use of golimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of axSpA as well as improve patient function and quality reported outcomes. This review focuses on the biological rationale and the results of clinical trials with golimumab for the treatment of axSpA.
Nesterenko, V O; Reinhard, P G; Iudice, N L; De Souza-Cruz, F F; Marinelli, J R
2002-01-01
Low-energy orbital magnetic dipole excitations, known as scissors mode (SM), are studied in alkali metal clusters. Subsequent dynamic and static effects are explored. The treatment is based on a self-consistent microscopic approach using the jellium approximation for the ionic background and the Kohn-Sham mean field for the electrons. The microscopic origin of SM and its main features (structure of the mode in light and medium clusters, separation into low- and high-energy plasmons, coupling high-energy M1 scissors and E2 quadrupole plasmons, contributions of shape isomers, etc) are discussed. The scissors M1 strength acquires large values with increasing cluster size. The mode is responsible for the van Vleck paramagnetism of spin-saturated clusters. Quantum shell effects induce a fragile interplay between Langevin diamagnetism and van Vleck paramagnetism and lead to a remarkable dia-para anisotropy in magnetic susceptibility of particular light clusters. Finally, several routes for observing the SM experime...
Instabilities, motion and deformation of active fluid droplets
Whitfield, Carl A.; Hawkins, Rhoda J.
2016-12-01
We consider two minimal models of active fluid droplets that exhibit complex dynamics including steady motion, deformation, rotation and oscillating motion. First we consider a droplet with a concentration of active contractile matter adsorbed to its boundary. We analytically predict activity driven instabilities in the concentration profile, and compare them to the dynamics we find from simulations. Secondly, we consider a droplet of active polar fluid of constant concentration. In this system we predict, motion and deformation of the droplets in certain activity ranges due to instabilities in the polarisation field. Both these systems show spontaneous transitions to motility and deformation which resemble dynamics of the cell cytoskeleton in animal cells.
Deformable Simplicial Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof
In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method......, the interface (curve in 2D; surface in 3D) is represented explicitly as a piecewise linear curve or surface. However, the domain is also subject to discretization: triangulation in 2D; tetrahedralization in 3D. This way, the interface can be alternatively represented as a set of edges/triangles separating...... demonstrate those strengths in several applications. In particular, a novel, DSC-based fluid dynamics solver has been developed during the PhD project. A special feature of this solver is that due to the fact that DSC maintains an explicit interface representation, surface tension is more easily dealt with...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabiano Stumpf Lutz
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Objective: To present the deformities and evaluate the results of their treatment. Methods: Retrospective study of patients with deformity following surgical access to the spinal canal. Fifteen patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Patients without complete data in medical records were excluded. Results: Fourteen patients underwent surgical treatment and one patient received conservative treatment with vest type TLSO. The average angle of kyphosis correction was 87° preoperatively to 38° postoperatively, while the associated scoliosis correction was 69° preoperatively to 23° postoperatively. Conclusions: The prevention of deformity should be emphasized to avoid laminectomy alone, while laminoplasty should be the procedure of choice for canal access in surgeries where there is no need for resection of the posterior elements.
Autogenous Deformation of Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...
Masi, Alfonse T
2014-01-01
Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongwei MA; Baihe LI
2008-01-01
This paper presents a numerical investigation of effects of axial non-uniform tip clearances on the aerodynamic performance of a transonic axial compressor rotor (NASA Rotor 37). The three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated with the datum tip clearance of 0.356 mm at the design wheel speed of 17188.7 rpm. The simulation results are well consistent with the measurement results, which verified the numeri-cal method. Then the three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated respectively with different axial non-uniform tip clearances. The calculation results showed that optimal axial non-uniform tip clearances could improve the compressor performance, while the efficiency and the pressure ratio of the com-pressor were increased. The flow mechanism is that the axial non-uniform tip clearance can weaken the tip leak-age vortex, blow down low-energy fluids in boundary layers and reduce both flow blockage and tip loss.
Deformation in nanocrystalline metals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helena Van Swygenhoven
2006-05-01
Full Text Available It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic metals based on insights gained by atomistic computer simulations. These insights are discussed with reference to recent striking experimental observations that can be compared with predictions made by the simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bavaro, A. (Soliveri SpA, Caravaggio (Italy))
1990-02-01
Types and causes of heat treatement derived isotropic and anisotropic dilatancies in ferrous materials are reviewed. The concepts are developed in such a way as to allow extension to all materials exhibiting martensitic tempering behaviour. This paper intends to illustrate the basic processes of dimensional variations undergone by the materials under heat treatments. The parametric analysis includes an analysis of the interactions amongst the parameters themselves. The relative importance of each parameter is assessed in order to determine methods to attenuate deformation action. Simplified examples are offered to provide technicians explanations as to why specific deformations occur and indications on improved materials working techniques.
Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-11-01
We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.
Calculation of rotational deformity in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henderson, Eric R.; Egol, Kenneth A.; Bosse, Harold J.P. van; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Pettrone, Sarah K. [NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Feldman, David S. [NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Center for Children, New York, NY (United States)
2007-03-15
Supracondylar humerus fractures (SCHF) are common in the pediatric population. Cubitus varus deformity (CVD) is the most common long-term complication of SCHFs and may lead to elbow instability and deficits in throwing or extension. Distal fragment malrotation in the axial plane disposes to fragment tilt and CVD; however, no simple method of assessing fracture malrotation exists. This study tested a mathematical method of measuring axial plane malrotation in SCHFs based on plain radiographs. A pediatric SCHF model was made, and x-rays were taken at known intervals of rotation. Five independent, blinded observers measured these films. Calculated rotation for each data set was compared to the known rotation. The identical protocol was performed for an aluminum phantom. The reliability and agreement of the rotation values were good for both models. This method is a reliable, accurate, and cost-effective means of calculating SCHF distal fragment malrotation and warrants clinical application. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalaf A. M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The critical points of potential energy surface (PES’s of the limits of nuclear struc- ture harmonic oscillator, axially symmetric rotor and deformed -soft and discussed in framework of the general geometric collective model (GCM. Also the shape phase transitions linking the three dynamical symmetries are studied taking into account only three parameters in the PES’s. The model is tested for the case of 238 92 U , which shows a more prolate behavior. The optimized model parameters have been adjusted by fit- ting procedure using a simulated search program in order to reproduce the experimental excitation energies in the ground state band up to 6 + and the two neutron separation energies.
Costa, Christopher; Bradu, Adrian; Rogers, John; Phelan, Pauline; Podoleanu, Adrian
2015-01-01
We present a swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1060 nm equipped with a wavefront sensor at 830 nm and a deformable mirror in a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system. Due to the AO correction, the confocal profile of the interface optics becomes narrower than the OCT axial range, restricting the part of the B-scan (cross section) with good contrast. By actuating on the deformable mirror, the depth of the focus is changed and the system is used to demonstrate Gabor filtering in order to produce B-scan OCT images with enhanced sensitivity throughout the axial range from a Drosophila larvae. The focus adjustment is achieved by manipulating the curvature of the deformable mirror between two user-defined limits. Particularities of controlling the focus for Gabor filtering using the deformable mirror are presented.
Energy absorption of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes under axial impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Hongtu; Wang, Jian [Ludong University, Yantai (China); Shen, Guozhe; Hu, Ping [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)
2016-07-15
Aluminum alloys are important technological materials for achieving the lightweight design of automotive structures. Many works have reported on the deformation and energy absorption of thin-walled tubes. Multicorner tubes with extra concave corners in the cross section were presented in this study to improve the energy absorption efficiency of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes. The axial crushing of square and multicorner thin-walled tubes was simulated with the same cross-sectional perimeter. The method of folding element was applied to predict the crushing behavior of the thin-walled tubes under axial impact. The corners on the cross section were discussed to determine their effect on the energy absorption performance of thin-walled tubes. Results showed that the increasing performance of energy absorption of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes was caused by the increasing number of corners on the cross section of multicorner tubes. Both the number and size of corners had an important effect on the crushing force efficiency of multicorner tubes. The maximum crushing force efficiency of multicorner tubes was 11.6% higher than that of square tubes with the same material consumption of thin-walled tubes. The multicorner tubes with 12 corners showed better energy absorption performance than the tubes with more than 12 corners; this high number of corners could lead to the small size of corners or unstable deformations. The high energy absorption performance of multicorner tubes prefers increasing the corner number and corner size of adjacent sides at the same time.
Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koplow, Jeffrey P.
2016-02-16
Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.
Numerical study on air-structure coupling dynamic characteristics of the axial fan blade
Chen, Q. G.; Xie, B.; Li, F.; Gu, W. G.
2013-12-01
In order to understand the dynamic characteristics of the axial-flow fan blade due to the effect of rotating stress and the action of unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by the airflow, a numerical simulation method for air-structure coupling in an axial-flow fan with fixed rear guide blades was performed. The dynamic characteristics of an axial-flow fan rotating blade were studied by using the two-way air-structure coupling method. Based on the standard k-ε turbulence model, and using weak coupling method, the preceding six orders modal parameters of the rotating blade were obtained, and the distributions of stress and strain on the rotating blade were presented. The results show that the modal frequency from the first to the sixth order is 3Hz higher than the modal frequency without considering air-structure coupling interaction; the maximum stress and the maximum strain are all occurred in the vicinity of root area of the blade no matter the air-structure coupling is considered or not, thus, the blade root is the dangerous location subjected to fatigue break; the position of maximum deformation is at the blade tip, so the vibration of the blade tip is significant. This study can provide theoretical references for the further study on the strength analysis and mechanical optimal design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yijie Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new mechanical model for analysing the behaviour of axially loaded recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubes (RACFSTs stub columns is presented in this study. The model is derived from the typical elastoplasticity, the nonlinear elastic mechanics, and the properties of materials. Based on the mechanical model, a novel numerical program is developed. The mechanical model and the numerical program are adopted to study the effect of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA replacement percentage on RACFST mechanical behaviour. The complete load-deformation relationship of specimens, the steel tube axial and circumferential stresses, and the performance of the confined core concrete and the variation of interaction are also investigated. The analytical results indicate that this model is able to capture the mechanical behaviour of RACFST. It is also found that the axial and circumferential stresses of steel tube change nonlinearly during the loading stages. It is concluded that the behaviour of the confined core concrete is significantly influenced by the confining pressure. The steel tube confinement could improve the mechanical behaviour of RAC effectively and the RCA replacement percentage slightly changes the response of core concrete. Finally, the relations between confined core concrete and confining pressure are analysed.
Analysis of blade vibration response induced by rotating stall in axial compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
An experimental and numerical study was conducted to investigate the forced response of blade vibration induced by rotating stall in a low speed axial compressor.Measurements have been made of the transient stalling process in a low speed axial compressor stage.The CFD study was performed using solution of 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations,coupled with structure finite element models for the blades to identify modal shapes and structural deformations simultaneously.Interactions between fluid and structure were managed in a coupled manner,based on the interface information exchange until convergence in each time step.Based on the rotating stall measurement data obtained from a low speed axial compressor,the blade aeroelastic response induced by the rotating stall flow field was analyzed to study the vibration characteristics and the correlation between the phenomena.With this approach,good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was observed.The flow phenomena were well captured,and the results indicate that the rotating field stall plays a significant role in the blade vibration and stress affected by the flow excitation.
Surface dislocation nucleation controlled deformation of Au nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roos, B.; Kapelle, B.; Volkert, C. A., E-mail: volkert@ump.gwdg.de [Institute of Materials Physics, Georg August University, Göttingen 37077 (Germany); Richter, G. [Max-Plank-Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)
2014-11-17
We investigate deformation in high quality Au nanowires under both tension and bending using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Defect evolution is investigated during: (1) tensile deformation of 〈110〉 oriented, initially defect-free, single crystal nanowires with cross-sectional widths between 30 and 300 nm, (2) bending deformation of the same wires, and (3) tensile deformation of wires containing coherent twin boundaries along their lengths. We observe the formation of twins and stacking faults in the single crystal wires under tension, and storage of full dislocations after bending of single crystal wires and after tension of twinned wires. The stress state dependence of the deformation morphology and the formation of stacking faults and twins are not features of bulk Au, where deformation is controlled by dislocation interactions. Instead, we attribute the deformation morphologies to the surface nucleation of either leading or trailing partial dislocations, depending on the Schmid factors, which move through and exit the wires producing stacking faults or full dislocation slip. The presence of obstacles such as neutral planes or twin boundaries hinder the egress of the freshly nucleated dislocations and allow trailing and leading partial dislocations to combine and to be stored as full dislocations in the wires. We infer that the twins and stacking faults often observed in nanoscale Au specimens are not a direct size effect but the result of a size and obstacle dependent transition from dislocation interaction controlled to dislocation nucleation controlled deformation.
Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. W. Tang
2013-01-01
actual test of marble material. Typical results of the axial stress-strain response from infinitesimal to finite deformation as well as the progressive failure process for the marble tests are given and the influences of various factors are discussed. It is found that only provided proper choices of particle momentum equation and the smoothing length parameter, the SPH method is capable for favorably reproducing the deformation and progressive failure evolution in rock-like materials under quasistatic compression loads.
Study of shape transitions in the neutron-rich Os isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John, Philipp R.; Lunardi, Santo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Modamio, Victor; Valiente-Dobon, Jose Javier [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Mengoni, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy)
2013-07-01
The nuclei with A ∼ 190 between Hf and Pt exhibit a great variety of nuclear phenomena, including K-isomeric states, triaxiality and shape transitions across isotopic and isotonic chains. Of particular interest is the transition from axially symmetric deformed, prolate (γ = 0 {sup circle}) to oblate (γ = 60 {sup circle}) shapes in the Os isotopic chain. While a study of the neutron-rich {sup 194}Os nucleus populated via deep-inelastic reactions suggests a prolate shape for its yrast states, an other study proposed an oblate shape for the ground state of {sup 198}Os by comparing the excitation energies of the first and second 2{sup +} states. For {sup 196}Os, the even-even isotope lying between the two, both an oblate and a prolate shape were predicted by microscopic many-body and Total Routhian Surface calculations, respectively. To further elucidate this shape transition and to refine the nuclear models, the key nucleus {sup 196}Os was investigated through gamma-spectroscopy using the AGATA demonstrator and the large acceptance heavy ion spectrometer PRISMA at LNL, Italy. A two nucleon transfer from a {sup 198}Pt target to a stable {sup 82}Se beam was utilized to populate medium-high spin states of {sup 196}Os. The current status of the analysis including preliminary results is presented.
Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft
A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... for velocity, pressure andradial position are derived from the conservationlaws for mass, tangential momentum and energy.The resulting system of equations is non-linear and, dueto mass conservation and pressure equilibrium far downstream of the rotor,strongly coupled.The equations are solved using the Newton...
Single Band Helical Antenna in Axial Mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parminder Singh
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Helical antennas have been widely used in a various useful applications, due to their low weight and low profile conformability, easy and cheap realization.Radiation properties of this antenna are examined both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate new helical antenna structure for Applications. CST MWS Software is used for the simulation and design calculations of the helical antennas. The axial ratio, return loss, VSWR, Directivity, gain, radiation pattern is evaluated. Using CST MWS simulation software proposed antenna is designed/simulated and optimized. The antenna exhibits a single band from 0 GHz to 3 GHz for GPS and several satellite applications
Tunable axial potentials for atom chip waveguides
Stickney, James A; Imhof, Eric; Kroese, Bethany R; Crow, Jonathon A R; Olson, Spencer E; Squires, Matthew B
2014-01-01
We present a method for generating algebraically precise magnetic potentials along the axis of a cold atom waveguide near the surface of an atom chip. With a single chip design consisting of several wire pairs, various axial potentials can be created, including double wells, triple wells, and pure harmonic traps with suppression of higher order terms. We characterize the error along a harmonic trap between the expected algebraic form and magnetic field simulations and find excel- lent agreement, particularly at small displacements from the trap center. Finally, we demonstrate experimental control over the bottom fields of an asymmetric double well potential.
Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emin Ulaş Erdem
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.
Aerodynamics of Advanced Axial-Flow Turbomachinery.
1980-11-30
cementing in place short segments of lb ga. (1.2 mm I.D.) hypodermic tubing in drillud holes carefully aligned normal to the sidewall profile at the...PRESSURE I REFERENCE SCANPREF I I SYSTEM 0YTE NECKED- PRF NEEDLE VALVE PE PRRSSUE TRANSDUCER AMPLIF IER] POSITIONER TEMPERATURES I STO BE READ I...Compressors. U.S. NASA SP-36. 1965. 23. Hearsey, R. M. A Revised Computer Program for Axial Compressor Design Volume 1: Theory , Descriptions and User’s
Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft
2005-01-01
This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element Method....
Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography
Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.
1985-01-18
Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga Kononova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F-deformation (X spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.
Oscillatory athermal quasistatic deformation of a model glass
Fiocco, Davide; Foffi, Giuseppe; Sastry, Srikanth
2013-08-01
We report computer simulations of oscillatory athermal quasistatic shear deformation of dense amorphous samples of a three-dimensional model glass former. A dynamical transition is observed as the amplitude of the deformation is varied: For large values of the amplitude the system exhibits diffusive behavior and loss of memory of the initial conditions, whereas localization is observed for small amplitudes. Our results suggest that the same kind of transition found in driven colloidal systems is present in the case of amorphous solids (e.g., metallic glasses). The onset of the transition is shown to be related to the onset of energy dissipation. Shear banding is observed for large system sizes, without, however, affecting qualitative aspects of the transition.
Deformed Algebras and Generalizations of Independence on Deformed Exponential Families
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroshi Matsuzoe
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A deformed exponential family is a generalization of exponential families. Since the useful classes of power law tailed distributions are described by the deformed exponential families, they are important objects in the theory of complex systems. Though the deformed exponential families are defined by deformed exponential functions, these functions do not satisfy the law of exponents in general. The deformed algebras have been introduced based on the deformed exponential functions. In this paper, after summarizing such deformed algebraic structures, it is clarified how deformed algebras work on deformed exponential families. In fact, deformed algebras cause generalization of expectations. The three kinds of expectations for random variables are introduced in this paper, and it is discussed why these generalized expectations are natural from the viewpoint of information geometry. In addition, deformed algebras cause generalization of independences. Whereas it is difficult to check the well-definedness of deformed independence in general, the κ-independence is always well-defined on κ-exponential families. This is one of advantages of κ-exponential families in complex systems. Consequently, we can well generalize the maximum likelihood method for the κ-exponential family from the viewpoint of information geometry.
Deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks
Bons, A.J.
1988-01-01
The intracrystalline deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As in other phyllosilicates, the deformation of chlorite is dominated by the (001) slip plane. Slip along this plane is very easy through the generation an
Nonperturbative effects in deformation quantization
Periwal, V
2000-01-01
The Cattaneo-Felder path integral form of the perturbative Kontsevich deformation quantization formula is used to explicitly demonstrate the existence of nonperturbative corrections to na\\"\\i ve deformation quantization.
Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease
Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.
2011-01-01
Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients prese
AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS
Crouse, J. E.
1994-01-01
The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified
Examining the interplay between halo effects and deformation in neutron rich neon isotopes
Loelius, Charles; Iwasaki, Hironori; Bazin, Daniel; Elder, Robert; Elman, Brandon; Gade, Alexandra; Grinder, Mara; Longfellow, Brenden; Lunderberg, Eric; Heil, Sebastian; Hufnagel, Alexander; Mathy, Michael; Syndikus, Ina; Kobayashi, Nobu; Belarge, Joe; Bender, Peter; Weisshaar, Dirk; Petri, Marina; Whitmore, Kenneth
2017-01-01
27 Ne serves as an excellent test case for understanding the interplay between halo effects and deformation. It is known that the neighboring isotopes 26Ne and 28Ne demonstrate substantial deformation, which indicate a potential for deformation in 27Ne. At the same time, the 1/2+ excited state is expected to have a single valence neutron in the s orbital near the neutron separation energy and therefore is expected to exhibit halo effects. Due to the interplay between the halo and deformation effects, the M1 transition strength, which is expected to be large because of the deformation, could be severely reduced, while the E1 transition strength is expected to be large. To examine this effect, precise knowledge of transition rates is required. In this work, the model-independent Recoil Distance Method was employed with fast RI beams to constrain the lifetime of the 1/2+ state down to the lowest achievable limits of precision.
Single Rod Vibration in Axial Flow
Weichselbaum, Noah; Wang, Shengfu; Bardet, Philippe
2013-11-01
Fluid structure interaction of a single rod in axial flow is a coupled dynamical system present in many application including nuclear reactors, steam generators, and towed antenna arrays. Fluid-structure response can be quantified thanks to detailed experimental data where both structure and fluid responses are recorded. Such datum deepen understanding of the physics inherent to the system and provide high-dimensionality quantitative measurements to validate coupled structural and CFD codes with various level of complexity. In this work, single rods fixed on both ends in a concentric pipe, are subjected to an axial flow with Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter of Re =4000. Rods of varying material stiffness and diameter are utilized in the experiment resulting in a range of dimensionless U between 0.5 and 1, where U = (ρA/EI)1/2uL. Experimental measurements of the velocity field around the rod are taken with PIV from time-resolved Nd:YLF laser and a high speed CMOS camera. Three-dimensional and temporal vibration and deflection of the rod is recorded with shadowgraphy utilizing two sets of pulsed high power LED and dedicated CMOS camera. Through integration of these two diagnostics, it is possible to reconstruct the full FSI domain providing unique validation data.
Axial residual stresses in boron fibers
Behrendt, D. R.
1978-01-01
A method of measuring axial residual stresses in boron fibers is presented. With this method, the axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius is determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diam fibers are similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25% of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 MN sq m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data are presented for 203-micron diam B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102-micron diam B/W and boron on carbon (B/C) show that the residual stresses are similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core are observed. Fracture of boron fibers is discussed.
Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone.
Gupta, Himadri S; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Zickler, Gerald A; Raz-Ben Aroush, D; Funari, Sérgio S; Roschger, Paul; Wagner, H Daniel; Fratzl, Peter
2005-10-01
Deformation mechanisms in bone matrix at the nanoscale control its exceptional mechanical properties, but the detailed nature of these processes is as yet unknown. In situ tensile testing with synchrotron X-ray scattering allowed us to study directly and quantitatively the deformation mechanisms at the nanometer level. We find that bone deformation is not homogeneous but distributed between a tensile deformation of the fibrils and a shearing in the interfibrillar matrix between them.
On the effect of excited states in lattice calculations of the nucleon axial charge
Hansen, Maxwell T
2016-01-01
Excited-state contamination is one of the dominant uncertainties in lattice calculations of the nucleon axial-charge, $g_A$. Recently published results in leading-order chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) predict the excited-state contamination to be independent of the nucleon interpolator and positive. However, empirical results from numerical lattice calculations show negative contamination (downward curvature), indicating that present-day calculations are not in the regime where the leading-order ChPT predictions apply. In this paper we show that, under plausible assumptions, one can reproduce the behavior of lattice correlators by taking into account final-state $N \\pi$ interactions, in particular the effect of the Roper resonance, and by postulating a sign change in the infinite-volume $N \\to N \\pi$ axial-vector transition amplitude.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭钰; 何凯; 李莉; 梁九卿
2012-01-01
By molecular dynamics simulations employing an embedded atom method potential, we simulate structural transformations in single crystal Al caused by high rate uniform strain loading. The simulations show that the phase transition takes place at about 270 GPa, corresponding to the reduced volume of 0. 55V0,in reasonable agreement with the calculated value through density functional theory.%采用EAM势,利用分子动力学方法模拟了单晶铝在高速率等变形压加载条件下的fcc-bcc的结构相变.模拟结果表明,在等变形压加载条件下,单晶铝在加压至270 GPa左右,体积缩小至0.55V0时,由面心立方结构转变为体心立方结构.这一结果与第一原理计算的结果大致符合.
Experimental study on rheological deformation and stress properties of limestone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐明明; 王芝银
2008-01-01
The systematic experiment regarding the general uniaxial compression test and the creep deformations of the typical limestones from the surrounding rock of the highway tunnels were made.The relationship between the axial stress and the delayed deformation steady value was obtained from the creep tests under low loading stresses.By the least square method,the parameters of Nishihara creep model were calculated from the creep curves.The results indicate that the strain change always lags behind the increase of stress,and the long-term strength of the limestone is about 80.6% of the stress at the volumetric strain reversal which is obtained from the conventional uniaxial compression test.
[Babies with cranial deformity].
Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J
2009-01-01
Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.
Deformation twinning in monazite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hay, R.S.; Marshall, D.B
2003-10-20
Polycrystalline monazite (LaPO{sub 4}) was deformed at room temperature by a spherical indenter. Deformation twins were identified by TEM in 70 grains. Five twin planes were found: (100) was by far the most common; (001) and (120) were less common; (122-bar)was rare, and kinks in (120) twins were identified as irrational '(483)' twin planes. The twinning modes on these planes were inferred from the expression of twinning shear at free surfaces, predictions of classical deformation twinning theory, and various considerations of twin morphology and crystal structure. Atomic shuffle calculations that allow formation of either a glide plane or a mirror plane at the twin interface were used to analyze twin modes. The inferred twin modes all have small atomic shuffles. For (001) twins, the smallest shuffles were obtained with a glide plane at the interface, with displacement vector R=((1)/(2))[010]. The results do not uniquely define a twin mode on (100), leaving open the possibility of more than one mode operating on this plane. Factors that may determine the operative deformation twinning modes are discussed. Crystal structure considerations suggest that the relative abundance of twinning modes may correlate with low shear modulus on the twin plane in the direction of twinning shear, and with a possible low-energy interface structure consisting of a layer of xenotime of one half-unit-cell thickness that could form at (100) and (001) twins. The three most common twins have low strains to low {sigma} coincidence site lattices (CSLs)
Localization of plastic deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rice, J R
1976-04-01
The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.
Study on the Axial Dispersion of Liquid in Column Flotation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周鵾; 曾爱武; 高长宝; 余国琮
2003-01-01
An experimental study on the axial dispersion of liquid was carried out in a 0.382-m-ID flotation column packed with different structured packings or free of packings. The correlations of axial Peclet numbers with the liquid and gas superficial Reynolds numbers were developed for various packings. Among the packings tested, it is found that in the column packed with 250Y or 350Y packings the axial dispersion is the lowest. The addition of frother can decrease the axial dispersion. By the simulation analysis of the one-dimension dispersion model of packed flotation column, it is found that small axial dispersion, high collection rate constant and low axial liquid velocity can increase the collection zone recovery.
Dynamics and statics of flexible axially symmetric shallow shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we propose the method for the investigation of stochastic vibrations of deterministic mechanical systems represented by axially symmetric spherical shells. These structure members are widely used as sensitive elements of pressure measuring devices in various branches of measuring and control industry, machine design, and so forth. The proposed method can be easily extended for the investigation of shallow spherical shells, goffer-type membranes, and so on. The so-called charts of control parameters for a shell subjected to a transversal uniformly distributed and local harmonic loading force and resistance moment are constructed. The scenarios of the transition of vibration of shallow-type system into chaotic state are investigated with the use of the theory of differential equations and the theory of nonlinear dynamics. The method of the control of chaotic vibrations of flexible spherical shells subjected to a transversal harmonic load through a synchronized action of either harmonic resistance moment or force is proposed, illustrated, and discussed.
METABALL-BASED TRANSITION SURFACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Lingfeng; Tan Jianrong; Chen Yuanpeng
2005-01-01
Metaball-based constraint deformation technique is used to change the definition of r, the straight-line distance from a space point to a constraint center in the original calculation of the potential function. By replacing the parameter of the parametrized surface w with the straight-line distance r, a method of building transition surfaces according to connected boundary curves and skeleton curves is proposed. The method has no restrictions on boundary curves that control the space shapes of transition surfaces or on types of skeleton curves, thus transition surfaces, which reach C1 continuity and are more abundant in shapes and natural, can be obtained.
A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.
Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D
2003-10-01
The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.
Design and Test of a Transonic Axial Splittered Rotor
2015-06-15
geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial compressor rotor with splitter blades. Predictive numerical simulations were conducted and...ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial compressor rotor with splitter blades. Predictive numerical simulations were...that uses commercial-off-the-shelf software ( MATLAB , SolidWorks, and ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial
Rotordynamics of Turbine Labyrinth Seals with Rotor Axial Shifting
Jinxiang Xi; Rhode, David L.
2006-01-01
Rotors in high-performance steam turbines experience a significant axial shifting during starting and stopping processes due to thermal expansion, for example. This axial shifting could significantly alter the flow pattern and the flow-induced rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals, which in turn, can considerably affect the rotor-seal system performance. This paper investigates the influence of the rotor axial shifting on leakage rate as well as rotordynamic forces in hi...
Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Majid Noorian Bidgoli; Lanru Jing
2014-01-01
Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes con-taining many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a nu-merical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D) discrete fracture network (DFN) models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM), with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.
Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Noorian Bidgoli
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes containing many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a numerical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D discrete fracture network (DFN models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM, with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.
Effective field theory for deformed atomic nuclei
Papenbrock, T
2015-01-01
We present an effective field theory (EFT) for a model-independent description of deformed atomic nuclei. In leading order this approach recovers the well-known results from the collective model by Bohr and Mottelson. When higher-order corrections are computed, the EFT accounts for finer details such as the variation of the moment of inertia with the band head and the small magnitudes of interband $E2$ transitions. For rotational bands with a finite spin of the band head, the EFT is equivalent to the theory of a charged particle on the sphere subject to a magnetic monopole field.
Effective field theory for deformed atomic nuclei
Papenbrock, T.; Weidenmüller, H. A.
2016-05-01
We present an effective field theory (EFT) for a model-independent description of deformed atomic nuclei. In leading order this approach recovers the well-known results from the collective model by Bohr and Mottelson. When higher-order corrections are computed, the EFT accounts for finer details such as the variation of the moment of inertia with the band head and the small magnitudes of interband E2 transitions. For rotational bands with a finite spin of the band head, the EFT is equivalent to the theory of a charged particle on the sphere subject to a magnetic monopole field.
On the activity of deforming medium
Zuev, L. B.; Gorbatenko, V. V.
2016-11-01
A new approach to the problem of the plastic flow of solid crystals is proposed. This approach is based on studying the macroscopic localization patterns of plastic deformation, which can be considered as different types of autowave processes of defect self-organization. An unambiguous correspondence between the localization patterns and stages of plastic flow in metals is established. A new model is proposed to describe the development of plastic flow localization. A change-over in the patterns of autowave processes of plastic flow evolution and a transition to fracture are attributed to the specific features of the interaction between information and dynamic subsystems.
Deformation Twinning of a Silver Nanocrystal under High Pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Xiaojing; Yang, Wenge; Harder, Ross; Sun, Yugang; Liu, Ming; Chu, Yong S.; Robinson, Ian K.; Mao, Ho-kwang
2015-11-01
Within a high-pressure environment, crystal deformation is controlled by complex processes such as dislocation motion, twinning, and phase transitions, which change materials' microscopic morphology and alter their properties. Understanding a crystal's response to external stress provides a unique opportunity for rational tailoring of its functionalities. It is very challenging to track the strain evolution and physical deformation from a single nanoscale crystal under high-pressure stress. Here, we report an in situ three-dimensional mapping of morphology and strain evolutions in a single-crystal silver nanocube within a high-pressure environment using the Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) method. We observed a continuous lattice distortion, followed by a deformation twining process at a constant pressure. The ability to visualize stress-introduced deformation of nanocrystals with high spatial resolution and prominent strain sensitivity provides an important route for interpreting and engineering novel properties of nanomaterials.
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles
Kononova, Olga; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri
2015-01-01
We present a new theory for modeling forced indentation spectral lineshapes of biological particles, which considers non-linear Hertzian deformation due to an indenter-particle physical contact and bending deformations of curved beams modeling the particle structure. The bending of beams beyond the critical point triggers the particle dynamic transition to the collapsed state, an extreme event leading to the catastrophic force drop as observed in the force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra: the slope of the FX curves and the position of force-peak signal, in terms of mechanical characteristics --- the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations E_H and E_b, and the probability distribution of the maximum strength with the strength of the strongest beam F_b^* and the beams' failure rate m. The theory is applied to successfully characterize the $FX$ curves for spherical virus particles --- CCMV, TrV, and AdV.
NUMERICLA SIMULATION ON DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF AS WIRE BY CAWTEX
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Castex(continuous cast and extrusion)is a latest metallurgical technology. Making of AS wire(aluminum-clad steel wire) by Castex is an advanced bonding technology of bimetal. In order to study the deformation character of AS wire the numerical simulation is performed with FE method. From the simulation result the following conclusions are obtained:① The simulation is carried out sequentially in three zones:initial extrusion,cavity-filling and bonding.② In the first zone the shearing deformation governs the whole zone,while in that of cavity-filling, the deformation mainly concentrates on transition arc of the concave mould. In addition, in the last zone, the dominant deformation lies at the boundary of concave mould, surface of steel wire and entry of sizing band. Due to the movement of steel wire, the direction of shear stress on its surface is opposite to that on the boundary of concave die.
Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.
2011-01-01
Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic
Goh, C. P.; Ismail, H.; Yen, K. S.; Ratnam, M. M.
2017-01-01
The incremental digital image correlation (DIC) method has been applied in the past to determine strain in large deformation materials like rubber. This method is, however, prone to cumulative errors since the total displacement is determined by combining the displacements in numerous stages of the deformation. In this work, a method of mapping large strains in rubber using DIC in a single-step without the need for a series of deformation images is proposed. The reference subsets were deformed using deformation factors obtained from the fitted mean stress-axial stretch ratio curve obtained experimentally and the theoretical Poisson function. The deformed reference subsets were then correlated with the deformed image after loading. The recently developed scanner-based digital image correlation (SB-DIC) method was applied on dumbbell rubber specimens to obtain the in-plane displacement fields up to 350% axial strain. Comparison of the mean axial strains determined from the single-step SB-DIC method with those from the incremental SB-DIC method showed an average difference of 4.7%. Two rectangular rubber specimens containing circular and square holes were deformed and analysed using the proposed method. The resultant strain maps from the single-step SB-DIC method were compared with the results of finite element modeling (FEM). The comparison shows that the proposed single-step SB-DIC method can be used to map the strain distribution accurately in large deformation materials like rubber at much shorter time compared to the incremental DIC method.
Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Urban, Jesper
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...
Modular functional organisation of the axial locomotor system in salamanders.
Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Vanessa; Mathou, Alexia
2014-02-01
Most investigations on tetrapod locomotion have been concerned with limb movements. However, there is compelling evidence that the axial musculoskeletal system contributes to important functions during locomotion. Adult salamanders offer a remarkable opportunity to examine these functions because these amphibians use axial undulations to propel themselves in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this article, we review the currently available biological data on axial functions during various locomotor modes in salamanders. We also present data showing the modular organisation of the neural networks that generate axial synergies during locomotion. The functional implication of this modular organisation is discussed.
Deformation Mechanisms of Carrara Marble Under Increasing Temperatures from 300℃ to 550℃
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Lijie; Liu Junlai; Li Haifeng; Wang Xiaoyong; Zhong Xinyong
2000-01-01
Deformation experiments of Carrara marble were conducted under increasing temperatures (temperatures 300℃～550℃ , confining pressure 0.5Mpa, strain - rate 5 × 10- 6 s-1). The experiments reveal that calcite rocks show different deformation behaviors and corresponding microstructural characteristics under different temperatures. By analyzing microstructural characteristics, preferred grain shape orientation variation of the primary rocks and deformed specimen, the deformation features of Carrara marble are summarized: twinning, fracturing dominates deformation of the rocks at temperatures between300℃ and 450℃; dynamic recrystallization occurs in the temperature range of 450～550℃; the brittle to crystalline plasticity transition deformation is observed at around 450℃, twinning and crystal - plastic deformation become dominant with further increasing temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Farhad Rahimi
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The energy levels of deformed nuclei could be determined by Nilsson model. In this model the deformation of a nucleus has an axial symmetry, but we have considered the energy levels of a non-spherical nucleus as an elliptic form, and solved it by a degenerate first order perturbation method. The original Hamiltonian is a mixture of Spherical Shell Model Hamiltonian and a perturbation term. We have solved this Hamiltonian with the quantum numbers corresponding to Nilsson model-parameters and deformed 3-axial model for the values of , then we obtained the corresponding energy levels and plot them.
Casimir Energy in the Axial Gauge
Esposito, G; Kirsten, K; Esposito, Giampiero; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Kirsten, Klaus
2000-01-01
The zero-point energy of a conducting spherical shell is studied by imposing the axial gauge via path-integral methods, with boundary conditions on the electromagnetic potential and ghost fields. The coupled modes are then found to be the temporal and longitudinal modes for the Maxwell field. The resulting system can be decoupled by studying a fourth-order differential equation with boundary conditions on longitudinal modes and their second derivatives. The exact solution of such equation is found by using a Green-function method, and is obtained from Bessel functions and definite integrals involving Bessel functions. Complete agreement with a previous path-integral analysis in the Lorenz gauge, and with Boyer's value, is proved in detail.
The Axial Part Phrase in Japanese
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaori Takamine
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the categorial status of spatial terms in locative/directional expressions in Japanese. I will show that a certain class of spatial terms have a distinct categorial status from both regular postpositions and nouns. On one hand, syntactic diagnostics such as doubling, coordination by to, and co-occurrence with demonstratives indicate that these spatial terms belong to a nominal category rather than to a postpositional category. On the other hand, the fact that these spatial terms are modified by range modifiers indicates that they are more similar to regular postpositions than to nouns. On the basis of these diagnostics, I will argue that spatial terms in Japanese need to be assigned a new category Axial Part Phrase which is proposed by Svenonius 2006.
Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Poul
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail.
Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery
Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.
1980-01-01
A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.
Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noertoft Soerensen, Dan
1998-01-01
A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujita, K.; Morikazu, H.; Shintani, A. [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Mechanical Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)
2004-07-01
The dynamic behavior of an axisymmetric elastic beam subjected to axial leakage flow is investigated numerically and experimentally. The coupled equations of motion for a fluid and a beam structure are derived using the Navier-Stokes equation for an axial leakage flow-path and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The variation in the dynamic behavior during pre- and post-instability is investigated with respect to increasing axial leakage flow velocity. The experiment was performed to determine the critical velocity of the unstable dynamic behavior of an axisymmetric elastic beam confined in a concentric cylinder subjected to axial leakage flow through a small annulus, and to measure the variation of the dynamic behavior during pre- and post-instability when the unstable phenomenon with the lower predominant frequency is shifted to the higher. The relationships between the axial flow velocities and the unstable phenomena are clarified for the transition from the lower mode to the higher mode by comparing the numerical simulation results with experimental observations. (authors)
Stiffness matrix for beams with shear deformation and warping torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, K.; Pilkey, W. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
1995-12-31
A beam model which considers the warping effect in beams with arbitrary cross sections is discussed. This model takes into account bending, shear, and warping torsion. The derivation builds on a result in beam theory that, if shear is considered, for arbitrary cross sections the deflections in the different coordinate directions are not uncoupled as has been widely assumed. This conclusion follows from the calculation of the shear coefficients from an elasticity solution using an energy formulation. The shear coefficients form a symmetric tensor. The principal axes for this tensor are called principal shear axes. In Reference 2 structural matrices for the shear problem are derived using these shear coefficients. This paper extends these matrices to warping torsion. St. Venant`s semi-inverse method is applied to calculate warping shear stresses. The usual assumptions of the beam theory are made. The material is linear elastic. The loads may consist of shear forces, axial loads and twisting moments. Small deformations are considered. The cross section of the beam can be of arbitrary shape, thin-walled or solid. A deformation coefficient matrix is calculated which describes the relations between the deformations and the different load cases such as shear, torsion, and warping torsion. Numerical results for warping shear stresses and deformations are given. Also, a method to derive a stiffness matrix for a beam of arbitrary cross section under combined loading including warping torsion is presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kandouci Chahr-Eddine; Adjal Yassine
2014-01-01
This present paper deals with a mathematical description of linear axial and torsional vibrations. The normal and tangential stress tensor components produced by axial-torsional deformations and vibrations in the propeller and intermediate shafts, under the influence of propeller-induced static and variable hydrodynamic excitations are also studied. The transfer matrix method related to the constant coefficients of differential equation solutions is used. The advantage of the latter as compared with a well-known method of transfer matrix associated with state vector is the possibility of reducing the number of multiplied matrices when adjacent shaft segments have the same material properties and diameters. The results show that there is no risk of buckling and confirm that the strength of the shaft line depends on the value of the static tangential stresses which is the most important component of the stress tensor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arani, A. Ghorbanpour, E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghparast, E.; BabaAkbar Zarei, H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-15
In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) subjected to magnetic field is investigated. Orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation is developed to consider the influences of orthotropy angle, damping coefficient, normal and shear modulus. Third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton’s principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, magnetic field, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of SLGS on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving SLGS is strongly dependent on the moving speed. Therefore, the critical speed of moving SLGS can be improved by applying magnetic field. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels in nanoscale.
Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Haghparast, E.; BabaAkbar Zarei, H.
2016-08-01
In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) subjected to magnetic field is investigated. Orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation is developed to consider the influences of orthotropy angle, damping coefficient, normal and shear modulus. Third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton's principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, magnetic field, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of SLGS on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving SLGS is strongly dependent on the moving speed. Therefore, the critical speed of moving SLGS can be improved by applying magnetic field. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels in nanoscale.
Quantizing Earth surface deformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. O. Bowin
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The global analysis of Bowin (2010 used the global 14 absolute Euler pole set (62 Myr history from Gripp and Gordon (1990 and demonstrated that plate tectonics conserves angular momentum. We herein extend that analysis using the more detailed Bird (2003 52 present-day Euler pole set (relative to a fixed Pacific plate for the Earth's surface, after conversion to absolute Euler poles. Additionally, new analytical results now provide new details on upper mantle mass anomalies in the outer 200 km of the Earth, as well as an initial quantizing of surface deformations.
Space Deformations, Surface Deformations and the Opportunities In-Between
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Daniel Cohen-Or
2009-01-01
In recent years we have witnessed a large interest in surface deformation techniques. This has been a reaction that can be attributed to the ability to develop techniques which are detail-preserving. Space deformation techniques, on the other hand, received less attention, but nevertheless they have many advantages over surface-based techniques. This paper explores the potential of these two approaches to deformation and discusses the opportunities that the fusion of the two may lead to.
Numerical simulation of stress and deformation of in-service welding onto gas pipeline
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Yuhua; Wang Yong; Han Bin; Wang Zhengfang
2006-01-01
SYSWELD was used to simulate in-service welding process of gas pipeline of X70 pipeline steel. Welding thermal cycle, stress and deformation of in-service welded joint were studied. The results show that peak temperature of coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of in-service welding onto gas pipeline is the same with routine welding, but t8/5 ,t8/3 and t8/1 decrease at certain degree. For the zone near welded seam, axial stress and hoop stress in the inner pipe wall are compressive stress when welding source passes through the cross-section that is studied, but residual axial stress and residual hoop stress after welded are all tensile stress. Transient deformation and residual deformation are all convex deformation compared with the original pipe diameter size. Deformation achieves maximum when welding thermal source passes through the cross-section that is studied and then decreases during the cooling process after welding.
Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Lienert, U.;
2006-01-01
During plastic deformation of metals and alloys, dislocations arrange in ordered patterns. How and when these self-organization processes take place have remained elusive, because in situ observations have not been feasible. We present an x-ray diffraction method that provided data on the dynamics...... of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior....... Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials....
Improved axial position detection in optical tweezers measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene
2004-01-01
We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial...
Through flow analysis within axial flow turbomachinery blade rows
Girigoswami, H.
1986-09-01
Using Katsanis' Through Flow Code, inviscid flow through an axial flow compressor rotor blade as well as flow through inlet guide vanes are analyzed and the computed parameters such as meridional velocity distribution, axial velocity distribution along radial lines, and velocity distribution over blade surfaces are presented.
Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Kristina
The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....
An Unbroken Axial-Vector Current Conservation Law
Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.
2016-04-01
The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space in which a neutrino is characterized by left as well as by right space-time coordinates. Therefore, it is not surprising that whatever the main purposes experiments about a quasielastic axial-vector mass say in favor of an axial-vector mirror Minkowski space-time.
A new approach to radial and axial gauges
Weigert, Heribert; Heinz, Ulrich
1992-03-01
We develop a new path integral formulation of QCD in radial and axial gauges. This formalism yields free propagators which are free of gauge poles. We find that radial gauges are ghost free. In axial gauges ghosts cannot generally be excluded from the formalism due to the need to fix the residual gauge freedom.
The effect of deformation on the TitaniQ geothermobarometer
Negrini, M.; Stunitz, H.; Berger, A.
2012-04-01
The Titan in Quartz (TitaniQ) geothermobarometer is a powerful tool to identify the thermal (Wark and Watson (2006)) and pressure history (Thomas et al. (2010)) particularly in deformed rocks. In order to investigate the effect of the deformation on the TitaniQ thermobarometer and to study the deformation mechanisms responsible for the incorporation of Ti into the recrystallized quartz grains, we performed deformation experiments with a Griggs- type solid medium deformation apparatus. The experiments were performed on quartz single crystals with the addition of rutile powder and 0.1wt% H2O at a pressure of 1.0 -1.5 GPa and a temperature ranging from 800-1000°C at strain rate of 10-6 s-1. These conditions correspond to the dislocation creep regimes 2 and 3 of Hirth and Tullis (1992). We performed high strain axial compression experiments (up to 40%) with compression normal {m} and in O+ direction. The strongly deformed quartz crystals show a wide variety of deformation structures varying from initial crystal lattice distortion (producing bands of undulatory extinction) to subgrain rotation recrystallization, and some grain boundary migration. EMPA measurements and element distribution maps, show no significant increase of Ti content neither in rotated sub-grain nor in the newly crystallized or recrystallized grains. However, element distribution maps reveal locally high Ti concentrations along cracks, indicating precipitation of secondary Ti-phases on a µm-scale. Therefore, transport of Ti took place via fluid along cracks in these experiments. Our preliminary observations indicate that (1) Ti in a fluid (water) was available at grain boundaries of the sample during the experiment. (2) During the deformation experiment the newly crystallized (recrystallized) quartz grains do not incorporate Ti in measurable quantities (by EMPA). Thus, they do not re-equilibrate to the deformation conditions (high P and T) with respect to its trace element content. The kinetics of
Axial electron channeling statistical method of site occupancy determination
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YE; Jia
2001-01-01
［1］Johnson, W., Sowerby, R., Venter, R. D., Plane Strain Slip Line Fields for Metal Deformation Processes——A Source Book and Bibliography, New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.［2］Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.［3］Sokolovsky, V. V., Theory of Plasticity(in Russia), Moskow: Nat. Tech. Press, 1950.［4］Kachanov, L. M., Foundations Theory of Plasticity, London: North-Holland, 1975.［5］Shield, R. T., On the plastic flow of metal condition of axial symmetry, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1955, 233A: 267.［6］Lippmann, H., IUTAM Symposium on Metal Forming Plasticity, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979.［7］Spencer, A. J. M., The approximate solution of certain problem of axially-symmetric plastic flow, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1964, 12: 231.［8］Wang, R., Xiong, Z. H., Wang, W. B., Foundation of Plasticity (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1982.［9］Collins, I. E., Dewhurst, P., A slip line field analysis of asymmetrical hot rolling, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1975, 17: 643.［10］Collins, I. F., Slip line field analysis of forming processes in plane strain and axial symmetry, Advanced Technology of Plasticity, 1984, 11: 1074.［11］Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y., Liu, C. Y. et al., Unified plane-strain slip line field theory system, J. Civil Engineering (in Chinese), 1997, 30(2): 14［12］Simmons, J. A., Hauser, F., Dorn, E., Mathematical Theories of Plastic Deformation Under Impulsive Loading, Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962.［13］Lin, C. C., On a perturbation theory based on the method of characteristies, J. Math. Phys., 1954, 33: 117—134.［14］Hopkins, H. G., The method of characteristics and its applications to the theory of stress waver in solids, in Engineering Plasticity, Combridge: Combridge University Press, 1968, 277—315.［15］Shield, R. T., The plastic indentation of a layer by a flat punch, Quart. Appl. Math., 1955, 13: 27.［16］Haar, A., von
Implicit modeling of folds and overprinting deformation
Laurent, Gautier; Ailleres, Laurent; Grose, Lachlan; Caumon, Guillaume; Jessell, Mark; Armit, Robin
2016-12-01
Three-dimensional structural modeling is gaining importance for a broad range of quantitative geoscientific applications. However, existing approaches are still limited by the type of structural data they are able to use and by their lack of structural meaning. Most techniques heavily rely on spatial data for modeling folded layers, but are unable to completely use cleavage and lineation information for constraining the shape of modeled folds. This lack of structural control is generally compensated by expert knowledge introduced in the form of additional interpretive data such as cross-sections and maps. With this approach, folds are explicitly designed by the user instead of being derived from data. This makes the resulting structures subjective and deterministic. This paper introduces a numerical framework for modeling folds and associated foliations from typical field data. In this framework, a parametric description of fold geometry is incorporated into the interpolation algorithm. This way the folded geometry is implicitly derived from observed data, while being controlled through structural parameters such as fold wavelength, amplitude and tightness. A fold coordinate system is used to support the numerical description of fold geometry and to modify the behavior of classical structural interpolators. This fold frame is constructed from fold-related structural elements such as axial foliations, intersection lineations, and vergence. Poly-deformed terranes are progressively modeled by successively modeling each folding event going backward through time. The proposed framework introduces a new modeling paradigm, which enables the building of three-dimensional geological models of complex poly-deformed terranes. It follows a process based on the structural geologist approach and is able to produce geomodels that honor both structural data and geological knowledge.
On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory
Kirezli, Pınar
2015-01-01
Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...
Axial vibration analysis of nanocones based on nonlocal elasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shu-Qi Guo; Shao-Pu Yang
2012-01-01
Carbon nanocones have quite fascinating electronic and structural properties,whose axial vibration is seldom investigated in previous studies.In this paper,based on a nonlocal elasticity theory,a nonuniform rod model is applied to investigate the small-scale effect and the nonuniform effect on axial vibration of nanocones.Using the modified Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WBK) method,an asymptotic solution is obtained for the axial vibration of general nonuniform nanorods.Then,using similar procedure,the axial vibration of nanocones is analyzed for nonuniform parameters,mode number and nonlocal parameters.Explicit expressions are derived for mode frequencies of clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions.It is found that axial vibration frequencies are highly overestimated by the classical rod model because of ignorance of the effect of small length scale.
Torsional Alfven Waves in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes of Axial Symmetry
Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K; Kraskiewicz, J
2015-01-01
Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulae for the equilibrium mass density and a gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to simulate numerically the propagation of nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfv\\'en waves as well as energy transfer to t...
Deformation characteristics of mechanical expanding of thin-walled cylindrical parts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭宝锋; 聂绍珉; 金淼; 李群; 吴生富
2003-01-01
Mechanical expanding is one of the finishing processes in cylindrical part forming.The distribution of stress and strain shows clearly regional features.FEA simulation and experiments show that the deformation process can be divided into three phases called as rounding phase,expanding phase and unloading phase in turn,in which the main types of deformation are wall bending,circumference elongating and thickness reducing,and spring back respectively.And the longitudinal section can be divided into three portions.expanding region,transition region and rigid region.The plastic deformation occurs regionally in suspended portion.A regional convex in transitional portion is inevitable.
Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
1994-05-15
We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected.
Vetvicka, Ivan
2014-10-01
Zr1Nb alloy tubes used as nuclear fuel cladding in VVER reactors were deformed by isothermal creep under a temperature comprised between 350 °C and 850 °C and constant tensile stress of 5-200 MPa in axial direction (AD). Deformation texture was analyzed by neutron diffraction. Two types of texture were found. For the final type of texture, the test temperature was the decisive factor. Within the temperature range up to 600 °C, the effect of creep or plastic deformation dominates and the texture changes continuously with increasing deformation. The influence of the ratio of wall thickness reduction to diameter reduction (Rw/Rd) on texture originated by plastic deformation by compression of seamless tubes made of elemental zirconium or Zircaloy described by Tenckhoff (2005), was verified for textures formed by creep of cladding tubes made of Zr1Nb alloy (E110) by constant tensile stress at the 350-600 °C range. At 700 °C temperature or higher, the texture was formed mainly by reversible α-Zr ↔ (α + β)-Zr phase transition of significant proportion of zirconium crystals and the formation of a new texture was observed: The highest pole density in the TD have been observed for the pyramid (1 0 1bar 1) followed by the prism (1 0 1bar 0), which can be the effect of {1 1 2bar 1} twining. The prism (1 12bar 0) rotates preferentially perpendicular to AD, while the pole density of prism (1 0 1bar 0) is markedly low.
Deformation analysis: The Fredericton approach
Vrečko, Anja; Ambrožič, Tomaž
2013-01-01
In this article, the Fredericton approach to deformation analysis is presented. It is possible to use several deformation models to determine the differences between the geodetic observations or between the coordinates of points in geodetic network in more epochs. The most appropriate deformation model has been chosen based on statistical testing and available information about dynamics at the area of interest. First, a theoretical background of the approach ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xue-bin
2006-01-01
Patterns of shear band, precursors to shear failure occurring in strain-softening stage, axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of plane strain rock specimens in compression for different heights were investigated by use of Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua(FLAC). A material imperfection closer to the lower-left comer of the specimen was prescribed. For finer mesh, the imperfection was modeled by four null elements, while it was modeled by a null element for coarser mesh. FISH functions were written to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of the specimen. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation was linear elastic; in strain-softening stage, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off and a post-peak linear constitutive relation were adopted. Height of rock specimen does not influence shear band's pattern (including the thickness and inclination angle of shear band). The slopes of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve, stress-lateral strain curve,lateral strain-axial strain curve, Poisson's ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial strain curve depend on the height. Hence, the slopes of these curves cannot be considered as material properties. Nonlinear deformation prior to the peak stress is a kind of precursors to shear failure, which is less apparent for shorter specimen. For the same axial strain, lower lateral expansion is reached for shorter specimen, leading to lower Poisson's ratio and higher volumetric strain. The maximum volumetric strain of longer specimen is less than that of shorter specimen. The conclusions drawn from numerical results using finer mesh qualitatively agree with those using coarser mesh.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Bing-xin; JIANG Ying-tian; XU Xu-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong
2007-01-01
The effect of compressive deformation of austenite on continuous cooling transformation microstructures for 22CrSH gear steel has been investigated using a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator. The experimental results show that the deformation of austenite promotes the formation of proeutectoid ferrite and pearlite, and leads to the increase of critical cooling rate of proeutectoid ferrite plus pearlite microstructure. The grain boundary allotriomorphic ferrite occupies the austenite grain surfaces when the prior deformation takes place or the cooling rate is decreased, which causes a transition from bainite to acicular ferrite. The deformation enhances the stability of transformation from austenite to acicular ferrite, which results in an increase of M/A constituent.
Lugade, Vipul; Fortune, Emma; Morrow, Melissa; Kaufman, Kenton
2013-01-01
A robust method for identifying movement in the free-living environment is needed to objectively measure physical activity. The purpose of this study was to validate the identification of postural orientation and movement from acceleration data against visual inspection from video recordings. Using tri-axial accelerometers placed on the waist and thigh, static orientations of standing, sitting, and lying down, as well as dynamic movements of walking, jogging and transitions between postures w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Arkhipov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The flow redistribution in the axial stage through the stator axis blade deformation can create favorable conditions for raising stage efficiency and combined actions for axial compressor elements especially in ambient conditions. For this purpose, the axis deformation impact on the gas-dynamic stability margin and the coefficient of efficiency of axial compressor has been numerically investigated.The influence of guide vane (GV axis was considered with invariable rotor blades and different variants of stator. The GV axis form was changed on the arc of a circle in the range of ± 15% guide vane height in circumferential direction and in the axial direction in the range ± 10% of guide vane height, increments ± 2.5%.As an object, for investigation was chosen a numerical 3D model of transonic stage of axial compressor with the following values of basic parameters: circumferential speed in the rotor blade trips of 345 m/s, relative diameter of the hub being 0.7, and coefficient of discharge being 0.5. The stage was profiling by classic low Cu*r=const. Rotor and stator profiles for all variants under investigation were the same in the same radii.As to initial radial axis guide vane, the losses of total pressure in stator become substantially less throughout the height of blade in case there is a guide vane axis bending in axial direction in line of flow. Bending of the axis in the circumferential direction against the rotation leads to reducing total pressure losses especially in hub and shroud regions, and in the flow core there is no change.In future, the effects of a tangent pitch and a slanting flow can be of interest in case of the simultaneous bending in both directions, as well as when studying the influence of bending of the guide vanes, which are a part of a sector of stages and a multi-stage compressor in a wide range of operating conditions.
Calculating Transition Energy Barriers and Characterizing Activation States for Steps of Fusion.
Ryham, Rolf J; Klotz, Thomas S; Yao, Lihan; Cohen, Fredric S
2016-03-08
We use continuum mechanics to calculate an entire least energy pathway of membrane fusion, from stalk formation, to pore creation, and through fusion pore enlargement. The model assumes that each structure in the pathway is axially symmetric. The static continuum stalk structure agrees quantitatively with experimental stalk architecture. Calculations show that in a stalk, the distal monolayer is stretched and the stored stretching energy is significantly less than the tilt energy of an unstretched distal monolayer. The string method is used to determine the energy of the transition barriers that separate intermediate states and the dynamics of two bilayers as they pass through them. Hemifusion requires a small amount of energy independently of lipid composition, while direct transition from a stalk to a fusion pore without a hemifusion intermediate is highly improbable. Hemifusion diaphragm expansion is spontaneous for distal monolayers containing at least two lipid components, given sufficiently negative diaphragm spontaneous curvature. Conversely, diaphragms formed from single-component distal monolayers do not expand without the continual injection of energy. We identify a diaphragm radius, below which central pore expansion is spontaneous. For larger diaphragms, prior studies have shown that pore expansion is not axisymmetric, and here our calculations supply an upper bound for the energy of the barrier against pore formation. The major energy-requiring deformations in the steps of fusion are: widening of a hydrophobic fissure in bilayers for stalk formation, splay within the expanding hemifusion diaphragm, and fissure widening initiating pore formation in a hemifusion diaphragm.
Axial Vibration Confinement in Nonhomogenous Rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Choura
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A design methodology for the vibration confinement of axial vibrations in nonhomogenous rods is proposed. This is achieved by a proper selection of a set of spatially dependent functions characterizing the rod material and geometric properties. Conditions for selecting such properties are established by constructing positive Lyapunov functions whose derivative with respect to the space variable is negative. It is shown that varying the shape of the rod alone is sufficient to confine the vibratory motion. In such a case, the vibration confinement requires that the eigenfunctions be exponentially decaying functions of space, where the notion of spatial domain stability is introduced as a concept dual to that of the time domain stability. It is also shown that vibration confinement can be produced if the rod density and/or stiffness are varied with respect to the space variable while the cross-section area is kept constant. Several case studies, supporting the developed conditions imposed on the spatially dependent functions for vibration confinement in vibrating rods, are discussed. Because variation in the geometric and material properties might decrease the critical buckling loads, we also discuss the buckling problem.
Axially Symmetric Post-Newtonian Stellar Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camilo Akímushkin
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We introduce a method to obtain self-consistent, axially symmetric disklike stellar models in the first post-Newtonian (1PN approximation. By using in the field equations of the 1PN approximation a distribution function (DF corresponding to a Newtonian model, two fundamental equations determining the 1PN corrections are obtained. The rotation curves of the corrected models differs from the classical ones and the corrections are clearly appreciable with values of the mass and radius of a typical galaxy. On the other hand, the relativistic mass correction can be ignored for all models. Resumen. Presentamos un método para obtener modelos estelares discoidales, axialmente simétricos, auto-consistentes en la primera aproximación post-Newtoniana (1PN. Usando en las ecuaciones de campo de la aproximación 1PN una función de distribución conocida (DF que corresponde a un modelo Newtoniano, se obtienen dos ecuaciones fundamentales para determinar las correcciones 1PN. Las curvas de rotación de los modelos corregidos difieren de las clásicas y las correcciones son claramente apreciables con los valores de la masa y el radio de una galaxia típica. Por otro lado, la corrección relativista de la masa se puede ignorar para todos los modelos.
Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva F. M. A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.
New treatment targets for axial spondyloarthritis.
Sieper, Joachim
2016-12-01
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients can be divided into those with structural damage in the SI joint visible on X-rays, termed radiographic axSpA or AS, and those in an earlier phase of the disease, without structural damage in the SI joint, termed non-radiographic axSpA. TNF-blockers have been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of active axSpA. Interestingly, conventional DMARDs and also non-TNF-blocker biologics targeting IL-1, IL-6 and T cells (abatacept) are not effective. Recent interest has focused on the cytokines IL-23 and IL-17 as potential treatment targets in axSpA. An open-label trial with ustekinumab showed a good efficacy in AS patients. Two placebo-controlled phase 3 trials with a mAb blocking IL-17, secukinumab, showed a good reduction in disease activity, similar to that shown for TNF blockers. Probably triggered by inflammation, new bone formation is another hallmark in AS and a potentially important treatment target. However, a previously reported inhibitory effect of NSAID treatment could not be confirmed in a recent NSAID trial.
Computerized axial tomography in clinical pediatrics.
McCullough, D C; Kufta, C; Axelbaum, S P; Schellinger, D
1977-02-01
Computerized axial tomography (CAT), a noninvasive radiologie method, provides a new dimension in screening and diagnosis of intracranial pathology. Evaluation of 725 scans in infants and children demonstrates that CAT may be performed with negligible risk, although sedation and restraint are essential to the successful performance of studies in children under 6 years of age. CAT is the preferred initial diagnostic method in suspected hydrocephalls and is accurate in the detection and precise localization of brain tumors. The management of hydrocephalus and brain tumors has been significantly altered by the availability of CAT. Few invasive neuroradiologic procedures are required and pneumography is especially curtailed. Serial scanning is the best available method of monitoring ventricular alterations in hydrocephalus, tumor size during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and postoperative recurrence of benign neoplasms. Complex intracranial anomalies are detectable with computerized tomography, but complete definition of pathology often requires angiography and air studies. Limited clinical experience in detecting neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage suggests that CAT will be a valuable tool for futlre investigations of that problem.
Parametric analysis of thermal effect on hydrostatic slipper bearing capacity of axial piston pump
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汤何胜; 訚耀保; 张阳; 李晶
2016-01-01
Hydrostatic slipper was often used in friction bearing design, allowing improvement of the latter’s dynamic behavior. The influence of thermal effect on hydrostatic slipper bearing capacity of axial piston pump was investigated. A set of lumped parameter mathematical models were developed based on energy conservation law of slipper/ swash plate pair. The results show that thermal equilibrium clearance due to solid thermal deformation periodically changes with shaft rotational angle. The slipper bearing capacity increases dramatically with decreasing thermal equilibrium clearance. In order to improve the slipper bearing capacity, length-to-diameter ratio of fixed damper varies from 3.5 to 8.75 and radius ratio of slipper varies from 1.5 to 2.0. In addition, the higher slipper thermal conductivity is useful to improve slipper bearing capability, but the thermal equilibrium clearance is not compromised.
Wilson Loop Area Law for 2D Yang-Mills in Generalized Axial Gauge
Nguyen, Timothy
2016-01-01
We prove that Wilson loop expectation values for arbitrary simple closed contours obey an area law up to second order in perturbative two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Our analysis occurs within a general family of axial-like gauges, which include and interpolate between holomorphic gauge and the Wu-Mandelstam-Liebrandt light cone gauge. Our methods make use of the homotopy invariance properties of iterated integrals of closed one-forms, which allows us to evaluate the nontrivial integrals occurring at second order. We close with a discussion on complex gauge-fixing and deformation of integration cycles for holomorphic path integrals to shed light on some of the quantum field-theoretic underpinnings of our results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabee Shamass
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A large number of authors in the past have concluded that the flow theory of plasticity tends to overestimate significantly the buckling load for many problems of plates and shells in the plastic range, while the deformation theory generally provides much more accurate predictions and is consequently used in practical applications. Following previous numerical studies by the same authors focused on axially compressed cylinders, the present work presents an analytical investigation which comprises the broader and different case of nonproportional loading. The analytical results are discussed and compared with experimental and numerical findings and the reason for the apparent discrepancy on the basis of the so-called “buckling paradox” appears once again to lay in the overconstrained kinematics on the basis of the analytical and numerical approaches present in the literature.
On the equivalence of approximate stationary axially symmetric solutions of Einstein field equations
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Toktarbay, Saken; Zhami, Bakytzhan
2015-01-01
We study stationary axially symmetric solutions of the Einstein vacuum field equations that can be used to describe the gravitational field of astrophysical compact objects in the limiting case of slow rotation and slight deformation. We derive explicitly the exterior Sedrakyan-Chubaryan approximate solution, and express it in analytical form, which makes it practical in the context of astrophysical applications. In the limiting case of vanishing angular momentum, the solution reduces to the well-known Schwarzschild solution in vacuum. We demonstrate that the new solution is equivalent to the exterior Hartle-Thorne solution. We establish the mathematical equivalence between the Sedrakyan-Chubaryan, Fock-Abdildin and Hartle-Thorne formalisms.
Simulating of marble subjected to uni-axial loading using index-parabola damage model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
温世游; 李夕兵; 骆达成
2001-01-01
The limitations of several existing classical rock damage models were critically appraised. Thereafter, a description of a new model to estimate the response of rock was provided. The results of an investigation lead to the development and confirmation of a new index-parabola damage model. The new model is divided into two parts, fictitious damage and real damage and bordered by the critical damage point. In fictitious damage, the damage variable follows the index distribution, while in the real damage a parabolic distribution is used. Thus, the so-called index-parabola damage model is derived. The proposed damage model is applied to simulate the damage procedure of marble under uni-axial loading. The results of the tests show that the proposed model is in excellent agreement with experimental data, in particular the nonlinear characteristic of rock deformation is adequately represented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Aguilar Parés
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Durante el movimiento de un material en un transportador de sinfín surge una fuerza en dirección axial que influye en laselección de uno de los cojinetes de apoyo del equipo. En el artículo aparecen algunas soluciones constructivas que tienen encuentan la fuerza axial. Por otro lado se establece la relación entre la fuerza axial y el empuje axial y se precisa de quiendepende el sentido del empuje axial. Por último se propone un modelo matemático que relaciona la fuerza axial con la potenciarequerida por el equipo.Palabras claves: Transportador de sinf in, fuerza axial , empuje axial ._________________________________________________________________________AbstractDuring the movement of material in a screw conveyor surge a force in axial direction that influence in the selection of one ofthe equipment support bearings. Some constructive solutions appear in the article for considering the axial force. In the otherhand it is established the relation between axial force and axial thurst and it is precised whose direction thurst axial depend of.Finally it is proposed a mathematic model that relates the axial force with the power required by the equipment.Key words: Screw conveyor, axial force, axial thurst .
Piezoelectric ZnO-CNT nanotubes under axial strain and electrical voltage
Zhang, Jin; Wang, Ruijie; Wang, Chengyuan
2012-09-01
This paper aims to study the mechanical responses of a piezoelectric composite nanotube subject to an axial strain and electrical voltage. The nanotubes are fabricated by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal. The axial buckling of the ZnO-CNTs nanotubes (ZCNTs) is investigated by using a composite Euler beam model accounting for the piezoelectricity of the coating layer. Particular attention is paid to the strengthening effect of the core CNT and the effect of the piezoelectricity of the outer ZnO layer. Pre-buckling analysis is also conducted to study the static deformation prior to the buckling. Analytical solutions are obtained based on the theory of three-dimensional elasticity and piezoelectricity. In particular, a tensile radial stress is achieved at the ZnO-CNT interface, which tends to separate the ZnO layer from core CNT and may generate delamination in composite ZCNTs. The size-dependence and physical basis of such an interface stress is thus discussed in details for ZCNTs.
Nonlinear stability of cylindrical shells subjected to axial flow: Theory and experiments
Karagiozis, K. N.; Païdoussis, M. P.; Amabili, M.; Misra, A. K.
2008-01-01
This paper, is concerned with the nonlinear dynamics and stability of thin circular cylindrical shells clamped at both ends and subjected to axial fluid flow. In particular, it describes the development of a nonlinear theoretical model and presents theoretical results displaying the nonlinear behaviour of the clamped shell subjected to flowing fluid. The theoretical model employs the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell equations to describe the geometrically nonlinear structure. The clamped beam eigenfunctions are used to describe the axial variations of the shell deformation, automatically satisfying the boundary conditions and the circumferential continuity condition exactly. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid, and the fluid-structure interaction is described by linear potential flow theory. The partial differential equation of motion is discretized using the Galerkin method and the final set of ordinary differential equations are integrated numerically using a pseudo-arclength continuation and collocation techniques and the Gear backward differentiation formula. A theoretical model for shells with simply supported ends is presented as well. Experiments are also described for (i) elastomer shells subjected to annular (external) air-flow and (ii) aluminium and plastic shells with internal water flow. The experimental results along with the theoretical ones indicate loss of stability by divergence with a subcritical nonlinear behaviour. Finally, theory and experiments are compared, showing good qualitative and reasonable quantitative agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rio Melvin Aro.T
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Flutter is an unstable oscillation which can lead to destruction. Flutter can occur on fixed surfaces, such as blades, wing or the stabilizer. By self-excited aeroelastic instability, flutter can lead to mechanical or structural failure of aircraft engine blades. The modern engines have been designed with increased pressure ratio and reduced weight in order to improve aerodynamic efficiency, resulting in severe aeroelastic problems. Particularly flutter in axial compressors with transonic flow can be characterized by a number of aerodynamic nonlinear effects such as shock boundary layer interaction, rotating stall, and tip vortex instability. Rotating blades operating under high centrifugal forces may also encounter structural nonlinearities due to friction damping and large deformations. In the future work a standard axial flow compressor blade will be taken for analysis, both Subsonic and Transonic range are taken for analysis. Fluid and Structure are two different domains which will be coupled by full system coupling technique to predict the fluttering effect on the compressor blade. ANSYS is a commercial simulation tool, which will be deployed in this work to perform FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction and FSI coupled Modal to predict the flutter in the compressor blades
Applications of numerical optimization techniques to design of axial compressor blades
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Choon-Man Jang; Kwang-Yong Kim
2007-01-01
This paper describes the shape optimization of NASA rotor 37 and rotor and stator blades in a single-stage transonic axial compressor.Shape optimization of the blades operating at the design flow condition has been performed using the response surface method and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis.Thin-layer approximation is introduced to the Navier-Stokes equations,and an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to solve the governing equations.The three design variables,blade sweep,lean and skew,are introduced to optimize the three-dimensional stacking line of the blades.The objective function of the shape optimization is an adiabatic efficiency.Throughout the optimization of rotor and stator blades, optimal blade shape can be obtained.It is noted the increase of adiabatic efficiency by optimization of the blade shape with the stacking line in the single-stage transonic axial compressor is more effective in a rotor blade rather than a stator blade because of the large deformation of blade shape in the stator blade.
Kameneva, M V; Watach, M J; Litwak, P; Antaki, J F; Butler, K C; Thomas, D C; Taylor, L P; Borovetz, H S; Kormos, R L; Griffith, B P
1999-01-01
Chronic testing of the Nimbus/UOP Axial Flow Pump was performed on 22 calves for periods of implantation ranging from 27 to 226 days (average, 74 days). The following parameters were measured: plasma free hemoglobin, blood and plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability and mechanical fragility, oxygen delivery index (ODI), blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, fibrinogen, and plasma osmolality. Most of the above parameters were stable during the full course of support. Compared with baseline, statistically significant differences during the entire period of implantation were only found in: hematocrit (p0.2). After the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period, pump performing parameters for all animals were consistent and stable. In general, the Nimbus/UOP Axial Flow Pump demonstrated basic reliability and biocompatibility and did not produce significant alterations in the mechanical properties of blood or animal health status. The pump provided adequate hemodynamics and was well tolerated by the experimental animal for periods as long as 7.5 months. Monitoring rheologic parameters of blood is very helpful for evaluation of health during heart-assist device application.
Nakawaki, Y
2000-01-01
It is shown that ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives in pure space-like axial gauge quantizations of gauge fields. To avoid inessential complications we confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields and incorporate their quantizations as a continuous deformation of those in light-cone gauge. We attain this by constructing an axial gauge formulation in auxiliary coordinates $x^{\\mu}= (x^+,x^-,x^1,x^2)$, where $x^+=x^0{\\rm sin}{\\theta}+x^3{\\rm cos}{\\theta}, x^-=x^0{\\rm cos}{\\theta}-x^3{\\rm sin}{\\theta}$ and $x^+$ and $A_-=A^0{\\rm cos} {\\theta}+A^3{\\rm sin}{\\theta}=0$ are taken as the evolution parameter and the gauge fixing condition, respectively. We introduce $x^-$-independent residual gauge fields as ghost fields and accomodate them to the Hamiltonian formalism by applying McCartor and Robertson's method. As a result, we obtain conserved translational generators $P_{\\mu}$, which retain ghost degrees of freedom integrated over the hyperplane $x^-=$ constant. They enabl...
Active axial spondyloarthritis: potential role of certolizumab pegol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranatunga S
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Sriya Ranatunga, Anne V Miller Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA Abstract: The axial spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that predominantly affect the axial joints. This group includes ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathy. While the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathies is not clear, immunologically active tissues primarily include the entheses, ie, the areas where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules attach to bone and to the annulus fibrosis at the vertebrae. One of the major mediators of the immune response in this group of diseases is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα. Blockade of TNFα results in reduced vascularity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovial tissues of affected joints. Certolizumab pegol (CZP is an Fc-free, PEGylated anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody. CZP has unique properties that differ from other available TNFα inhibitors by virtue of its lack of an Fc region, which minimizes potential Fc-mediated effects, and its PEGylation, which improves drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. It has been shown in clinical trials that CZP improves patient outcomes and reduces inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in both ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathies. These data support CZP as a treatment option for axial spondyloarthropathies. Keywords: axial spondyloarthropathy, certolizumab pegol, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, therapy
Deformation of the ABJM Theory
Faizal, Mir
2012-01-01
In this paper we analyse the ABJM theory on deformed spacetime. We show that this theory reduces to a deformed super-Yang-Mills theory when one of the scalar superfields is given a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value. Our analyse is done in N=1 superspace formulism.
Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes
Muraya, P.M.
2007-01-01
This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation. T
Metastable vacua and geometric deformations
Amariti, A; Girardello, L; Mariotti, A
2008-01-01
We study the geometric interpretation of metastable vacua for systems of D3 branes at non isolated toric deformable singularities. Using the L^{aba} examples, we investigate the relations between the field theoretic susy breaking and restoration and the complex deformations of the CY singularities.
Moiseev, Yu B
2014-01-01
The study was concerned with the human spinal column reaction to axial static and dynamic loading. Fresh segments of the column from dorsal vertebra XI to lumber vertebra II were exposed to axial static (20 mm/min) and dynamic (200 and 500 mm/min) loading. Measured variables included load value, whole segment deformation, anterior surfaces of intervertebral disk Th(XI)-Th(XII) and dorsal vertebra XII, and acoustic emission signals indicative of spongy bone microdestruction. It was found that vertebral body deformation augmented less in comparison with the intervertebral disk and that central parts of the spinal end plates compress greater than peripheral. This difference was more considerable due to static loading rather than dynamic. To produce deformation of a spinal segment by dynamic loading same as by the static one, it is necessary to overcome a stronger resistance of a larger number of trabecular bones. Herefrom it follows that, first, to cause an equal segment compression the dynamic load must be heavier than static and, which is of paramount practical significance, dynamic strength of the column is markedly higher than static. Secondly, spinal stiffness during impact is higher as compared with the static condition. Thirdly, same degree of deformation due to dynamic loading should result in a larger volume of microdestructions comparing with static loading, which is testified by a reliable difference in the number of AE signals accumulated prior to fracture. The number of AE signals amounts to 444.2 ± 308.2 and 85.0 ± 36.6 in case of the dynamic and static loading, respectively (p < 0.05 according to Student's t-criterion).
Dynamic Analysis of Axial Magnetic Forces for DVD Spindle Motors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
The axial magnetic force, induced by the complicated flux linkage distribution from rotor magnet and stator slotted, is constructed by different relative heights and calculated by 3D finite element method (FEM) to analyze the dynamic characteristics for a DVD spindle motor. The axial magnetic force is designed to provide an axial stiffness and govern the natural frequency of the dynamic performance. According to the simulation results and experimental measurements, the dynamic behaviors are significantly improved with a variation of relative height of rotor magnet and stator slotted on a DVD spindle motor.
The axial charges of the hidden-charm pentaquark states
Wang, Guang-Juan; Zhu, Shi-Lin
2016-01-01
With the chiral quark model, we have calculated the axial charges of the pentaquark states with $(I,I_3)=(\\frac{1}{2},\\frac{1}{2})$ and $J^{P}=\\frac{1}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$. The $P_c$ states with the same $J^P$ quantum numbers but different color-spin-flavor configurations have very different axial charges, which encode important information on their underlying structures. For some of the $J^{P}=\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm}$ or $\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$ pentaquark states, their axial charges are much smaller than that of the proton.
Tensile Property of Bi-axial Warp Knitted Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈为
2003-01-01
The tensile property of bi-axial warp knitted fabrics is tested and compared with that of the plain weave fabric. The results show that there are obvious differences between the tensile property of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric and that of a plain weave fabric.The former can give fuller play to the property of a high modulus yarn than the latter. The tensile strength of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric is linear with the number of yarns in the direction of force.
Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei
2012-01-01
The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined.It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter,the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass.Moreover,the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality.It is shown that the EURO thirdgeneration gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star.
Revealing atropisomer axial chirality in drug discovery.
LaPlante, Steven R; Edwards, Paul J; Fader, Lee D; Jakalian, Araz; Hucke, Oliver
2011-03-07
An often overlooked source of chirality is atropisomerism, which results from slow rotation along a bond axis due to steric hindrance and/or electronic factors. If undetected or not managed properly, this time-dependent chirality has the potential to lead to serious consequences, because atropisomers can be present as distinct enantiomers or diastereoisomers with their attendant different properties. Herein we introduce a strategy to reveal and classify compounds that have atropisomeric chirality. Energy barriers to axial rotation were calculated using quantum mechanics, from which predicted high barriers could be experimentally validated. A calculated rotational energy barrier of 20 kcal mol(-1) was established as a suitable threshold to distinguish between atropisomers and non-atropisomers with a prediction accuracy of 86%. This methodology was applied to subsets of drug databases in the course of which atropisomeric drugs were identified. In addition, some drugs were exposed that were not yet known to have this chiral attribute. The most valuable utility of this tool will be to predict atropisomerism along the drug discovery pathway. When used in concert with our compound classification scheme, decisions can be made during early discovery stages such as "hit-to-lead" and "lead optimization," to foresee and validate the presence of atropisomers and to exercise options of removing, further stabilizing, or rendering the chiral axis of interest more freely rotatable via SAR design, thereby decreasing this potential liability within a compound series. The strategy can also improve drug development plans, such as determining whether a drug or series should be developed as a racemic mixture or as an isolated single compound. Moreover, the work described herein can be extended to other chemical fields that require the assessment of potential chiral axes.
Low-Temperature Plasticity of Naturally Deformed Calcite Rocks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Optical, cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were conducted onfour groups of calcite fault rocks, a cataclastic limestone, cataclastic coarse-grained marbles from two fault zones, and afractured mylonite. These fault rocks show similar microstructural characteristics and give clues to similar processes ofrock deformation. They are characterized by the structural contrast between macroscopic cataclastic (brittle) andmicroscopic mylonitic (ductile) microstructures. Intragranular deformation microstructures (i.e. deformation twins, kinkbands and microfractures) are well preserved in the deformed grains in clasts or in primary rocks. The matrix materials areof extremely fine grains with diffusive features. Dislocation microstructures for co-existing brittle deformation andcrystalline plasticity were revealed using TEM. Tangled dislocations are often preserved at the cores of highly deformedclasts, while dislocation walls form in the transitions to the fine-grained matrix materials and free dislocations, dislocationloops and dislocation dipoles are observed both in the deformed clasts and in the fine-grained matrix materials. Dynamicrecrystallization grains from subgrain rotation recrystallization and subsequent grain boundary migration constitute themajor parts of the matrix materials. Statistical measurements of densities of free dislocations, grain sizes of subgrains anddynamically recrystallized grains suggest an unsteady state of the rock deformation. Microstructural andcathodoluminescence analyses prove that fluid activity is one of the major parts of faulting processes. Low-temperatureplasticity, and thereby induced co-existence of macroscopic brittle and microscopic ductile microstmctures are attributedto hydrolytic weakening due to the involvement of fluid phases in deformation and subsequent variation of rock rheology.During hydrolytic weakening, fluid phases, e.g. water, enhance the rate of dislocation slip and climb, and
Deformation of Man Made Objects
Ibrahim, Mohamed
2012-07-01
We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.
Making Deformable Template Models Operational
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fisker, Rune
2000-01-01
Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization...... published during the Ph.D. project. To put these articles into the general context of deformable template models and to pass on an overview of the deformable template model literature, the thesis starts with a compact survey of the deformable template model literature with special focus on representation....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasuyuki Nishi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.
Dynamic measurement of deformation using Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry
Gao, Xinya; Wu, Sijin; Yang, Lianxiang
2013-10-01
Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a well-established optical technique for measurement of nano-scale deformations. It has become more and more important due to the rapid development of applications in aerospace engineering and biomedicine. Traditionally, phase shift technique is used to quantitatively measure the deformations in DHI. However, it cannot be applied in dynamic measurement. Fourier transform phase extraction method, which can determine the phase distribution from only a single hologram, becomes a promising method to extract transient phases in DHI. This paper introduces a digital holographic interferometric system based on 2D Fourier transform phase extraction method, with which deformations of objects can be measured quickly. In the optical setup, the object beam strikes a CCD via a lens and aperture, and the reference beam is projected on the CCD through a single-mode fiber. A small inclination angle between the diverging reference beam and optical axial is introduced in order to physically separate the Fourier components in frequency domain. Phase maps are then obtained by the utilization of Fourier transform and windowed inverse Fourier transform. The capability of the Fourier transform DHI is discussed by theoretical discussion as well as experiments.
Deformation in Thin Glassy Polymer Films from Surface towards Interior
Chowdhury, Mithun; de Silva, Johann P.; Cross, Graham L. W.
Polymer thin glassy films occupy an important place in last two decades of condensed matter research, concerning its surprising surface mobility and spatially dependent structural relaxation. However, ranges of cleverly designed indirect measurements on confined polymer glassy films already probed its mechanical properties; it is still a challenging task to directly probe such small confined volume through conventional mechanical testing. We have designed confined layer compression testing with a precisely designed and aligned flat probe during nanoindentation, which was further accompanied with atomic force microscopy. Due to natural confinement from the surrounding material, we show that a state of `uniaxial strain' is created beneath the probe under small axial strains. By this methodology we are able to directly probe uniaxial flows under both anelastic and plastic conditions while doing controlled creep studies at different positions in the film starting from surface towards interior. Depending on the extent of deformation, we found ranges of effects, such as densification, anelastic yield, and plastic yield. Enhanced creep rate upon deformation supports the idea of `deformation induced mobility'. Work performed at Trinity College Dublin.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo Stachiv
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stachiv, Ivo, E-mail: stachiv@fzu.cz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Tao-Hsing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)
2015-11-15
Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.
Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure.
Lei, Xiao-Wen; Ni, Qing-Qing; Shi, Jin-Xing; Natsuki, Toshiaki
2011-08-11
In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experiment, calculation and simulation. Our results show that the RBM frequency is linearly dependent on the axial pressure and is affected by the wave numbers. We concluded that RBM frequency can be used to characterize the axial pressure acting on both ends of a CNT.
Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...
Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...
ANALYSIS OF PULSATILE BLOOD FLOW IN AXIALLY MOVING ARTERIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
In order to study motional properties of pulsatile blood flow in axially moving arteries, the authors derived some expressions of the pulsatile blood flow from the basic equations of motion for blood and vascular walls, including an axial blood velocity equation, a flow rate equation and a wall shear stress equation, which described not only the overall axial movement of the arteries but also the elastic properties of the vascular walls, discussed the effects of the arterial wall elasticity on the wall shear stress in coronary arteries in terms of these expressions, and analyzed changes of motional properties of pulsatile blood flow between an elastic arterial tube model and a rigid tube model. The results proved the inference by J.E. Moore Jr. et al. (1994) that the axial movement of arteries be as important in determining coronary artery hemodynamics as the elastic property of the vascular wall.
The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.
1975-01-01
The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...
Axial Stringy System of the Kerr Spinning Particle
Burinskii, A
2004-01-01
The structure of classical spinning particle based on the Kerr-Newman black hole (BH) solution is investigated. For large angular momentum, $|a|>>m$, the BH horizons disappear exposing a naked ringlike source which is a circular relativistic string. It was shown recently that electromagnetic excitations of this string lead to the appearance of an extra axial stringy system which consists of two half-infinite strings of opposite chirality. In this paper we consider the relation of this stringy system to the Dirac equation. We also show that the axial strings are the Witten superconducting strings and describe their structure by the Higgs field model where the Higgs condensate is used to regularize axial singularity. We argue that this axial stringy system may play the role of a classical carrier of the wave function.
Open-Axial-Field Magnet at ISR intersection I8
1979-01-01
This axial field spectrometer left the central collision region unobstructed in order to ease analysis of secondary particles emitted at large angle. The ISR circulating beams were passing through a hole in the magnet poles.
Axial mesodermal dysplasia complex: a new case with parental consanguinity.
Mota, C R; Azevedo, M; Rocha, G; Manuela, F; Coelho, R; Lima, M R
2000-01-01
A female is described with axial mesodermal dysplasia complex (AMDC) born to a consanguineous couple. This is thought to be the first description of a patient with AMDC born to consanguineous parents.
Deformed $sd$-shell nuclei from first principles
Jansen, G R; Hagen, G; Navrátil, P
2015-01-01
We extend the ab initio coupled-cluster effective interaction (CCEI) method to deformed open-shell nuclei with protons and neutrons in the valence space, and compute binding energies and excited states of isotopes of neon and magnesium. We employ a nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interaction from chiral effective field theory evolved to a lower cutoff via a similarity renormalization group transformation. We find good agreement with experiment for binding energies and spectra, while charge radii of neon isotopes are underestimated. For the deformed nuclei $^{20}$Ne and $^{24}$Mg we reproduce rotational bands and electric quadrupole transitions within uncertainties estimated from an effective field theory for deformed nuclei, thereby demonstrating that collective phenomena in $sd$-shell nuclei emerge from complex ab initio calculations.
Strong Deformation Effects in Hot Rotating 46Ti
Kmiecik, M; Brekiesz, M; Mazurek, K; Bednarczyk, P; Grebosz, J; Meczynski, W; Styczen, J; Zieblinski, M; Zuber, K; Papka, P; Beck, C; Curien, D; Haas, F; Rauch, V; Rousseau, M; Dudek, J; Schunck, N; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Benzoni, G; Wieland, O; Herskind, B; Farnea, E; De Angelis, G
2007-01-01
Exotic-deformation effects in 46Ti nucleus were investigated by analysing the high-energy gamma-ray and the alpha-particle energy spectra. One of the experiments was performed using the charged-particle multi-detector array ICARE together with a large volume (4"x4") BGO detector. The study focused on simultaneous measurement of light charged particles and gamma-rays in coincidence with the evaporation residues. The experimental data show a signature of very large deformations of the compound nucleus in the Jacobi transition region at the highest spins. These results are compared to data from previous experiments performed with the HECTOR array coupled to the EUROBALL array, where it was found that the GDR strength function is highly fragmented, strongly indicating a presence of nuclei with very large deformation.
Recovery by triple junction motion in heavily deformed metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu
2015-01-01
A number of processes may occur during recovery, which reduce the stored energy and coarsen the structure, paving the way for the nucleation of recrystallization. In this review, recovery is discussed based on the initial deformed structure. Recovery in samples deformed to low-to-medium strains...... is briefly considered, whereas recovery in samples deformed to much higher strains is discussed in more detail. An example is Al, where a new and important recovery mechanism is triple junction motion, which can remove thin lamellae and consequently increase the thickness of neighbouring lamellae....... This recovery mechanism therefore coarsens the structure and causes a gradual transition from a lamellar to a near equiaxed structure preceding recrystallization. This mechanism is discussed in conjunction with structural pinning, which stabilizes the coarsening microstructure, thereby balancing the forces...
Aleksandrova, Nadezhda
2013-01-01
Under analysis is travel of P-waves in an elastic pipe partly embedded in soil with dry friction. The mathematical formulation of the problem on impact pipe driving in soil is based on the model of axial vibration of an elastic bar, considering lateral resistance described using the law of solid dry friction. The author solves problems on axial load on pipe in interaction with external elastic medium, and compares the analytical and numerical results obtained with and without accounting for the external medium deformability.
Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)
2012-06-27
A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.
Involvement of valgus hindfoot deformity in hallux valgus deformity in rheumatoid arthritis.
Yamada, Shutaro; Hirao, Makoto; Tsuboi, Hideki; Akita, Shosuke; Matsushita, Masato; Ohshima, Shiro; Saeki, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Jun
2014-09-01
The involvement of valgus hindfoot deformity in hallux valgus deformity was confirmed in a rheumatoid arthritis case with a destructive valgus hindfoot deformity. Correction of severe valgus, calcaneal lateral offset, and pronated foot deformity instantly normalized hallux valgus deformities postoperatively. Thus, careful hindfoot status evaluation is important when assessing forefoot deformity, including hallux valgus, in rheumatoid arthritis cases.
Axial Anomaly in Lattice Abelian Gauge Theory in Arbitrary Dimensions
Fujiwara, T; Wu, K; Fujiwara, Takanori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Wu, Ke
1999-01-01
Axial anomaly of lattice abelian gauge theory in hyper-cubic regular lattice in arbitrary even dimensions is investigated by applying the method of exterior differential calculus. The topological invariance, gauge invariance and locality of the axial anomaly determine the explicit form of the topological part. The anomaly is obtained up to a multiplicative constant for finite lattice spacing and can be interpreted as the Chern character of the abelian lattice gauge theory.
Axially astigmatic surfaces: different types and their properties
Malacara-Doblado, Daniel; Malacara-Hernandez, Daniel; Garcia-Marquez, Jorge L.
1996-12-01
Axially astigmatic surfaces have different curvatures in orthogonal diameters. Toroidal and spherocylindrical optical surfaces are two mathematically different special cases of axially astigmatic surfaces as noted by Menchaca and Malacara (1986), but they are almost identical in the vicinity of the optical axis. The different between these two surfaces increases when the distance to the optical axis increases. We study the general properties of astigmatic surfaces and some special interesting cases.
Testing of Axially Loaded Bucket Foundation with Applied Overburden Pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl
This report analyses laboratory testing data performed with a bucket foundation model subjected to axial loading. The examinations were conducted at the Geotechnical laboratory of Aalborg University. The report aims at showing and discussing the results of the static and cyclic axial loading tests...... on the bucket foundation model. Finally, a cyclic loading interaction diagram is given that can be applied for a full-scale bucket foundation design....
Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle
2011-01-01
The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the ...
Axially symmetric volume constrained anisotropic mean curvature flow
Palmer, Bennett
2011-01-01
We study the long time existence theory for a non local flow associated to a free boundary problem for a trapped non liquid drop. The drop has free boundary components on two horizontal plates and its free energy is anisotropic and axially symmetric. For axially symmetric initial surfaces with sufficiently large volume, we show that the flow exists for all time. Numerical simulations of the curvature flow are presented.
Mukherjee, P; Hazra, L N
2014-02-01
Pupil plane filtering by radial Walsh filters is a convenient technique for tailoring the axial intensity distribution near the focal plane of a rotationally symmetric imaging system. Radial Walsh filters, derived from radial Walsh functions, form a set of orthogonal phase filters that take on values either 0 or π phase, corresponding to +1 or -1 values of the radial Walsh functions over prespecified annular regions of the circular filter. Order of these filters is given by the number of zero-crossings, or equivalently phase transitions within the domain over which the set is defined. In general, radial Walsh filters are binary phase zone plates, each of them demonstrating distinct focusing characteristics. The set of radial Walsh filters can be classified into distinct groups, where the members of each group possess self-similar structures. Self-similarity can also be observed in the corresponding axial intensity distributions. These observations provide valuable clues in tackling the inverse problem of synthesis of phase filter in accordance with prespecified axial intensity distributions. This paper reports our observations on self-similarity in radial Walsh filters of various orders and corresponding axial intensity distributions.
Perceptual transparency from image deformation.
Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya
2015-08-18
Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.
Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks
Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.
2011-12-01
The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.
Axial Creeping Flow in the Gap between a Rigid Cylinder and a Concentric Elastic Tube
Elbaz, Shai B
2015-01-01
We examine transient axial creeping flow in the annular gap between a rigid cylinder and a concentric elastic tube. The gap is initially filled with a thin fluid layer. The study focuses on viscous-elastic time-scales for which the rate of solid deformation is of the same order-of-magnitude as the velocity of the fluid. We employ an elastic shell model and the lubrication approximation to obtain a forced nonlinear diffusion equation governing the viscous-elastic interaction. In the case of an advancing liquid front into a configuration with a negligible film layer (compared with the radial deformation of the elastic tube), the governing equation degenerates into a forced porous medium equation, for which several closed-form solutions are presented. In the case where the initial film layer is non-negligible, self-similarity is used to devise propagation laws for a pressure driven liquid front. When advancing external forces are applied on the tube, the formation of dipole structures is shown to dominate the in...
Dynamic Behaviours of a Single Soft Rock-Socketed Shaft Subjected to Axial Cyclic Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben-jiao Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The soft rock was simulated by cement, plaster, sand, water, and concrete hardening accelerator in this paper. Meanwhile, uniaxial compressive strength tests and triaxial compression tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of simulated soft rock samples. Model tests on a single pile socketed in simulated soft rock under axial cyclic loading were conducted by using a device which combined test apparatus with a GCTS dynamic triaxial system. Test results show that the optimal mix ratio is cement : plaster : medium sand : water : concrete hardening accelerator = 4.5% : 5.0% : 84.71% : 4.75% : 1.04%. The static load ratio (SLR, cyclic load ratio (CLR, and the number of cycles affect the accumulated deformation and cyclic secant modulus of the pile head. The accumulated deformation increases with increasing numbers of cycles. However, the cyclic secant modulus of pile head increases and then decreases with the growth in the number of cycles and finally remains stable after 50 cycles. According to the test results, the development of accumulated settlement was analysed. Finally, an empirical formula for accumulated settlement, considering the effects of the number of cycles, the static load ratio, the cyclic load ratio, and the uniaxial compressive strength, is proposed which can be used for feasibility studies or preliminary design of pile foundations on soft rock subjected to traffic loading.
Aerodynamics and combustion of axial swirlers
Fu, Yongqiang
A multipoint lean direct injection (LDI) concept was introduced recently in non-premixed combustion to obtain both low NOx emissions and good combustion stability. In this concept, a key feature is the injection of finely atomized fuel into the high-swirling airflow at the combustor dome that provides a homogenous, lean fuel-air mixture. In order to achieve the fine atomization and mixing of the fuel and air quickly and uniformly, a good swirler design should be studied. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the aerodynamics and combustion of the swirling flow field in a multipoint Lean Direct Injector combustor. A helical axial-vaned swirler with a short internal convergent-divergent venturi was used. Swirlers with various vane angles and fuel nozzle insertion lengths have been designed. Three non-dimensional parameter effects on non-reacting, swirling flow field were studied: swirler number, confinement ratio and Reynolds number. Spray and combustion characteristics on the single swirler were studied to understand the mechanism of fuel-air mixing in this special configuration. Multi-swirler interactions were studied by measuring the confined flow field of a multipoint swirler array with different configurations. Two different swirler arrangements were investigated experimentally, which include a co-swirling array and a counter-swirling array. In order to increase the range of stability of multipoint LDI combustors, an improved design were also conducted. The results show that the degree of swirl and the level of confinement have a clear impact on the mean and turbulent flow fields. The swirling flow fields may also change significantly with the addition of a variety of simulated fuel nozzle insertion lengths. The swirler with short insertion has the stronger swirling flow as compared with the long insertion swirler. Reynolds numbers, with range of current study, will not alter mean and turbulent properties of generated flows. The reaction of the spray
Axial scanning in confocal microscopy employing adaptive lenses (CAL).
Koukourakis, Nektarios; Finkeldey, Markus; Stürmer, Moritz; Leithold, Christoph; Gerhardt, Nils C; Hofmann, Martin R; Wallrabe, Ulrike; Czarske, Jürgen W; Fischer, Andreas
2014-03-10
In this paper we analyze the capability of adaptive lenses to replace mechanical axial scanning in confocal microscopy. The adaptive approach promises to achieve high scan rates in a rather simple implementation. This may open up new applications in biomedical imaging or surface analysis in micro- and nanoelectronics, where currently the axial scan rates and the flexibility at the scan process are the limiting factors. The results show that fast and adaptive axial scanning is possible using electrically tunable lenses but the performance degrades during the scan. This is due to defocus and spherical aberrations introduced to the system by tuning of the adaptive lens. These detune the observation plane away from the best focus which strongly deteriorates the axial resolution by a factor of ~2.4. Introducing balancing aberrations allows addressing these influences. The presented approach is based on the employment of a second adaptive lens, located in the detection path. It enables shifting the observation plane back to the best focus position and thus creating axial scans with homogeneous axial resolution. We present simulated and experimental proof-of-principle results.
Axial blanket for 16NGF Angra 1 fuel type
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadde, Luciano Martins; Faria, Eduardo Fernandes [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sadde@inb.gov.br; faria@inb.gov.br; Sang-Keun You [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. (KNFC), Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: skyou@knfc.co.kr
2007-07-01
Angra-1, Kori-2 and Krsko are nuclear power plants with the same design. However, the fuel assemblies have some differences in design due to the countries strategies and the differences in the fabrication process. The 16NGF (16x16 Next Generation Fuel) was developed by INB, KNFC and Westinghouse in order to be used in these three nuclear power plants and the 'Axial Blanket' is one of the new features for the 16NGF design. The main purpose of the Axial Blanket Optimization study is to determine which axial blanket enrichment and length would provide the better fuel cycle cost benefit. All of the calculations were performed using Gadolinium as Burnable Absorber and solid pellets type for Axial Blanket. The results indicate 1.8 w/o U235 enrichment and 8 inches length as the best option of Axial Blanket from the fuel cycle cost benefit standpoint. The economy is about 1.8%. The difference in the reload cost in the range between 1.5 and 2.6 w/o U235 enrichment and for the 6 and 8 inches length is not so significant. Due that, from the Fq limit standpoint and also for longer cycle length requirements, a higher axial blanket enrichment (2.6 w/o) and shorter length (6 inches) is recommended. (author)
Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials
Afonso, V. I.; Bazeia, D.; Brito, F. A.
2006-01-01
In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scena...
Mathieson, Haley Aaron
This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels
Strain localization in carbonate rocks experimentally deformed in the ductile field
Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.; Dresen, G.
2012-04-01
The deformation of rocks in the Earth's crust is often localized, varying from brittle fault gauges in shallow environments to mylonites in ductile shear zones at greater depth. A number of theoretical, experimental, and field studies focused on the evolution and extend of brittle fault zones, but little is known so far about initiation of ductile shear zones. Strain localization in rocks deforming at high temperature and pressure may be induced by several physical, chemical, or structurally-related mechanisms. We performed simple and pure shear deformation experiments on carbonate rocks containing structural inhomogenities in the ductile deformation regime. The results may help to gain insight into the evolution of high temperature shear zones. As starting material we used cylindrical samples of coarse-grained Carrara marble containing one or two 1 mm thin artificially prepared sheets of fine-grained Solnhofen limestone, which act as soft inclusions under the applied experimental conditions. Length and diameter of the investigated solid and hollow cylinders were 10-20 mm and 10-15 mm, respectively. Samples were deformed in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900° C temperature and confining pressures of 300 and 400 MPa. Three samples were deformed in axial compression at a bulk strain rate of 8x10-5 s-1to axial strains between 0.02 and 0.21 and 15 samples were twisted in torsion at a bulk shear strain rate of 2x10-4 s-1 to shear strains between 0.01 and 3.74. At low strain, specimens deformed axially and in torsion show minor strain hardening that is replaced by strain weakening at shear strains in excess of about 0.2. Peak shear stress at the imposed condition is about 20 MPa. Strain localized strongly within the weak inclusions as indicated by inhomogeneous bending of initially straight strain markers on sample jackets. Maximum strain concentration within inclusions with respect to the adjacent matrix was between 4 and 40, depending on total strain and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castillo, A.; Torres, M.; Ortiz, J. J.; Perusquia, R.; Hernandez, J. L.; Montes, J. L. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx
2008-07-01
In the present work the preliminary results were obtained with the zoctli system whose purpose is the axial design of assembly of nuclear fuel under certain considerations. For the mentioned design well-know cells were already used and that they have been proven in diverse cycles of operation in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The design contemplates fuels assemblies of 10x10 and with 2 water channels. The assembly was distributed in 6 axial zones according to its structure. In order to take to end the optimization is was used the well-known technique like Path relinking and to find the group of previous solutions required by this technique uses the technical Taboo search. In order to work with Path relinking, 5 trajectories was taken in to account from a set of 5 previous solutions generated with theTaboo search, the update of the group of solutions is carried out in dynamic form. In the case of the Taboo search it was used a list of variable size, it was implement an aspiration approach, it was used the vector of frequencies and due to the cost of the evaluation of the objective function, only it was review 5% of the vicinity. For the objective function was considered the limit thermal, the axial profile of power, the effective multiplication factor and the margin of having turned off in cold. In order to prove the design system, it was used a balance cycle with a value of reference of 0.9928 for the effective multiplication factor that is equivalent to a produced energy of 10896 MWd/TU at the end of operation to full power. The designed assemblies were placed both in one of lots different from fresh assemblies on which it counts the referred cycle. At the end one a comparison with the results obtained with other techniques and under similar conditions is made. The results obtained until the moment show an appropriate performance of the system. It is possible to indicate that a small inconvenient is the amount of consumed resources of calculation during
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent
2014-01-01
transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...... including the perspective of structural changes (transition of socio-technical systems and social practices) and Design as metadesign; an reflexivity on contextual framework of the design practice (regimes/design spaces)....
Human red blood cells deformed under thermal fluid flow.
Foo, Ji-Jinn; Chan, Vincent; Feng, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Kuo-Kang
2006-03-01
The flow-induced mechanical deformation of a human red blood cell (RBC) during thermal transition between room temperature and 42.0 degrees C is interrogated by laser tweezer experiments. Based on the experimental geometry of the deformed RBC, the surface stresses are determined with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulation. It is found that the RBC is more deformable while heating through 37.0 degrees C to 42.0 degrees C, especially at a higher flow velocity due to a thermal-fluid effect. More importantly, the degree of RBC deformation is irreversible and becomes softer, and finally reaches a plateau (at a uniform flow velocity U > 60 microm s(-1)) after the heat treatment, which is similar to a strain-hardening dominated process. In addition, computational simulated stress is found to be dependent on the progression of thermotropic phase transition. Overall, the current study provides new insights into the highly coupled temperature and hydrodynamic effects on the biomechanical properties of human erythrocyte in a model hydrodynamic flow system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Wenya; Yu Min; Li Jinglong; Gao Dalu
2009-01-01
Macro-deformation characteristics of continuous drive friction welded mild steel joints were examined by using one deformable workpiece (objective) and the other undeformable one (rigid). The microstructure evolution and hardness change across the joint were studied. The results show that the axial shortening and radial increment of joints increase with increasing the friction time at 1 200rpm. The cementite particles of pearlites in the weld center are uniformly distributed on the ferrite matrix, while the cementites of the pearlite in the thermal-mechanically affected zone are broken and discontinuously dispersed in the pearlite. The hardness decreases rapidly from the weld center to the parent metal under the coupled effects of heat and deformation during the rapid heating and cooling processes.
CALCULATION OF STRESS AND DEFORMATION IN FUEL ROD CLADDING DURING PELLET-CLADDING INTERACTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dávid Halabuk
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The elementary parts of every fuel assembly, and thus of the reactor core, are fuel rods. The main function of cladding is hermetic separation of nuclear fuel from coolant. The fuel rod works in very specific and difficult conditions, so there are high requirements on its reliability and safety. During irradiation of fuel rods, a state may occur when fuel pellet and cladding interact. This state is followed by changes of stress and deformations in the fuel cladding. The article is focused on stress and deformation analysis of fuel cladding, where two fuels are compared: a fresh one and a spent one, which is in contact with cladding. The calculations are done for 4 different shapes of fuel pellets. It is possible to evaluate which shape of fuel pellet is the most appropriate in consideration of stress and deformation forming in fuel cladding, axial dilatation of fuel, and radial temperature distribution in the fuel rod, based on the obtained results.
Neutron-diffraction measurement of the evolution of strain for non-uniform plastic deformation
Rogge, R B; Boyce, D
2002-01-01
Neutrons are particularly adept for the validation of modeling predictions of stress and strain. In recent years, there has been a significant effort to model the evolution of both the macroscopic stresses and the intergranular stress during plastic deformation. These have had broad implications with regard to understanding the evolution of residual stress and to diffraction-based measurements of strain. Generally the modeling and associated measurements have been performed for simple uniaxial tension, leaving questions with regard to plastic deformation under multi-axial stress and non-uniform stress. Extensive measurements of the strain profile across a plastic hinge for each of a series of loading and unloading cycles to progressively higher degrees of plastic deformation are presented. These measurements are used to assess multiple-length-scale finite-element modeling (FEM) of the plastic hinge, in which the elements will range in size from single crystallites (as used in successful simulations of uniaxia...
Experimental Investigation on Creep Deformation Behavior of Medium-strength Marble Rock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Yong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The creep deformation behavior of rocks has significant effect on the stability of underground structures. This study presents the short-term and creep deformation behavior of medium-strength marble rock using a conventional uniaxial compression testing machine and a servo-controlled rheology testing machine. The uniaxial compressive strength is obtained by the uniaxial compression testing machine. During the creep behavior test, two types of rock specimens (dry and water-saturated are specified to be used to perform the uniaxial creep tests. Two rheological failure modes and the relationship curves between axial/circumferential strain and stress levels of marble specimens are also obtained from the creep test results. Eventually, the creep deformation behaviors are compared with those of typical soft rocks. These creep curves combined with a given creep constitutive model would provide accurate parameters for long-term stability analyses of actual projects.
Large N behavior of mass deformed ABJM theory
Nosaka, Tomoki; Shimizu, Kazuma; Terashima, Seiji
2016-03-01
In this paper, using the localization technique we analyze the large N limit of the mass deformed Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory on the three sphere with a finite mass parameter and finite Chern-Simons levels. We find two different solutions of the saddle point equations in the large N limit. With these solutions we compute the free energy limit and find that there is a first order phase transition. Our results may predict a phase transition in the dual gravity theory.
Large N behavior of mass deformed ABJM theory
Nosaka, Tomoki; Terashima, Seiji
2015-01-01
In this paper, using the localization technique we analyze the large N limit of the mass deformed Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory on the three sphere with a finite mass parameter and finite Chern-Simons levels. We find two different solutions of the saddle point equations in the large N limit. With these solutions we compute the free energy and find that there is a first order phase transition. Our results may predict a phase transition in the dual gravity theory.
View-Dependent Streamline Deformation and Exploration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tong, Xin; Edwards, John; Chen, Chun-Ming; Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Chris R.; Wong, Pak Chung
2016-07-01
Occlusion presents a major challenge in visualizing 3D flow and tensor fields using streamlines. Displaying too many streamlines creates a dense visualization filled with occluded structures, but displaying too few streams risks losing important features. We propose a new streamline exploration approach by visually manipulating the cluttered streamlines by pulling visible layers apart and revealing the hidden structures underneath. This paper presents a customized view-dependent deformation algorithm and an interactive visualization tool to minimize visual cluttering for visualizing 3D vector and tensor fields. The algorithm is able to maintain the overall integrity of the fields and expose previously hidden structures. Our system supports both mouse and direct-touch interactions to manipulate the viewing perspectives and visualize the streamlines in depth. By using a lens metaphor of different shapes to select the transition zone of the targeted area interactively, the users can move their focus and examine the vector or tensor field freely.
Kisan, Hemanta K; Sunoj, Raghavan B
2015-02-20
One of the most recent developments in asymmetric catalysis is to employ two or more catalysts under one-pot reaction conditions. This article presents some interesting mechanistic insights on a cooperative dual-catalytic protocol relying on the catalytic ability of dirhodium carbenoid (derived from rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate and a diazo compound) and a chiral spirophosphoric acid ((R)-SPA) in an asymmetric N-H insertion reaction. We have employed DFT(M06 and B3LYP) computational methods to identify the stereocontrolling transition states wherein a chiral (R)-SPA protonates a dirhodium-bound enol intermediate. A true cooperative action elicited by both catalysts has been noted in the enantioselective protonation. More importantly, whether the second axial ligand on the remote rhodium atom could influence the energetic features of the reaction has been probed for the first time. In all steps (such as nitrogen extrusion, addition of amine to the dirhodium carbenoid, and the enol formation), except that in the stereocontrolling event, no major effect of axial ligation has been noticed. However, the presence of the axial ligand helps in stabilizing the protonation transition state and reduces the activation barrier for protonation, suggesting a vital role in stereoselectivity. The predicted sense of stereoselectivities is in good agreement with the experimental results.
Interactive Streamline Exploration and Manipulation Using Deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tong, Xin; Chen, Chun-Ming; Shen, Han-Wei; Wong, Pak C.
2015-01-12
Occlusion presents a major challenge in visualizing three-dimensional flow fields with streamlines. Displaying too many streamlines at once makes it difficult to locate interesting regions, but displaying too few streamlines risks missing important features. A more ideal streamline exploration model is to allow the viewer to freely move across the field that has been populated with interesting streamlines and pull away the streamlines that cause occlusion so that the viewer can inspect the hidden ones in detail. In this paper, we present a streamline deformation algorithm that supports such user-driven interaction with three-dimensional flow fields. We define a view-dependent focus+context technique that moves the streamlines occluding the focus area using a novel displacement model. To preserve the context surrounding the user-chosen focus area, we propose two shape models to define the transition zone for the surrounding streamlines, and the displacement of the contextual streamlines is solved interactively with a goal of preserving their shapes as much as possible. Based on our deformation model, we design an interactive streamline exploration tool using a lens metaphor. Our system runs interactively so that users can move their focus and examine the flow field freely.
ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2002-05-24
The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.
Shape Deformations in Atomic Nuclei
Hamamoto, Ikuko
2011-01-01
The ground states of some nuclei are described by densities and mean fields that are spherical, while others are deformed. The existence of non-spherical shape in nuclei represents a spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu
2013-01-01
parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness......Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...... of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...
Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics
Luo, Albert C J
2010-01-01
"Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...
Deformed Calabi-Yau Completions
Keller, Bernhard
2009-01-01
We define and investigate deformed n-Calabi-Yau completions of homologically smooth differential graded (=dg) categories. Important examples are: deformed preprojective algebras of connected non Dynkin quivers, Ginzburg dg algebras associated to quivers with potentials and dg categories associated to the category of coherent sheaves on the canonical bundle of a smooth variety. We show that deformed Calabi-Yau completions do have the Calabi-Yau property and that their construction is compatible with derived equivalences and with localizations. In particular, Ginzburg dg algebras have the Calabi-Yau property. We show that deformed 3-Calabi-Yau completions of algebras of global dimension at most 2 are quasi-isomorphic to Ginzburg dg algebras and apply this to the study of cluster-tilted algebras and to the construction of derived equivalences associated to mutations of quivers with potentials. In the appendix, Michel Van den Bergh uses non commutative differential geometry to give an alternative proof of the fac...
Deformation of Honeycomb with Finite Boundary Subjected to Uniaxial Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dai-Heng Chen
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the crushing behavior of hexagonal honeycomb structures with finite boundaries (finite width and height subjected to in-plane uniaxial compressive loading is studied based on the nonlinear finite element analysis. It is found that stress-strain responses for the honeycombs with finite boundaries can be classified into two types: Type I and Type II. Such a characteristic is affected by the wall thickness, the work-hardening coefficient and the yield stress for the honeycombs. Furthermore, a transition from the symmetric to asymmetric deformation mode can be observed in Type I, and these deformed cells were localized in a horizontal layer. However, for the case of Type II response, the symmetric and asymmetric deformation modes can be observed simultaneously, and the region of the asymmetric mode was formed by the cell layer along the diagonal direction. As a result, the shear deformation behavior was developed along that direction. Moreover, the effect of work-hardening on the deformation behavior for the honeycombs with finite boundaries can be explained from that for infinite honeycombs.
Properties of deformed Λ hypernuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Xian-Rong
2009-01-01
The properties of Be and B isotopes and the corresponding Λ hypernuclei are studied by using a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock approach with realistic nucleonic Skyrme forces, pairing correlations, and a microscopically determined lambda-nucleon interaction based on Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations of hypernuclear matter. The results suggest that the core nuclei and the corresponding hypernuclei have similar deformations with the same sign.
Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Ormerod
2011-05-01
Full Text Available e wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A_2+A_1^{(1}, may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.
Investigation of axial power gradients near a control rod tip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loberg, John, E-mail: John.Loberg@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Osterlund, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Osterlund@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan, E-mail: Klaes-Hakan.Bejmer@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Blomgren@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Kierkegaard, Jesper, E-mail: Jesper.Kierkegaar@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden)
2011-07-15
Highlights: > Pin power gradients near BWR control rod tips have been investigated. > A control rod tip is modeled in MCNP and compared to simplified 2D/3D geometry. > Small nodes increases pin power gradients; standard nodes underestimates gradients. > The MCNP results are validated against axial gamma scan of a controlled fuel pin. - Abstract: Control rod withdrawal in BWRs induces large power steps in the adjacent fuel assemblies. This paper investigates how well a 2D/3D method, e.g., CASMO5/SIMULATE5 computes axial pin power gradients adjacent to an asymmetrical control-rod tip in a BWR. The ability to predict pin power gradients accurately is important for safety considerations whereas large powers steps induced by control rod withdrawal can cause Pellet Cladding Interaction. The computation of axial pin power gradients axially around a control rod tip is a challenging task for any nodal code. On top of that, asymmetrical control rod handles are present in some BWR designs. The lattice code CASMO requires diagonal symmetry of all control rod parts. This introduces an error in computed pin power gradients that has been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The results show that CASMO5/SIMULATE5, despite the asymmetrical control rod handle, is able to predict the axial pin power gradient within 1%/cm for axial nodal sizes of 15-3.68 cm. However, a nodal size of 3.68 cm still causes underestimations of pin power gradients compared with 1 cm nodes. Furthermore, if conventional node sizes are used, {approx}15 cm, pin power gradients can be underestimated by over 50% compared with 1 cm nodes. The detailed axial pin power profiles from MCNP are corroborated by measured gamma scan data on fuel rods irradiated adjacent to control rods.
Kovács, István; Falus, György; Szabó, Csaba; Pintér, Zsanett; Hegedűs, Endre; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Liptai, Nóra; Patkó, Levente; Tommasi, Andrea; Barou, Fabrice; Zajacz, Zoltán; Tribus, Martina; Konzett, Jürgen; Stalder, Roland
2013-04-01
Detailed geochemical and deformation analysis of numerous of mantle xenoliths from the Carpathian-Pannonian region revealed that the present lithosphere, which suffered significant thinning in the Miocene, may be divided into two major layers based on the equilibrium temperatures as indicators for the depth of origin. The shallower layer, from the MOHO to ~40 km depth, is characterized mostly by fine grained, equigranular to porphyroclastic xenoliths, generally displays an 'axial [010]' deformation pattern typical for transpressional deformation regime. Mineral constituents from this shallower layer show high Mg#, low H2O content in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) and depleted in basaltic major elements implying that this layer may have undergone considerable depletion. Trace element patterns, however, show enrichment most probably due to subsequent metasomatic enrichment episodes. The deeper layer is below ~40 km and above the present lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The xenoliths show mainly coarse grained, protogranular texture with 'A-type' deformation pattern typical for asthenospheric flow. Minerals usually have lower Mg# and richer in basaltic major elements. The NAMs from this layer show higher H2O content than those in the shallow layer. Trace element patterns, on the other hand, do not refer to later refertilization episodes by showing dominantly depleted pattern. There is also a special group of tabular equigranular xenoliths, which may represent a domain separating these shallower and deeper layers of the present day lithosphere. This group shows geochemical and deformation properties resembling more the shallower layer, however, the H2O content of NAMs is the highest among all studied samples. Xenoliths, nevertheless, displaying transitional character among these major groups also occur indicating the complex history of the upper mantle. We suggest that the deeper, more H2O rich and less-depleted layer of the present day lithosphere is a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guru Dutta Satyarthee
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Morquio's syndrome is associated with systemic skeletal hypoplasia leading to generalized skeletal deformation. The hypoplasia of odontoid process is frequent association, which is responsible for atlantoaxial dislocation causing compressive myelopathy. However, development of sub-axial cervical kyphotic deformity unassociated with odontoid hypoplasia is extremely rare, and coexistence of dorsal kyphotic deformity is not reported in the western literature till date and represents first case. Current case is 16-year-old boy, who presented with severe kyphotic deformity of cervical spine with spastic quadriparesis. Interestingly, he also had additional asymptomatic kyphotic deformity of dorsal spine; however, odontoid proves hypoplasia was not observed. He was only symptomatic for cervical compression, accordingly surgery was planned. The patient was planned for correction of cervical kyphotic deformity under general anesthesia, underwent fourth cervical corpectomy with resection of posterior longitudinal ligament and fusion with autologous bone graft derived from right fibula, which was refashioned approximating to the width of the corpectomy size after harvesting and fixed between C3 and C5 vertebral bodies and further secured with anterior cervical plating. He tolerated surgical procedure well with improvement in power with significant reduction in spasticity. Postoperative X-ray, cervical spine revealed complete correction of kyphotic deformity cervical spine. At follow-up 6 months following surgery, he is doing well. Successful surgical correction of symptomatic cervical kyphotic deformity can be achieved utilizing anterior cervical corpectomy, autologous fibular bone graft, and anterior cervical plating.
Axial length as a risk factor to branch retinal vein occlusion
Timmerman, EA; deLavalette, VWR; vandenBrom, HJB
1997-01-01
Purpose: To determine whether axial length is a factor in branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Axial length measurements in a group of 24 patients with a unilateral branch retinal Vein occlusion were compared with the axial length measurements in a control group. axial length measurements were ta
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xiaohe; LI Zhijun; GAO Shang
2015-01-01
Objective:To analysis through the mouth atlanto-axial vertebral anterior plate fixation in finite element for the development of the segmental anterior fixation surgery and to provide the reference of inner plant im-provement. Methods:One case, male, 36 years old, 64 kg weight was randomly selected from January 2014 to our hospital to check no-skull - atlanto-axial vertebral disease . It was scanned by 0. 625 mm thin layer, Image data were rebuilted in the Mimics 16. 01 software, Pro/ENGINEER 4. 0 software was used to rebuilt atlanto-axial vertebral anterior plate, After reconstruction of steel screw 3 d model according to the classic through the mouth , the model was imported into Mimics 16. 01 and the model surface was meshed and material was assigned, The mod-el was forced 80 N vertical loading, the surface was applied 15 nm torque, to simulat three motion state example, forward bends, stretch, side-bending, The stress and deformation of screw and rod were measured. Results: At-lanto-axial vertebral three-dimensional reconstruction model were divided into 14 514 individual grid, 7 257 nodes, the model was loaded, The stress of upper screw root in bend was biggest (62. 34 ±5. 52) Mpa (F=73. 23, P<0. 05, the difference was statistically significant). A screw of the root and the top, lateral stress was the largest, respectively were (78. 42 ± 5. 5. 14) Mpa (F=112. 32, P<0. 05);(95. 48 ± 7. 12 Mpa (F=62. 32, P<0. 05), the difference was statistical significance; Under three different motion state and a screw root stress, Upper screw root stress in bending forward was greater than the lower (forward bends, stretch and lateral bending state , t value were 12. 2, 9. 23, 22. 98, P<0. 05, differences were statistically significant), and in the lateral current screw root stress was greater than the upper; In the same movement state, the top was greater than the root, the differences were statistically significant (forward bends, stretch and lateral bending state after
Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms
Kaercher, P. M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Smith, J.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Wenk, H. R.
2014-12-01
The crystal structure of the high pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, yet little is known about its deformation mechanisms. Information about how stishovite deforms under stress is important for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. Particularly, stishovite is elastically anisotropic and thus development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation may contribute to seismic anomalies in the mantle. We converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. Diffraction patterns were collected in situ in radial geometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to examine development of CPO during deformation. We find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction and infer deformation mechanisms leading to the observed CPO with visco-plastic self consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity models. Our results show pyramidal and basal slip are most likely active at high pressure and ambient temperature, in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of rutile (TiO2) and paratellurite (TeO2), which are isostructural to stishovite. Conversely other TEM studies of stishovite done at higher temperature suggest dominant prismatic slip. This indicates that a variety of slip systems may be active in stishovite, depending on conditions. As a result, stishovite's contribution to the seismic signature in the mantle may vary as a function of pressure and temperature and thus depth.
Development and Testing of an Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing
Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.
2006-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic thrust bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help to reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical systems, computer memory systems, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.
Design and Simulation of Axial Flow Maglev Blood Pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huachun Wu
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The axial flow maglev blood pump (AFMBP has become a global research focus and emphasis for artificial ventricular assist device, which has no mechanical contact, mechanical friction, compact structure and light weight, can effectively solve thrombus and hemolysis. Magnetic suspension and impeller is two of the important parts in the axial flow maglev blood pump, and their structure largely determines the blood pump performance. The research adopts electromagnetic and fluid finite element analysis, and puts forward a method to design the magnetic suspension and impeller of axial flow blood pump, which tacks into account the small volume of axial blood pump. The magnetic bearing’s characteristics are evaluated by electromagnetic finite element analysis. The Blades have been designed by calculating aerofoil bone line, and make simulation analysis for different thicken ways of blade by Fluent software, and make a conclusion that the blade thickened with certain rules has better characteristics in the same conditions. The results will provide some guidance for design of axial flow maglev blood pump, and establish theoretical basis for application of the implantable artificial heart pump.
Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections
Kahn, Yonatan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M P
2016-01-01
We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevan...
Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia
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Wen Jun Jiang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.
An Axial-Vector Photon in a Mirror World
Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.
2016-03-01
The unity of symmetry laws emphasizes, in the case of a mirror CP-even Dirac Lagrangian, the ideas of the left- and right-handed axial-vector photons referring to long- and short-lived bosons of true neutrality, respectively. Such a difference in lifetimes expresses the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of axial-vector photons of the different components. They define the unified field theory equation of C-odd particles with an integral spin. Together with a new equation of a theory of truly neutral particles with the half-integral spin, the latter reflects the availability in their nature of the second type of the local axial-vector gauge transformation responsible for origination in the Lagrangian of C-oddity of an interaction Newton component giving an axial-vector mass to all the interacting particles and fields. The mirror axial-vector mass, energy and momentum operators constitute a CP-invariant equation of quantum mechanics, confirming that each of them can individually influence on matter field. Thereby, findings suggest at the level of the mass-charge structure of gauge invariance a new equation for the C-noninvariant Lagrangian.
Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahn, Yonatan [Princeton U.; Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Princeton U.; Tait, Tim P. [UC, Irvine
2016-09-28
We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in pi^0 and 8-Be* decay.
Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.
Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B
2011-12-14
The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.
An Axial Vector Photon in a Mirror World
Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S
2015-01-01
The unity of symmetry laws emphasizes, in the case of a mirror CP-even Dirac Lagrangian, the ideas of the left- and right-handed axial-vector photons referring to long- and short-lived bosons of true neutrality, respectively. Such a difference in lifetimes expresses the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of axial-vector photons of the different components. They define the unified field theory equation of C-odd particles with an integral spin. Together with a new equation of a theory of truly neutral particles with the half-integral spin, the latter reflects the availability in their nature of the second type of the local axial-vector gauge transformation responsible for origination in the Lagrangian of C-oddity of an interaction Newton component giving an axial-vector mass to all the interacting particles and fields. The mirror axial-vector mass, energy and momentum operators constitute a CP-invariant equation of quantum mechanics, confirming that each of them can individually influence on matter ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchiat, C.; Piketty, C.A. (Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique)
1991-01-01
Left-right symmetries in atomic transitions, depending upon the nuclear spin, could be a source of information on the neutral hadronic axial current. We show that the relevant electroweak parameter can be extracted from experiment by measuring hyperfine component ratios which do not involve the knowledge of the atomic wave function. In the standard electroweak model, the parity violating electron-nucleus interaction associated with the hadronic axial neutral current is accidently suppressed and, as a consequence, dominated by the electron interaction with the nuclear anapole moment, which describes the effect of the parity violating nuclear forces on the nucleus electromagnetic current. One of our objectives was to identify the various physical mechanisms which determine the size of the nuclear anapole moments. As an important step, we have established a simple relation between the anapole moment and the nuclear spin magnetization. From this relation it follows that the computation of the anapole moment can be reduced to that of one-body operators. The basic tool is a unitary transformation W which eliminates the one-body parity violating potential from the nuclear hamiltonian. A particular attention was paid to nuclear correlation effects. They are treated semi-empirically in the independent pair approximation. The nuclear anapole moments of {sup 85}Rb, {sup 133}Cs, and {sup 209}Bi have been evaluated for three sets of parity violating meson-nucleon coupling constants, taking into account configuration mixing effects in a semi-empirical way. We suggest a possible strategy to disentangle the axial neutral current from the anapole moment contribution. (orig.).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Shear band (SB),axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of anisotropic jointed rock specimen (JRS) were modeled by Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). Failure criterion of rock was a composited Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. An inclined joint was treated as square elements of ideal plastic material beyond the peak strength. Several FISH functions were written to automatically find the addresses of elements in the joint and to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of plane strain JRS. The results show that for moderate joint inclination (JI), strain is only concentrated into the joint governing the behavior of JRS,leading to ideal plastic responses in axial and lateral directions. For higher JI, the post-peak stress-axial and lateral strain curves become steeper as JI increases owing to the increase of new SB's length. Lateral expansion and precursor to the unstable failure are the most apparent, resulting in the highest Poisson's ratio and even negative volumetric strain. For lower JI, the entire post-peak deformational characteristics are independent of JI. The lowest lateral expansion occurs, leading to the lowest Poisson's ratio and positive volumetric strain all along. The present prediction on anisotropic strength in plane strain compression qualitatively agrees with the results in triaxial tests of rocks.The JI calculated by Jaeger's formula overestimates that related to the minimum strength. Advantages of the present numerical model over the Jaeger's model are pointed out.
Lifetime measurements of triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 163}Tm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, X.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Moore, E. F.; Garg, U.; Gu, Y.; Frauendorf, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ghugre, S. S.; Hammond, N. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Li, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Pattabiraman, N. S.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Univ. of Notre Dame; Kolkata Center
2007-06-21
With the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, quadrupole transition moments Qt were determined for the two recently proposed triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) bands in {sup 163}Tm. The measured Qt values indicate that the deformation of these bands is larger than that of the yrast signature partners. However, the measured values are smaller than those predicted by theory. This observation appears to be valid for TSD bands in several nuclei of the region.
Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Singh Arun
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair
Deformation of second and third quantization
Faizal, Mir
2015-03-01
In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.
Deformation of Second and Third Quantization
Faizal, Mir
2015-01-01
In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ipach, Ingmar; Mittag, F.; Sachsenmaier, S.; Kluba, T. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Heinrich, P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie
2011-04-15
Purpose: Two types of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) are described as reasons for the early development of osteoarthritis of the hip. Cam impingement develops from contact between an abnormal head-neck junction and the acetabular rim. Pincer impingement is characterized by local or general overcoverage of the femoral head by the acetabular rim. Both forms might cause early osteoarthritis of the hip. A decreased head/neck offset has been recognized on AP pelvic views and labeled as 'pistol grip deformity'. The aim of the study was to develop a classification for this deformity with regard to the stage of osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and Methods: 76 pelvic and axial views were analyzed for alpha angle and head ratio. 22 of them had a normal shape in the head-neck region and no osteoarthritis signs, 27 had a 'pistol grip deformity' and osteoarthritis I and 27 had a 'pistol grip deformity' and osteoarthritis II -IV . The CART method was used to develop a classification. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between alpha angle and head ratio. A statistically significant difference in alpha angle and head ratio was seen between the three groups. Using the CART method, we developed a three-step classification system for the 'pistol grip deformity' with very high accuracy. This deformity was aggravated by increasing age. Conclusion: Using this model it is possible to differentiate between normal shapes of the head-neck junction and different severities of the pistol grip deformity. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
To provide data for improved modelling of the behaviour of steelcomponents in a simultaneous forming and quenching process, the effects of plastic deformation and stresses on dilatation during the martensitic transformation in a B-bearing steel were investigated. It was found that plastic deformation of austenite at high temperatures enhances ferrite formation significantly,and consequently, the dilatation decreases markedly even at a cooling rate of 280℃/s. The created ferritic-martensitic microstructure possesses clearly lower hardness and strength than the martensitic structure. Elastic stresses cause the preferred orientation in martensite to be formed so that diametric dilatation can increase by nearly 200% under axial compression.
Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o
Kim, G M; Lach, R; Michler, G H; Pötschke, P; Albrecht, K
2006-02-28
Relationships between phase morphology and mechanical deformation processes in various electrospun polymer nanocomposite nanofibres (PNCNFs) containing different types of one-, two- and three-dimensional nanofiller have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy using in situ tensile techniques. From the study of the phase structure of electrospun PNCNFs, two morphological standard types are classified for the analysis of deformation mechanisms: the binary system (polymer matrix and nanofillers), and the ternary system (polymer matrix, nanofillers and nanopores on the fibres surface). According to these categories, deformation processes have been characterized, and different schematic models for these processes are proposed. The finding of importance in the present work is a brittle-to-ductile transition in polymer nanocomposite fibres during in situ tensile deformation processes. This unique feature in the deformation behaviour of electrospun PNCNFs provides an optimal balance of stiffness, strength and toughness for use as reinforcing elements in a polymer based composite of a new kind.
POST-BURN SCAR DEFORMITIES OF THE FOOT: PECULIARITIES OF CLINICAL FINDINGS AND TREATMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Алексей Георгиевич Баиндурашвили
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The article describes the development terms of scar deformities of the foot and secondary changes in the tendon-muscular and osteoarticular systems depending on the child’s age and localization of scars. It is shown that the most common type of the secondary deformation is extensive contracture in metatarsophalangeal joints. In almost half of the patients (46.1 % contractures lead to dislocations in metatarsophalangeal joints. It is noted that in younger children (1-3 years old secondary deformations developed in the earliest time, after only 8 months after burn injury. It is shown that scars located on the lateral surface of the foot with the transition to the ankle cause an increased risk of multiplanar foot deformity. Prolonged existence of multiplanar deformation leads to the changes of the shape of the articular surfaces and requires a multi-stage surgical treatment.
Increased rigidly triaxial deformations in neutron-rich Mo, Ru isotopes
Liang, WuYang; Jiao, ChangFeng; Xu, FuRong; Fu, XiMing
2016-09-01
Pairing-deformation-frequency self-consistent crankingWoods-Saxon model is employed to investigate the triaxiality in the ground states of the neutron-rich even-even Mo, Ru isotopes. Deformation evolutions and transition probabilities have been studied, giving the triaxial shapes in their ground states. The kinematic moments of inertia have been calculated to illustrate the gradually rigid deformation. To understand the origin of the asymmetry shape in this region, we analyze the evolution of single-particle orbits with changing γ deformation. The present calculations reveal the importance of the triaxial deformation in describing not only static property, but also rotational behaviors in this mass region, providing significant probes into the shell structure around.
Dynamic Behavior of Axially Functionally Graded Pipes Conveying Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen An
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of axially functionally graded (FG pipes conveying fluid was investigated numerically by using the generalized integral transform technique (GITT. The transverse vibration equation was integral transformed into a coupled system of second-order differential equations in the temporal variable. The Mathematica’s built-in function, NDSolve, was employed to numerically solve the resulting transformed ODE system. Excellent convergence of the proposed eigenfunction expansions was demonstrated for calculating the transverse displacement at various points of axially FG pipes conveying fluid. The proposed approach was verified by comparing the obtained results with the available solutions reported in the literature. Moreover, parametric studies were performed to analyze the effects of Young’s modulus variation, material distribution, and flow velocity on the dynamic behavior of axially FG pipes conveying fluid.
Liquid Axial Mixing in Packed Tower at Elevated Pressure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐忠利; 张鹏; 等
2003-01-01
Liquid phase axial mixing was measured with the tracer technique in a packed column with inner diameter of 0.15m,in which the structured packing,Mellapak 350Y,was installed.Tap water as the liquid phase flowed down through the column and stagnant gas was at elevated pressure ranging from atmospheric to 2.0MPa.The model parameters of Bo andθwere estimated with the least square method in the time domain.As liquid flow rate was increased,the liquid axial mixing decreased.under our experimental conditions,the effect of pressure on Bo number on single liquid phase was negligible,and eddy diffusion was believed to be the primary cause of axial mixing in liquid phase.
Unsteady cooperative flow type in the axial compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Xinqian; ZHOU Sheng; HOU Anping; XIONG Jinsong
2005-01-01
For increasing the performance of the axial compressor, a method for realizing unsteady cooperative flow type is proposed in this paper as a critical objective in the new generation of the axial compressor design system. Unsteady excitations were utilized to trigger the transformation from the unsteady natural flow pattern into the unsteady cooperative flow pattern, resulting in increment of aerodynamic performances of axial compressor. Numerical simulations show that distinct positive effect can be obtained for the 2D cascade in a wide range of subsonic working conditions. No positive effect can be observed under the 2D supersonic working conditions and unsteady excitations have little influence on the flow field space-time structure. However, positive effect can be obtained under the 3D transsonic working conditions. In addition, engineering applications of unsteady cooperative flow type are discussed.
Investigation of Aluminum-Copper Tube Hydroforming with Axial Feeding
Parto D., M.; Seyedkashi, S. M. H.; Liaghat, Gh.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Panahizadeh R., V.
2011-01-01
Hydroforming of a two-layered Aluminum-Copper tube is investigated numerically and experimentally. Pressure is applied through a nonlinear path along with symmetrical axial feeding. ABAQUS/Explicit commercial code is used for finite element simulation of the process. ASTM C11000 Copper alloy is used as inner layer and ASTM AA1050A Aluminum alloy is used as outer layer. The simulation results show that the part can be successfully formed under internal pressure of 40 MPa with 8 mm axial displacement. Stress distributions on both inner and outer tubes are compared and maximum thinning on their wall is also discussed. Different friction conditions are applied on the process using different coefficients of friction and their effects are investigated on thinning percentage of inner and outer tubes and also on axial feeding. It is observed that finite element results are in good agreement with experimental results.
Numerical analysis of cavitation within slanted axial-flow pump
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张睿; 陈红勋
2013-01-01
In this paper, the cavitating flow within a slanted axial-flow pump is numerically researched. The hydraulic and cavitation performance of the slanted axial-flow pump under different operation conditions are estimated. Compared with the experimental hydraulic performance curves, the numerical results show that the filter-based model is better than the standard k-e model to predict the parameters of hydraulic performance. In cavitation simulation, compared with the experimental results, the proposed numerical method has good predicting ability. Under different cavitation conditions, the internal cavitating flow fields within slanted axial-flow pump are investigated. Compared with flow visualization results, the major internal flow features can be effectively grasped. In order to explore the origin of the cavitation performance breakdown, the Boundary Vorticity Flux (BVF) is introduced to diagnose the cavitating flow fields. The analysis results indicate that the cavitation performance drop is relevant to the instability of cavitating flow on the blade suction surface.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alexander A Maleev; Mikhail N Bochkarev; Anatoly P Pushkarev; Vasily A Ilichev; Mikhail A Lopatin; Maxim A Samsonov; Georgy K Fukin; Georgy L Pakhomov; Vladislav V Travkin; Ivan D Grishin
2014-01-01
The monophthalocyanine complexes of samarium and terbium containing axial 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (PcSm(MBT) (1)), 2-(2-benzoxazol-2-yl) phenolate (PcTb(OON) (2)) or 2-(2-benzothiazol-2-yl)phenolate (PcTb(SON) (3)) ligands were synthe-sized and identified by elemental, LDI-TOF and X-ray (for 1) analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spec-tra of the compounds contained only emission bands of phthalocyanine and axial ligands but did not contain the bands of f-f transi-tions. It was found that among the complexes 1, 2, 3 the latter had highest photoconductivity (~10–7 S/cm) and photovoltaic properties. An organic photovoltaic device (OPV) of configuration of ITO/3/C60/Alq3/Al revealed open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.24 V and short current density (ISC) of 0.3μA/cm2 under illumination by a xenon lamp at 17 mW/cm2.
Mixing of discontinuously deforming media
Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.
2016-02-01
Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.
Regional brain axial and radial diffusivity changes during development.
Kumar, Rajesh; Nguyen, Haidang D; Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M
2012-02-01
The developing human brain shows rapid myelination and axonal changes during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, requiring successive evaluations to determine normative values for potential pathological assessment. Fiber characteristics can be examined by axial and radial diffusivity procedures, which measure water diffusion parallel and perpendicular to axons and show primarily axonal status and myelin changes, respectively. Such measures are lacking from widespread sites for the developing brain. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired from 30 healthy subjects (age 17.7 ± 4.6 years, range 8-24 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), 18 males) using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Diffusion tensors were calculated, principal eigenvalues determined, and axial and radial diffusivity maps calculated and normalized to a common space. A set of regions of interest was outlined from widespread brain areas within rostral, thalamic, hypothalamic, cerebellar, and pontine regions, and average diffusivity values were calculated using normalized diffusivity maps and these regions of interest masks. Age-related changes were assessed with Pearson's correlations, and gender differences evaluated with Student's t-tests. Axial and radial diffusivity values declined with age in the majority of brain areas, except for midhippocampus, where axial diffusivity values correlated positively with age. Gender differences emerged within putamen, thalamic, hypothalamic, cerebellar, limbic, temporal, and other cortical sites. Documentation of normal axial and radial diffusivity values will help assess disease-related tissue changes. Axial and radial diffusivities change with age,with fiber structure and organization differing between sexes in several brain areas. The findings may underlie gender-based functional characteristics, and mandate partitioning age- and gender-related changes during developmental brain pathology evaluation.
Suppressed plastic deformation at blunt crack tips due to strain gradient effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Goutianos, Stergios
2009-01-01
Large deformation gradients occur near a crack-tip and strain gradient dependent crack-tip deformation and stress fields are expected. Nevertheless, for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, a conventional elastic-plastic solution is obtained. On the other...... hand, for significant large material length scales, a conventional elastic solution is obtained. This transition in behaviour is investigated based on a finite strain version of the Fleck-Hutchinson strain gradient plasticity model from 2001. The predictions show that for a wide range of material...
The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges
Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.
1994-12-01
An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer