WorldWideScience

Sample records for axial symmetry

  1. Thermophoretic motion of bodies with axial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophoresis of axially symmetric bodies is investigated to first order in the Knudsen number, K n. The study is made in the limit where the typical length of the immersed body is small compared with the mean free path. It is shown that in this case, in contrast to what is the case for spherical bodies, the arising thermal force on the body is not in general anti-parallel to the temperature gradient. It is also shown that the gas exerts a torque on the body, which in magnitude and direction depends on the body geometry. Equations of motion describing the body movement are derived. Stationary solutions are studied

  2. Symmetries and Supersymmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian with Axially-Deformed Scalar and Vector Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2009-01-01

    We consider several classes of symmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian in 3+1 dimensions, with axially-deformed scalar and vector potentials. The symmetries include the known pseudospin and spin limits and additional symmetries which occur when the potentials depend on different variables. Supersymmetries are observed within each class and the corresponding charges are identified.

  3. Impulsive Wave Propagation within Magmatic Conduits with Axial Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Negri Leiva, R. S.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    We implemented Trefftz's method to simulate wave propagation in a fluid-solid system aimed to represent a magmatic conduit. Assuming axial symmetry, a set of multipoles is used to build a complete system of wave functions for both the solid and the fluid. These functions are solutions of the elastodynamic equations that govern the motions in the fluid and the solid, respectively. The conduit can be closed or open and the exterior elastic domain may be unlimited or with an exterior boundary. In order to find the functions coefficients, boundary conditions (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The impulsive nature of the source is considered using Fourier analysis. Despite the simplicity of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. In fact, for a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the analytical solution. Moreover, this approach allows establishing some important effects of conduit geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral effects and bump resonances are well resolved. We compared our numerical calculations with results obtained from experimental simulations of volcanic explosions in which rapid depressurization induces fragmentation of volcanic rocks. These experiments are performed within a shock-tube apparatus at room temperature and various pressures using Argon (Ar) gas, particles and pumice samples of different porosities, from Popocatepetl volcano. The mechanical system is well characterized and the dynamics of the explosive process is monitored with high precision piezoelectric sensors located at the pipe surface. The combination of analytical and experimental approaches is very useful to understand the seismic wave field of volcanic conduit dynamics.

  4. Remarks on the U(1) axial symmetry in QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Meggiolaro, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper is organized in two parts. The first part (Sections 2-5) is dedicated to the theory at T=0 and contains a pedagogical review of some fundamental aspects related with the chiral symmetries of QCD, the U(1) problem and its solution proposed by 'tHooft, Witten and Veneziano. In the second part (Sections 6-14) we discuss the role of the U(1) axial symmetry for the phase structure of QCD at finite temperature. One expects that, above a certain critical temperature, also the U(1) axial symmetry will be restored. We will try to see if this transition has (or has not) anything to do with the usual chiral transition: various possible scenarios are discussed. In particular, we analyse a scenario in which the U(1) axial symmetry is still broken above the chiral transition. We will show that this scenario can be consistently reproduced in the full respect of the relevant QCD Ward Identities and also using an effective Lagrangian model. A new order parameter is introduced for the U(1) axial symmetry.

  5. Stability analysis of restricted non-static axial symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq, E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: mzaeem.math@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate the instability of very restricted class of non-static axially symmetric spacetime with anisotropic matter configuration. The perturbation scheme is established for the Einstein field equations and conservation laws. The instability range in the Newtonian and post-Newtonian regions are explored by constructing the collapse equation in this scenario. It is found that the adiabatic index plays an important role in the stability analysis which depends upon the physical parameters i.e., energy density and anisotropic pressure of the fluid distribution.

  6. Stability analysis of restricted non-static axial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to investigate the instability of very restricted class of non-static axially symmetric spacetime with anisotropic matter configuration. The perturbation scheme is established for the Einstein field equations and conservation laws. The instability range in the Newtonian and post-Newtonian regions are explored by constructing the collapse equation in this scenario. It is found that the adiabatic index plays an important role in the stability analysis which depends upon the physical parameters i.e., energy density and anisotropic pressure of the fluid distribution

  7. Axial anomaly and the triality symmetry of leptons and hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Furui, Sadataka

    2013-01-01

    The axial anomaly in hadronic system produced via mixing of quark propagator $\\xi_{1234}$ and $\\xi_0$, which occurs through the operation of $G_{12}$ and $G_{13}$ of \\'E. Cartan on the spinors $A,B,C,D$ and vectors $E,E'$ is investigated. When 2 final vector particles belong to the same group ($EE$ or $E'E'$), the process is called rescattering diagram, and when they belong to different groups ($EE'$), the process is called twisted diagram. The twisted diagram is interpreted as an instanton effect and plays a role in $\\eta\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\eta'\\to\\gamma\\gamma$. Assuming the triality selection rules of octonions, dark matter is interpreted as matter emiting photons in different triality sector than that of electromagnetic probes in our world.

  8. Chiral and U(1) axial symmetry restoration in linear sigma models with two quark flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Michalski, S

    2006-01-01

    We study the restoration of chiral symmetry in linear sigma models with two quark flavors. The models taken into consideration have a U(2) x U(2) and an O(N) internal symmetry. The physical mesons of these models are sigma, pion, \\eta and a_0 where the latter two are not present in the O(N) model. Including two-loop contributions through sunset graphs we calculate the temperature behavior of the order parameter and the masses for explicit chiral symmetry breaking with and without a U(1) axial anomaly. Decay threshold effects introduced by the sunset graphs alter the temperature dependence of the condensate and consequently that of the masses as well. Chiral symmetry tends to be restored at higher temperatures in the two-loop approximation than in the Hartree-Fock approximation. To model a dynamical restoration of the U(1) axial symmetry we imply a temperature-dependent anomaly parameter that sharply drops at about 175 MeV. This triggers the restoration of chiral symmetry before the full symmetry is restored a...

  9. Effects of the symmetry energy slope on the axial oscillations of neutron stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen De-Hua; Zhou Ying

    2013-01-01

    The impact of symmetry energy slope L on the axial w-mode oscillations is explored,where the range of the constrained slope L of symmetry energy at saturation density is adopted from 25 MeV to 115 MeV while keeping the equation of state (EOS) of symmetric nuclear matter fixed.Based on the range of the symmetry energy slope,a constraint on the frequency and damping time of the wI-mode of the neutron star is given.It is found that there is a perfect linear relation between the frequency and the stellar mass for a fixed slope L,and the softer symmetry energy corresponds to a higher frequency.Moreover,it is confirmed that both the frequencies and damping times have a perfect universal scaling behavior for the EOSs with different symmetry energy slopes at saturation density.

  10. SELF-SIMILAR SOLUTIONS OF FRACTURE DYNAMICS PROBLEMS ON AXIALLY SYMMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕念春; 程靳; 程云虹; 屈德志

    2001-01-01

    By the theory of complex functions, a penny-shaped crack on axially symmetric propagating problems for composite materials was studied. The general representations of the analytical solutions with arbitrary index of self-similarity were presented for fracture elastodynamics problems on axially symmetry by the ways of self-similarity under the /addershaped loads. The problerns dealt with can be transformed into Riemann-Hilbert problems and their closed analytical solutions are obtained rather simple by this method. After those analytical solutions are utilized by using the method of rotational superposition theorem in conjunction with that of Smirnov-Sobolev, the solutions of arbitrary complicated problems can be obtained.

  11. Axial symmetry and transverse trace-free tensors in numerical relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Conboye, Rory P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Transverse trace-free (TT) tensors play an important role in the initial conditions of numerical relativity, containing two of the component freedoms. Expressing a TT tensor entirely, by the choice of two scalar potentials, is not a trivial task however. Assuming the added condition of axial symmetry, expressions are given in both spherical and cylindrical coordinates, for TT tensors in flat space. A coordinate relation is then calculated between the scalar potentials of each coordinate syste...

  12. Axial buckling and transverse vibration of ultrathin nanowires: low symmetry and surface elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao; Narsu, B.; Yun, Guohong; Li, Jiangang; Yao, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Surface effects play a deterministic role in the physical and mechanical properties of nanosized materials and structures. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elasticity of nanowires. The natural frequency and the critical compression force of axial buckling are obtained analytically, taking into consideration the influences of lower symmetry, additional elastic parameters, surface reconstruction, surface elasticity, and residual surface stress. Applications of the present theory to elastic systems for the    axially oriented Si and Cu nanowires and Ag    axially oriented nanowires yield good agreement with experimental data and calculated results. The larger positive value of the new elastic parameter c12α taken into account for Si    oriented nanowires drives the curves of natural frequency and critical compression force versus thickness towards the results obtained from density functional theory simulation. Negative surface stress decreases the critical load for axial buckling, thus making the nanowires very easy to bend into various structures. The present study is envisaged to provide useful insights for the design and application of nanowire-based devices.

  13. Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, M.; Schadt, M.

    1996-12-01

    Novel liquid-crystal devices are described that generate linearly polarized light with axial symmetry; the beam propagation axis is the symmetry axis. Such light fields can be characterized by a polarization order number P . For example, P=1 fields represent radially or azimuthally polarized light. The reorientation of the polarization orientation in these polarization converters is due to the twisted nematic effect and the effect of lambda /2 wave plates. A single polarization converter can generate fields of orders 1 and 2. It is shown that one can in principle generate fields of any integral order P by cascading such elements. Devices that generate P=1 fields are achromatic and can be used as polarization axis finders or as versatile tools for studying birefringent or polarizing materials.

  14. Broken axial symmetry as essential feature to predict radiative capture in heavy nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Grosse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for neutron capture in the range of unresolved resonances are predicted for more than 140 spin-0 target nuclei with A>50. Allowing the breaking of spherical and axial symmetry in nearly all these nuclei a combined parameterization for both level density and photon strength is obtained which employs with surprisingly few fit parameters only. The strength functions used are based on a global fit to IVGDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians. They are based on theoretical predictions for the A-dependence of pole energies and spreading widths and add up to the TRK sum rule. For the small spins reached by capture resonance spacings are well described by a level density parameter close to the nuclear matter value; a significant collective enhancement is apparent due to the deviation from axial symmetry. Reliable predictions for compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability – important for nuclear astrophysics and for the transmutation of nuclear waste – are expected to result from the global parameterization presented.

  15. Broken axial symmetry as essential feature to predict radiative capture in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Eckart; Massarczyk, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections for neutron capture in the range of unresolved resonances are predicted for more than 140 spin-0 target nuclei with A > 50. Allowing the breaking of spherical and axial symmetry in nearly all these nuclei a combined parameterization for both, level density and photon strength is obtained which employs a surprisingly small number of parameters only. The strength functions used are based on a global fit to IVGDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians. They are based on theoretical predictions for the A-dependence of pole energies and spreading widths and add up to the TRK sum rule. For the small spins reached by capture resonance spacings are well described by a level density parameter close to the nuclear matter value; a significant collective enhancement is apparent due to the deviation from axial symmetry. Reliable predictions for compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability (as important for nuclear astrophysics and for the transmutation of nuclear waste) are expected to re...

  16. Transversal symmetry breaking and axial spreading modification for Gaussian optical beams

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Manoel; Lima, Marina

    2016-01-01

    For a long time it was believed there was no reason to include the geometrical phase in studying the propagation of gaussian optical beams through dielectric blocks. This can be justified by the fact that the first order term in the Taylor expansion of this phase is responsible for the lateral shift of the optical beam which is also predicted by ray optics. From this point of view, the geometrical phase can be seen as a purely auxiliary concept. In this paper, we show how the second order term in the Taylor expansion accounts for the symmetry breaking of the transversal spatial distribution and acts as an axial spreading modifier. These new effects clearly shows the importance of the geometrical phase in describing the correct behavior of light. To test our theoretical predictions, we briefly discuss a possible experimental implementation.

  17. Static black holes with axial symmetry in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichakova, Olga; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen; Shnir, Yasha

    2016-02-01

    The known static electrovacuum black holes in a globally AdS4 background have an event horizon which is geometrically a round sphere. In this work we argue that the situation is different in models with matter fields possessing an explicit dependence on the azimuthal angle φ , which, however, does not manifest at the level of the energy-momentum tensor. As a result, the full solutions are axially symmetric only, possessing a single (timelike) Killing vector field. Explicit examples of such static black holes are constructed in Einstein-(complex) scalar field and Einstein-Yang-Mills theories. The basic properties of these solutions are discussed, looking for generic features. For example, we notice that the horizon has an oblate spheroidal shape for solutions with a scalar field and a prolate one for black holes with Yang-Mills fields. The deviation from sphericity of the horizon geometry manifests itself in the holographic stress tensor. Finally, based on the results obtained in the probe limit, we conjecture the existence in Einstein-Maxwell theory of static black holes with axial symmetry only.

  18. On one model of stellar clusters with axial symmetry and discrete mass distribution of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of a stationary stellar cluster with axial symmetry and with stellar composition, homogeneous by mass is generalized for the case of a model with stellar composition discretely distributed by mass. From the solution obtained it follows that the summary mass density of stars D, statistic P and dynamic Q of pressure as well as mean circular velocity of stars Vo concide in the both models. However in the second model density distributions of a number of stars nsub(i) (i = 1,2..., k) are different for stellar groups various by mass and do not coincide with a summary density distribution of mass of a star. The latter result gives a possibility to explain a disk structure of SO-galaxies as a Unification of a great number of ring distributions of mean and light stars. Besides that this result allows to explain a bright ring structure, observed in some SO-galaxies, as a prevalence in a general disk structure of one numerous group of mean by mass stars with ring distribution. It is shown also that with some values of parameters a ring structure can form in bipolar clusters

  19. Isospin-invariant Skyrme energy-density-functional approach with axial symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikh, J A; Dobaczewski, J; Nakatsukasa, T; Nazarewicz, W; Sato, K

    2014-01-01

    We develop the isospin-invariant Skyrme-EDF method by considering local densities in all possible isospin channels and proton-neutron (p-n) mixing terms as mandated by the isospin symmetry. The EDF employed has the most general form that depends quadratically on the isoscalar and isovector densities. We test and benchmark the resulting p-n EDF approach, and study the general properties of the new scheme by means of the cranking in the isospin space. We extend the existing axial DFT solver HFBTHO to the case of isospin-invariant EDF approach with all possible p-n mixing terms. Explicit expressions have been derived for all the densities and potentials that appear in the isospin representation. In practical tests, we consider the Skyrme EDF SkM* and, as a first application, concentrate on Hartree-Fock aspects of the problem, i.e., pairing has been disregarded. Calculations have been performed for the (A=78, T~11), (A=40, T~8), and (A=48, T~4) isobaric analog chains. Isospin structure of self-consistent p-n mixe...

  20. Effects of the nuclear symmetry energy on gravitational waves from the axial W-modes of isolated neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequencies and damping times of the axial w-mode oscillations of neutron stars are investigated using a nuclear equation of state (EOS) partially constrained by the available terrestrial laboratory data. It is found that the nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ), especially its high density behavior, plays an important role in determining both the eigen-frequencies and the damping times of these oscillations. (author)

  1. Extended partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extended partially conserved axial-vector current (PCAC) hypothesis that incorporates a family of heavy bosons in a model-independent way is proposed. This is motivated by the impossibility of accounting for the corrections to Goldberger-Treiman relations, both in SU(2) x SU(2) and SU(3) x SU(3), by means of ordinary dynamical mechanisms (many-particle intermediate states). This new hypothesis coupled with an assumption on the strong-coupling constants of the heavy bosons leads to the following results: (i) A universality among the corrections to Goldberger-Treiman relations for ΔS = 0 decays, Δ/sub π/, on the one hand and for ΔS not-equal 0 decays, Δ/sub K/, on the other. (ii) From this universality there follow two sets of sum rules involving masses and strong and weak coupling constants. These sum rules become identities in the chiral as well as in the SU(3) limit and although a definite check has to await for the advent of accurate hyperon data, there are indications that they might be saturated. (iii) By studying the Dashen-Weinstein sum rules, new sets of sum rules involving only strong coupling constants are predicted as well as an expression for Δ/sub π//Δ/sub K/ in good agreement with present data. (iv) It is found that Δ/sub π/ and Δ/sub K/, which are a measure of chiral-symmetry breaking, determine completely the on-mass-shell corrections to soft-meson theorems. Since both Δ/sub π/ and Δ/sub K/ are known experimentally, a calculation is made of the on-mass-shell amplitudes for π0 → γγ, eta → γγ, eta → ππγ, γ → πππ,and γγ → πππ starting from the zero-mass limits implied by anomalous Ward identities. In particular, it is found that the results for the radiative eta decays are in agreement with present experimental data without the need for invoking eta-eta' mixing

  2. Beyond axial symmetry: An improved class of models for global data

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    An important class of models for data on a spherical domain, called axially symmetric, assumes stationarity across longitudes but not across latitudes. The main aim of this work is to introduce a new and more flexible class of models by relaxing the assumption of longitudinal stationarity in the context of regularly gridded climate model output. In this investigation, two other related topics are discussed: the lack of fit of an axially symmetric parametric model compared with a non-parametric model and to longitudinally reversible processes, an important subclass of axially symmetric models.

  3. Symmetry: modeling the effects of masking noise, axial cueing and salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Tyler, Christopher W

    2010-04-06

    Symmetry detection is an interesting probe of pattern processing because it requires the matching of novel patterns without the benefit of prior recognition. However, there is evidence that prior knowledge of the axis location plays an important role in symmetry detection. We investigated how the prior information about the symmetry axis affects symmetry detection under noise-masking conditions. The target stimuli were random-dot displays structured to be symmetric about vertical, horizontal, or diagonal axes and viewed through eight apertures (1.2 degrees diameter) evenly distributed around a 6 degrees diameter circle. The information about axis orientation was manipulated by (1) cueing of axis orientation before the trial and (2) varying axis salience by including or excluding the axis region within the noise apertures. The percentage of correct detection of the symmetry was measured at for a range of both target and masking noise densities. The threshold vs. noise density function was flat at low noise density and increased with a slope of 0.75-0.8 beyond a critical density. Axis cueing reduced the target threshold 2-4 fold at all noise densities while axis salience had an effect only at high noise density. Our results are inconsistent with an ideal observer or signal-to-noise account of symmetry detection but can be explained by a multiple-channel model is which the response in each channel is the ratio between the nonlinear transform of the responses of sets of early symmetry detectors and the sum of external and intrinsic sources of noise.

  4. Generation of crystallographic packing candidates with fixed helical symmetry and axial advance: Application to PI-2 polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A normal coordinate approach was used to generate crystallographic packing candidates of a multitorsional polyimide synthesized from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDA) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-(4-aminophenoxy) propane (DMDA) (PI-2). Candidates were obtained under conditions of fixed axial advance of 24.6 Angstrom per monomer, and imposed 2/1 helical or 1/0 translational symmetry, consistent with the observed WAXD meridional layer line spacing. The ability of combinatorially generated torsional states to adopt the desired geometry was examined. Necessary corrections to the conformational parameter equations have been made. The procedure described allowed crystallographic conformations satisfying explicit geometric and MM3 intramolecular energy criteria to be generated for a linear multitorsional polyimide prior to the application of crystallographic screening or refinement procedures. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Imprints of the nuclear symmetry energy on gravitational waves from the axial w-modes of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eigenfrequencies of the axial w-modes of oscillating neutron stars are studied using the continued fraction method with an equation of state (EOS) partially constrained by the recent terrestrial nuclear laboratory data. It is shown that the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ) affects significantly both the frequencies and the damping times of these modes. Besides confirming the previously found universal behavior of the mass-scaled eigenfrequencies as functions of the compactness of neutron stars, we explored several alternative universal scaling functions. Moreover, the wII-mode is found to exist only for neutron stars having a compactness of M/R≥0.1078 independent of the EOS used.

  6. Axial symmetry breaking in self-induced flavor conversionof supernova neutrino fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, Georg; Sarikas, Srdjan; de Sousa Seixas, David

    2013-08-30

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction causes self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino fluxes. For the first time, we include the azimuth angle of neutrino propagation as an explicit variable and find a new generic multi-azimuth-angle instability which, for simple spectra, occurs in the normal neutrino mass hierarchy. Matter suppression of this instability in supernovae requires larger densities than the traditional bimodal case. The new instability shows explicitly that solutions of the equations for collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial or boundary conditions. This change of paradigm requires reconsideration of numerous results in this field. PMID:24033018

  7. Hamilton's equations for a fluid membrane: axial symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rojas, E [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-09-23

    Consider a homogeneous fluid membrane, or vesicle, described by the Helfrich-Canham energy, quadratic in the mean curvature. When the membrane is axially symmetric, this energy can be viewed as an 'action' describing the motion of a particle; the contours of equilibrium geometries are identified with particle trajectories. A novel Hamiltonian formulation of the problem is presented which exhibits the following two features: (i) the second derivatives appearing in the action through the mean curvature are accommodated in a natural phase space and (ii) the intrinsic freedom associated with the choice of evolution parameter along the contour is preserved. As a result, the phase space involves momenta conjugate not only to the particle position but also to its velocity, and there are constraints on the phase space variables. This formulation provides the groundwork for a field theoretical generalization to arbitrary configurations, with the particle replaced by a loop in space.

  8. Implications of the Corotation Theorem on the MRI in Axial Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, G.; Cianfrani, F.; Pugliese, D.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the linear stability of an axially symmetric ideal plasma disk, embedded in a magnetic field and endowed with a differential rotation. This study is performed by adopting the magnetic flux function as the fundamental dynamical variable, in order to outline the role played by the corotation theorem on the linear mode structure. Using some specific assumptions (e.g., plasma incompressibility and propagation of the perturbations along the background magnetic field), we select the Alfvénic nature of the magnetorotational instability, and, in the geometric optics limit, we determine the dispersion relation describing the linear spectrum. We show how the implementation of the corotation theorem (valid for the background configuration) on the linear dynamics produces the cancellation of the vertical derivative of the disk angular velocity (we check such a feature also in the standard vector formalism to facilitate comparison with previous literature, in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional cases). As a result, we clarify that the unstable modes have, for a stratified disk, the same morphology, proper of a thin-disk profile, and the z-dependence has a simple parametric role.

  9. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  10. Design and experimental performance of short curved wall diffusers with axial symmetry utilizing slot suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Hudson, W. G.; Nelson, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of designing short curved wall axially symmetrical subsonic diffusers utilizing suction through slots in the diffuser walls to prevent flow separation was investigated. A potential flow analysis was made, and a digital computer program was written for determining the diffuser wall contour for prescribed boundary conditions. The flow field included branch flow so that the suction slot geometry could be a part of the diffuser design. One bell shaped diffuser and three annular diffusers with area ratios of either 2.5:1 or 3:1 were designed, fabricated, and tested. Minimum suction requirements of metastable operation ranged from 6.3 percent to 12 percent when operating with inlet air velocities in the 1000 to 250 ft/sec (30 to 76 m/sec) range. For stable operation suction rates from 10 percent to 22 percent were required. In all cases the diffuser effectiveness was above 95 percent based on the conventional definition, and from 81 percent to 94 percent when the suction loss was accounted for. The exit velocity profiles were virtually flat with no more than + or - 9% variation over 95 percent of the exit area when operated with sufficient suction to prevent flow separation.

  11. Static black holes with axial symmetry in asymptotically AdS$_4$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Kichakova, Olga; Radu, Eugen; Shnir, Yasha

    2015-01-01

    The known static electro-vacuum black holes in a globally AdS$_4$ background have an event horizon which is geometrically a round sphere. In this work we argue that the situation is different in models with matter fields possessing an explicit dependence on the azimuthal angle $\\varphi$, which, however, does not manifest at the level of the energy-momentum tensor. As a result, the full solutions are axially symmetric only, possessing a single (timelike) Killing vector field. Explicit examples of such static black holes are constructed in Einstein--(complex) scalar field and Einstein--Yang-Mills theories. The basic properties of these solutions are discussed, looking for generic features. For example, we notice that the horizon has an oblate spheroidal shape for solutions with a scalar field and a prolate one for black holes with Yang-Mills fields. The deviation from sphericity of the horizon geometry manifests itself in the holographic stress-tensor. Finally, based on the results obtained in the probe limit, ...

  12. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas; Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-11-01

    Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dorsal (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan organization and in equally cleaving gastropods occurs when one of the vegetal macromeres makes contact with overlying micromeres and receives an inductive signal that activates a MAPK signaling cascade. Following the induction of the 3D macromere, the embryo begins to gastrulate and assumes a bilateral cleavage pattern. Here we inhibit MAPK activation in 3D with U0126 and examine its effect on the formation and patterning of the trochophore, using a suite of territory-specific markers. The head (pretrochal) region appears to maintain quadri-radial symmetry in U0126-treated embryos, supporting a role for MAPK signaling in 3D in establishing dorsoventral polarity in this region. Posterior (posttrochal) structures - larval musculature, shell and foot--fail to develop in MAPK inhibited trochophores. Inhibition of 3D specification by an alternative method--monensin treatment--yields similar abnormal trochophores. However, genes that are normally expressed in the ectodermal structures (shell and foot) are detected in U0126- and monensin-perturbed larvae in patterns that suggest that this region has latent dorsoventral polarity that is manifested even in the absence of D quadrant specification.

  13. NMR diffusion-encoding with axial symmetry and variable anisotropy: Distinguishing between prolate and oblate microscopic diffusion tensors with unknown orientation distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Stefanie; Topgaard, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.topgaard@fkem1.lu.se [Division of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lasič, Samo [CR Development AB, Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Markus [Lund University Bioimaging Center, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Westin, Carl-Fredrik [Department of Radiology, BWH, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts MA 02215 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-03-14

    We introduce a nuclear magnetic resonance method for quantifying the shape of axially symmetric microscopic diffusion tensors in terms of a new diffusion anisotropy metric, D{sub Δ}, which has unique values for oblate, spherical, and prolate tensor shapes. The pulse sequence includes a series of equal-amplitude magnetic field gradient pulse pairs, the directions of which are tailored to give an axially symmetric diffusion-encoding tensor b with variable anisotropy b{sub Δ}. Averaging of data acquired for a range of orientations of the symmetry axis of the tensor b renders the method insensitive to the orientation distribution function of the microscopic diffusion tensors. Proof-of-principle experiments are performed on water in polydomain lyotropic liquid crystals with geometries that give rise to microscopic diffusion tensors with oblate, spherical, and prolate shapes. The method could be useful for characterizing the geometry of fluid-filled compartments in porous solids, soft matter, and biological tissues.

  14. NMR diffusion-encoding with axial symmetry and variable anisotropy: Distinguishing between prolate and oblate microscopic diffusion tensors with unknown orientation distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Stefanie; Lasič, Samo; Nilsson, Markus; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Topgaard, Daniel

    2015-03-14

    We introduce a nuclear magnetic resonance method for quantifying the shape of axially symmetric microscopic diffusion tensors in terms of a new diffusion anisotropy metric, DΔ, which has unique values for oblate, spherical, and prolate tensor shapes. The pulse sequence includes a series of equal-amplitude magnetic field gradient pulse pairs, the directions of which are tailored to give an axially symmetric diffusion-encoding tensor b with variable anisotropy bΔ. Averaging of data acquired for a range of orientations of the symmetry axis of the tensor b renders the method insensitive to the orientation distribution function of the microscopic diffusion tensors. Proof-of-principle experiments are performed on water in polydomain lyotropic liquid crystals with geometries that give rise to microscopic diffusion tensors with oblate, spherical, and prolate shapes. The method could be useful for characterizing the geometry of fluid-filled compartments in porous solids, soft matter, and biological tissues. PMID:25770532

  15. Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of calcinea and calcaronea, high level of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Michael; Borchiellini, Carole; Alivon, Eliane; Le Parco, Yannick; Vacelet, Jean; Boury-Esnault, Nicole

    2003-06-01

    Because calcareous sponges are triggering renewed interest with respect to basal metazoan evolution, a phylogenetic framework of their internal relationships is needed to clarify the evolutionary history of key morphological characters. Morphological variation was scored at the suprageneric level within Calcispongia, but little phylogenetic information could be retrieved from morphological characters. For the main subdivision of Calcispongia, the analysis of morphological data weakly supports a classification based upon cytological and embryological characters (Calcinea/Calcaronea) rather than the older classification scheme based upon the aquiferous system (Homocoela/Heterocoela). The 18S ribosomal RNA data were then analyzed, both alone and in combination with morphological characters. The monophyly of Calcispongia is highly supported, but the position of this group with respect to other sponge lineages and to eumetazoan taxa is not resolved. The monophyly of both Calcinea and Calcaronea is retrieved, and the data strongly rejected the competing Homocoela/Heterocoela hypothesis. The phylogeny implies that characters of the skeleton architecture are highly homoplastic, as are characters of the aquiferous system. However, axial symmetry seems to be primitive for all Calcispongia, a conclusion that has potentially far-reaching implications for hypotheses of early body plan evolution in Metazoa.

  16. NMR diffusion-encoding with axial symmetry and variable anisotropy: Distinguishing between prolate and oblate microscopic diffusion tensors with unknown orientation distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Stefanie; Lasič, Samo; Nilsson, Markus; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Topgaard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a nuclear magnetic resonance method for quantifying the shape of axially symmetric microscopic diffusion tensors in terms of a new diffusion anisotropy metric, DΔ, which has unique values for oblate, spherical, and prolate tensor shapes. The pulse sequence includes a series of equal-amplitude magnetic field gradient pulse pairs, the directions of which are tailored to give an axially symmetric diffusion-encoding tensor b with variable anisotropy bΔ. Averaging of data acquired for...

  17. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  18. The Axial Current in Electromagnetic Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cheoun, M K; Cheon, I T; Cheoun, Myung Ki; Cheon, Il-Tong

    1998-01-01

    We discussed the possibility that the charged axial currents of matter fields could be non-conserved in electromagnetic interaction at $O(e) $ order. It means that chiral symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. This explicit symmetry breaking of chiral symmetry is shown to lead the mass differences between the charged and neutral particles of matter fields.

  19. Symmetries and Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Van Oers, W T H

    2003-01-01

    In understanding the world of matter, the introduction of symmetry principles following experimentation or using the predictive power of symmetry principles to guide experimentation is most profound. The conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, charge, and CPT involve fundamental symmetries. All other conservation laws are valid within a restricted subspace of the four interactions: the strong, the electromagnetic, the weak, and the gravitational interaction. In this paper comments are made regarding parity violation in hadronic systems, charge symmetry breaking in two nucleon and few nucleon systems, and time-reversal-invariance in hadronic systems.

  20. Partial dynamical symmetry in deformed nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei.

  1. On the definition of cylindrical symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Carot, J.; Senovilla, J. M. M.; Vera, R

    1999-01-01

    The standard definition of cylindrical symmetry in General Relativity is reviewed. Taking the view that axial symmetry is an essential pre-requisite for cylindrical symmetry, it is argued that the requirement of orthogonal transitivity of the isometry group should be dropped, this leading to a new, more general definition of cylindrical symmetry. Stationarity and staticity in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes are then defined, and these issues are analysed in connection with orthogonal trans...

  2. Spatial symmetries of the local densities

    OpenAIRE

    Rohozinski, S. G.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial symmetries of the densities appearing in the nuclear Density Functional Theory are discussed. General forms of the local densities are derived by using methods of construction of isotropic tensor fields. The spherical and axial cases are considered.

  3. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.

  4. Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolić, Ivica

    2015-07-01

    Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair.

  5. Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Smolić, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    Matter fields don't necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair.

  6. Which Chiral Symmetry is Restored in High Temperature QCD?

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Rummukainen, K; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Wingate, M; Bernard, Claude; Blum, Tom; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Hetrick, James E.; Wingate, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    Sigma models for the high temperature phase transition in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) suggest that at high temperature the SU(N_f) x SU(N_f) chiral symmetry becomes exact, but the anomalous axial U(1) symmetry need not be restored. In numerical lattice simulations, traditional methods for detecting symmetry restoration have sought multiplets in the screening mass spectrum. However, these methods were imprecise and the results, so far, incomplete. With improved statistics and methodology, we are now able to offer evidence for a restoration of the SU(2) x SU(2) chiral symmetry just above the crossover, but not of the axial U(1) chiral symmetry.

  7. Chiral symmetry in hadron physics methods and ideas of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and ideas of chiral symmetry is presented based on a lecture note to help the future researches in hadron dynamics along with the chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry was originally developed as the symmetry between currents before the discovery of QCD. It has come to be understood in principle by now that the symmetry is spontaneously broken and only the part of flavor symmetry remains explicitly. In QCD, however, the chiral symmetry has come to be regarded as the base of the symmetry of the global flavor space of quarks. One of the recent topics of the lattice gauge theory is how the hadron properties will change when the broken symmetry is going to be restored. Since the chiral symmetry is global, it is different from gauge symmetry which is local. It explains the degeneracy of hadron masses and relations between the elements of S-matrix in which same number of particles are included. In practice, however, the symmetry of the axial part is spontaneously broken and pions which behave like gauge particles come to play. Chiral symmetry is defined as the (internal) flavor symmetry for the two independent chirality states of quarks. It discriminates two different fundamental quarks defined for the Lorentz groups O(4) - SL(2, C). The symmetry transformation itself is, however, different from the chirality. They should not be confused. In this lecture note, fundamental properties of pions are described on the basis of the interaction with nucleons at first. General properties of the chiral symmetry and some of the low energy theorems on current algebra are introduced. Then, linear sigma model and nonlinear sigma model are introduced. Then the Skyrme-model, which provides an idea as important as quarks, is explained. One of the interesting topics at present is to restore the broken axial symmetry experimentally to investigate the mechanism of symmetry breaking. (S. Funahashi)

  8. 尾迹干扰下大焓降叶片非轴对称端壁效应的数值研究%Unsteady Numerical Simulation of Weak Disturbing on Non-axial Symmetry Endwall of High-loading Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长宝; 韩万金

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation method was used to study the unsteady flow characteristics and the effect of warp end wall on the end wall flow.The upstream wakes of rotor blades were simulated with a rotating cylinder.Two cascades with the non-axial symmetry end wall and the flap end wall respectively were simulated in the baseline conditions.Results show that periodic pulsations of boundary layer parameters are mainly focused on the suction side under the effect of the upstream wake.Compared to the flap end wall,the non-axial symmetry end wall is able to decrease the end wall channel vortices,and further reduces the end wall channel energy loss with the unsteady upstream wake.%采用数值模拟的方法研究了在上游尾迹干扰下大焓降叶片流场的非定常性以及端壁翘曲对端壁区流动的控制效果.上游动叶尾迹用转动的圆柱模拟,在基准工况下计算了具有平坦端壁和翘曲端壁的两套大焓降叶栅.结果表明:在上游尾迹的周期干扰下,叶片表面附面层,主要是吸力面附面层参数表现出周期性脉动.在上游尾迹周期作用的非定常环境下,相对平坦端壁,端壁翘曲降低了端壁通道涡量,降低了端区流动损失.

  9. On the definition of cylindrical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carot, J; Vera, R A

    1999-01-01

    The standard definition of cylindrical symmetry in General Relativity is reviewed. Taking the view that axial symmetry is an essential pre-requisite for cylindrical symmetry, it is argued that the requirement of orthogonal transitivity of the isometry group should be dropped, this leading to a new, more general definition of cylindrical symmetry. Stationarity and staticity in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes are then defined, and these issues are analysed in connection with orthogonal transitivity, thus proving some new results on the structure of the isometry group for this class of spacetimes.

  10. Quantum Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Häring, Reto Andreas

    1993-01-01

    The representations of the observable algebra of a low dimensional quantum field theory form the objects of a braided tensor category. The search for gauge symmetry in the theory amounts to finding an algebra which has the same representation category. In this paper we try to establish that every quantum field theory satisfying some basic axioms posseses a weak quasi Hopf algebra as gauge symmetry. The first step is to construct a functor from the representation category to the category of finite dimensional vector spaces. Given such a functor we can use a generalized reconstruction theorem to find the symmetry algebra. It is shown how this symmetry algebra is used to build a gauge covariant field algebra and we investigate the question why this generality is necessary.

  11. Inherited Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanucci, Frank J.; Losse, John

    2008-01-01

    In a first calculus course, it is not unusual for students to encounter the theorems which state: If f is an even (odd) differentiable function, then its derivative is odd (even). In our paper, we prove some theorems which show how the symmetry of a continuous function f with respect to (i) the vertical line: x = a or (ii) with respect to the…

  12. Domain Walls and Vortices in Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-01-01

    We study domain walls and vortices in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with N flavors in the chiral limit. If the axial anomaly was absent, there exist stable Abelian axial vortices winding around the spontaneously broken U(1)_A symmetry and non-Abelian axial vortices winding around both the U(1)_A and non-Abelian SU(N) chiral symmetries. In the presence of the axial anomaly term, metastable domain walls are present and Abelian axial vortices must be attached by N domain walls, forming domain wall junctions. We show that a domain wall junction decays into N non-Abelian vortices attached by domain walls, implying its metastability. We also show that domain walls decay through the quantum tunneling by creating a hole bounded by a closed non-Abelian vortex.

  13. Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.

  14. LIE SYMMETRIES AND NOETHER SYMMETRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PGL Leach

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that so-called nonnoetherian symmetries with which a known first integral is associated of a differential equation derived from a Lagrangian are in fact noetherian. The source of the misunderstanding lies in the nonuniqueness of the Lagrangian.

  15. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    OpenAIRE

    Silva F. M. A.; Rodrigues L.; Gonçalves P. B.; Del Prado Z. J. G. N

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural fr...

  16. An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2015-01-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...

  17. Universe symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe

  18. Electroweak Interaction Model with an Undegenerate Double Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Slad

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial P-invariance of the electroweak interaction Lagrangian together with the low-energy results of the Weinberg-Salam model is provided by a local secondary symmetry. Among the transformation parameters of this symmetry there are both scalars, and pseudo-scalars with respect to the orthochronous Lorentz group. Such symmetry does admissible existence of a light (massless axial gauge boson and its possible nonuniversal interaction with the leptons of various types.

  19. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  20. Chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1999-01-01

    Broken chiral symmetry has become the basis for a unified treatment of hadronic interactions at low energies. After reviewing mechanisms for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, I outline the construction of the low--energy effective field theory of the Standard Model called chiral perturbation theory. The loop expansion and the renormalization procedure for this nonrenormalizable quantum field theory are developed. Evidence for the standard scenario with a large quark condensate is presented, in particular from high--statistics lattice calculations of the meson mass spectrum. Elastic pion--pion scattering is discussed as an example of a complete calculation to O(p^6) in the low--energy expansion. The meson--baryon system is the subject of the last lecture. After a short summary of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, a recent analysis of pion--nucleon scattering to O(p^3) is reviewed. Finally, I describe some very recent progress in the chiral approach to the nucleon--nucleon interaction.

  1. Critical Point Symmetries in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, D; Petrellis, D; Terziev, P A; Yigitoglu, I; Bonatsos, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Critical Point Symmetries (CPS) appear in regions of the nuclear chart where a rapid change from one symmetry to another is observed. The first CPSs, introduced by F. Iachello, were E(5), which corresponds to the transition from vibrational [U(5)] to gamma-unstable [O(6)] behaviour, and X(5), which represents the change from vibrational [U(5)] to prolate axially deformed [SU(3)] shapes. These CPSs have been obtained as special solutions of the Bohr collective Hamiltonian. More recent special solutions of the same Hamiltonian, to be described here, include Z(5) and Z(4), which correspond to maximally triaxial shapes (the latter with ``frozen'' gamma=30 degrees), as well as X(3), which corresponds to prolate shapes with ``frozen'' gamma=0. CPSs have the advantage of providing predictions which are parameter free (up to overall scale factors) and compare well to experiment. However, their mathematical structure [with the exception of E(5)] needs to be clarified.

  2. CP and other Symmetries of Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Trautner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Outer automorphisms of symmetries ("symmetries of symmetries") in relativistic quantum field theories are studied, including charge conjugation (C), space-reflection (P) , and time-reversal (T) transformations. The group theory of outer automorphisms is pedagogically introduced and it is shown that CP transformations are special outer automorphisms of the global, local, and space-time symmetries of a theory. It is shown that certain discrete groups allow for a group theoretical prediction of parameter independent CP violating complex phases with fixed geometrical values. The remainder of this thesis pioneers the study of outer automorphisms which are not related to C, P, or T. It is shown how outer automorphisms, in general, relate symmetry invariants and, in theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking, imply relations between different vacuum expectation values. Thereby, outer automorphisms can give rise to emergent symmetries. An example model with a discrete symmetry and three copies of the Standard Model ...

  3. Chiral symmetry, axial anomaly and the structure of hot QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Tetsuo.

    1991-10-01

    This lecture is composed of three parts. (1) Heavy quark and gluon contents of light hadrons, (II) anomalous gluon content of the nucleon, and (III) hot and dense QCD. Non-valence structures of nucleon due to the OZI violation are extensively discussed in (I) and (II), and non-perturbative aspects of the quark-gluon plasma are reviewed in (III). 41 refs.

  4. Chiral symmetry, axial anomaly and the structure of hot QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    1991-10-01

    This lecture is composed of three parts. [1] Heavy quark and gluon contents of light hadrons, [II] anomalous gluon content of the nucleon, and [III] hot and dense QCD. Non-valence structures of nucleon due to the OZI violation are extensively discussed in [I] and [II], and non-perturbative aspects of the quark-gluon plasma are reviewed in [III]. 41 refs.

  5. Toroidal linear force-free magnetic fields with axial symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, M.; Romashets, E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are often described as linear force-free fields. To account for their curvature, toroidal configurations must be used. The aim is to find an analytic description of a linear force-free magnetic field of the toroidal geometry in which the cross section of flux ropes can be controlled. Methods: The solution is found as a superposition of fields given by linear force-free cylinders tangential to a generating toroid. The cylindrical field is expressed in a series of terms that are not all cylindrically symmetric. Results: We found the general form of a toroidal linear force-free magnetic field. The field is azimuthally symmetric with respect to the torus axis. It depends on a set of coefficients that enables controlling the flux rope shape (cross section) to some extent. By varying the coefficients, flux ropes with circular and elliptic cross sections were constructed. Numerical comparison suggests that the simple analytic formula for calculating the helicity in toroidal flux ropes of the circular cross section can be used for flux ropes with elliptic cross sections if the minor radius in the formula is set to the geometric mean of the semi-axes of the elliptic cross section.

  6. Morphology of the two-dimensional MRI in Axial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Montani, G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the linear stability of a stellar accretion disk, having a stratified morphology. The study is performed in the framework of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics and therefore it results in a characterization of the linear unstable magneto-rotational modes. The peculiarity of the present scenario consists of adopting the magnetic flux function as the basic dynamical variable. Such a representation of the dynamics allows to make account of the co-rotation theorem as a fundamental feature of the ideal plasma equilibrium, evaluating its impact on the perturbation evolution too. According to the Alfvenic nature of the Magneto-rotational instability, we consider an incompressible plasma profile and perturbations propagating along the background magnetic field. Furthermore, we develop a local perturbation analysis, around fiducial coordinates of the background configuration and dealing with very small scale of the linear dynamics in comparison to the background inhomogeneity size. The main issue of...

  7. Some symmetries in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces

  8. Multinormality and symmetry: a comparison of two statistical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER VON EYE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Multinormal distributions are symmetric. The degree of deviations from axial symmetry can be assessed using the well known Bowker test. A recently proposed test (von Eye & Bogat, 2004; von Eye & Gardiner, 2004 is based on comparing the observed frequencies in sectors of the multivariate space with the corresponding expected frequencies that were estimated based on multinormality. Because this test is an omnibus test of multinormality, it should also be sensitive to deviations from axial symmetry. In this article, we describe the results of simulations that were performed on four types of bivariate distributions: normal, uniform, inverse Laplace-transformed, and cube-root transformed. As expected, the Bowker test showed that inverse Laplace-transformed distributions are likely to show deviations from axial symmetry. None of the other distributions was asymmetric. The new omnibus test of multinormality exhibited 100 % sensitivity to violations of axial symmetry, but was also sensitive to elevated skewness and kurtosis. Thus, it also flagged the uniform and the cube root-transformed distributions as deviating from multinormality. Results also show that the Bowker test is sensitive only to violations of axial symmetry.

  9. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  10. Axial static mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, H.E.

    1982-05-06

    Static axial mixing apparatus includes a plurality of channels, forming flow paths of different dimensions. The axial mixer includes a flow adjusting device for adjustable selective control of flow resistance of various flow paths in order to provide substantially identical flows through the various channels, thereby reducing nonuniform coating of interior surfaces of the channels. The flow adjusting device may include diaphragm valves, and may further include a pressure regulating system therefor.

  11. Surface nanoscale axial photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Sumetsky, M.; Fini, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dense photonic integration promises to revolutionize optical computing and communications. However, efforts towards this goal face unacceptable attenuation of light caused by surface roughness in microscopic devices. Here we address this problem by introducing Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP). The SNAP platform is based on whispering gallery modes circulating around the optical fiber surface and undergoing slow axial propagation readily described by the one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger e...

  12. Gauge symmetry and the EMC spin effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S D

    1993-01-01

    We emphasise the EMC spin effect as a problem of symmetry and discuss the renormalisation of the $C=+1$ axial tensor operators. This involves the generalisation of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly to each of these operators. We find that the contribution of the axial anomaly to the spin dependent structure function $g_1 (x, Q^2)$ scales at $O(\\alpha_s)$. This means that the anomaly can be a large $x$ effect in $g_1$. Finally we discuss the jet signature of the anomaly.

  13. Resonances in axially symmetric dielectric objects

    CERN Document Server

    Helsing, Johan

    2016-01-01

    A high-order convergent and robust numerical solver is constructed and used to find complex eigenwavenumbers and electromagnetic eigenfields of dielectric objects with axial symmetry. The solver is based on Fourier--Nystr\\"om discretization of M\\"uller's combined integral equations for the transmission problem and can be applied to demanding resonance problems at microwave, terahertz, and optical wavelengths. High achievable accuracy, even at very high wavenumbers, makes the solver ideal for benchmarking and for assessing the performance of general purpose commercial software.

  14. Deriving diffeomorphism symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kleppe, Astri

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier article, we have "derived" space, as a part of the Random Dynamics project. In order to get locality we need to obtain reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. There we sketched a procedure for how to get locality by first obtaining reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. This is the object of the present article.

  15. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  16. Concerning the proofs of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. from the effective lagrangian point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claims that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. is mediated by the U(1) axial anomaly are examined from the viewpoint of effective chiral lagrangians. The proofs are seen to arise from a use of effective chiral lagrangians in which the U(1) axial symmetry is explicitly broken by effects of the anomaly. A U(1) axial invariant chiral lagrangian (to be presented) offers no such proof. (author)

  17. Symmetries in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Van Isacker, P

    2010-01-01

    The use of dynamical symmetries or spectrum generating algebras for the solution of the nuclear many-body problem is reviewed. General notions of symmetry and dynamical symmetry in quantum mechanics are introduced and illustrated with simple examples such as the SO(4) symmetry of the hydrogen atom and the isospin symmetry in nuclei. Two nuclear models, the shell model and the interacting boson model, are reviewed with particular emphasis on their use of group-theoretical techniques.

  18. Proton Spin from General Colour Symmetry Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-Fu; LI Ying-Chuan; WEN Xin-Min

    2001-01-01

    The quark wavefunction in a proton has been calculated by using the global colour symmetry model. We find that the property of this wavefunction is closely related to the nonperturbative vacuum configuration. Using the wavefunction we make the calculation of the matrix element of the axial vector current of the quarks in the proton ground state. Its value is found to be 0.17, which is perfectly consistent with 0.23(+6).

  19. Multinormality and symmetry: a comparison of two statistical tests

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDER VON EYE; MAXINE VON EYE; G. ANNE BOGAT

    2006-01-01

    Multinormal distributions are symmetric. The degree of deviations from axial symmetry can be assessed using the well known Bowker test. A recently proposed test (von Eye & Bogat, 2004; von Eye & Gardiner, 2004) is based on comparing the observed frequencies in sectors of the multivariate space with the corresponding expected frequencies that were estimated based on multinormality. Because this test is an omnibus test of multinormality, it should also be sensitive to deviations from axial symm...

  20. Test of SU(3) Symmetry in Hyperon Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, T N

    2013-01-01

    Existing analyzes of baryon semileptonic decays indicate the presence of a small SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays, but to provide evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking, one would need a relation similar to the Gell-Mann Okubo(GMO) baryon mass formula which is satisfied to a few percents and provides evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking in the divergence of the vector current matrix element. In this paper, we shall present a similar GMO relation for the hyperon semileptonic decay axial vector form factors. Using these relations and the measured axial vector current to vector current form factor ratios, we show that SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays is of 5-11%.

  1. Test of SU(3) Symmetry in Hyperon Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, T N

    2014-01-01

    Existing analyzes of baryon semileptonic decays indicate the presence of a small SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays, but to provide evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking, one would need a relation similar to the Gell-Mann--Okubo (GMO) baryon mass formula which is satisfied to a few percents, showing evidence for a small SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in the GMO mass formula. In this talk, I would like to present a similar GMO relation obtained in a recent work for hyperon semileptonic decay axial vector current matrix elements. Using these generalized GMO relations for the measured axial vector current to vector current form factor ratios, it is shown that SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays is of $5-11%$ and confirms the validity of the Cabibbo model for hyperon semi-leptonic decays.

  2. Symmetries in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.

  3. Approximate flavor symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Rasin, A

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  4. The Symmetry Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Rosen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The symmetry principle is described in this paper. The full details are given in the book: J. Rosen, Symmetry in Science: An Introduction to the General Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.

  5. On renormalization of axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that multiplicative renormalization of the axial singlet current results in renormalization of the axial anomaly in all orders of perturbation theory. It is a necessary condition for the Adler - Bardeen theorem being valid. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  7. Origin of family symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Nilles, H. P.; Ratz, M.; Vaudrevange, P. K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  8. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ13 and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ13 is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  9. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  10. Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…

  11. One-loop corrections to the baryon axial vector current

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Hernández-Ruíz

    2012-10-01

    The symmetry breaking corrections to the pion–baryon couplings vanish to first order in $1/N_{c}$, where $N_{c}$ is the number of colours. Loop graphs with octet and decuplet intermediate states cancel to various orders in $N_{c}$ as a consequence of the large-$N_{c}$ spin-flavour symmetry of QCD baryons. The baryon axial vector current is computed at one-loop order in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory in the large Nc limit. $1/N_{c}$ corrections in the case of $g_{A}$ in QCD are presented here.

  12. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  13. Pion electroproduction, partially conserved axial-vector current, chiral Ward identities, and the axial form factor revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reinvestigate Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current relation in the presence of an external electromagnetic field within the framework of QCD coupled to external fields. We discuss pion electroproduction within a tree-level approximation to chiral perturbation theory and explicitly verify a chiral Ward identity referred to as the Adler-Gilman relation. We critically examine soft-momentum techniques and point out how inadmissable approximations may lead to results incompatible with chiral symmetry. As a result we confirm that threshold pion electroproduction is indeed a tool to obtain information on the axial form factor of the nucleon

  14. Anomalies of discrete symmetries in three dimensions and group cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Kapustin, Anton

    2014-01-01

    We study 't Hooft anomalies for a global discrete internal symmetry G. We construct examples of bosonic field theories in three dimensions with a non-vanishing 't Hooft anomaly for a discrete global symmetry. We also construct field theories in three dimensions with a global discrete internal symmetry G_1 x G_2 such that gauging G_1 necessarily breaks G_2 and vice versa. This is analogous to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw axial anomaly in four dimensions and parity anomaly in three dimensions.

  15. Anomalous Discrete Symmetries in Three Dimensions and Group Cohomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, Anton; Thorngren, Ryan

    2014-06-01

    We study 't Hooft anomalies for a global discrete internal symmetry G. We construct examples of bosonic field theories in three dimensions with a nonvanishing 't Hooft anomaly for a discrete global symmetry. We also construct field theories in three dimensions with a global discrete internal symmetry G1×G2 such that gauging G1 necessarily breaks G2 and vice versa. This is analogous to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw axial anomaly in four dimensions and parity anomaly in three dimensions.

  16. Regularized path integrals and anomalies -- U(1) axial gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kopper, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the origin of the Adler anomaly of axial U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [1]. Here we analyse U(1) axial gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-photon amplitude leads to a violation of the Slavnov-Taylor-Identities which cannot be restored on taking the UV limit in the renormalized theory. We point out that this fact is related to the nonanalyticity of this amplitude in the infrared region.

  17. Symmetries in subatomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underlying common themes of the EJC-2010 are symmetries and symmetry violation in relation to nucleon structure, nuclear geometry, isospin and reaction dynamics. The parity violation in electron scattering is the unique probe of strange quarks in nucleons and of neutron skin in heavy nuclei. The use of dynamical symmetries or spectrum generating algebras for the solution of the nuclear many-body problem is reviewed. We also discuss the impact of the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics on the observed properties of hadrons and strongly interacting matter. Mean field approaches are widely used to study nuclear structure properties and correlations between nucleons are treated by symmetry-violating mean field approaches and symmetry properties are currently treated with beyond mean field approaches by using projection techniques. A paper focuses on properties of giant resonances (GR) and particularly on the relationship between GR and isospin symmetry. This document gathers the papers and/or slides of 10 presentations. (A.C.)

  18. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation

  19. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  20. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  1. Continuous vortices with broken symmetry in rotating superfluid 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New NMR measurements are reported on continuous 3He-A vortices in tilted magnetic fields. We introduce a symmetry classification of the continuous vortices with broken axial symmetry. It is found that the discrete internal symmetry may in addition be broken in two inequivalent ways, producing two different continuous vortices. Although NMR may not distinguish between these two vortices, the observed vortex satellite peak is well accounted for by spin waves localized in the soft cores of such vortices

  2. From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Barceló, Carlos; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent grav...

  3. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  4. Axially Symmetric Shear-free Fluids in $f(R,T)$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Noureen, Ifra

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have discussed the implications of shear-free condition on axially symmetric anisotropic gravitating objects in $f(R,T)$ theory. Restricted axial symmetry ignoring rotation and reflection enteries is taken into account for establishment of instability range. Implementation of linear perturbation on constitutive modified dynamical equations yield evolution equation. This equation associates adiabatic index $\\Gamma$ with material and dark source components defining stable and unstable regions in Newtonian (N) and post-Newtonian (pN) approximations.

  5. The baryon axial current in large $N_c$ chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we calculate the baryon axial current within the combined framework of the $1/N_c$ expansion and chiral perturbation theory, where $N_c$ is the number of colors. This calculation shall consider Feynman diagrams to order of one-loop, octet and decuplet intermediaries states. We obtain corrections due to one-loop and perturbative SU(3) symmetry breaking. The first corrections come from Feynman diagrams, then talk about a broken chiral symmetry in the implicit limit $m_q \\rightarrow 0$, where $m_q$ is the quark mass and the second corrections are obtained by ignoring isospin breaking and in that case the SU(3) symmetry breaking a first-order perturbation is included, leading an explicit break symmetry. The matrix elements of the spatial components of the axial operator between the states of the spin flavor symmetry, give the typical values of the axial vector coupling. For the baryon octet, links axial vector are $g_A$, just as they are defined in experiments of baryon semileptonic decays, where $...

  6. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva F. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.

  7. Symmetry and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  8. Symmetry Festival 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.

  9. Symmetry in Mathematics Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Tommy; Eisenberg, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the creed in symmetry and the omnipresence of symmetrical relationships in mathematics and nature, discusses mathematicians' attraction toward looking for symmetrical relationships as an unstated problem-solving heuristic, and shows how symmetry can be used as a didactical tool. (Author/MKR)

  10. Symmetry relation for helical plasmas: parity symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a symmetry relation holds strictly in the LHD (Large Helical Device) type helical magnetic fields. The symmetry relation can be expressed explicitly in the rotating helical coordinate system. It is named as parity symmetry in helical systems. A new concept, - concept of even scalars, odd scalars, even vectors, odd vectors -, is introduced. Calculus of vector operation retains strictly the parity relations for these quantities. For example, the vector product of two vectors with same parity become a odd parity vector. The rotation of a vector field A, ∇ x A, has same parity characteristics with the vector A. It is concluded that the equilibrium magnetic field and current distribution are expressed by even parity vectors. Pressure distribution is expressed by an even parity scalar function. The parity symmetry relations conduct uniquely the power expansion form of equilibrium magnetic field and pressure distribution. Analytical expression for these quantities are obtained approximately by truncation of the power series. Closed magnetic surface, islands, chaotic field line region and divertor field lines are well reproduced by this simple model. (author)

  11. Symmetry Effects in Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Andrew Chi-Chih

    2008-12-01

    The concept of symmetry has played a key role in the development of modern physics. For example, using symmetry, C.N. Yang and other physicists have greatly advanced our understanding of the fundamental laws of physics. Meanwhile, computer scientists have been pondering why some computational problems seem intractable, while others are easy. Just as in physics, the laws of computation sometimes can only be inferred indirectly by considerations of general principles such as symmetry. The symmetry properties of a function can indeed have a profound effect on how fast the function can be computed. In this talk, we present several elegant and surprising discoveries along this line, made by computer scientists using symmetry as their primary tool. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  12. Lectures on Yangian Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Loebbert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfeld's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dila...

  13. Partial Dynamical Symmetry as an Intermediate Symmetry Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a partial dynamical symmetry for which a prescribed symmetry is neither exact nor completely broken. We survey the different types of partial dynamical symmetries and present empirical examples in each category.

  14. An Axial Vector Photon in a Mirror World

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2015-01-01

    The unity of symmetry laws emphasizes, in the case of a mirror CP-even Dirac Lagrangian, the ideas of the left- and right-handed axial-vector photons referring to long- and short-lived bosons of true neutrality, respectively. Such a difference in lifetimes expresses the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of axial-vector photons of the different components. They define the unified field theory equation of C-odd particles with an integral spin. Together with a new equation of a theory of truly neutral particles with the half-integral spin, the latter reflects the availability in their nature of the second type of the local axial-vector gauge transformation responsible for origination in the Lagrangian of C-oddity of an interaction Newton component giving an axial-vector mass to all the interacting particles and fields. The mirror axial-vector mass, energy and momentum operators constitute a CP-invariant equation of quantum mechanics, confirming that each of them can individually influence on matter ...

  15. An Axial-Vector Photon in a Mirror World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-03-01

    The unity of symmetry laws emphasizes, in the case of a mirror CP-even Dirac Lagrangian, the ideas of the left- and right-handed axial-vector photons referring to long- and short-lived bosons of true neutrality, respectively. Such a difference in lifetimes expresses the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of axial-vector photons of the different components. They define the unified field theory equation of C-odd particles with an integral spin. Together with a new equation of a theory of truly neutral particles with the half-integral spin, the latter reflects the availability in their nature of the second type of the local axial-vector gauge transformation responsible for origination in the Lagrangian of C-oddity of an interaction Newton component giving an axial-vector mass to all the interacting particles and fields. The mirror axial-vector mass, energy and momentum operators constitute a CP-invariant equation of quantum mechanics, confirming that each of them can individually influence on matter field. Thereby, findings suggest at the level of the mass-charge structure of gauge invariance a new equation for the C-noninvariant Lagrangian.

  16. Extra-axial brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalino, Otto; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    Extra-axial brain tumors are the most common adult intracranial neoplasms and encompass a broad spectrum of pathologic subtypes. Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumor (approximately one-third of all intracranial neoplasms) and typically present as slowly growing dural-based masses. Benign meningiomas are very common, and may occasionally be difficult to differentiate from more aggressive subtypes (i.e., atypical or malignant varieties) or other dural-based masses with more aggressive biologic behavior (e.g., hemangiopericytoma or dural-based metastases). Many neoplasms that typically affect the brain parenchyma (intra-axial), such as gliomas, may also present with primary or secondary extra-axial involvement. This chapter provides a general and concise overview of the common types of extra-axial tumors and their typical imaging features. PMID:27432671

  17. Build Axial Gradient Field by Using Axial Magnetized Permanent Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Axial magnetic field produced by an axial magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent rings, if they are magnetized in the same directions, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced. If they are magnetized in opposite direction,an axial gradient magnetic field can be generated, with the field range changing from -B0 to B0. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field was fabricated, the measured results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. For wider usage,it is desirable for the field gradient to be changed. Some methods to produce the variable gradient field are presented. These kinds of axial gradient magnetic field can also be used as a beam focusing for linear accelerator if the periodic field can be produced along the beam trajectory. The axial magnetic field is something like a solenoid, large stray field will leak to the outside environment if no method is taken to control them. In this paper, one method is illustrated to shield off the outside leakage field.

  18. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  19. Partial Dynamical Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2010-01-01

    This overview focuses on the notion of partial dynamical symmetry (PDS), for which a prescribed symmetry is obeyed by a subset of solvable eigenstates, but is not shared by the Hamiltonian. General algorithms are presented to identify interactions, of a given order, with such intermediate-symmetry structure. Explicit bosonic and fermionic Hamiltonians with PDS are constructed in the framework of models based on spectrum generating algebras. PDSs of various types are shown to be relevant to nuclear spectroscopy, quantum phase transitions and systems with mixed chaotic and regular dynamics.

  20. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  1. Symmetry in Boolean Satisfiability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi A. Aloul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent approaches on how to accelerate Boolean Satisfiability (SAT search by exploiting symmetries in the problem space. SAT search algorithms traverse an exponentially large search space looking for an assignment that satisfies a set of constraints. The presence of symmetries in the search space induces equivalence classes on the set of truth assignments. The goal is to use symmetries to avoid traversing all assignments by constraining the search to visit a few representative assignments in each equivalence class. This can lead to a significant reduction in search runtime without affecting the completeness of the search.

  2. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  3. Symmetry relation for helical plasma. Parity symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a strict symmetry relation holds in the LHD (Large Helical Device) type helical magnetic field. The symmetry relation is expressed explicitly in the rotating helical coordinate system and named as parity symmetry in helical system. A new concept, -concept of even scalars, odd scalars, even vectors, odd vectors-, is introduced. Calculus of vector operation retains strictly the parity relations for these quantities. For example, the vector product of two vectors with same parity become an odd parity vector. The rotation of a vector field A, ∇xA, has same parity characteristics with that of the vector A. It is concluded that the equilibrium magnetic field and current distribution are expressed by even parity vectors. Pressure distribution is expressed by an even parity scalar function. The parity symmetry relations conduct uniquely the power expansion form of equilibrium magnetic field and pressure distribution. Analytical expressions for these quantities are obtained approximately by truncation of the power series. An example of vacuum helical magnetic field is shown in the following, B=∇xA+B0(0, 0, r0/r), A=Bp/a=-(p/3r)Y3-(p3/12r3)Y(X4+Y4), -(p/3r)X3-(p3/12r3)X(X4+Y4), -((X2-Y2)/2)(1-(Xcos(pφ)-Ysin(pφ))/4r)-(p4/6r4)X2Y2)=, where p, r0, a, Bp, B0 are constants for magnetic field. Rotating helical coordinate system is expressed by (X, Y, φ) and r≡r0+Xcos (pφ) - Ysin (pφ). Closed magnetic surface, islands, chaotic field line region and divertor field lines are well represented by this simple model. (author)

  4. Equivalence relations for Mueller matrix symmetries of laboratory, LIDAR and planetary scattering geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Symmetry relationships for optical observations of matter generally fall into several common scattering geometries. The 'planetary' configuration is preferred among a group of observers of extraterrestrial planets, 'laboratory' observations are performed in the biomedical research field and the LIDAR configuration is preferred among those using lasers to probe optical properties of horizontal surfaces with mirror or axial symmetry. This paper starts with the Stokes matrix formalism and uses symmetries of Mueller matrix scattering to establishes links between the mathematical symmetries of each geometric configuration.

  5. Characterization of Multiflux Axial Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the results of analytical models of performance are compared with experimental data acquired in the multi flux axial compressor test facility, built in The Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex for the SIGMA project.We describe the experimental circuit and the data of the dispersion inside the axial compressor obtained using a tracer gas through one of the annular inlets.The attained results can be used to validate the design code for the multi flux axial compressors and SIGMA industrial plant

  6. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  7. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  8. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  9. Dynamical spacetime symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelady, Benjamin C.; Wheeler, James T.

    2016-04-01

    According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dimensional Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected S O (n ) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an S O (n -1 ,1 ) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original S O (n ) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.

  10. The custodial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we elucidate the meaning of the custodial symmetry and its importance at the phenomenological level in the framework of the standard model of the electroweak interactions and its possible extensions. (Author)

  11. Symmetries in Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this course is to study the evolution of the symmetry concept and establish its influence in the knowledge of the fundamental laws of nature. Physicist have been using the symmetry concept in two ways: to solve problems and to search for new understanding of the world around us. In quantum physics symmetry plays a key role in gaining an understanding of the physical laws governing the behavior of matter and field systems. It provides, generally, a shortcut based on geometry for discovering the secrets of the Universe. Because it is believed that the laws of physics are invariant under discrete and continuous transformation operations of the space and time, there are continuous symmetries, for example, energy and momentum together with discrete ones corresponding to charge, parity and time reversal operations.

  12. Global Bifurcations With Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, J B

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry is a ubiquitous feature of physical systems with profound implications for their dynamics. This thesis investigates the role of symmetry in global bifurcations. In particular, the structure imposed by symmetry can encourage the formation of complex solutions such as heteroclinic cycles and chaotic invariant sets. The first study focuses on the dynamics of 1:n steady-state mode interactions in the presence of O(2) symmetry. The normal form equations considered are relevant to a variety of physical problems including Rayleigh-Bénard convection with periodic boundary conditions. In open regions of parameter space these equations contain structurally stable heteroclinic cycles composed of connections between standing wave, pure mode, and trivial solutions. These structurally stable cycles exist between two global bifurcations, the second of which involves an additional mixed mode state and creates as many as four distinct kinds of structurally unstable heteroclinic cycles. The various cycles c...

  13. Dynamical spacetime symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelady, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dim Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected SO(n) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an SO(n-1,1) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original SO(n) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.

  14. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2016-01-01

    Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang-Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  15. Second order symmetry operators

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Blue, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Using systematic calculations in spinor language, we obtain simple descriptions of the second order symmetry operators for the conformal wave equation, the Dirac-Weyl equation and the Maxwell equation on a curved four dimensional Lorentzian manifold. The conditions for existence of symmetry operators for the different equations are seen to be related. Computer algebra tools have been developed and used to systematically reduce the equations to a form which allows geometrical interpretation.

  16. Critical point symmetries in nuclei and their empirical realization

    CERN Document Server

    Zamfir, N

    2002-01-01

    There are theoretical and experimental evidences for new symmetries at the critical point of the spherical deformed phase transitions. The critical point in the phase/shape transition from spherical vibrator to a deformed gamma-unstable nucleus, is described by the E(5) symmetry and examples are provided by sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Ba and sup 1 sup 0 sup 2 Pd. The X(5) analytic solutions for the critical point in the spherical to axially deformed phase/shape transition is closely manifested empirically in sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Sm and in other N=90 isotones

  17. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  18. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D4, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D14. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element Vud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  19. Local particle-ghost symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    We study the quantization of systems with local particle-ghost symmetries. The systems contain ordinary particles including gauge bosons and their counterparts obeying different statistics. The particle-ghost symmetry is a kind of fermionic symmetry, different from the space-time supersymmetry and the BRST symmetry. Subsidiary conditions on states guarantee the unitarity of systems.

  20. The flight of the bumblebee: vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale.

  1. Regular Symmetry Patterns (Technical Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Anthony W.; Nguyen, Truong Khanh; Rümmer, Philipp; Sun, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry reduction is a well-known approach for alleviating the state explosion problem in model checking. Automatically identifying symmetries in concurrent systems, however, is computationally expensive. We propose a symbolic framework for capturing symmetry patterns in parameterised systems (i.e. an infinite family of finite-state systems): two regular word transducers to represent, respectively, parameterised systems and symmetry patterns. The framework subsumes various types of symmetry ...

  2. Electronic structure of wurtzite quantum dots with cylindrical symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; Galeriu, C.; Lassen, B.; M. Willatzen; R. Melnik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a six-band k.p theory for wurtzite semiconductor nanostructures with cylindrical symmetry. Our work extends the formulation of Vahala and Sercel [Physical Review Letters 65, 239 (1990)] to the Rashba-Sheka-Pikus Hamiltonian for wurtzite semiconductors, without the need for the axial approximation. Results comparing our formulation for studying the electronic structure of wurzite quantum dots with the conventional formulation are given.

  3. The Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, M

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry ene...

  4. Lectures on Yangian symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebbert, Florian

    2016-08-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.

  5. Lectures on Yangian symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebbert, Florian

    2016-08-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang–Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang–Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross–Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions.

  6. $\\eta$-$\\eta$' photoproduction and the axial isoscalar neutral coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Vidal, J; Bernabéu, J; González-Sprinberg, G A; Vidal, J

    1995-01-01

    We show that coherent \\eta and \\etap photoproduction by means of the Primakoff Effect on the proton depends on the strange component of the neutral axial current coupling. We construct polarization asymmetries that are sensitive to this coupling through the \\gamma - Z interference. The \\eta^\\prime is not a Goldstone boson of a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, but a phenomenological analysis of the \\eta and \\eta^\\prime production through chiral perturbation theory allows to calculate the observables of interest. The polarized proton or polarized photon asymmetries are predicted to be close to 10^{-4} for -q^2 \\sim 0.1-0.5\\;\\mbox{\\rm GeV}^2.

  7. η - η' photoproduction and the axial isoscalar neutral current coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that coherent η and η' photoproduction by means of the Primakoff Effect on the proton depends on the strange component of the neutral axial current coupling. We construct polarization asymmetries that are sensitive to this coupling by the γ-Z interference. The η' is not a Goldstone boson of a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, but a phenomenological analysis of the η and η' production by chiral perturbation theory allows to calculate the observables of interest. The polarized proton or polarized photon asymmetries are predicted to be close to 10-4 for -q2∝0.1-0.5 GeV2. (orig.)

  8. Symmetry energy and density

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Wolfgang; Russotto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear equation-of-state is a topic of highest current interest in nuclear structure and reactions as well as in astrophysics. In particular, the equation-of-state of asymmetric matter and the symmetry energy representing the difference between the energy densities of neutron matter and of symmetric nuclear matter are not sufficiently well constrained at present. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is conventionally expressed in the form of the slope parameter L describing the derivative with respect to density of the symmetry energy at saturation. Results deduced from nuclear structure and heavy-ion reaction data are distributed around a mean value L=60 MeV. Recent studies have more thoroughly investigated the density range that a particular observable is predominantly sensitive to. Two thirds of the saturation density is a value typical for the information contained in nuclear-structure data. Higher values exceeding saturation have been shown to be probed with meson production and collective ...

  9. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    automatically with computer techniques. The method has a wide range of applicability, and can be used to solve difficult eigenvalue problems in a number of fields. The book is of special interest to quantum theorists, computer scientists, computational chemists and applied mathematicians....... eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  10. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  11. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Hidden Symmetry Subgroup Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Thomas; Santha, Miklos; Wocjan, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We advocate a new approach of addressing hidden structure problems and finding efficient quantum algorithms. We introduce and investigate the Hidden Symmetry Subgroup Problem (HSSP), which is a generalization of the well-studied Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP). Given a group acting on a set and an oracle whose level sets define a partition of the set, the task is to recover the subgroup of symmetries of this partition inside the group. The HSSP provides a unifying framework that, besides the HSP, encompasses a wide range of algebraic oracle problems, including quadratic hidden polynomial problems. While the HSSP can have provably exponential quantum query complexity, we obtain efficient quantum algorithms for various interesting cases. To achieve this, we present a general method for reducing the HSSP to the HSP, which works efficiently in several cases related to symmetries of polynomials. The HSSP therefore connects in a rather surprising way certain hidden polynomial problems with the HSP. Using this connect...

  13. Anomalies, symmetries and strangeness content of the proton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Pasupathy

    2003-11-01

    The matrix elements of the operators of strange quark fields $s\\overline{}s$ where is 1 or 5 between a proton state is calculated. The sigma term is found to be ≈ 41 MeV and the (3) singlet axial matrix element is found to be ≈ 0.22, both in agreement with experiment. The sigma term is found using the trace anomaly, while the determination of the axial vector current matrix element is from QCD sum rules. These correspond to $\\langle p|2\\overline{ss}|\\rangle / \\langle p|\\overline{u}u+\\overline{d}d|p\\rangle ≈ 0.12$ and for the axial current ≈ -0.12, respectively. The role of the anomalies in maintaining flavor symmetry in the presence of substantial differences in quark masses is pointed out. This suggests that there is no need to invoke an intrinsic strange quark component in the proton wave function.

  14. Baryons and Chiral Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of $\\pi N \\sigma$ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral $U(1)$ anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.

  15. Quark-Lepton Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R; Volkas, R R

    1992-01-01

    Quark-lepton symmetric models are a class of gauge theories motivated by the similarities between the quarks and leptons. In these models the gauge group of the standard model is extended to include a ``color'' group for the leptons. Consequently, the quarks and leptons can then be related by a $Z_2$ discrete quark-lepton symmetry which is spontaneously broken by the vacuum. Models utilizing quark-lepton symmetry with acceptable and interesting collider phenomenology have been constructed. The cosmological consequences of these models are also discussed.

  16. Deformed discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  17. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  18. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  19. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Luca [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Romanino, Andrea [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries.

  20. Symmetry, structure, and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational

  1. Self-Similarity and helical symmetry in vortex generator flow simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, U.; Velte, Clara Marika; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;

    2014-01-01

    According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by vortex generators have previously been observed to be self-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (uӨ) velocity profiles. Further, the measured vortices have been observed to obey the criteria for helical symmetry. This is a......According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by vortex generators have previously been observed to be self-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (uӨ) velocity profiles. Further, the measured vortices have been observed to obey the criteria for helical symmetry...

  2. Self-similarity and helical symmetry in vortex generator flow simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, U.; Velte, Clara Marika; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;

    2012-01-01

    According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by vortex generators have previously been observed to be self-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (u) velocity profiles. Further, the measured vortices have been observed to obey the criteria for helical symmetry. This is a ......According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by vortex generators have previously been observed to be self-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (u) velocity profiles. Further, the measured vortices have been observed to obey the criteria for helical symmetry...

  3. Unified models and unitary symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimentally established small size of the space time region where weak interactions occur; ''the weak beg'', is taken as a starting point for a dynamical model for parity violation in weak interactions. It is argued that weakly interacting Dirac bi-spinors behave as massles in the weak beg, and then they split into pairs of decoupled Weyl spinors. As a consequence, any P, C, T conserving gauge Lagrangian in terms of multiplets of Dirac fields will split, in the weak bag, into P and C violating terms representing the weak interactions of the concerned fermions. Following the criterion of maximal simplicity and economy, some SU(N), U(N) symmetruc models are presented. It is shown that (a) Reduction of SU(3) x P, C, T symmetry to SU(2) x U(1) x PC, T for weak interactions is easily obtained by force of chiral projectors. (b) The models are apt to represent all weak and e.m. properties of known leptons and a unified model for weak and e.m. interactions, generalization of the Salam-Weinberg model, emerges with the mixing angle theta depending on N in SU(N). For N=3 the model coincides with the Salam-Weinberg model with theta=30sup(deg). At present experimental data seem to favour the SU(4) model where sin sup(2)theta = 1/3. (c) Absence of ΔS=1 neutral currents can easily be explained already in the frame of SU(3). (d) Integer charges for leptons and fractional charges for quarks can be fitted in appropriate SU(3)-U(3) models. (e) In U(N) symmetric models the resulting q.e.d. presents Pauli-Villars regularization of the self-energy and vertex parts, and the Schwinger-Dyson equations for self-masses are of the Fredholm type as a consequence of the U(N) symmetry and of the neutral currents. The possibility then arises of a full q.e.d. regularization by weak interactions. (f) Neutral current interactions are parity conserving (axial) among charged particles, while parity violating among neutral-charged, neutral-neutral ones in all models presented. A generalized

  4. Uniform trace formulae for SU(2) and SO(3) symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, M; Tanaka, K

    1999-01-01

    We develop uniform approximations for the trace formula for non-integrable systems in which SU(2) symmetry is broken by a non-linear term of the Hamiltonian. As specific examples, we investigate Hénon-Heiles type potentials. Our formalism can also be applied to the breaking of SO(3) symmetry in a three-dimensional cavity with axially-symmetric quadrupole deformation.

  5. Ambiguities and Symmetry Relations in a Free Fermion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Battistel, O A

    1999-01-01

    We present a systematic study of one, two and three point functions of vector, axial-vector, scalar and pseudoscalar densities constructed in a free fermion model. The divergent content of the amplitudes are left in the form of (external momenta independent) 4-D integrals for which an appropriate regulating function is only implicitly assumed, and the integrals are not evaluated at any step of the calculation. The ambiguities and Symmetries Violations, in all cases, are shown to be associated with coefficients involving three relations between divergent integrals of the same degree of divergence. Setting these coefficients to zero is mandatory, e.g., for preserving gauge symmetry in QED. The implications for the ambiguities and symmetry violations are investigated. The results emerging from this alternative approach allow us to conclude that the traditional method used to establish the triangular anomalies could be questionable.

  6. Simulation of an Axial Vircator

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm of particle-in-cell simulations is described and tested to aid further the actual design of simple vircators working on axially symmetric modes. The methods of correction of the numerical solution, have been chosen and jointly tested, allow the stable simulation of the fast nonlinear multiflow dynamics of virtual cathode formation and evolution, as well as the fields generated by the virtual cathode. The selected combination of the correction methods can be straightforwardly generalized to the case of axially nonsymmetric modes, while the parameters of these correction methods can be widely used to improve an agreement between the simulation predictions and the experimental data.

  7. Broken symmetry makes helium

    CERN Multimedia

    Gray, P L

    2003-01-01

    "The subatomic pion particle breaks the charge symmetry rule that governs both fusion and decay. In experiments performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Laboratory, physicists forced heavy hydrogen (1 proton + 1 neutron) to fuse into helium in a controlled, measurable environment" (1 paragraph).

  8. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  9. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  10. The politics of symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that sy

  11. Gauging without Initial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    The gauge principle is at the heart of a good part of fundamental physics: Starting with a group G of so-called rigid symmetries of a functional defined over space-time Sigma, the original functional is extended appropriately by additional Lie(G)-valued 1-form gauge fields so as to lift the symmetry to Maps(Sigma,G). Physically relevant quantities are then to be obtained as the quotient of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations by these gauge symmetries. In this article we show that one can construct a gauge theory for a standard sigma model in arbitrary space-time dimensions where the target metric is not invariant with respect to any rigid symmetry group, but satisfies a much weaker condition: It is sufficient to find a collection of vector fields v_a on the target M satisfying the extended Killing equation v_{a(i;j)}=0 for some connection acting on the index a. For regular foliations this is equivalent to merely requiring the distribution orthogonal to the leaves to be invariant with respect to leaf...

  12. Fields, symmetries, and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Fields, symmetries, and quarks' covers elements of quantum field theory, symmetries, gauge field theories and phenomenological descriptions of hadrons, with special emphasis on topics relevant to nuclear physics. It is aimed at nuclear physicists in general and at scientists who need a working knowledge of field theory, symmetry principles of elementary particles and their interactions and the quark structure of hadrons. The book starts out with an elementary introduction into classical field theory and its quantization. As gauge field theories require a working knowledge of global symmetries in field theories this topic is then discussed in detail. The following part is concerned with the general structure of gauge field theories and contains a thorough discussion of the still less widely known features of Non-Abelian gauge field theories. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is important for the understanding of hadronic matter, is discussed in the next section together with the quark compositions of hadrons. The last two chapters give a detailed discussion of phenomenological bag-models. The MIT bag is discussed, so that all theoretical calculations can be followed step by step. Since in all other bag-models the calculational methods and steps are essentially identical, this chapter should enable the reader to actually perform such calculations unaided. A last chapter finally discusses the topological bag-models which have become quite popular over the last few years. (orig.)

  13. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    2016-01-01

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a

  14. Horror Vacui Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)

  15. Mirror Symmetry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Clader, Emily

    2014-01-01

    These expository notes are based on lectures by Yongbin Ruan during a special semester on the B-model at the University of Michigan in Winter 2014. They outline and compare the mirror symmetry constructions of Batyrev-Borisov, Hori-Vafa, and Bergland-Hubsch-Krawitz.

  16. Gauging without initial symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The gauge principle is at the heart of a good part of fundamental physics: Starting with a group G of so-called rigid symmetries of a functional defined over space-time Σ, the original functional is extended appropriately by additional Lie(G) -valued 1-form gauge fields so as to lift the symmetry to Maps(Σ , G) . Physically relevant quantities are then to be obtained as the quotient of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations by these gauge symmetries. In this article we show that one can construct a gauge theory for a standard sigma model in arbitrary space-time dimensions where the target metric is not invariant with respect to any rigid symmetry group, but satisfies a much weaker condition: It is sufficient to find a collection of vector fields va on the target M satisfying the extended Killing equationv a(i ; j) = 0 for some connection acting on the index a. For regular foliations this is equivalent to requiring the conormal bundle to the leaves with its induced metric to be invariant under leaf-preserving diffeomorphisms of M, which in turn generalizes Riemannian submersions to which the notion reduces for smooth leaf spaces M / ∼. The resulting gauge theory has the usual quotient effect with respect to the original ungauged theory: in this way, much more general orbits can be factored out than usually considered. In some cases these are orbits that do not correspond to an initial symmetry, but still can be generated by a finite-dimensional Lie group G. Then the presented gauging procedure leads to an ordinary gauge theory with Lie algebra valued 1-form gauge fields, but showing an unconventional transformation law. In general, however, one finds that the notion of an ordinary structural Lie group is too restrictive and should be replaced by the much more general notion of a structural Lie groupoid.

  17. Discrete Symmetries CP, T, CPT

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J

    2016-01-01

    The role of Symmetry Breaking mechanisms to search for New Physics is of highest importance. We discuss the status and prospects of the Discrete Symmetries CP, T, CPT looking for their separate Violation in LHC experiments and meson factories.

  18. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)

  19. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  20. Broken symmetries in field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Mark Okker de

    2008-01-01

    The thesis discusses the role of symmetries in Quantum Field Theory. Quantum Field Theory is the mathematical framework to describe the physics of elementary particles. A symmetry here means a transformation under which the model at hand is invariant. Three types of symmetry are distinguished: 1. In

  1. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A; Miller, Gerald A; van Oers, Willem T H

    1994-01-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed.

  2. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  3. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  4. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  5. Cluster Symmetries and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freer Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many light nuclei display behaviour that indicates that rather than behaving as an A-body systems, the protons and neutrons condense into clusters. The α-particle is the most obvious example of such clustering. This contribution examines the role of such α-clustering on the structure, symmetries and dynamics of the nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, recent experimental measurements and future perspectives.

  6. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  7. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  8. Broken SU(3) x SU(3) x SU(3) x SU(3) Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, P. G. O.; Nambu, Y.

    1964-10-01

    We argue that the "Eight-fold Way" version of the SU(3) symmetry should be extended to a product of up to four separate and badly broken SU(3) groups, including the gamma{sub 5} type SU(3) symmetry. A hierarchy of subgroups (or subalgebras) are considered within this framework, and two candidates are found to be interesting in view of experimental evidence. Main features of the theory are: 1) the baryons belong to a nonet; 2) there is an octet of axial vector gauge mesons in addition to one or two octets of vector mesons; 3) pseudoscalar and scalar mesons exist as "incomplete" multiplets arising from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry.

  9. PT symmetry in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2015-03-01

    Interest in complex Hamiltonians has been rekindled after the realization that a wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can have entirely real spectra as long as they simultaneously respect parity and time reversal operators. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, governed by the Schrödinger equation, a necessary but not sufficient condition for PT symmetry to hold is that the complex potential should involve real and imaginary parts which are even and odd functions of position respectively. As recently indicated, optics provides a fertile ground to observe and utilize notions of PT symmetry. In optics, the refractive index and gain/loss profiles play the role of the real and imaginary parts of the aforementioned complex potentials. As it has been demonstrated in several studies, PT-symmetric optical structures can exhibit peculiar properties that are otherwise unattainable in traditional Hermitian (conservative) optical settings. Among them, is the possibility for breaking this symmetry through an abrupt phase transition, band merging effects and unidirectional invisibility. Here we review recent developments in the field of -symmetric optics.

  10. Forced axial segregation in axially inhomogeneous rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S.; Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Luding, S.; Parker, D. J.; Thornton, A. R.

    2015-08-01

    Controlling segregation is both a practical and a theoretical challenge. Using a novel drum design comprising concave and convex geometry, we explore, through the application of both discrete particle simulations and positron emission particle tracking, a means by which radial size segregation may be used to drive axial segregation, resulting in an order of magnitude increase in the rate of separation. The inhomogeneous drum geometry explored also allows the direction of axial segregation within a binary granular bed to be controlled, with a stable, two-band segregation pattern being reliably and reproducibly imposed on the bed for a variety of differing system parameters. This strong banding is observed to persist even in systems that are highly constrained in the axial direction, where such segregation would not normally occur. These findings, and the explanations provided of their underlying mechanisms, could lead to radical new designs for a broad range of particle processing applications but also may potentially prove useful for medical and microflow applications.

  11. Symmetry of “Twins”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Nikolić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea of construction of twin buildings is as old as architecture itself, and yet there is hardly any study emphasizing their specificity. Most frequently there are two objects or elements in an architectural composition of “twins” in which there may be various symmetry relations, mostly bilateral symmetries. The classification of “twins” symmetry in this paper is based on the existence of bilateral symmetry, in terms of the perception of an observer. The classification includes both, 2D and 3D perception analyses. We start analyzing a pair of twin buildings with projection of the architectural composition elements in 2D picture plane (plane of the composition and we distinguish four 2D keyframe cases based on the relation between the bilateral symmetry of the twin composition and the bilateral symmetry of each element. In 3D perception for each 2D keyframe case there are two sub-variants, with and without a symmetry plane parallel to the picture plane. The bilateral symmetry is dominant if the corresponding symmetry plane is orthogonal to the picture plane. The essence of the complete classification is relation between the bilateral (dominant symmetry of the architectural composition and the bilateral symmetry of each element of that composition.

  12. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  13. Axially symmetric rotating traversable wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhfittig, P K F

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the static and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole geometry to a rotating axially symmetric one with a time-dependent angular velocity by means of an exact solution. It was found that the violation of the weak energy condition, although unavoidable, is considerably less severe than in the static spherically symmetric case. The radial tidal constraint is more easily met due to the rotation. Similar improvements are seen in one of the lateral tidal constraints. The magnitude of the angular velocity may have little effect on the weak energy condition violation for an axially symmetric wormhole. For a spherically symmetric one, however, the violation becomes less severe with increasing angular velocity. The time rate of change of the angular velocity, on the other hand, was found to have no effect at all. Finally, the angular velocity must depend only on the radial coordinate, confirming an earlier result.

  14. Simulation of an Axial Vircator

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhomirov, V. V.; Siahlo, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm of particle-in-cell simulations is described and tested to aid further the actual design of simple vircators working on axially symmetric modes. The methods of correction of the numerical solution, have been chosen and jointly tested, allow the stable simulation of the fast nonlinear multiflow dynamics of virtual cathode formation and evolution, as well as the fields generated by the virtual cathode. The selected combination of the correction methods can be straightforwardly gene...

  15. Strains and axial outflows in the field of a rotating black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study the behaviour of an initially spherical bunch of accelerated particles emitted along trajectories parallel to the symmetry axis of a rotating black hole. We find that, under suitable conditions, curvature and inertial strains compete to model the shape of axial outflows of matter contributing to generate jet-like structures. This is of course a purely kinematical effect which does not account by itself for physical processes underlying the formation of jets. In our analysis a crucial role is played by a property of the electric and magnetic part of the Weyl tensor to be Lorentz-invariant boosting along the axis of symmetry in Kerr spacetime.

  16. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  17. Surface defects and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    In quantum field theory, defects of various codimensions are natural ingredients and carry a lot of interesting information. In this contribution we concentrate on topological quantum field theories in three dimensions, with a particular focus on Dijkgraaf-Witten theories with abelian gauge group. Surface defects in Dijkgraaf-Witten theories have applications in solid state physics, topological quantum computing and conformal field theory. We explain that symmetries in these topological field theories are naturally defined in terms of invertible topological surface defects and are thus Brauer-Picard groups.

  18. The Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symme...

  19. Axial Force at the Vessel Bottom Induced by Axial Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; P. Hasal; A. Paglianti; F. Magelli

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the axial force affecting the flat bottom of a cylindrical stirred vessel. The vessel is equipped with four radial baffles and is stirred with a four 45° pitched blade impeller pumping downwards. The set of pressure transducers is located along the whole radius of the flat bottom between two radial baffles. The radial distribution of the dynamic pressures indicated by the transducers is measured in dependence on the impeller off-bottom clearance and impeller speed.It fol...

  20. Partially conserved axial-vector current and model chiral field theories in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comment on the relation between the two standard approaches to chiral symmetry--namely, the current algebra/partially conserved axial-vector current approach and the chiral Lagrangian method--in a manner intended to clarify recent and probable future applications of this symmetry in nuclear physics. Specifically, we show that in explicit chiral field theories the canonical πN scattering amplitude does not have the famed ''Adler zero'' unless partial conservation of axial-vector current holds as an operator equation. This implies that there are a number of familiar chiral models in which the ''Adler self-consistency'' condition does not apply to the canonical pion field. Among the problems of current interest for which our remarks are relevant are the studies of the pion-nucleus optical potential, pion condensation, and the attempts to formulate a model field theory having both reasonable nuclear saturation and good low energy pion phenomenology

  1. Golimumab for treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis comprises two forms: nonradiographic (nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) and radiographic (better known as ankylosing spondylitis), which are often considered as two stages of one disease. Historically, all currently available TNF-α inhibitors were first investigated in ankylosing spondylitis and later on in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This year, EMA has granted golimumab approval for the treatment of active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis based on the recently published data from the GO-AHEAD study. This article summarizes recent data on efficacy and safety of golimumab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

  2. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  3. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  4. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  5. Galactic oscillator symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosensteel, George

    1995-01-01

    Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.

  6. Symmetry of crystals and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book successfully combines a thorough treatment of molecular and crystalline symmetry with a simple and informal writing style. By means of familiar examples the author helps to provide the reader with those conceptual tools necessary for the development of a clear understanding of what are often regarded as 'difficult' topics. Christopher Hammond, University of Leeds This book should tell you everything you need to know about crystal and molecular symmetry. Ladd adopts an integrated approach so that the relationships between crystal symmetry, molecular symmetry and features of chemical interest are maintained and reinforced. The theoretical aspects of bonding and symmetry are also well represented, as are symmetry-dependent physical properties and the applications of group theory. The comprehensive coverage will make this book a valuable resource for a broad range of readers.

  7. SYMMETRY IN WORLD TRADE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Guangle YAN; Yanghua XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry of the world trade network provides a novel perspective to understand the world-wide trading system. However, symmetry in the world trade network (WTN) has been rarely studied so far. In this paper, the authors systematically explore the symmetry in WTN. The authors construct WTN in 2005 and explore the size and structure of its automorphism group, through which the authors find that WTN is symmetric, particularly, locally symmetric to a certain degree. Furthermore, the authors work out the symmetric motifs of WTN and investigate the structure and function of the symmetric motifs, coming to the conclusion that local symmetry will have great effect on the stability of the WTN and that continuous symmetry-breakings will generate complexity and diversity of the trade network. Finally, utilizing the local symmetry of the network, the authors work out the quotient of WTN, which is the structural skeleton dominating stability and evolution of WTN.

  8. In search of symmetry lost

    CERN Multimedia

    Wilczek, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world (8 pages) Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).

  9. SU(3)-flavour breaking in octet baryon masses and axial couplings

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Serrano, Manuel E.; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.(CSSM and ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia 1 1 http://www.physics.adelaide.edu.au/cssm .)

    2014-01-01

    The lightest baryon octet is studied within a covariant and confining Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. By solving the relativistic Faddeev equations including scalar and axialvector diquarks, we determine the masses and axial charges for \\Delta S = 0 transitions. For the latter the degree of violation of SU(3) symmetry arising because of the strange spectator quark(s) is found to be up to 10%.

  10. Nucleon-to-Delta axial transition form factors in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the axial Nucleon to Delta(1232) ($N\\to\\Delta$) transition form factors up to one-loop order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We adopt a formalism in which the $\\Delta$ couplings obey the spin-3/2 gauge symmetry and, therefore, decouple the unphysical spin-1/2 fields. We compare the results with phenomenological form factors obtained from neutrino bubble chamber data and in quark models.

  11. $\\eta -\\eta^\\prime$ Photoproduction and the Axial Isoscalar Neutral Current Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabéu, J.; González-Sprinberg, G. A.; Vidal, J.

    1995-01-01

    We show that coherent $\\eta$ and $\\etap$ photoproduction by means of the Primakoff Effect on the proton depends on the strange component of the neutral axial current coupling. We construct polarization asymmetries that are sensitive to this coupling through the $\\gamma - Z$ interference. The $\\eta^\\prime$ is not a Goldstone boson of a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, but a phenomenological analysis of the $\\eta$ and $\\eta^\\prime$ production through chiral perturbation theory allows to ca...

  12. Exact Dynamical and Partial Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a hierarchy of broken symmetries with special emphasis on partial dynamical symmetries (PDS). The latter correspond to a situation in which a non-invariant Hamiltonian accommodates a subset of solvable eigenstates with good symmetry, while other eigenstates are mixed. We present an algorithm for constructing Hamiltonians with this property and demonstrate the relevance of the PDS notion to nuclear spectroscopy, to quantum phase transitions and to mixed systems with coexisting regularity and chaos.

  13. Toric Symmetry of CP^3

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Dagan; Riggins, Paul; Whitcher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    We exhaustively analyze the toric symmetries of CP^3 and its toric blowups. Our motivation is to study toric symmetry as a computational technique in Gromov-Witten theory and Donaldson-Thomas theory. We identify all nontrivial toric symmetries. The induced nontrivial isomorphisms lift and provide new symmetries at the level of Gromov-Witten Theory and Donaldson-Thomas Theory. The polytopes of the toric varieties in question include the permutohedron, the cyclohedron, the associahedron, and in fact all graph associahedra, among others.

  14. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  15. Symmetries of Quantum Nonsymmetric Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mebarki, N; Boudine, A; Benslama, A

    1999-01-01

    Symmetries of Quantum Nonsymmetric gravity are studied and the corresponding generators are constructed . The related equal time canonical (and non canonical) (anti) commutation relations are established.

  16. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  17. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  18. White matter biomarkers from fast protocols using axially symmetric diffusion kurtosis imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Brian; Shemesh, Noam; Lund, Torben E; Sangill, Ryan; Østergaard, Leif; Jespersen, Sune N

    2016-01-01

    White matter tract integrity (WMTI) can be used to characterize tissue microstructure in areas with axisymmetric fiber bundles. Several WMTI biomarkers have now been validated against microscopy and provided promising results in studies of brain development and aging, as well as in a number of brain disorders. In a clinical setting, however, the diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) protocol utilized as part of WMTI imaging may be prohibitively long. Consequently, the diagnostic value of the WMTI parameters is rarely explored outside of dedicated animal studies and clinical studies of slowly progressing diseases. Here, we evaluate WMTI based on recently introduced axially symmetric DKI which has lower data demand than conventional DKI. We compare WMTI parameters derived from conventional DKI to those from axially symmetric DKI and to parameters calculated analytically from the axially symmetric tensors. We also assess the effect of the imposed symmetry on the kurtosis fractional anisotropy (KFA). We employ numeric...

  19. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, I; Balmaceda, L; Dohmen, I

    2016-01-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the $Solar$-$Terrestrial$ $Relations$ $Observatory$ (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the $Solar$ $and$ $Heliospheric$ $Observatory$ (SOHO) and the $Solar$ $Dynamics$ $Observatory$ (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent ($L$) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective ($D$) presents this behavior only from the low corona to $\\approx\\,$5 $R_...

  20. Quantum mechanics symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    1989-01-01

    "Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...

  1. Bosonization and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2016-01-01

    We study bosonization in 2+1 dimensions using mirror symmetry, a duality that relates pairs of supersymmetric theories. Upon breaking supersymmetry in a controlled way, we dynamically obtain the bosonization duality that equates the theory of a free Dirac fermion to QED3 with a single scalar boson. This duality may be used to demonstrate the bosonization duality relating an $O(2)$-symmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point to QED3 with a single Dirac fermion, Peskin-Dasgupta-Halperin duality, and the recently conjectured duality relating the theory of a free Dirac fermion to fermionic QED3 with a single flavor. Chern-Simons and BF couplings for both dynamical and background gauge fields play a central role in our approach. In the course of our study, we describe a chiral mirror pair that may be viewed as the minimal supersymmetric generalization of the two bosonization dualities.

  2. Gauged Flavor Symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeck, Julian

    2013-04-15

    Augmenting the Standard Model by three right-handed neutrinos allows for an anomaly-free gauge group extension G{sub max}=U(1){sub B−L}×U(1){sub L{sub e−L{sub μ}}}×U(1){sub L{sub μ−L{sub τ}}}. Simple U(1) subgroups of G{sub max} can be used to impose structure on the righthanded neutrino mass matrix, which then propagates to the active neutrino mass matrix via the seesaw mechanism. We show how this framework can be used to gauge the approximate lepton-number symmetries behind the normal, inverted, and quasidegenerate neutrino mass spectrum, and also how to generate texture-zeros and vanishing minors in the neutrino mass matrix, leading to testable relations among mixing parameters.

  3. Streamwise-Localized Solutions with natural 1-fold symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Willis, Ashley; Hof, Björn

    2014-11-01

    It has been proposed in recent years that turbulence is organized around unstable invariant solutions, which provide the building blocks of the chaotic dynamics. In direct numerical simulations of pipe flow we show that when imposing a minimal symmetry constraint (reflection in an axial plane only) the formation of turbulence can indeed be explained by dynamical systems concepts. The hypersurface separating laminar from turbulent motion, the edge of turbulence, is spanned by the stable manifolds of an exact invariant solution, a periodic orbit of a spatially localized structure. The turbulent states themselves (turbulent puffs in this case) are shown to arise in a bifurcation sequence from a related localized solution (the upper branch orbit). The rather complex bifurcation sequence involves secondary Hopf bifurcations, frequency locking and a period doubling cascade until eventually turbulent puffs arise. In addition we report preliminary results of the transition sequence for pipe flow without symmetry constraints.

  4. The Scalar Mesons, Symmetry Breaking, Three Colors and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    2006-01-01

    The same, well known, det(Sigma)+det(Sigma)* term, which 't Hooft showed is generated by instantons in QCD and which resolves the U(1) problem giving mass in, particular, to the eta' is argued to be the dominant term in the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. It generates not one, but three classical minima along the axial U(1) circle which connect to color through Fermi-Dirac statistics. The term also contributes, in a similar way as the diquark model of Jaffe, to an inverted scalar mass spectrum for the light scalars, and suggests a simple confinement mechanism.

  5. Lie Symmetries of Ishimori Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    The Ishimori equation is one of the most important (2+1)-dimensional integrable models,which is an integrable generalization of (1+1)-dimensional classical continuous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin equations.Based on importance of Lie symmetries in analysis of differential equations,in this paper,we derive Lie symmetries for the Ishimori equation by Hirota's direct method.

  6. BRST symmetry of Unimodular Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, S.; Oksanen, M.; Bufalo, R.

    2015-01-01

    We derive the BRST symmetry for two versions of unimodular gravity, namely, fully diffeomorphism-invariant unimodular gravity and unimodular gravity with fixed metric determinant. The BRST symmetry is generalized further to the finite field-dependent BRST, in order to establish the connection between different gauges in each of the two versions of unimodular gravity.

  7. Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  8. Mass Effect on Axial Charge Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Er-dong

    2016-01-01

    We studied effect of finite quark mass on the dynamics of axial charge using the D3/D7 model in holography. The mass term in axial anomaly equation affects both the fluctuation (generation) and dissipation of axial charge. We studied the dependence of the effect on quark mass and external magnetic field. For axial charge generation, we calculated the mass diffusion rate, which characterizes the helicity flipping rate. The rate is a non-monotonous function of mass and can be significantly enhanced by the magnetic field. The diffusive behavior is also related to a divergent susceptibility of axial charge. For axial charge dissipation, we found that in the long time limit, the mass term dissipates all the charge effectively generated by parallel electric and magnetic fields. The result is consistent with a relaxation time approximation. The rate of dissipation through mass term is a monotonous increasing function of both quark mass and magnetic field.

  9. Shape analysis with subspace symmetries

    KAUST Repository

    Berner, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more recently, intrinsic isometries. Our approach generalizes the notion of partial symmetries to more general deformations. We introduce subspace symmetries whereby we characterize similarity by requiring the set of symmetric parts to form a low dimensional shape space. We present an algorithm to discover subspace symmetries based on detecting linearly correlated correspondences among graphs of invariant features. We evaluate our technique on various data sets. We show that for models with pronounced surface features, subspace symmetries can be found fully automatically. For complicated cases, a small amount of user input is used to resolve ambiguities. Our technique computes dense correspondences that can subsequently be used in various applications, such as model repair and denoising. © 2010 The Author(s).

  10. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  11. Origin of axial current in scyllac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the axial current observed in Scyllac (a high beta stellarator experiment) is discussed. A shaped coil and/or helical winding produce rotational transform which links magnetic lines of force to the plasma column and the axial current is induced electromagnetically. This phenomenon is inherent in a pulsed high-beta stellarator. The rotational transform produced by the induced axial current is much smaller than that associated with the l = 1, 0 equilibrium fields. The effect of the axial current on the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column is thus small. It is also shown that the magnetic field shear near a plasma surface is very strong

  12. Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of the Rotational Relativistic Variable Mass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJian-Hui

    2003-01-01

    The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of a rotational relativistic variable mass system are studied. The definitions and criteria of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the rotational relativistic variable mass system are given. The relation between the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry is found. The conserved quantities which the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  13. A multi-configuration mixing approach with symmetry-projected complex Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, E; Faessler, A; Faessler, Amand

    1995-01-01

    A multi-configuration mixing approach built on essentially complex, symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) mean fields is introduced. The mean fields are obtained by variation after projection. The configuration space consists out of the symmetry-projected HFB vacuum and the symmetry-projected two-quasiparticle excitations for even, and the symmetry-projected one-quasiparticle excitations for odd A systems. The underlying complex HFB transformations are assumed to be time-reversal invariant and axially symmetric. The model allows nuclear structure calculations in large model spaces with arbitrary two-body interactions. The approach has been applied to ^{20}Ne and ^{22}Ne. Good agreement with the exact shell model results and considerable improvement with respect to older calculations, in which only real HFB transformations were admitted, is obtained.

  14. Symmetries in nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Allaart, K; Dieperink, A

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 summer school on nuclear physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Netherlands' Physical Society, was the fifth in a series that started in 1963. The number of students attending has always been about one hundred, coming from about thirty countries. The theme of this year's school was symmetry in nuclear physics. This book covers the material presented by the enthusi­ astic speakers, who were invited to lecture on this subject. We think they have succeeded in presenting us with clear and thorough introductory talks at graduate or higher level. The time schedule of the school and the location allowed the participants to make many informal contacts during many social activities, ranging from billiards to surf board sailing. We hope and expect that the combination of a relaxed atmosphere during part of the time and hard work during most of the time, has furthered the interest in, and understanding of, nuclear physics. The organization of the summer school was made possible by substantia...

  15. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.;

    2011-01-01

    hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...... and sensitivity of respectively 0.43±0.15 and 0.56±0.18 was acquired. It was compared to the concordance index of segmentation using absolute threshold of 3 SUV giving respectively 0.41±0.16 and 0.51±0.19 for concordance index and sensitivity yielding p-values of 0.33 and 0.01 for a paired t-test respectively....

  16. Chiral symmetry and scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suggestion by Jaffe that if σ is a light q2q-bar2 state 0++ then even the fundamental chiral transformation properties of the σ becomes unclear, has stimulated much interest. Adler pointed out that in fact the seminal work on chiral symmetry via PCAC consistency, is really quite consistent with the σ being predominantly q2q-bar2. This interpretation was actually backed by subsequent work on effective Lagrangian methods for linear and non linear realizations. More recent work of Achasov suggests that intermediate four-quark states determine amplitudes involving other scalars a0(980) and f0(980) below 1 GeV, and the report by Ning Wu that study on σ meson in J/ψ → ωπ+π- continue to support a non qq-bar σ with mass as low as 390 MeV. It is also noted that more recent re-analysis of πK scattering by S. Ishida et al. together with the work of the E791 Collaboration, support the existence of the scalar κ particle with comparatively light mass as well

  17. Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...

  18. $PT$ Symmetry, Conformal Symmetry, and the Metrication of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    We present some interesting connections between $PT$ symmetry and conformal symmetry. We use them to develop a metricated theory of electromagnetism in which the electromagnetic field is present in the geometric connection. However, unlike Weyl who first advanced this possibility, we do not take the connection to be real but to instead be $PT$ symmetric, with it being $iA_{\\mu}$ rather than $A_{\\mu}$ itself that then appears in the connection. With this modification the standard minimal coupl...

  19. OPTICAL METAMATERIALS WITH QUASICRYSTALLINE SYMMETRY: SYMMETRY-INDUCED OPTICAL ISOTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Decker, Manuel; Helgert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We compare, both experimentally and theoretically, metamaterials with three different symmetries: square lattice, hexagonal lattice, and quasicrystalline Penrose tiling. By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we link the symmetry properties to the farfield optical response, such as ellipticity and circular dichroism, as the incident angle is varied. We show that hexagonal lattice metamaterials, when compared to the square ones, exhibit less circular dichroism and ellipticity due t...

  20. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

  1. Axial and radial velocities in the creeping flow in a pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuykov Andrey L'vovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞, here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0, the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.

  2. External symmetry in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the isometry transformations to the geometric context of the field theories with spin where the local frames are explicitly involved. We define the external symmetry transformations as isometries combined with suitable tetrad gauge transformations and we show that these form a group which is locally isomorphic with the isometry one. We point out that the symmetry transformations that leave invariant the equations of the fields with spin have generators with specific spin terms which represent new physical observables. The examples we present are the generators of the central symmetry and those of the maximal symmetries of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes derived in different tetrad gauge fixings. Pacs: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 11.30.-j

  3. The Limits of Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Foadi, Roshan; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Z b_L bbar_L coupling from large corrections. This "doublet-extended standard model" adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4) x U(1)_X = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x P_LR x U(1)_X symmetry in the top-quark mass generating sector. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M to 0) and standard-model-like (M to infinity) limits.

  4. The Limits of Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Foadi, Roshan; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Zbb coupling from large corrections. This "doublet-extended standard model" adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4) x U(1)_X = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x P_{LR} x U(1)_X symmetry that protects the Zbb coupling. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M to 0) and standard-model-like (M to infinity) limits.

  5. THERMAL STRESS FIELD WHEN CRACK ARREST IN AN AXIAL SYMMETRY METAL DIE USING ELECTROMAGNETIC HEATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the thermal stress field around crack tip in metal die when crack prevention using electromagnetic heating, a metal die with a half-embedded round crack was selected as the study object. The complex function method was used as a basis for the theoretical model of the space crack prevention in metal dies using electromagnetic heating. The crack arrest was accomplished by a pulse current discharge through the inner and outer. The theoretical analysis results show that the temperature around the crack tip rises instantly above the melting point of the metal. Small welded joints are formed at a small sphere near the crack tip inside the metal die by metal melting as a result of the heat concentration effect when the current pulse discharged. The thermal compressive stress field appears around the crack tip at the moment. The research results show that the crack prevention using electromagnetic heating can decrease the stress concentration and forms a compressive stress area around the crack tip, and also prevents the main crack from propagating further, and the goal of crack preventing can be reached.

  6. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas;

    2007-01-01

    Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dors...

  7. Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3)F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. ((orig.))

  8. Emergence of Euclidean dynamical symmetry as a consequence of shape phase mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Budaca, R.; Budaca, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid model which combines γ-stable and γ-rigid collective conditions through a rigidity parameter, is used to study the critical point of the phase transition between spherical and axially symmetric shapes. The model in the equally mixed case, called X(4), exhibits properties of the Euclidean symmetry in four dimensions. The spectral properties of the new model are investigated in connection to the exact symmetry. Experimental realisation of the X(4) model is found in two N=90 nuclei and ...

  9. Lorentz Transformations from Intrinsic Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng D. Chao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We reveal the frame-exchange space-inversion (FESI symmetry and the frame-exchange time-inversion (FETI symmetry in the Lorentz transformation and propose a symmetry principle stating that the space-time transformation between two inertial frames is invariant under the FESI or the FETI transformation. In combination with the principle of relativity and the presumed nature of Euclidean space and time, the symmetry principle is employed to derive the proper orthochronous Lorentz transformation without assuming the constancy of the speed of light and specific mathematical requirements (such as group property a priori. We explicitly demonstrate that the constancy of the speed of light in all inertial frames can be derived using the velocity reciprocity property, which is a deductive consequence of the space–time homogeneity and the space isotropy. The FESI or the FETI symmetry remains to be preserved in the Galilean transformation at the non-relativistic limit. Other similar symmetry operations result in either trivial transformations or improper and/or non-orthochronous Lorentz transformations, which do not form groups.

  10. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Peng; King, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved $Z_2$ in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the $R$-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example,...

  11. Conformal symmetry limit of QED and QCD and identities between perturbative contributions to deep-inelastic scattering sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal symmetry-based relations between concrete perturbative QED and QCD approximations for the Bjorken , the Ellis-Jaffe sum rules of polarized lepton- nucleon deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rules of neutrino-nucleon DIS, and for the Adler functions of axial-vector and vector channels are derived. They result from the application of the operator product expansion to three triangle Green functions, constructed from the non-singlet axial-vector, and two vector currents, the singlet axial-vector and two non-singlet vector currents and the non-singlet axial-vector, vector and singlet vector currents in the limit, when the conformal symmetry of the gauge models with fermions is considered unbroken. We specify the perturbative conditions for this symmetry to be valid in the case of the U(1) and SU(Nc) models. The all-order perturbative identity following from the conformal invariant limit between the concrete contributions to the Bjorken, the Ellis-Jaffe and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rules is proved. The analytical and numerical O(α4) and O(αs2) conformal symmetry based approximations for these sum rules and for the Adler function of the non-singlet vector currents are summarized. Possible theoretical applications of the results presented are discussed

  12. Nucleon and Delta axial-vector couplings in 1/N{sub c}-Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goity, Jose Luis [JLAB; Calle Cordon, Alvaro [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, baryon axial-vector couplings are studied in the framework of the combined 1/N{sub c} and chiral expansions. This framework is implemented on the basis of the emergent spin-flavor symmetry in baryons at large N{sub c} and HBChPT, and linking both expansions ({xi}-expansion), where 1/N{sub c} is taken to be a quantity order p. The study is carried out including one-loop contributions, which corresponds to order xi to the third for baryon masses and order {xi} square for the axial couplings.

  13. Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of the Rotational Relativistic Variable Mass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Hui

    2003-01-01

    The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of a rotational relativistic variable masssystem are studied. Thedefinitions and criteria of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the rotational relativistic variable mass system aregiven. The relation between the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry is found. The conserved quantities which the Meisymmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  14. Axial form factors of the octet baryons in a covariant quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, G.; Tsushima, K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the weak interaction axial form factors of the octet baryons, within the covariant spectator quark model, focusing on the dependence of four-momentum transfer squared, Q2. In our model the axial form factors GA(Q2) (axial-vector form factor) and GP(Q2) (induced pseudoscalar form factor) are calculated based on the constituent quark axial form factors and the octet baryon wave functions. The quark axial current is parametrized by the two constituent quark form factors, the axial-vector form factor gAq(Q2), and the induced pseudoscalar form factor gPq(Q2). The baryon wave functions are composed of a dominant S -state and a P -state mixture for the relative angular momentum of the quarks. First, we study in detail the nucleon case. We assume that the quark axial-vector form factor gAq(Q2) has the same function form as that of the quark electromagnetic isovector form factor. The remaining parameters of the model, the P -state mixture and the Q2 dependence of gPq(Q2), are determined by a fit to the nucleon axial form factor data obtained by lattice QCD simulations with large pion masses. In this lattice QCD regime the meson cloud effects are small, and the physics associated with the valence quarks can be better calibrated. Once the valence quark model is calibrated, we extend the model to the physical regime and use the low Q2 experimental data to estimate the meson cloud contributions for GA(Q2) and GP(Q2). Using the calibrated quark axial form factors and the generalization of the nucleon wave function for the other octet baryon members, we make predictions for all the possible weak interaction axial form factors GA(Q2) and GP(Q2) of the octet baryons. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental data for GA(0 ) and with the estimates of baryon-meson models based on S U (6 ) symmetry.

  15. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flemming H Gravesen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  16. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-14

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method. PMID:19132762

  17. Test of Pseudospin Symmetry in Deformed Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ginocchio, J N; Meng, J; Zhou, S G; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2004-01-01

    Pseudospin symmetry is a relativistic symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian with scalar and vector mean fields equal and opposite in sign. This symmetry imposes constraints on the Dirac eigenfunctions. We examine extensively the Dirac eigenfunctions of realistic relativistic mean field calculations of deformed nuclei to determine if these eigenfunctions satisfy these pseudospin symmetry constraints.

  18. Symmetry and group theory in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, M

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetry, this book covers both point-group and space-group symmetries.Provides a comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetryCovers both point-group and space-group symmetriesIncludes tutorial solutions

  19. O'Hanlon actions by Noether symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F

    2015-01-01

    By using the conformal symmetry between Brans-Dicke action with $\\omega=-\\frac{3}{2}$ and O'Hanlon action, we seek the O'Hanlon actions in Einstein frame respecting the Noether symmetry. Since the Noether symmetry is preserved under conformal transformations, the existence of Noether symmetry in the Brans-Dicke action asserts the Noether symmetry in O'Hanlon action in Einstein frame. Therefore, the potentials respecting Noether symmetry in Brans-Dicke action give the corresponding potentials respecting Noether symmetry in O'Hanlon action in Einstein frame.

  20. Novel Symmetries in Christ-Lee Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, R

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the gauge-fixed Lagrangian of the Christ-Lee model respects four fermionic symmetries, namely; (anti-)BRST symmetries, (anti-)co-BRST symmetries within the framework of BRST formalism. The appropriate anticommutators amongst the fermionic symmetries lead to a unique bosonic symmetry. It turn out that the algebra obeyed by the symmetry transformations (and their corresponding conserved charges) is reminiscent of the algebra satisfied by the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. We also provide the physical realizations of the cohomological operators in terms of the symmetry properties.

  1. New Anomaly of the Axial-Vector Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Han-Xin

    2001-01-01

    By computing the axial-vector current operator equation, we find the anomalous axial-vector curl equation besides the well-known anomalous axial-vector divergence equation (the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly) and discuss its implication.``

  2. Geomagnetic Reversals Caused by Breaking Mirror Symmetry of Core Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Petrelis, F; Dormy, E; Valet, J P

    2008-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field can be geometrically described by a strong axial dipole and higher degree terms, which belong to the dipolar (even) or quadrupolar (odd) family depending on their symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane. It is established that the field has frequently (and maybe always) reversed its polarity. It has been suggested by Merrill and Mc Fadden \\cite{Merrill} that reversals occur because the fluid flow in the outer core breaks the equatorial symmetry. This results in a coupling between the dipolar and quadrupolar families. Field reversals have now been reported in several numerical simulations of dynamos and very recently for the first time in a laboratory experiment involving a Von Karman swirling flow of liquid sodium (VKS) \\cite{Berhanu}. In this experiment, reversals are observed when the velocities of the two counter rotating disks driving the flow are different, thus when a symmetry is broken. Here, we show how the interaction between the dipolar and quadrupolar modes, that re...

  3. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  4. Octupole correlations in the nucleus $^{144}$Ba described with symmetry conserving configuration mixing calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Rémi N; Rodríguez, Tomás R

    2016-01-01

    We study the interplay of quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom in the structure of the isotope $^{144}$Ba. A symmetry conserving configuration mixing method (SCCM) based on a Gogny energy density functional (EDF) has been used. The method includes particle number, parity and angular momentum restoration as well as axial quadrupole and octupole shape mixing within the generator coordinate method. Predictions both for excitation energies and electromagnetic transition probabilities are in good agreement with the most recent experimental data.

  5. Octupole correlations in the 144Ba nucleus described with symmetry-conserving configuration-mixing calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Rémi N.; Robledo, Luis M.; Rodríguez, Tomás R.

    2016-06-01

    We study the interplay of quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom in the structure of the isotope 144Ba. A symmetry-conserving configuration-mixing method (SCCM) based on a Gogny energy density functional (EDF) has been used. The method includes particle number, parity, and angular momentum restoration as well as axial quadrupole and octupole shape mixing within the generator coordinate method. Predictions both for excitation energies and electromagnetic transition probabilities are in good agreement with the most recent experimental data.

  6. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Elmar P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  7. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, A; Gross, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  8. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, A.; Gross, F.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for π-π-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  9. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  10. Design and synthesis of a cyclitol-derived scaffold with axial pyridyl appendages and its encapsulation of the silver(I) cation

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Marc Léo; Christophe Morin; Christian Philouze

    2010-01-01

    Conversion of a myo-inositol derivative into a scyllo-inositol-derived scaffold with C3v symmetry bearing three axial pyridyl appendages is presented. This pre-organized hexadentate ligand allows complexation of silver(I). The crystal structure of the complex was established.

  11. Axial Thermal Rotation of Slender Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2011-05-01

    Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain’s axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.

  12. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans;

    2009-01-01

    force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  13. Nonperturbative features of the axial current

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, B Z; Siddikov, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the nonperturbative structure of the axial current and evaluate the two-point distribution amplitudes $\\int d\\xi\\, e^{-iq...\\xi}$ in the framework of the instanton vacuum model in the leading order in $\\mathcal{O}(N_{c})$. We perform a direct numerical test of the relations between the axial current and the pion distribution amplitudes, imposed by PCAC, and found excellent agreement.

  14. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    OpenAIRE

    L. Drazan; R. Vrana

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM) is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered b...

  15. Heisenberg symmetry and hypermultiplet manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Petropoulos, P Marios; Siampos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We study the emergence of Heisenberg (Bianchi II) algebra in hyper-K\\"ahler and quaternionic spaces. This is motivated by the r\\^ole these spaces with this symmetry play in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ hypermultiplet scalar manifolds. We show how to construct related pairs of hyper-K\\"ahler and quaternionic spaces under general symmetry assumptions, the former being a zooming-in limit of the latter at vanishing cosmological constant. We further apply this method for the two hyper-K\\"ahler spaces with Heisenberg algebra, which is reduced to $U(1)\\times U(1)$ at the quaternionic level. We also show that no quaternionic spaces exist with a strict Heisenberg symmetry -- as opposed to $\\text{Heisenberg} \\ltimes U(1)$. We finally discuss the realization of the latter by gauging appropriate $Sp(2,4)$ generators in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ conformal supergravity.

  16. An Introduction to Emergent Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Pedro R S

    2015-01-01

    These are intended to be introductory notes on emergent symmetries, i.e., symmetries which manifest themselves in specific sectors of energy in many systems. The emphasis is on the physical aspects rather than computation methods. We include some elementary background material and proceed to our discussion by examining several interesting problems in field theory, statistical mechanics and condensed matter. These problems illustrate how some important symmetries, such as Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry, usually believed to be fundamental, can arise naturally in low-energy regimes of systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The aim is to discuss how these examples could help us to face other complex and fundamental problems.

  17. Symmetry breaking in molecular ferroelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ye, Qiong; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2016-07-11

    Ferroelectrics are inseparable from symmetry breaking. Accompanying the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the paraelectric phase adopting one of the 32 crystallographic point groups is broken into subgroups belonging to one of the 10 ferroelectric point groups, i.e. C1, C2, C1h, C2v, C4, C4v, C3, C3v, C6 and C6v. The symmetry breaking is captured by the order parameter known as spontaneous polarization, whose switching under an external electric field results in a typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop. In addition, the responses of spontaneous polarization to other external excitations are related to a number of physical effects such as second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric properties. Based on these, this review summarizes recent developments in molecular ferroelectrics since 2011 and focuses on the relationship between symmetry breaking and ferroelectricity, offering ideas for exploring high-performance molecular ferroelectrics. PMID:27051889

  18. Hidden Symmetries of Stochastic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Aneva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the matrix product states approach to $n$ species diffusion processes the stationary probability distribution is expressed as a matrix product state with respect to a quadratic algebra determined by the dynamics of the process. The quadratic algebra defines a noncommutative space with a $SU_q(n$ quantum group action as its symmetry. Boundary processes amount to the appearance of parameter dependent linear terms in the algebraic relations and lead to a reduction of the $SU_q(n$ symmetry. We argue that the boundary operators of the asymmetric simple exclusion process generate a tridiagonal algebra whose irriducible representations are expressed in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The Askey-Wilson algebra arises as a symmetry of the boundary problem and allows to solve the model exactly.

  19. Symmetry Breaking in Finite Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a cooperative phenomenon for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom and it plays an essential role in quantum field theories. Lattice O(N) model is studied within the Hamiltonian approach using an adiabatic approximation. It is shown that the low-lying spectrum of the system in the broken phase can be understood by using the adiabatic, or Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which turns out to become an expansion in the inverse power of volume. In the infinite volume limit, the symmetry is broken while in the finite volume the slow rotation of the zero-momentum mode restores the symmetry and gives rise to the rotator spectrum, which has been observed in realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  1. Mathieu Moonshine and Symmetry Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Paul, Hynek

    2016-01-01

    Mathieu Moonshine, the observation that the Fourier coefficients of the elliptic genus on K3 can be interpreted as dimensions of representations of the Mathieu group M24, has been proven abstractly, but a conceptual understanding in terms of a representation of the Mathieu group on the BPS states, is missing. Some time ago, Taormina and Wendland showed that such an action can be naturally defined on the lowest non-trivial BPS states, using the idea of `symmetry surfing', i.e., by combining the symmetries of different K3 sigma models. In this paper we find non-trivial evidence that this construction can be generalized to all BPS states.

  2. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model

  3. Quantum symmetries and exceptional collections

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    We study the interplay between discrete quantum symmetries at certain points in the moduli space of Calabi-Yau compactifications, and the associated identities that the geometric realization of D-brane monodromies must satisfy. We show that in a wide class of examples, both local and compact, the monodromy identities in question always follow from a single mathematical statement. One of the simplest examples is the Z_5 symmetry at the Gepner point of the quintic, and the associated D-brane monodromy identity.

  4. Symmetry of intramolecular quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Burenin, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to give a systematic description of intramolecular quantum dynamics on the basis of only the symmetry principles. In this respect, the book has no analogs in the world literature. The obtained models lead to a simple, purely algebraic, scheme of calculation and are rigorous in the sense that their correctness is limited only to the correct choice of symmetry of the internal dynamics. The book is basically intended for scientists working in the field of molecular spectroscopy, quantum and structural chemistry.

  5. Symposium Symmetries in Science XIII

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Bruno J; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Symmetries in Science XI

    2005-01-01

    This book is a collection of reviews and essays about the recent developments in the area of Symmetries and applications of Group Theory. Contributions have been written mostly at the graduate level but some are accessible to advanced undergraduates. The book is of interest to a wide audience and covers a broad range of topics with a strong degree of thematical unity. The book is part of a Series of books on Symmetries in Science and may be compared to the published Proceedings of the Colloquia on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics. Here, however, prevails a distinguished character for presenting extended reviews on present applications to Science, not restricted to Theoretical Physics.

  6. Renormalizable models with broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the renormalized perturbation theory, in the absence of massless quanta, are summarized. The global symmetry breaking is studied and the associated currents are discussed in terms of the coupling with a classical Yang Mills field. Gauge theories are discussed; it is most likely that the natural set up should be the theory of fiber bundles and that making a choice of field coordinates makes the situation obscure. An attempt is made in view of clarifying the meaning of the Slavnov symmetry which characterizes gauge field theories

  7. On stability of uniformly-accelerated motions of an axially-symmetric heavy rigid body in an ideal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deriabine, Mikhail

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of heavy rigid body dynamics in an infinite volume of an ideal incompressible fluid performing a potential motion. If the body is axially-symmetric, then the system admits partial solutions, when the axis of symmetry is vertical, and the body sinks and rotates around its...... axis, direction. The method of constructing the Lyapunov function may be generalized for deriving stability conditions for mechanical systems with nonstationary force-fields....

  8. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blade damage effect on the performance of a transonic axial compressor near stall

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Sayma, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine axial compressor blades may encounter damage during service for various reasons such as damage by debris from casing or foreign objects impacting the blades, typically near the rotor’s tip. This may lead to deterioration of performance and reduction in the surge margin. The damage breaks the cyclic symmetry of the rotor assembly; thus, computational fluid dynamics simulations have to be performed using full annulus compressor assembly. Moreover, downstream boundary conditions are ...

  9. Optical metamaterials with quasicrystalline symmetry: symmetry-induced optical isotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking advantage of symmetry considerations, we have analyzed the potential of various metamaterials to affect the polarization state of light upon oblique illumination. We have shown that depending on the angle of illumination, metamaterials are able to support specific polarization states. The presented methodology that using ellipticity and circular dichroism, provides an unambiguous language for discussing the impact of the inherent symmetry of the metamaterial lattices on their far-field response. Our findings allow the quantification analysis of the impact of inter-element coupling and lattice symmetry on the optical properties of metamaterials, and to separate this contribution from the response associated with a single meta-atom. In addition, we have studied the concept of optical quasicrystalline metamaterials, revealing that the absence of translational symmetry (periodicity) of quasicrystalline metamaterials causes an isotropic optical response, while the long-range positional order preserves the resonance properties. Our findings constitute an important step towards the design of optically isotropic metamaterials and metasurfaces. (authors)

  10. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sundell, Per

    2016-01-01

    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in arXiv:1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by the sum of two generalized Petrov type-D tensors, and the twistor space connections are smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  11. Chiral dynamics and heavy-fermion formalism in nuclei; 1, exchange axial currents

    CERN Document Server

    Park, T S; Rho, M; Park, Tae-Sun; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    1993-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory in heavy-fermion formalism is developed for meson-exchange currents in nuclei and applied to nuclear axial- charge transitions. Calculation is performed to the next-to-leading order in chiral expansion which involves graphs up to one loop. The result turns out to be very simple. The previously conjectured notion of "chiral filter mechanism" in the time component of the nuclear axial current and the space component of the nuclear electromagnetic current is verified to that order. As a consequence, the phenomenologically observed soft-pion dominance in the nuclear process is given a simple interpretation in terms of chiral symmetry in nuclei. In this paper, we focus on the axial current, relegating the EM current which can be treated in a similar way to a separate paper. We discuss the implication of our result on the enhanced axial-charge transitions observed in heavy nuclei and clarify the relationship between the phenomenological meson-exchange description and the chiral Lagrangian...

  12. Spin filter due to spin Hall effect with axially asymmetric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio

    2010-02-01

    We examine a three-terminal spin filter including an artificial potential created by antidot, scanning tunnel microscope (STM) tip, etc., fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction. When the potential is attractive and its strength is properly tuned, the resonant scattering takes place, which enhances the extrinsic spin Hall effect. As a result, the efficiency of the spin filter can be more than 50% when the potential is axially symmetric. The efficiency becomes smaller when the symmetry is broken, but we still expect an efficient spin filter unless the degree of asymmetry is too large.

  13. Eta-eta' Photoproduction and the axial isoscalar neutral current coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabeu, J.; González Sprinberg, Gabriel A.; Vidal Perona, Jorge

    1995-01-01

    We show that coherentη andη′ photoproduction by means of the Primakoff Effect on the proton depends on the strange component of the neutral axial current coupling. We construct polarization asymmetries that are sensitive to this coupling through theγ−Z interference. Theη′ is not a Goldstone boson of a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, but a phenomenological analysis of theη andη′ production through chiral perturbation theory allows to calculate the observables of interest. The polarized p...

  14. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  15. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  16. Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part Vμ, also an axial-vector part Aμ, a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part Tμv, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  17. In Search of a Pristine Signal for (Scale-)Chiral Symmetry in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2016-01-01

    I describe the long-standing search for a "smoking-gun" signal for the manifestation of (scale-)chiral symmetry in nuclear interactions. It is prompted by Gerry Brown's last unpublished note, reproduced verbatim below, on the preeminent role of pions and vector ($\\rho$,$\\omega$) mesons in providing a simple and elegant description of strongly correlated nuclear interactions. In this note written in tribute to Gerry Brown, I first describe a case of an unambiguous signal in axial-charge transitions in nuclei and then combine his ideas with the more recent development on the role of hidden symmetries in nuclear physics. What transpires is the surprising conclusion that the Landau-Migdal fixed point interaction $G_0^\\prime$, the nuclear tensor forces and Brown-Rho scaling, all encoded in scale-invariant hidden local symmetry, as Gerry put, "run the show and make all forces equal."

  18. The contributions of $qqqq\\bar{q}$ components to the axial charges of proton and its resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, S G; He, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the axial charges of the proton and its resonances in the framework of the constituent quark model, which is extended to include the $qqqq\\bar{q}$ components. If 20% admixtures of the $qqqq\\bar{q}$ components in the proton are assumed, the theoretical value for the axial charge in our model is in good agreement with the empirical value, which can not be well reproduced in the traditional constituent quark model even though the $SU(6) \\bigotimes O(3)$ symmetry breaking or relativistic effect is taken into account. We also predict an unity axial charge for $N^{*}(1440)$ with 30% $qqqq\\bar{q}$ components constrained by the strong and electromagnetic decays.

  19. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  20. Hidden Local Symmetry and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H= SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R/SU(2)_V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly realized scale symmetry. Then the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)_V HLS, "SM rho meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed into the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with S. Matsuzaki and H. Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM rho meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "Dark SM skyrmi...

  1. Turning Students into Symmetry Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilders, Richard; VanOyen, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Exploring mathematical symmetry is one way of increasing students' understanding of art. By asking students to search designs and become pattern detectives, teachers can potentially increase their appreciation of art while reinforcing their perception of the use of math in their day-to-day lives. This article shows teachers how they can interest…

  2. Partial Dynamical Symmetries in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2000-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) are shown to be relevant to the interpretation of the $K=0_2$ band and to the occurrence of F-spin multiplets of ground and scissors bands in deformed nuclei. Hamiltonians with bosonic and fermionic PDS are presented.

  3. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Goyal; Meenu Dahiya; Deepak Chandra

    2003-05-01

    We study chiral symmetry structure at finite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic field and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.

  4. Tetraquark Spectroscopy: A Symmetry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vijande

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed analysis of the symmetry properties of a four-quark wave function and its solution by means of a variational approach for simple Hamiltonians. We discuss several examples in the light and heavy-light meson sector.

  5. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality; Loren

  6. Symmetry violation in weak decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Kimberley Keri

    2016-01-01

    Our current knowledge of particle physics is described by the Standard Model (SM). This model, however, leaves important observations unexplained. To answer these outstanding questions, as of yet, unknown physics is required. In the search for new physics, symmetries and their breaking play a guidin

  7. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  8. Polarization converters based on axially symmetric twisted nematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Shih-Wei; Ting, Chi-Lun; Fuh, Andy Y-G; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2010-02-15

    An axially symmetric twisted nematic liquid crystal (ASTNLC) device, based on axially symmetric photoalignment, was demonstrated. Such an ASTNLC device can convert axial (azimuthal) to azimuthal (axial) polarization. The optical properties of the ASTNLC device are analyzed and found to agree with simulation results. The ASTNLC device with a specific device can be adopted as an arbitrary axial symmetric polarization converter or waveplate for axially, azimuthally or vertically polarized light. A design for converting linear polarized light to axially symmetric circular polarized light is also demonstrated. PMID:20389369

  9. Noether gauge symmetry approach in quintom cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Aslam, Adnan; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad; Raza, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In literature usual point like symmetries of the Lagrangian have been introduced to study the symmetries and the structure of the fields. This kind of Noether symmetry is a subclass of a more general family of symmetries, called Noether Gauge Symmetries (NGS). Motivated by this mathematical tool, in this article, we discuss the generalized Noether symmetry of Quintom model of dark energy, which is a two component fluid model of quintessence and phantom fields. Our model is a generalization of the Noether symmetries of a single and multiple components which have been investigated in detail before. We found the general form of the quintom potential in which the whole dynamical system has a point like symmetry. We investigated different possible solutions of the system for diverse family of gauge function. Specially, we discovered two family of potentials, one corresponds to a free quintessence (phantom) and the second is in the form of quadratic interaction between two components. These two families of potentia...

  10. Notes on generalized global symmetries in QFT

    CERN Document Server

    Sharpe, E

    2015-01-01

    It was recently argued that quantum field theories possess one-form and higher-form symmetries, labelled `generalized global symmetries.' In this paper, we describe how those higher-form symmetries can be understood mathematically as special cases of more general 2-groups and higher groups, and discuss examples of quantum field theories admitting actions of more general higher groups than merely one-form and higher-form symmetries. We discuss analogues of topological defects for some of these higher symmetry groups, relating some of them to ordinary topological defects. We also discuss topological defects in cases in which the moduli `space' (technically, a stack) admits an action of a higher symmetry group. Finally, we outline a proposal for how certain anomalies might potentially be understood as describing a transmutation of an ordinary group symmetry of the classical theory into a 2-group or higher group symmetry of the quantum theory, which we link to WZW models and bosonization.

  11. Inflation, Symmetry, and B-Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hertzberg, Mark P

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of using symmetry and effective field theory in inflationary model building. We describe the standard formulation of starting with an approximate shift symmetry for a scalar field, and then introducing corrections systematically in order to maintain control over the inflationary potential. We find that this leads to models in good agreement with recent data. On the other hand, there are attempts in the literature to deviate from this paradigm by envoking other symmetries and corrections. In particular: in a suite of recent papers, several authors have made the claim that standard Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant and a massless scalar carries conformal symmetry. They further claim that such a theory carries another hidden symmetry; a global SO(1,1) symmetry. By deforming around the global SO(1,1) symmetry, they are able to produce a range of inflationary models with asymptotically flat potentials, whose flatness is claimed to be protected by these symmetries. These models tend ...

  12. Site symmetry and crystal symmetry: a spherical tensor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brouder, Christian; Juhin, Amélie; Bordage, Amélie; Arrio, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    27 pages, 3 figures International audience The relation between the properties of a specific crystallographic site and the properties of the full crystal is discussed by using spherical tensors. The concept of spherical tensors is introduced and the way it transforms under the symmetry operations of the site and from site to site is described in detail. The law of spherical tensor coupling is given and illustrated with the example of the electric dipole and quadrupole transitions in x-r...

  13. Axial instability of rotating relativistic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, J L; Friedman, John L.; Morsink, Sharon M.

    1998-01-01

    Perturbations of rotating relativistic stars can be classified by their behavior under parity. For axial perturbations (r-modes), initial data with negative canonical energy is found with angular dependence $e^{im\\phi}$ for all values of $m\\geq 2$ and for arbitrarily slow rotation. This implies instability (or marginal stability) of such perturbations for rotating perfect fluids. This low $m$-instability is strikingly different from the instability to polar perturbations, which sets in first for large values of $m$. The timescale for the axial instability appears, for small angular velocity $\\Omega$, to be proportional to a high power of $\\Omega$. As in the case of polar modes, viscosity will again presumably enforce stability except for hot, rapidly rotating neutron stars. This work complements Andersson's numerical investigation of axial modes in slowly rotating stars.

  14. Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.

  15. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, R; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Zanotti, J M

    2015-01-01

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order $O(a)$ effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  16. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab

  17. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  18. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  19. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  20. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M.

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in low-energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to searching for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  1. Axial Stiffness of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavalniuk, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The axial stiffness of MWCNTs is demonstrated to be determined only by several external shells (usually 3-5 and up to 15 for the extremely large nanotubes and high elongations) what is in a good agreement with experimentally observed inverse relation between the radius and Young modulus (i.e., stiffness) of MWCNTs. This result is a consequence of the van der Waals intershell interaction. The interpolating formula is obtained for the actual axial stiffness of MWCNT as a function of the tube ex...

  2. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  3. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  4. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  5. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2007-06-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  6. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  7. Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, C.; Davesne, D. [IPN - Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we consider dissipative hydrodynamic equations for systems with continuous broken symmetries. We first present the case of superfluidity, in which the symmetry U(1) is broken and then generalize to the chiral symmetry SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R}. New transport coefficients are introduced and the consequences of their existence are discussed. (authors)

  8. Parameter Symmetry of the Interacting Boson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shirokov, A M; Smirnov, Yu F; Shirokov, Andrey M.; Smirnov, Yu. F.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the symmetry of the parameter space of the interacting boson model (IBM). It is shown that for any set of the IBM Hamiltonian parameters (with the only exception of the U(5) dynamical symmetry limit) one can always find another set that generates the equivalent spectrum. We discuss the origin of the symmetry and its relevance for physical applications.

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector of the standard model can be weakly-coupled or can be strongly-coupled, which is characterized by some kinds of strong interaction among the Goldstone bosons of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector. In this paper, we summarize an investigation of probing the strong electroweak-symmetry-breaking effects at photon colliders. ((orig.))

  10. Symmetries of the dissipative Hofstadter model

    CERN Document Server

    Freed, D E

    1993-01-01

    The dissipative Hofstadter model, which describes a particle in 2-D subject to a periodic potential, uniform magnetic field, and dissipation, is also related to open string boundary states. This model exhibits an SL(2,Z) duality symmetry and hidden reparametrization invariance symmetries. These symmetries are useful for finding exact solutions for correlation functions.

  11. Simultaneous occurrence of distinct symmetries in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2015-01-01

    We show that distinct emergent symmetries, such as partial dynamical symmetry and quasi dynamical symmetry, can occur simultaneously in the same or different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Implications for nuclear spectroscopy in the rare-earth region and for first-order quantum phase transitions between spherical and deformed shapes, are considered.

  12. Generalized Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a generalized partial dynamical symmetry for which part of the eigenstates have part of the dynamical symmetry. This general concept is illustrated with the example of Hamiltonians with a partial dynamical O(6) symmetry in the framework of the interacting boson model. The resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions are compared with empirical data in $^{162}$Dy.

  13. Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pujol, C

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider dissipative hydrodynamic equations for systems with continuous broken symmetries. We first present the case of superfluidity, in which the symmetry U(1) is broken and then generalize to the chiral symmetry $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R$. New transport coefficients are introduced and the consequences of their existence are discussed.

  14. Symmetry and electromagnetism. Simetria y electromagnetismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Neutrino mass, mixing and discrete symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Alexei Y

    2013-01-01

    Status of the discrete symmetry approach to explanation of the lepton masses and mixing is summarized in view of recent experimental results, in particular, establishing relatively large 1-3 mixing. The lepton mixing can originate from breaking of discrete flavor symmetry $G_f$ to different residual symmetries $G_{\\ell}$ and $G_\

  16. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  17. Dark Matter and Global Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Mambrini, Yann; Queiroz, Farinaldo S

    2015-01-01

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics rule out global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Motivated by this, we derive stringent and robust bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic ray, neutrino and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. Under realistic assumptions we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models such as the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. In the supplemental material we derive robust, updated model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime.

  18. Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).

  19. Wormhole dynamics in spherical symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2009-01-01

    A dynamical theory of traversable wormholes is detailed in spherical symmetry. Generically a wormhole consists of a tunnel of trapped surfaces between two mouths, defined as temporal outer trapping horizons with opposite senses, in mutual causal contact. In static cases, the mouths coincide as the throat of a Morris-Thorne wormhole, with surface gravity providing an invariant measure of the radial curvature or "flaring-out". The null energy condition must be violated at a wormhole mouth. Zero...

  20. Symmetry Doubling: Doubly General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Henrique; Koslowski, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Using a BRST treatment, we show that the equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics can be extended to a theory that respects the BRST-symmetries of General Relativity as well as the ones of an extended version of Shape Dynamics. This version of Shape Dynamics implements local spatial Weyl transformations as well as a local and abstract analogue of special conformal transformations. Standard effective field theory arguments suggest that the definition of a gravity theory should impl...

  1. Geometric symmetries in light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, Roelof

    2016-01-01

    The algebraic cluster model is is applied to study cluster states in the nuclei 12C and 16O. The observed level sequences can be understood in terms of the underlying discrete symmetry that characterizes the geometrical configuration of the alpha-particles, i.e. an equilateral triangle for 12C, and a regular tetrahedron for 16O. The structure of rotational bands provides a fingerprint of the underlying geometrical configuration of alpha-particles.

  2. Detecting Broken PT-Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental problem in the theory of PT-invariant quantum systems is to determine whether a given system 'respects' this symmetry or not. If not, the system usually develops non-real eigenvalues. It is shown in this contribution how to algorithmically detect the existence of complex eigenvalues for a given PT-symmetric matrix. The procedure uses classical results from stability theory which qualitatively locate the zeros of real polynomials in the complex plane. The interest and value of th...

  3. Dirac neutrinos from flavor symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Alfredo; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2013-01-01

    We present a model where Majorana neutrino mass terms are forbidden by the flavor symmetry group Delta(27). Neutrinos are Dirac fermions and their masses arise in the same way as that of the charged fermions, due to very small Yukawa couplings. The model fits current neutrino oscillation data and correlates the octant of the atmospheric angle with the magnitude of the lightest neutrino mass, with maximal mixing excluded for any neutrino mass

  4. Quantum Solitons with Cylindrical Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chepilko, N.; Kobushkin, A.; Syamtomov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Soliton solutions with cylindrical symmetry are investigated within the nonlinear $\\sigma $-model disregarding the Skyrme-stabilization term. The solitons are stabilized by quantization of collective breathing mode and collapse in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit. It is shown that for such stabilization mechanism the model, apart from solitons with integer topological number $B$, admits the solitons with half-odd $B$. The solitons with integer $B$ have standard spin-isospin classification, while $B={\\...

  5. Chiral symmetry in rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2015-08-01

    The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ≥Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator χ ˆ =Rˆy (π) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.

  6. Mei Symmetries and Lie Symmetries for Nonholonomic Controllable Mechanical Systems with Relativistic Rotational Variable Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-Li; LI Yuan-Cheng; WANG Xian-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Mei symmetries and the Lie symmetries for nonholonomic controllable mechanical systems with relativistic rotational variable mass are studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established. The definition and criterion of the Mei symmetries and the Lie symmetries of the system are studied respectively. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the Mei symmetry is Lie symmetry is given. The condition under which the Mei symmetries can be led to a new kind of conserved quantity and the form of the conserved quantity are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  7. Dark matter and global symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-09-01

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O (1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime.

  8. Assessing symmetry of financial returns series

    CERN Document Server

    Coronel-Brizio, H F; Rodriguez-Achach, M

    2007-01-01

    Testing symmetry of a probability distribution is a common question arising from applications in several fields. Particularly, in the study of observables used in the analysis of stock market index variations, the question of symmetry has not been fully investigated by means of statistical procedures. In this work a distribution-free test statistic Tn for testing symmetry, derived by Einmahl and McKeague, based on the empirical likelihood approach, is used to address the study of symmetry of financial returns. The asymptotic points of the test statistic Tn are also calculated and a procedure for assessing symmetry for the analysis of the returns of stock market indices is presented.

  9. Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Christian

    2014-06-16

    We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1){sub R} symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.

  10. Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations of Maximal Symmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P G L Leach; R R Warne; N Caister; V Naicker; N Euler

    2010-02-01

    Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries’, i.e. those not considered to be generic to scalar equations of maximal symmetry, can be recast into a form which is applicable to all such equations of maximal symmetry. Some properties of these symmetries are demonstrated.

  11. Mei Symmetry and Noether Symmetry of the Relativistic Variable Mass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Hui

    2004-01-01

    The definition and criterion of the Mei symmetry of a relativistic variable mass system are given. The relation between the Mei symmetry and the Noether symmetry of the system is found under infinitesimal transformations of groups. The conserved quantities to which the Mei symmetry and Noether symmetry of the system lead are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  12. The Symmetry of Optical Field in Photonic Crystal Fibre with Trigonal Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Turek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some photographs of intensity of optical field of a photonic crystal fibre are presented in the contribution. Presented photographs document that the symmetry of photonic crystal creating the cladding of fibre is manifested in the symmetry of distribution of the optical field intensity. In case when more modes are excited in the fibre the symmetry of the generated field can be different as the symmetry of the eventual modes. How the symmetry may be changed is illustrated by amodel example.

  13. Knowledge Based Design of Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh kumar.R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry with highly competitive market the time to design and delivery is shortening every day. Pressure on delivering robust product with cost economy is in demand in each development. Even though technology is older, it is new for each customer requirement and highly non-liner to fit one in another place. Gas turbine is considered one of a complex design in the aircraft system. It involves experts to be grouped with designers of various segments to arrive the best output. The time is crucial to achieve a best design and it needs knowledge automation incorporated with CAD/CAE tools. In the present work an innovative idea in the form of Knowledge Based Engineering for axial compressor is proposed, this includes the fundamental design of axial compressor integrated with artificial intelligence in the form of knowledge capturing and programmed with high level language (Visual Basis.Net and embedded into CATIA v5. This KBE frame work eases out the design and modeling of axial compressor design and produces 3D modeling for further flow simulation with fluid dynamic in Ansys-Fluent. Most of the aerospace components are developed through simulation driven product development and in this case it is established for axial compressor.

  14. Primitive axial algebras of Jordan type

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J I; Rehren, F; Shpectorov, S.

    2014-01-01

    An axial algebra over the field $\\mathbb F$ is a commutative algebra generated by idempotents whose adjoint action has multiplicity-free minimal polynomial. For semisimple associative algebras this leads to sums of copies of $\\mathbb F$. Here we consider the first nonassociative case, where adjoint minimal polynomials divide $(x-1)x(x-\\eta)$ for fixed $0\

  15. Axially symmetric SU(3) gravitating skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora [Maths Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: ti3@auth.gr; Kleihaus, Burkhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)]. E-mail: kleihaus@theorie.physik.uni-oldenburg.de; Zakrzewski, Wojtek [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.j.zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk

    2004-10-21

    Axially symmetric gravitating multi-skyrmion configurations are obtained using the harmonic map ansatz introduced in [J. Math. Phys. 40 (1999) 6353]. In particular, the effect of gravity on the energy and baryon densities of the SU(3) non-gravitating multi-skyrmion configurations is studied in detail.

  16. Axially symmetric SU(3) Gravitating Skyrmions

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannidou, T A; Zakrzewski, W J; Ioannidou, Theodora; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Zakrzewski, Wojtek

    2004-01-01

    Axially symmetric gravitating multi-skyrmion configurations are obtained using the harmonic map ansatz introduced in [1]. In particular, the effect of gravity on the energy and baryon densities of the SU(3) non-gravitating multi-skyrmion configurations is studied in detail.

  17. Axially symmetric SU(3) gravitating skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axially symmetric gravitating multi-skyrmion configurations are obtained using the harmonic map ansatz introduced in [J. Math. Phys. 40 (1999) 6353]. In particular, the effect of gravity on the energy and baryon densities of the SU(3) non-gravitating multi-skyrmion configurations is studied in detail

  18. Brain Activity in Response to Visual Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have explored visual symmetry processing by measuring event related potentials and neural oscillatory activity. There is a sustained posterior negativity (SPN related to the presence of symmetry. There is also functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI activity in extrastriate visual areas and in the lateral occipital complex. We summarise the evidence by answering six questions. (1 Is there an automatic and sustained response to symmetry in visual areas? Answer: Yes, and this suggests automatic processing of symmetry. (2 Which brain areas are involved in symmetry perception? Answer: There is an extended network from extrastriate areas to higher areas. (3 Is reflection special? Answer: Reflection is the optimal stimulus for a more general regularity-sensitive network. (4 Is the response to symmetry independent of view angle? Answer: When people classify patterns as symmetrical or random, the response to symmetry is view-invariant. When people attend to other dimensions, the network responds to residual regularity in the image. (5 How are brain rhythms in the two hemispheres altered during symmetry perception? Answer: Symmetry processing (rather than presence produces more alpha desynchronization in the right posterior regions. Finally, (6 does symmetry processing produce positive affect? Answer: Not in the strongest sense, but behavioural measures reveal implicit positive evaluation of abstract symmetry.

  19. Symmetries of Massive and Massless Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Wigner's little groups are subgroups of the Lorentz group dictating the internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles. These little groups are like O(3) and E(2) for massive and massless particles respectively. While the geometry of the O(3) symmetry is familiar to us, the geometry of the flat plane cannot explain the E(2)-like symmetry for massless particles. However, the geometry of a circular cylinder can explain the symmetry with the helicity and gauge degrees of freedom. It is shown further that the symmetry of the massless particle can be obtained as a zero-mass limit of O(3)-like symmetry for massive particles. It is shown further that the polarization of massless neutrinos is a consequence of gauge invariance, while the symmetry of massive neutrinos is still like O(3).

  20. Models of Flavor with Discrete Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the observed patterns of lepton and quark masses, models invoking a flavor symmetry $G_f$, under which the Standard Model generations are charged, have been proposed. One particularly successful symmetry, U(2), has been extensively discussed in the literature. The Yukawa matrices in models based on this symmetry reproduce the observed mass ratios in the lepton and quark sectors. The features of the symmetry that determine the texture of the Yukawa matrices can be found in other symmetries as well. We present a model based on a minimal, non-Abelian discrete symmetry that reproduces the Yukawa matrices associated with U(2) theories of flavor. In addition to reproducing the mass and mixing angle relations obtained in such theories, the different representation structure of our new horizontal symmetry allows for solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems.

  1. Conformal symmetry limit of QED and QCD and the identities between the concrete perturbative contributions to deep-inelastic scattering sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Conformal symmetry based relations between the concrete perturbative QED and QCD approximations of the polarized Bjorken, the Ellis-Jaffe, the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rules and of the Adler functions of the axial vector and vector channels are derived. They are based on application of the operator product expansion to three triangle AVV Green functions, constructed from the non-singlet axial vector-vector-vector currents, the {\\it singlet} axial-vector and two {\\it non-singlet} vector currents and the {\\it non-singlet} axial-vector-vector and {\\it singlet} vector currents, in the limit when the conformal symmetry of gauge models with fermions is unbroken. We specify the conditions when the conformal symmetry is valid in the U(1) and $SU(N_c)$ models. The identity between perturbative approximations of the Bjorken, Ellis-Jaffe and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rules, which follow from this theoretical limit, is proved. The expressions for the $O(\\alpha^4)$ and $O(\\alpha_s^3)$ conformal symmetry based contrib...

  2. Modular coils and finite-β operation of a quasi-axially symmetric tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-axially symmetric tokamaks (QA tokamaks) are an extension of the conventional tokamak concept. In these devices the magnetic field strength is independent of the generalized toroidal magnetic co-ordinate even though the cross-sectional shape changes. An optimized plasma equilibrium belonging to the class of QA tokamaks has been proposed by Nuehrenberg. It features the small aspect ratio of a tokamak while allowing part of the rotational transform to be generated by the external field. In this article, two particular aspects of the viability of QA tokamaks are explored, namely the feasibility of modular coils and the possibility of maintaining quasi-axial symmetry in the free-boundary equilibria obtained with the coils found. A set of easily feasible modular coils for the configuration is presented. It was designed using the extended version of the NESCOIL code (MERKEL, P., Nucl. Fusion 27 (1987) 867). Using this coil system, free-boundary calculations of the plasma equilibrium were carried out using the NEMEC code (HIRSHMAN, S.P., VAN RIJ, W.I., MERKEL, P., Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 (1986) 143). It is observed that the effects of finite β and net toroidal plasma current can be compensated for with good precision by applying a vertical magnetic field and by separately adjusting the currents of the modular coils. A set of fully three dimensional (3-D) auxiliary coils is proposed to exert control on the rotational transform in the plasma. Deterioration of the quasi-axial symmetry induced by the auxiliary coils can be avoided by adequate adjustment of the currents in the primary coils. Finally, the neoclassical transport properties of the configuration are examined. It is observed that optimization with respect to confinement of the alpha particles can be maintained at operation with finite toroidal current if the aforementioned corrective measures are used. In this case, the neoclassical behaviour is shown to be very similar to that of a conventional tokamak

  3. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-07-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent (L) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective (D) presents this behavior only from the low corona to {≈} 5 R_{⊙}, where it slows down. The ratio L/D ≈ 1.6 obtained here as the average over several points in time is consistent with measurements of L and D previously performed on events exhibiting only one of the perspectives from the single vantage point provided by SOHO.

  4. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-08-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent ( L) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective ( D) presents this behavior only from the low corona to {≈} 5 R_{⊙}, where it slows down. The ratio L/D ≈ 1.6 obtained here as the average over several points in time is consistent with measurements of L and D previously performed on events exhibiting only one of the perspectives from the single vantage point provided by SOHO.

  5. Quadrupolar glass freezing in solid hydrogen: Distribution functions for the orientational axial and eccentric order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic model for two-dimensional distribution function P(σ,η) for quadrupolar glass freezing of axial (σ) and eccentric (η) order parameters in solid hydrogen is considered within the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick mean-field approach. Assuming the exchange interactions between axial and eccentric quadrupoles to be independent Gaussian random variables with variance J2/N and K2/N, respectively (with N being the number of lattice sites), we derived a set of self-consistent equations for quadrupolar order parameters and the corresponding local susceptibilities. While for J≠K the axial quadrupolar order parameter is nonvanishing in the high-temperature phase due to broken local symmetry and the corresponding quadrupolar susceptibility exhibits smeared-out behavior, the eccentric order parameter becomes zero at well-defined critical temperature depending on the ratio K/J. Furthermore, the properties of the P(σ,η) distribution function are investigated by introducing a single effective order parameter σeff (1eff<0) directly related to the second frequency moment of the nuclear magnetic resonance line shapes. Comparison of the present microscopic theory with earlier phenomenological approaches to the problem is also made

  6. Symmetry and Beauty in Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Plato writes about Beauty in many of his dialogues, particularly in the Symposium, but he has no word equivalent to our "Symmetry", and this concept was not then formalised. Nevertheless, there are indications that some aspects of the concept were understood, if only intuitively. Plato has a very abstract concept of beauty, and when he uses "beauty" to characterise the so-called "Platonic Solids" in the Timaeus, he seems to be emphasising at least their regularity. It can be argued that the w...

  7. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  8. Hidden symmetries in jammed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Peter K.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2016-07-01

    There are deep, but hidden, geometric structures within jammed systems, associated with hidden symmetries. These can be revealed by repeated transformations under which these structures lead to fixed points. These geometric structures can be found in the Voronoi tesselation of space defined by the packing. In this paper we examine two iterative processes: maximum inscribed sphere (MIS) inversion and a real-space coarsening scheme. Under repeated iterations of the MIS inversion process we find invariant systems in which every particle is equal to the maximum inscribed sphere within its Voronoi cell. Using a real-space coarsening scheme we reveal behavior in geometric order parameters which is length-scale invariant.

  9. Killing Symmetry on Finsler Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Ishida, Muneyuki

    2016-01-01

    Killing vector fields $K$ are defined on Finsler manifold. The Killing symmetry is reformulated simply as $\\delta K^\\flat =0$ by using the Killing non-linear 1-form $K^\\flat$ and the spray operator $\\delta$ with the Finsler non-linear connection. $K^\\flat$ is related to the generalization of Killing tensors on Finsler manifold, and the condition $\\delta K^\\flat =0$ gives an analytical method of finding higher derivative conserved quantities, which may be called hidden conserved quantities. We show two examples: the Carter constant on Kerr spacetime and the Runge-Lentz vectors in Newtonian gravity.

  10. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  11. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-03-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ``end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified.

  12. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ''end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified

  13. On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory

  14. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates,thus designinga fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions.The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence ofmaximum efficiency on1: the number of blades,2: the width of the design interval and3: the hub radius.......The degree of freedom in the choice of design variables andconstraints, combined with the design interval concept, providesa valuable design-tool for axial fans.To further investigate the use of design optimization, a modelfor the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the bladeshas been......A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...

  15. Proto-I axial-focusing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-integrated axial (z) focus of the 4.5-cm-radius Proto I (1.5 MV, 500 kA) radial proton diode is presently limited to approx. 3 mm FWHM. This result is obtained with current neutralized beam transport in a gas cell with 6 Torr argon. If the vertical local divergence were the same (10 or less) as the horizontal divergence, the local divergence alone would produce a 1.5 mm FWHM focus. The axial focal size is evidently limited by time-dependent effects. These are studied by observing the beam incident upon various targets with two time-resolved pinhole cameras. The first camera observes Rutherford-scattered protons from gold targets with an array of 11 siicon PIN detectors. The second camera observes K/sub α/-fluorescence from aluminum targets with 4 independently-gated microchannel plates imaging tubes

  16. Microwave axial dielectric properties of carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wen; Xiao, Peng; Luo, Heng; Li, Zhuan

    2015-10-01

    Randomly distributed carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced epoxy resin composites are prepared by the pouring method, the dielectric properties of CF composites with different fiber content and length have been performed in the frequency range from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of the composite increases with the fiber length, which is attributed to the decrease of depolarization field, and increases with the volume fraction, which is attributed to the increase of polarization. A formula, based on the theory of Reynolds-Hugh, is proposed to calculate the effective permittivity of CF composites, and validated by the experiments. The proposed formula is further applied to derive the axial permittivity of CF and analyze the effect of fiber length on the axial permittivity.

  17. Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.

  18. Unbroken B–L symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The difference between baryon number B and lepton number L is the only anomaly-free global symmetry of the Standard Model, easily promoted to a local symmetry by introducing three right-handed neutrinos, which automatically make neutrinos massive. The non-observation of any (B–L-violating processes leads us to scrutinize the case of unbroken gauged B–L; besides Dirac neutrinos, the model contains only three parameters, the gauge coupling strength g′, the Stückelberg mass MZ′, and the kinetic mixing angle χ. The new force could manifest itself at any scale, and we collect and derive bounds on g′ over the entire testable range MZ′=0–1013 eV, also of interest for the more popular case of spontaneously broken B–L or other new light forces. We show in particular that successful Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides strong bounds for masses 10 eV

  19. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  20. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, A., E-mail: bravetti@correo.nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S., E-mail: cesar.slm@correo.nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nettel, F., E-mail: Francisco.Nettel@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  2. Extra-Axial Medulloblastoma in the Cerebellar Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Eui Jin; Jeun, Sin Soo

    2014-01-01

    Extra-axial medulloblastoma is a rare phenomenon. We report a case in a 5-year-old boy who presented with nausea, vomiting, and gait disturbance. He was treated with total removal of the tumor. This is the first case of an extra-axially located medulloblastoma occurring in the cerebellar hemisphere posteriolateral to the cerebellopontine angle in Korea. Although the extra-axial occurrence of medulloblastoma is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial lesions ...

  3. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  4. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the “golden standard” for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure o...

  5. Numerical simulation of an axial blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Leok Poh; Su, Boyang; Lim, Tau Meng; Zhou, Tongming

    2007-07-01

    The axial blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller is superior to other artificial blood pumps because of its small size. In this article, the distributions of velocity, path line, pressure, and shear stress in the straightener, the rotor, and the diffuser of the axial blood pump, as well as the gap zone were obtained using the commercial software, Fluent (version 6.2). The main focus was on the flow field of the blood pump. The numerical results showed that the axial blood pump could produce 5.14 L/min of blood at 100 mm Hg through the outlet when rotating at 11,000 rpm. However, there was a leakage flow of 1.06 L/min in the gap between the rotor cylinder and the pump housing, and thus the overall flow rate the impeller could generate was 6.2 L/min. The numerical results showed that 75% of the scalar shear stresses (SSs) were less than 250 Pa, and 10% were higher than 500 Pa within the whole pump. The high SS region appeared around the blade tip where a large variation of velocity direction and magnitude was found, which might be due to the steep angle variation at the blade tip. Because the exposure time of the blood cell at the high SS region within the pump was relatively short, it might not cause serious damage to the blood cells, but the improvement of blade profile should be considered in the future design of the axial pump. PMID:17584481

  6. Axially evoked postural reflexes: influence of task

    OpenAIRE

    Govender, Sendhil; Dennis, Danielle L.; Colebatch, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Postural reflexes were recorded in healthy subjects (n = 17) using brief axial accelerations and tap stimuli applied at the vertebra prominens (C7) and manubrium sterni. Short latency (SL) responses were recorded from the soleus, hamstrings and tibialis anterior muscles and expressed as a percentage of the background EMG prior to stimulus onset. In the majority of postural conditions tested, subjects were recorded standing erect and leaning forward with their feet together. The SL response wa...

  7. Consistent formulation of the spacelike axial gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnel, A.; Van der Rest-Jaspers, M.

    1983-12-15

    The usual formulation of the spacelike axial gauge is afflicted with the difficulty that the metric is indefinite while no ghost is involved. We solve this difficulty by introducing a ghost whose elimination is such that the metric becomes positive for physical states. The technique consists in the replacement of the gauge condition nxA = 0 by the weaker one partial/sub 0/nxAroughly-equal0.

  8. Dynamical symmetries of the Kepler problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This work originates from a first year undergraduate research project on hidden symmetries of the dynamics for classical Hamiltonian systems, under the program 'Jovens talentos para a Ciencia' of Brazilian funding agency Capes. For pedagogical reasons the main subject chosen was Kepler's problem of motion under a central potential, since it is a completely solved system. It is well known that for this problem the group of dynamical symmetries is strictly larger than the isometry group O(3), the extra symmetries corresponding to hidden symmetries of the dynamics. By taking the point of view of examining the group action of the dynamical symmetries on the allowed trajectories, it is possible to teach in the same project basic elements of as many important subjects in physics as: Hamiltonian formalism, hidden symmetries, integrable systems, group theory, and the use of manifolds.

  9. Dynamical symmetries of the Kepler problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper comes from a first-year undergraduate research project on hidden symmetries of the dynamics for classical Hamiltonian systems. For pedagogical reasons the main subject chosen was Kepler’s problem of motion under a central potential, since it is a completely solved system. It is well known that for this problem the group of dynamical symmetries is strictly larger than the isometry group O(3), the extra symmetries corresponding to hidden symmetries of the dynamics. By taking the point of view of examining the group action of the dynamical symmetries on the allowed trajectories, it is possible to teach the basic elements of many important physics subjects in the same project, including the Hamiltonian formalism, hidden symmetries, integrable systems, group theory and the use of manifolds. (paper)

  10. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Alon E.

    1997-02-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  11. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non--Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  12. Symmetry energy of dilute warm nuclear matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natowitz, J B; Röpke, G; Typel, S; Blaschke, D; Bonasera, A; Hagel, K; Klähn, T; Kowalski, S; Qin, L; Shlomo, S; Wada, R; Wolter, H H

    2010-05-21

    The symmetry energy of nuclear matter is a fundamental ingredient in the investigation of exotic nuclei, heavy-ion collisions, and astrophysical phenomena. New data from heavy-ion collisions can be used to extract the free symmetry energy and the internal symmetry energy at subsaturation densities and temperatures below 10 MeV. Conventional theoretical calculations of the symmetry energy based on mean-field approaches fail to give the correct low-temperature, low-density limit that is governed by correlations, in particular, by the appearance of bound states. A recently developed quantum-statistical approach that takes the formation of clusters into account predicts symmetry energies that are in very good agreement with the experimental data. A consistent description of the symmetry energy is given that joins the correct low-density limit with quasiparticle approaches valid near the saturation density.

  13. On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such "indirect" models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the $\\Delta(3n^2)$ and $\\Delta(6n^2)$ groups, together with other examples such as $Z_7\\rtimes Z_3$. In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.

  14. Dynamics-dependent symmetries in Newtonian mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We exhibit two symmetries of one-dimensional Newtonian mechanics whereby a solution is built from the history of another solution via a generally nonlinear and complex potential-dependent transformation of the time. One symmetry intertwines the square roots of the kinetic and potential energies and connects solutions of the same dynamical problem (the potential is an invariant function). The other symmetry connects solutions of different dynamical problems (the potential is a scalar function). The existence of corresponding conserved quantities is examined using Noethers theorem and it is shown that the invariant-potential symmetry is correlated with energy conservation. In the Hamilton-Jacobi picture the invariant-potential transformation provides an example of a field-dependent symmetry in point mechanics. It is shown that this transformation is not a symmetry of the Schroedinger equation.

  15. Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfer, Gita; Perry, Lisa; Deodhar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton that includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Patients with AS experience chronic pain due to sacroiliac joint and spinal inflammation, and may develop spinal ankylosing with syndesmophyte formation. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) have shown promise in the management of AS and axSpA by targeting the underlying inflammatory process, and providing symptomatic relief. Whether they alter the progression of the disease is uncertain. Golimumab is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets and downregulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The use of golimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of axSpA as well as improve patient function and quality reported outcomes. This review focuses on the biological rationale and the results of clinical trials with golimumab for the treatment of axSpA.

  16. Turbulence Effects of Axial Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C.; Chamorro, L. P.; Neary, V. S.; Morton, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2011-12-01

    Axial flow hydrokinetic turbines provide a method for extracting the kinetic energy available in unidirectional (river), bidirectional (tidal) and marine currents; however, a deep understanding of the wake dynamics, momentum recovery, geomorphologic effects, and ecological interaction with these hydrokinetic turbines is required to guarantee their economical and environmental viability. The St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) at the University of Minnesota (UMN) has performed physical modeling experiments using a 1:10 scale axial flow tidal turbine in the SAFL Main Channel, a 2.75m x 1.8m x 80m open channel test facility. A sophisticated control system allows synchronous measurements of turbine torque and rotational speed along with high resolution 3-D velocity measurements within the channel. Using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), high resolution 3-D velocity profile data were collected up to 15 turbine diameters downstream of the turbine location. These data provide valuable information on the wake characteristics (turbulence, Reynolds stresses, etc.) resulting from a rotating axial flow hydrokinetic machine. Regions of high turbulence and shear zones that persist in the near wake regions are delineated along with the velocity deficit and momentum recovery within the wake downstream of the device. Synchronous ADV data shed light on the rotational and meandering characteristics of the wake and its potential impacts on the local geomorphology and hydrodynamic environment. This dataset on single hydrokinetic turbine flow characteristics is the basis for further work on the optimal arrangement and performance environment for arrays of similar hydrokinetic devices.

  17. DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF VISCOELASTIC AXIALLY MOVING BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映辉; 高庆; 蹇开林; 殷学纲

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive law and the motion equation of the axially moving belt, the nonlinear dynamic model of the viscoelastic axial moving belt was established. And then it was reduced to be a linear differential system which the analytical solutions with a constant transport velocity and with a harmonically varying transport velocity were obtained by applying Lie group transformations. According to the nonlinear dynamic model, the effects of material parameters and the steady-state velocity and the perturbed axial velocity of the belt on the dynamic responses of the belts were investigated by the research of digital simulation. The result shows: 1 ) The nonlinear vibration frequency of the belt will become small when the relocity of the belt increases. 2 ) Increasing the value of viscosity or decreasing the value of elasticity leads to a deceasing in vibration frequencies. 3 ) The most effects of the transverse amplitudes come from the frequency of the perturbed velocity when the belt moves with harmonic velocity.

  18. Master Symmetry for Holographic Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Thomas; Munkler, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    We identify the symmetry underlying the recently observed spectral-parameter transformations of holographic Wilson loops alias minimal surfaces in AdS/CFT. The generator of this nonlocal symmetry is shown to furnish a raising operator on the classical Yangian-type charges of symmetric coset models. We explicitly demonstrate how this master symmetry acts on strong-coupling Wilson loops and indicate a possible extension to arbitrary coupling.

  19. Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Mark V

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.

  20. Anomalous Mirror Symmetry Generated by Optical Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokichi Sugihara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of mirror symmetry, called “anomalous mirror symmetry”, which is physically impossible but can be perceived by human vision systems because of optical illusion. This symmetry is characterized geometrically and a method for creating cylindrical surfaces that create this symmetry is constructed. Examples of solid objects constructed by a 3D printer are also shown.

  1. Irregular matrix model with $\\mathcal W$ symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sang Kwan

    2015-01-01

    We present the irregular matrix model which has contains $\\mathcal{W}_3$ and Virasoro symmetry. The irregular matrix model is obtained using the colliding limit of the Toda field theories and produces the inner product between irregular modules of $\\mathcal{W}_3$ symmetry. We evaluate the partition function using the flow equation which is the realization of the Virasoro and $\\mathcal{W}$-symmetry.

  2. The near-symmetry of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjack-Shterengartz, Maayan; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    The majority of protein oligomers form clusters which are nearly symmetric. Understanding of that imperfection, its origins, and perhaps also its advantages requires the conversion of the currently used vague qualitative descriptive language of the near-symmetry into an accurate quantitative measure that will allow to answer questions such as: "What is the degree of symmetry deviation of the protein?," "how do these deviations compare within a family of proteins?," and so on. We developed quantitative methods to answer this type of questions, which are capable of analyzing the whole protein, its backbone or selected portions of it, down to comparison of symmetry-related specific amino-acids, and which are capable of visualizing the various levels of symmetry deviations in the form of symmetry maps. We have applied these methods on an extensive list of homomers and heteromers and found that apparently all proteins never reach perfect symmetry. Strikingly, even homomeric protein clusters are never ideally symmetric. We also found that the main burden of symmetry distortion is on the amino-acids near the symmetry axis; that it is mainly the more hydrophilic amino-acids that take place in symmetry-distortive interactions; and more. The remarkable ability of heteromers to preserve near-symmetry, despite the different sequences, was also shown and analyzed. The comprehensive literature on the suggested advantages symmetric oligomerizations raises a yet-unsolved key question: If symmetry is so advantageous, why do proteins stop shy of perfect symmetry? Some tentative answers to be tested in further studies are suggested in a concluding outlook.

  3. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and t...

  4. Galileo symmetries in polymer particle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To illustrate the conceptual problems for the low-energy symmetries in the continuum of spacetime emerging from the discrete quantum geometry, Galileo symmetries are investigated in the polymer particle representation of a non-relativistic particle as a simple toy model. The complete Galileo transformations (translation, rotation and Galileo boost) are naturally defined in the polymer particle Hilbert space and Galileo symmetries are recovered with highly suppressed deviations in the low-energy regime from the underlying polymer particle description

  5. Search for primordial symmetry breakings in CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2016-06-01

    There are possibilities to violate symmetries (e.g. parity and rotational invariance) in the primordial cosmological fluctuations. Such symmetry breakings can imprint very rich signatures in late-time phenomena, which may be possible to observe. Especially, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) will change its face drastically, corresponding to the symmetry-breaking types, since the harmonic-space representation is very sensitive to the statistical, spin and angular dependences of cosmological perturbations. Here, we discuss (1) general responses of CMB to the symmetry breakings, (2) some theoretical models creating interesting CMB signatures, and (3) aspects of the estimation from observational data.

  6. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gowan, J A

    1999-01-01

    The addition of symmetry conservation to the principles of the first and second laws of thermodynamics is seen as a key step in the formulation of a conceptually complete unified field theory. The charges of matter are viewed as the symmetry debts of light, the forces they generate as demands for payment. Hence charge conservation = symmetry conservation. The nature of these symmetry debts is identified for each force and the unity of forces traced to their common origin in a primordial symmetric state of light and spacetime.

  7. Chaotic Inflation in Supergravity with Heisenberg Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; King, Steve F; Kostka, Philipp M

    2009-01-01

    We propose the introduction of a Heisenberg symmetry of the Kahler potential to solve the problems with chaotic inflation in supergravity, as a viable alternative to the use of shift symmetry. The slope of the inflaton potential emerges from a small Heisenberg symmetry breaking term in the superpotential. The modulus field of the Heisenberg symmetry is stabilized and made heavy with the help of the large vacuum energy density during inflation. The observable predictions are indistinguishable from those of typical chaotic inflation models, however the form of the inflationary superpotential considered here may be interpreted in terms of sneutrino inflation arising from certain classes of string theory.

  8. The Role of Symmetry in Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yanofsky, Noson S

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the notion of symmetry has played a major role in physics and in the philosophy of physics. Philosophers have used symmetry to discuss the ontology and seeming objectivity of the laws of physics. We introduce several notions of symmetry in mathematics and explain how they can also be used in resolving different problems in the philosophy of mathematics. We use symmetry to discuss the objectivity of mathematics, the role of mathematical objects, the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics and the relationship of mathematics to physics.

  9. Fake conformal symmetry in unimodular gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry vanish exactly as in conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences in Einstein's general relativity, conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity, and the Weyl-transverse gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.

  10. A K3 sigma model with : symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Taormina, Anne; Volpato, Roberto; Wendland, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    The K3 sigma model based on the -orbifold of the D 4-torus theory is studied. It is shown that it has an equivalent description in terms of twelve free Majorana fermions, or as a rational conformal field theory based on the affine algebra . By combining these different viewpoints we show that the = (4 , 4) preserving symmetries of this theory are described by the discrete symmetry group : . This model therefore accounts for one of the largest maximal symmetry groups of K3 sigma models. The symmetry group involves also generators that, from the orbifold point of view, map untwisted and twisted sector states into one another.

  11. Partial Dynamical Symmetry and Mixed Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    1996-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetry describes a situation in which some eigenstates have a symmetry which the quantum Hamiltonian does not share. This property is shown to have a classical analogue in which some tori in phase space are associated with a symmetry which the classical Hamiltonian does not share. A local analysis in the vicinity of these special tori reveals a neighbourhood of phase space foliated by tori. This clarifies the suppression of classical chaos associated with partial dynamical symmetry. The results are used to divide the states of a mixed system into ``chaotic'' and ``regular'' classes.

  12. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  13. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

  14. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alfonse T

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated

  15. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Logo Bregenz, the peaceful monastery of Mehrerau and the Opera on the Floating Stage again provided the setting for the international symposium 'Symmetries in Science'. The series which has been running for more than 30 years brings together leading theoreticians whose area of research is, in one way or another, related to symmetry. Since 1992 the meeting took place biannually in Brengez until 2003. In 2009, with the endorsement of the founder, Professor Bruno Gruber, we succeeded in re-establishing the series without external funding. The resounding success of that meeting encouraged us to continue in 2011 and, following on the enthusiasm and positive feedback of the participants, we expect to continue in 2013. Yet again, our meeting in 2011 was very international in flavour and brought together some 30 participants representing 12 nationalities, half of them from countries outside the European Union (from New Zealand to Mexico, Russia to Israel). The broad spectrum, a mixture of experienced experts and highly-motivated newcomers, the intensive exchange of ideas in a harmonious and relaxed atmosphere and the resulting joint projects are probably the secrets of why this meeting is considered to be so special to its participants. At the resumption in 2009 some leading experts and younger scientists from economically weak countries were unable to attend due to the lack of financial resources. This time, with the very worthy and unbureaucratic support of the 'Vereinigung von Freunden und Förderern der J W Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main' (in short: 'Friends and Supporters of the Frankfurt University'), it was possible for all candidates to participate. In particular some young, inspired scientists had the chance of presenting their work to a very competent, but also friendly, audience. We wish to thank the 'Freunde und Förderer' for supporting Symmetries in Science XV. Almost all participants contributed to the publication of this Conference Proceedings. There

  16. Chiral symmetry and pi-pi scattering in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Biernat, Elmar P; Ribeiro, J E; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The pi-pi scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similarly to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, application of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity to the CST pi-pi scattering amplitude allows us to sum the intermediate quark-quark interactions to all orders. The Adler self-consistency zero for pi-pi scattering in the chiral limit emerges as the result for this sum.

  17. Chiral symmetry and π -π scattering in the covariant spectator theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-11-01

    The π -π scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the covariant spectator theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similar to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, application of the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity to the CST π -π scattering amplitude allows us to sum the intermediate quark-quark interactions to all orders. The Adler self-consistency zero for π -π scattering in the chiral limit emerges as the result for this sum.

  18. Beyond bilateral symmetry: geometric morphometric methods for any type of symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Klingenberg Christian; Savriama Yoland

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of symmetric structures have made important contributions to evolutionary biology, for example, by using fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability or for investigating the mechanisms of morphological integration. Most analyses of symmetry and asymmetry have focused on organisms or parts with bilateral symmetry. This is not the only type of symmetry in biological shapes, however, because a multitude of other types of symmetry exists in plants a...

  19. Flavour symmetry as a Spontaneously Broken Discrete Permutation Symmetry Embedded in Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1999-01-01

    A new mechanism for breaking an internal symmetry spontaneously is discussed, which is intermediate between the Nambu-Goldstone and Wigner modes of symmetry breaking. Here the quark-antiquark sea takes the role of the vacuum of the Nambu-Goldstone case. Flavour symmetry becomes a discrete permutation symmetry of the valence quarks with respect to the sea quarks, which can be spontaneously broken without generation of massless Goldstone bosons.

  20. Designing for Geometrical Symmetry Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Yamba Yamba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry-exploiting software based on the generalized Fourier transform (GFT is presented from a practical design point of view. The algorithms and data structures map closely to the relevant mathematical abstractions, which primarily are based upon representation theory for groups. Particular care has been taken in the design of the data layout of the performance-sensitive numerical data structures. The use of a vanilla strategy is advocated for the design of flexible mathematical software libraries: An efficient general-purpose routine should be supplied, to obtain a practical and useful system, while the possibility to extend the library and replace the default routine with a special-purpose – even more optimized – routine should be supported. Compared with a direct approach, the performance results show the superiority of the GFT-based approach for so-called dense equivariant systems. The GFT application is found to be well suited for parallelism.

  1. Symmetry violations and rare decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This constitutes the report of the working group on symmetry violations and rare decays. The next generation of CP violating kaon decay experiments (the 2π and π0e+e- modes) were considered at the Tevatron and at the proposed Main Injector, effectively building upon the work of the earlier Fermilab Workshop on Physics at the Main Injector. The optimizations for the electromagnetic calorimeter and for background rejection are treated in some detail. Very precise CPT tests in the 2π decay modes are also treated. A sensitive experiment looking for flavor violation at the Main Injector (KL → μe) is discussed. The significant advantages of possible stretcher and prebooster rings are mentioned. 27 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Wormhole dynamics in spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamical theory of traversable wormholes is detailed in spherical symmetry. Generically a wormhole consists of a tunnel of trapped surfaces between two mouths, defined as temporal outer trapping horizons with opposite senses, in mutual causal contact. In static cases, the mouths coincide as the throat of a Morris-Thorne wormhole, with surface gravity providing an invariant measure of the radial curvature or ''flaring-out''. The null energy condition must be violated at a wormhole mouth. Zeroth, first, and second laws are derived for the mouths, as for black holes. Dynamic processes involving wormholes are reviewed, including enlargement or reduction, and interconversion with black holes. A new area of wormhole thermodynamics is suggested.

  3. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  4. Antimatter and Time-Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pitts, T

    1998-01-01

    This theory makes time symmetric by Weyl's definition; it hypothesizes that space, time and mass-energy expand outward from the Big Bang along the time axis equally in the (+-) and (-) directions. In the Feynman-Stueckelberg Interpretation, antimatter is identical to matter but moves backward in time. This essay argues that this interpretation is physically real via an analysis of the time-symmetry of the Schrodinger equation. As time expands from zero, in both directions in time away from the origin, quantum uncertainty allows a brief, decreasing leakage of mass between (+-) and (-) universes. Matter leaking from (-) to (+-) time moves forward in time, producing a preponderance of matter in (+-) time. Antimatter leakage from (+-) time to (-) time in the same way produces an antimatter preponderance in the (-) time universe. The remaining opposite particles left behind after the leakage, (antimatter and matter respectively) proceeding outward in antitime and time respectively, after many annihilations also in...

  5. Wormhole dynamics in spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean A

    2009-01-01

    A dynamical theory of traversable wormholes is detailed in spherical symmetry. Generically a wormhole consists of a tunnel of trapped surfaces between two mouths, defined as temporal outer trapping horizons with opposite senses, in mutual causal contact. In static cases, the mouths coincide as the throat of a Morris-Thorne wormhole, with surface gravity providing an invariant measure of the radial curvature or "flaring-out". The null energy condition must be violated at a wormhole mouth. Zeroth, first and second laws are derived for the mouths, as for black holes. Dynamic processes involving wormholes are reviewed, including enlargement or reduction, and interconversion with black holes. A new area of wormhole thermodynamics is suggested.

  6. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20-26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long-standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster

  7. Dileptons and Chiral Symmetry Restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Hohler, P M

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent work relating the medium effects observed in dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions to potential signals of chiral symmetry restoration. The key connection remains the approach to spectral function degeneracy between the vector-isovector channel with its chiral partner, the axialvector-isovector channel. Several approaches are discussed to elaborate this connection, namely QCD and Weinberg sum rules with input for chiral order parameters from lattice QCD, and chiral hadronic theory to directly evaluate the medium effects of the axialvector channel and the pertinent pion decay constant as function of temperature. A pattern emerges where the chiral mass splitting between rho and a_1 burns off and is accompanied by a strong broadening of the spectral distributions.

  8. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  9. Mirror left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel SU(3)c×SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1)B-L left-right symmetric model where the standard model fermion and Higgs fields are SU(2)L doublets or SU(2) singlets while their mirror partners are SU(2)R doublets or SU(2) singlets. The scalar fields also include a real singlet for dark matter and two SU(2) triplets for seesaw. The mixing between the standard model and mirror fermions is forbidden by a Z2×Z2′ discrete symmetry. The mirror charged fermions can decay into their standard model partners with the dark-matter scalar while the mirror neutrinos can decay into the mirror charged fermions through the right-handed gauge interactions. Our model can have new implications on the strong CP problem, leptogenesis, collider phenomenology and dark matter detection.

  10. Inflation, symmetry, and B-modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Hertzberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of using symmetry and effective field theory in inflationary model building. We describe the standard formulation of starting with an approximate shift symmetry for a scalar field, and then introducing corrections systematically in order to maintain control over the inflationary potential. We find that this leads to models in good agreement with recent data. On the other hand, there are attempts in the literature to deviate from this paradigm by envoking other symmetries and corrections. In particular: in a suite of recent papers, several authors have made the claim that standard Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant and a massless scalar carries conformal symmetry. They claim this conformal symmetry is hidden when the action is written in the Einstein frame, and so has not been fully appreciated in the literature. They further claim that such a theory carries another hidden symmetry; a global SO(1,1 symmetry. By deforming around the global SO(1,1 symmetry, they are able to produce a range of inflationary models with asymptotically flat potentials, whose flatness is claimed to be protected by these symmetries. These models tend to give rise to B-modes with small amplitude. Here we explain that standard Einstein gravity does not in fact possess conformal symmetry. Instead these authors are merely introducing a redundancy into the description, not an actual conformal symmetry. Furthermore, we explain that the only real (global symmetry in these models is not at all hidden, but is completely manifest when expressed in the Einstein frame; it is in fact the shift symmetry of a scalar field. When analyzed systematically as an effective field theory, deformations do not generally produce asymptotically flat potentials and small B-modes as suggested in these recent papers. Instead, deforming around the shift symmetry systematically, tends to produce models of inflation with B-modes of appreciable amplitude. Such simple models

  11. Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs

  12. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} = {radical}m{sub u}/m{sub c} and V{sub td}/V{sub ts} = {radical}m{sub d}/m{sub s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay {beta} {yields} s{gamma} constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan{Beta}, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  13. Nonlocalization of Nonlocal Symmetry and Symmetry Reductions of the Burgers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳; 贾曼; 楼森岳

    2012-01-01

    Symmetry reduction method is one of the best ways to find exact solutions. In this paper, we study the possibility of symmetry reductions of the well known Burgers equation including the nonlocal symmetry. The related new group Jnvariant solutions are obtained. Especially, the interactions among solitons, Airy waves, and Kummer waves are explicitly given.

  14. Fermion condensates and Lorentz symmetry breaking in strongly-coupled large N gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tomboulis, E T

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB) has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Spontaneous LSB, in particular, offers the attractive prospect of the graviton as a Nambu-Golstone boson. Here we consider the question of spontaneous LSB in lattice gauge theories via formation of fermion condensates in the strong coupling and large N limits. We employ naive massless fermions in a fermionic hopping expansion in the presence of sources coupled to various condensate operators of interest. The expansion is resumed in the large N limit in two equivalent ways: (i) direct resummation of all leading N graphs; and (ii) construction of the corresponding large N effective action for composite operators. When sources are turned off a variety of fermionic condensates is found to persist. These include the chiral symmetry breaking condensates, thus recovering previous results; but also some LSB condensates, in particular, axial vector and rank-2 tensor condensates. Furthermore, in the presence of inte...

  15. Chiral Symmetry Breaking on the Lattice a Study of the Strongly Coupled Lattice Schwinger Model

    CERN Document Server

    Berruto, F; Semenoff, Gordon W; Sodano, P

    1998-01-01

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the Schwinger model on the lattice using staggered fermions and the hamiltonian approach to lattice gauge theories. Although staggered fermions have no continuous chiral symmetry, they posses a discrete axial invari ance which forbids fermion mass and which must be broken in order for the lattice Schwinger model to exhibit the features of the spectrum of the continuum theory. We show that this discrete symmetry is indeed broken spontaneously in the strong coupling li mit. Expanding around a gauge invariant ground state and carefully considering the normal ordering of the charge operator, we derive an improved strong coupling expansion and compute the masses of the low lying bosonic excitations as well as the chiral co ndensate of the model. We find very good agreement between our lattice calculations and known continuum values for these quantities already in the fourth order of strong coupling perturbation theory. We also find the exact ground state of the antiferromag ...

  16. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  17. Tetrahedral symmetry in nuclei: new predictions based on the collective model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the standard collective nuclear Hamiltonian derived in the literature with the help of the Adiabatic Time Dependent Hartree-Fock (ATDHF) theory. We use a schematic two-dimensional collective space spanned by the axial-quadrupole (α20) vs. tetrahedral (α32) deformations together with the potential energy surfaces calculated microscopically. We illustrate and discuss the collective-model solutions suggesting that the tetrahedral-symmetry nuclei may generate sizeable quadrupole transitions: this result is in contrast to the previous expectations and/or predictions. (author)

  18. Chiral symmetry and pi-pi scattering in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The pi-pi scattering amplitude calculated with a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST) is shown to satisfy the Adler zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. The CST formalism is established in Minkowski space and our calculations are performed in momentum space. We prove that the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is satisfied by our model. Then we show that, similar to what happens within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism, applica...

  19. CFD Simulation of Casing Treatment of Axial Flow Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the improvement in stall margin of an axial flow rotor due to the circumferential casing grooves. It is shown that the computational tool used predicts an increase in operating range of the rotor when casing grooves are present. A budget of the axial momentum equation is carried out at the rotor casing in the tip gap in order to uncover the physical process behind this stall margin improvement. It is shown that for the smooth casing the net axial pressure force . However in the presence of casing grooves the net axial shear stress force acting at the casing is augmented by the axial force due to the radial transport of axial momentum, which occurs across the grooves and power stream interface. This additional force adds to the net axial viscous sheer force and thus leads to an increase in the stall margin of the rotor.

  20. Nuclear symmetry energy: An experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V Shetty; S J Yennello

    2010-08-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy is a fundamental quantity important for studying the structure of systems as diverse as the atomic nucleus and the neutron star. Considerable efforts are being made to experimentally extract the symmetry energy and its dependence on nuclear density and temperature. In this article, the experimental studies carried out up-to-date and their current status are reviewed.

  1. Four Top Production and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman

    1995-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a heavy top quark $(m_t \\approx 175 - 200$ GeV), the top quark opens an window to electroweak symmetry breaking. We propose the study of four-top, $t\\bar t t\\bar t$, production at hadronic supercolliders as a probe to electroweak symmetry breaking.

  2. Teaching "Symmetry" in the Introductory Physics Curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Christopher T; Hill, Christopher T.; Lederman, Leon M.

    2000-01-01

    Modern physics is largely defined by fundamental symmetry principles and Noether's Theorem. Yet these are not taught, or rarely mentioned, to beginning students, thus missing an opportunity to reveal that the subject of physics is as lively and contemporary as molecular biology, and as beautiful as the arts. We prescribe a symmetry module to insert into the curriculum, of a week's length.

  3. Discrete symmetries and their stringy origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrete symmetries have proven to be very useful in controlling the phenomenology of theories beyond the standard model. In this work we explore how these symmetries emerge from string compactifications. Our approach is twofold: On the one hand, we consider the heterotic string on orbifold backgrounds. In this case the discrete symmetries can be derived from the orbifold conformal field theory, and it can be shown that they are in close relation with the orbifold geometry. We devote special attention to R-symmetries, which arise from discrete remnants of the Lorentz group in compact space. Further we discuss the physical implications of these symmetries both in the heterotic mini-landscape and in newly constructed models based on the Z2 x Z4 orbifold. In both cases we observe that the discrete symmetries favor particular locations in the orbifold where the particles of standard model should live. On the other hand we consider a class of F-theory models exhibiting an SU(5) gauge group, times additional U(1) symmetries. In this case, the smooth compactification background does not permit us to track the discrete symmetries as transparently as in orbifold models. Hence, we follow a different approach and search for discrete subgroups emerging after the U(1)s are broken. We observe that in this approach it is possible to obtain the standard Z2 matter parity of the MSSM.

  4. Symmetry properties of fractional diffusion equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, R K; Kasatkin, A A; Lukashchuk, S Yu [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Karl Marx strausse 12, Ufa (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gazizov@mail.rb.ru, E-mail: alexei_kasatkin@mail.ru, E-mail: lsu@mail.rb.ru

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, nonlinear anomalous diffusion equations with time fractional derivatives (Riemann-Liouville and Caputo) of the order of 0-2 are considered. Lie point symmetries of these equations are investigated and compared. Examples of using the obtained symmetries for constructing exact solutions of the equations under consideration are presented.

  5. Nuclear symmetry energy: An experimental overview

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, D. V.; Yennello, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy is a fundamental quantity important for studying the structure of systems as diverse as the atomic nucleus and the neutron star. Considerable efforts are being made to experimentally extract the symmetry energy and its dependence on nuclear density and temperature. In this article, we review experimental studies carried out up-to-date and their current status.

  6. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The first LHC run has confirmed the Standard Model as the correct theory at the electroweak scale, and the existence of a Higgs-like particle associated with the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. These lectures overview the present knowledge on the Higgs boson and discuss alternative scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking which are already being constrained by the experimental data.

  7. Symmetry and resonance in periodic FPU chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, B.

    2001-01-01

    The symmetry and resonance properties of the Fermi Pasta Ulam chain with periodic boundary conditions are exploited to construct a nearidentity transformation bring ing this Hamiltonian system into a particularly simple form This BirkhoGustavson normal form retains the symmetries of the original sy

  8. Partial dynamical symmetry in a fermion system

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, J; Escher, Jutta; Leviatan, Amiram

    2000-01-01

    The relevance of the partial dynamical symmetry concept for an interactingfermion system is demonstrated. Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry arepresented in the framework of the symplectic shell-model of nuclei and shown tobe closely related to the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Implications arediscussed for the deformed light nucleus $^{20}$Ne.

  9. SURFACE SYMMETRY RESOLUTION OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL TECHNIQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANS, B; VANDERWOUDE, F; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    A general rule is derived, relating the order of a nonlinear optical process to the highest possible symmetry which can be resolved in a rotational analysis. We show that with an Nth order optical technique, rotational anisotropy can be observed only up to (N + L)-fold rotational symmetry, where L i

  10. Hidden flavor symmetries of SO(10) GUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajc, Borut; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2016-08-01

    The Yukawa interactions of the SO(10) GUT with fermions in 16-plets (as well as with singlets) have certain intrinsic ("built-in") symmetries which do not depend on the model parameters. Thus, the symmetric Yukawa interactions of the 10 and 126 dimensional Higgses have intrinsic discrete Z2 ×Z2 symmetries, while the antisymmetric Yukawa interactions of the 120 dimensional Higgs have a continuous SU(2) symmetry. The couplings of SO(10) singlet fermions with fermionic 16-plets have U(1) 3 symmetry. We consider a possibility that some elements of these intrinsic symmetries are the residual symmetries, which originate from the (spontaneous) breaking of a larger symmetry group Gf. Such an embedding leads to the determination of certain elements of the relative mixing matrix U between the matrices of Yukawa couplings Y10, Y126, Y120, and consequently, to restrictions of masses and mixings of quarks and leptons. We explore the consequences of such embedding using the symmetry group conditions. We show how unitarity emerges from group properties and obtain the conditions it imposes on the parameters of embedding. We find that in some cases the predicted values of elements of U are compatible with the existing data fits. In the supersymmetric version of SO(10) such results are renormalization group invariant.

  11. Hidden flavor symmetries of SO(10) GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Bajc, Borut

    2016-01-01

    The Yukawa interactions of the SO(10) GUT with fermions in 16-plets (as well as with singlets) have certain intrinsic ("built-in") symmetries which do not depend on the model parameters. Thus, the symmetric Yukawa interactions of the 10 and 126 dimensional Higgses have intrinsic discrete $Z_2\\times Z_2$ symmetries, while the antisymmetric Yukawa interactions of the 120 dimensional Higgs have a continuous SU(2) symmetry. The couplings of SO(10) singlet fermions with fermionic 16-plets have $U(1)^3$ symmetry. We consider a possibility that some elements of these intrinsic symmetries are the residual symmetries, which originate from the (spontaneous) breaking of a larger symmetry group $G_f$. Such an embedding leads to the determination of certain elements of the relative mixing matrix $U$ between the matrices of Yukawa couplings $Y_{10}$, $Y_{126}$, $Y_{120}$, and consequently, to restrictions of masses and mixings of quarks and leptons. We explore the consequences of such embedding using the symmetry group con...

  12. Symmetry is less than meets the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Bell, Jason

    2015-03-30

    Symmetry is a ubiquitous feature in the visual environment and can be detected by a variety of species, ranging from insects through to humans [1,2]. Here we show it can also bias estimates of basic scene properties. Mirror (reflective) symmetry can be detected in as little as 50 ms, in both natural and artificial visual scenes, and even when embedded within cluttered backgrounds [1]. In terms of its biological relevance, symmetry is a key determinant in mate selection; the degree of symmetry in a face is positively associated with perceived healthiness and attractiveness ratings [3]. In short, symmetry processing mechanisms are an important part of the neural machinery of vision. We reveal that the importance of symmetry extends beyond the processing of shape and objects. Mirror symmetry biases our perception of scene content, with symmetrical patterns appearing to have fewer components than their asymmetric counterparts. This demonstrates an interaction between two fundamental dimensions of visual analysis: symmetry [1] and number [4]. We propose that this numerical underestimation results from a processing bias away from the redundant information within mirror symmetrical displays, extending existing theories regarding redundancy in visual analysis [5,6]. PMID:25829006

  13. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for Helium-4.

  14. Symmetry in critical random Boolean network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Shabnam; Reichl, Matthew D; Bassler, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    Using Boolean networks as prototypical examples, the role of symmetry in the dynamics of heterogeneous complex systems is explored. We show that symmetry of the dynamics, especially in critical states, is a controlling feature that can be used both to greatly simplify analysis and to characterize different types of dynamics. Symmetry in Boolean networks is found by determining the frequency at which the various Boolean output functions occur. There are classes of functions that consist of Boolean functions that behave similarly. These classes are orbits of the controlling symmetry group. We find that the symmetry that controls the critical random Boolean networks is expressed through the frequency by which output functions are utilized by nodes that remain active on dynamical attractors. This symmetry preserves canalization, a form of network robustness. We compare it to a different symmetry known to control the dynamics of an evolutionary process that allows Boolean networks to organize into a critical state. Our results demonstrate the usefulness and power of using the symmetry of the behavior of the nodes to characterize complex network dynamics, and introduce an alternative approach to the analysis of heterogeneous complex systems.

  15. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractiv...

  16. Time-reversal symmetry in nonlinear optics

    OpenAIRE

    Trzeciecki, M.; Hübner, W.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of time-reversal symmetry to nonlinear optics is discussed, both from macroscopic (Maxwell equations) and microscopic (quantum theoretical) point of view. We find that only spatial operations can be applied for the symmetry classification of nonlinear optical processes in magnetic, in particular antiferromagnetic, materials. An example is given where both operations (time reversal and a spatial operation) can yield different results.

  17. Single Band Helical Antenna in Axial Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helical antennas have been widely used in a various useful applications, due to their low weight and low profile conformability, easy and cheap realization.Radiation properties of this antenna are examined both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate new helical antenna structure for Applications. CST MWS Software is used for the simulation and design calculations of the helical antennas. The axial ratio, return loss, VSWR, Directivity, gain, radiation pattern is evaluated. Using CST MWS simulation software proposed antenna is designed/simulated and optimized. The antenna exhibits a single band from 0 GHz to 3 GHz for GPS and several satellite applications

  18. Shaped charge with an axial channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malygin, A. V.; Proskuryakov, E. V.; Sorokin, M. V.; Fomin, V. M.

    2011-05-01

    A shaped charge with an axial channel is considered. The charge is initiated by an impact of an annular plate. As a result, the shaped charge is initiated at all points of the domain shaped as a ring. The impact plate material and parameters (velocity, thickness, width, and distance covered by the plate) that ensure stable penetration of the shaped charge are determined. The results obtained can be used to develop a composite (e.g., "tandem") shaped charge of the "base-head" type (the charge located farther from the target is first initiated, followed by initiation of the charge located closer to the target).

  19. Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ulaş Erdem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.

  20. Axial electron-channelling analysis of perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orientation dependence of characteristic X-ray emission (the Borrmann effect) under near-zone-axis diffraction conditions has been used to identify the site preferences of strontium, zirconium and uranium impurities within a CaTiO3 (perovskite) host structure. As characteristic emission lines from these impurities occur at both higher and lower energies than the calcium or titanium K-shell excitations, effects of delocalization are clearly measureable, and are used as a tool in axial electron channeling or ALCHEMI analysis. It is found that strontium and uranium strongly partition into calcium sites, whereas zirconium occupies titanium sites. (author)

  1. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-05-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4} -obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  2. Tests of Gravitational Symmetries with Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Symmetries play important roles in modern theories of physical laws. In this paper, we review several experimental tests of important symmetries associated with the gravitational interaction, including the universality of free fall for self-gravitating bodies, time-shift symmetry in the gravitational constant, local position invariance and local Lorentz invariance of gravity, and spacetime translational symmetries. Recent experimental explorations for post-Newtonian gravity are discussed, of which, those from pulsar astronomy are highlighted. All of these tests, of very different aspects of gravity theories, at very different length scales, favor to very high precision the predictions of the strong equivalence principle (SEP) and, in particular, general relativity which embodies SEP completely. As the founding principles of gravity, these symmetries are motivated to be promoted to even stricter tests in future.

  3. Symmetry distribution of cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors of this paper induced five principles of geographical symmetry based on the space distributions of cities and towns in China. There is a symmetry distribution of cities and towns. The symmetry characteristics are the following: (i) the average coordination number of the cities (including large cities, medium cities and county towns) is 6 ( i.g. rotation symmetry); (ii) the distribution of large and medium cities are shown to be the latticework in which two directions are parallel to two main tectonic ones in China, respectively; (iii) the distribution of county towns of a province is also shown to be the latticework in which two directions are parallel to two tectonic ones in this province (i. g. two-dimensional translation ) and (iv) the concentric circle distribution of cities (CCDC) is centered round a large city (i. g. rotation symmetry).

  4. Conformal Symmetries of Adiabatic Modes in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    We remark on the existence of non-linearly realized conformal symmetries for scalar adiabatic perturbations in cosmology. These conformal symmetries are present for any cosmological background, beyond any slow-roll or quasi-de Sitter approximation. The dilatation transformation shifts the curvature perturbation by a constant, and corresponds to the well-known symmetry under spatial rescaling. We argue that the scalar sector is also invariant under special conformal transformations, which shift the curvature perturbation by a term linear in the spatial coordinates. We discuss whether these conformal symmetries can be extended to include tensor perturbations. Tensor modes introduce their own set of non-linearly realized symmetries. We identify an infinite set of large gauge transformations which maintain the transverse, traceless gauge condition, while shifting the tensor mode non-trivially.

  5. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.L. Leach

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R. The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  6. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  7. Complex Networks and Symmetry I: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Basosi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we establish various connections between complex networks and symmetry. While special types of symmetries (e.g., automorphisms are studied in detail within discrete mathematics for particular classes of deterministic graphs, the analysis of more general symmetries in real complex networks is far less developed. We argue that real networks, as any entity characterized by imperfections or errors, necessarily require a stochastic notion of invariance. We therefore propose a definition of stochastic symmetry based on graph ensembles and use it to review the main results of network theory from an unusual perspective. The results discussed here and in a companion paper show that stochastic symmetry highlights the most informative topological properties of real networks, even in noisy situations unaccessible to exact techniques.

  8. Tests of gravitational symmetries with radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, LiJing; Wex, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Symmetries play important roles in modern theories of physical laws. In this paper, we review several experimental tests of important symmetries associated with the gravitational interaction, including the universality of free fall for self-gravitating bodies, time-shift symmetry in the gravitational constant, local position invariance and local Lorentz invariance of gravity, and spacetime translational symmetries. Recent experimental explorations for post-Newtonian gravity are discussed, of which, those from pulsar astronomy are highlighted. All of these tests, of very different aspects of gravity theories, at very different length scales, favor to very high precision the predictions of the strong equivalence principle (SEP) and, in particular, general relativity which embodies SEP completely. As the founding principles of gravity, these symmetries are motivated to be promoted to even stricter tests in future.

  9. The Perception of Symmetry in Depth: Effect of Symmetry Plane Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Farell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The visual system is sensitive to symmetries in the frontoparallel plane, and bilateral symmetry about a vertical axis has a particular salience. However, these symmetries represent only a subset of the symmetries realizable in three-dimensional space. The retinal image symmetries formed when viewing natural objects are typically the projections of three-dimensional objects—animals, for example—that have a symmetry in depth. To characterize human sensitivity to depth symmetry, experiments measured observers’ ability to discriminate stereo displays that were symmetrically distributed in depth and those that were asymmetrically distributed. Disparity values were distributed about one of four planes passing through the z-axis and differing in frontoparallel orientation. Asymmetrical patterns were generated by perturbing one of these disparities. Symmetrical-asymmetrical discrimination thresholds were lowest for symmetry about the vertical plane and highest for the horizontal plane. Thresholds for discriminating repetitions and non-repetitions of depth values did not differ across the four planes, whereas discriminations for depth gradients differed from both the symmetry and repetition cases. The heightened sensitivity to symmetry in depth about the vertical plane is a 3-D analog of 2-D mirror-image symmetry performance and could be its source.

  10. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  11. Atroposelective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Thiohydantoin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigul, Sevgi; Dogan, Ilknur

    2016-07-15

    Nonracemic axially chiral thiohydantoins were synthesized atroposelectively by the reaction of o-aryl isothiocyanates with amino acid ester salts in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The synthesis of the nonaxially chiral derivatives, however, gave thiohydantoins racemized at C-5 of the heterocyclic ring. The micropreparatively resolved enantiomers of the nonaxially chiral derivatives from the racemic products were found to be optically stable under neutral conditions. On formation of the 5-methyl-3-arylthiohydantoin ring, bulky o-aryl substituents at N3 were found to suppress the C-5 racemization and in this way enabled the transfer of chirality from the α-amino acid to the products. The corresponding 5-isopropylthiohydantoins turned out to be more prone to racemization at C-5 during the ring formation. The isomer compositions of the synthesized axially chiral thiohydantoins have been determined through HPLC analyses with chiral stationary phases. In most cases a high prevalence of the P isomers over the M isomers has been obtained. The barriers to rotation determined around the Nsp(2)-Caryl chiral axis were found to be dependent upon the size of the o-halo aryl substituents. PMID:27322739

  12. Single Rod Vibration in Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaum, Noah; Wang, Shengfu; Bardet, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Fluid structure interaction of a single rod in axial flow is a coupled dynamical system present in many application including nuclear reactors, steam generators, and towed antenna arrays. Fluid-structure response can be quantified thanks to detailed experimental data where both structure and fluid responses are recorded. Such datum deepen understanding of the physics inherent to the system and provide high-dimensionality quantitative measurements to validate coupled structural and CFD codes with various level of complexity. In this work, single rods fixed on both ends in a concentric pipe, are subjected to an axial flow with Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter of Re =4000. Rods of varying material stiffness and diameter are utilized in the experiment resulting in a range of dimensionless U between 0.5 and 1, where U = (ρA/EI)1/2uL. Experimental measurements of the velocity field around the rod are taken with PIV from time-resolved Nd:YLF laser and a high speed CMOS camera. Three-dimensional and temporal vibration and deflection of the rod is recorded with shadowgraphy utilizing two sets of pulsed high power LED and dedicated CMOS camera. Through integration of these two diagnostics, it is possible to reconstruct the full FSI domain providing unique validation data.

  13. The failure of axially loaded steel columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slender compression steel members fail by elastic bucking, and short compression members may be loaded until the steel yields. In the majority of usual situations, failure occurs by inelastic buckling after a portion of the cross section has yielded. Residual stresses are the primary cause of the nonlinear protion of the average stress strain curve of axially loaded compression members (huber and Beedle, 1954). A number of theories tackled the problem of inelastic bucking. The LRFD Code ended with adopting an empirical parabolic equation that is stitched to the Euler hyperbola at the column slenderness value of λ C =2 square root and is believed to provide a reasonable approximation for column strength curves. The analysis of steel sections used in this paper defines an explicit from of failure to define the failure load of axially loaded columns in the inelastic range. inelastic bucking is defined in terms of the elaSTIC bucking of transformed sections. Two examples are used to clarify the method of analysis that accounts for residual stresses. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs

  14. Exact analytic solutions for the rotation of an axially symmetric rigid body subjected to a constant torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marcello

    2008-08-01

    New exact analytic solutions are introduced for the rotational motion of a rigid body having two equal principal moments of inertia and subjected to an external torque which is constant in magnitude. In particular, the solutions are obtained for the following cases: (1) Torque parallel to the symmetry axis and arbitrary initial angular velocity; (2) Torque perpendicular to the symmetry axis and such that the torque is rotating at a constant rate about the symmetry axis, and arbitrary initial angular velocity; (3) Torque and initial angular velocity perpendicular to the symmetry axis, with the torque being fixed with the body. In addition to the solutions for these three forced cases, an original solution is introduced for the case of torque-free motion, which is simpler than the classical solution as regards its derivation and uses the rotation matrix in order to describe the body orientation. This paper builds upon the recently discovered exact solution for the motion of a rigid body with a spherical ellipsoid of inertia. In particular, by following Hestenes’ theory, the rotational motion of an axially symmetric rigid body is seen at any instant in time as the combination of the motion of a “virtual” spherical body with respect to the inertial frame and the motion of the axially symmetric body with respect to this “virtual” body. The kinematic solutions are presented in terms of the rotation matrix. The newly found exact analytic solutions are valid for any motion time length and rotation amplitude. The present paper adds further elements to the small set of special cases for which an exact solution of the rotational motion of a rigid body exists.

  15. New Symmetries for a Model of Fast Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Mao-Chang; XU Xue-Jun; MEI Feng-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The new symmetries for a mathematical model of fast diffusion are determined. A new system method is given to search for new symmetries of differential equations written in a conserved form, several new symmetry generators and exact solutions are presented.

  16. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Symmetries Logo This volume of the proceedings "Symmetries in Science XIV" is dedicated to the memory of our colleagues and dear friends Marcos Moshinsky and Yuriĭ Smirnov who regularly participated in these Symposia and were a great inspiration to many. We shall miss them. Dieter Schuch and Michael Ramek The international symposium "Symmetries in Science XIV" held at Collegium Mehrerau in Bregenz, Austria from July 19-24, 2009, attended by 32 scientists from 11 countries, was an experiment, performed by theoreticians. Aim of this experiment was to find out if the desire to revive or even continue this conference series was stronger than the very restricted pecuniary boundary conditions. It obviously was! After its establishment by Bruno Gruber in 1979, the biennial series settled in the very stimulating atmosphere of the monastery Mehrerau, which provided the ideal environment for a limited number of invited participants to exchange ideas, without parallel sessions, and pursue deeper discussions (at the latest in the evening at "Gasthof Lamm"). When the conference series terminated in 2003, former participants were quite disappointed. Meeting again at several (larger) conferences in subsequent years, there were repeated expressions of "the lack of a Bregenz-type meeting in our field nowadays" and the question of a possible "revitalization", even without external funding. After some hesitation, but also driven by our own desire to reinstate the series, we consulted Bruno who not only approved wholeheartedly but also offered his full support. It all finally led to the symposium in July 2009. The atmosphere was really like in the "good old days" and the interesting and thought-provoking presentations culminated in the publication of these Proceedings. We are grateful to Carl Bender for establishing contact with IOP making it possible for us to publish these Proceedings in the Journal of Physics Conference Series. A majority of the participants contributed to these

  17. Comparing Dualities and Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    De Haro, Sebastian; Butterfield, Jeremy N

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some aspects of the relation between dualities and gauge symmetries. Both of these ideas are of course multi-faceted, and we confine ourselves to making two points. Both points are about dualities in string theory, and both have the 'flavour' that two dual theories are 'closer in content' than you might think. For both points, we adopt a simple conception of a duality as an 'isomorphism' between theories: more precisely, as appropriate bijections between the two theories' sets of states and sets of quantities. The first point (Section 3) is that this conception of duality meshes with two dual theories being 'gauge related' in the general philosophical sense of being physically equivalent. For a string duality, such as T-duality and gauge/gravity duality, this means taking such features as the radius of a compact dimension, and the dimensionality of spacetime, to be 'gauge'. The second point (Sections 4, 5 and 6) is much more specific. We give a result about gauge/gravity duality that shows its rela...

  18. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  19. Symmetry properties of subdivision graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshkhah, Ashraf; Praeger, Cheryl E

    2010-01-01

    The subdivision graph $S(\\Sigma)$ of a graph $\\Sigma$ is obtained from $\\Sigma$ by `adding a vertex' in the middle of every edge of $\\Si$. Various symmetry properties of $\\S(\\Sigma)$ are studied. We prove that, for a connected graph $\\Sigma$, $S(\\Sigma)$ is locally $s$-arc transitive if and only if $\\Sigma$ is $\\lceil\\frac{s+1}{2}\\rceil$-arc transitive. The diameter of $S(\\Sigma)$ is $2d+\\delta$, where $\\Sigma$ has diameter $d$ and $0\\leqslant \\delta\\leqslant 2$, and local $s$-distance transitivity of $\\S(\\Sigma)$ is defined for $1\\leqslant s\\leqslant 2d+\\delta$. In the general case where $s\\leqslant 2d-1$ we prove that $S(\\Sigma)$ is locally $s$-distance transitive if and only if $\\Sigma$ is $\\lceil\\frac{s+1}{2}\\rceil$-arc transitive. For the remaining values of $s$, namely $2d\\leqslant s\\leqslant 2d+\\delta$, we classify the graphs $\\Sigma$ for which $S(\\Sigma)$ is locally $s$-distance transitive in the cases, $s\\leqslant 5$ and $s\\geqslant 15+\\delta$. The cases $\\max\\{2d, 6\\}\\leqslant s\\leqslant \\min\\{2d+\\d...

  20. Rotating Drops with Helicoidal Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    See http://youtu.be/Mf4IE8gWcJs for a YouTube video showing part of the results in this paper. We consider helicoidal immersions in the Euclidean space whose axis of symmetry is the z-axis that are solutions of the equation 2 H=\\Lambda_0-a 1/2 R^2 where H is the mean curvature of the surface, R is the distance form the point in the surface to the z-axis and a is a real number. We refer to these surfaces as helicoidal rotating drops. We prove the existence of properly immersed solutions that contain the z-axis. We also show the existence of several families of embedded examples. We describe the set of possible solutions and we show that most of these solutions are not properly immerse and are dense in the region bounded by two concentric cylinders. We show that all properly immersed solutions, besides being invariant under a one parameter helicoidal group, they are invariant under a cyclic group of rotations of the variables x and y. The second variation of energy for the volume constrained problem with Dirich...

  1. Updated axial meson spectrum and scalar-glueball mixing in AdS/QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sean; Rollag, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    AdS/QCD is a proposed duality between strongly-coupled quantum chromodynamics and weakly-coupled 5D gravity that can offer new insight to hadronic physics. Previous work accurately models confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in the light hadron spectrum. We improve this model by incorporating new experimental data and making predictions for the scalar glueball sector. Recent COMPASS results indicate a new light axial-vector resonance between the ground state and the currently-accepted value for the first excited state. Incorporating this data lessens the model's dependence on unphysical short length scales. In addition, we analyze the mixing between scalar mesons and glueball by computing to first approximation the radial excitation spectra of these particles. We find good experimental agreement for the scalar mesons and show that predictions for the excited glueball spectrum differ from lattice results.

  2. Phase structure, collective modes, and the axial anomaly in dense QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Baym, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Using a general Ginzburg-Landau effective Lagrangian, we study the topological structure and low-lying collective modes of dense QCD having both chiral and diquark condensates, for two and three massless flavors. As we found earlier, the QCD axial anomaly acts as an external field applied to the chiral condensate in a color superconductor and, as a new critical point emerges, leads to a crossover between the broken chiral symmetry and color superconducting phases. At intermediate densities where both chiral and diquark condensates are present, we derive a generalized Gell-Mann- Oakes-Renner relation between the masses of pseudoscalar bosons and the magnitude of the chiral and diquark-condensates. We show explicitly the continuity of the ordinary pion at low densities to a generalized pion at high densities.

  3. Relativity symmetries and Lie algebra contractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai-Ning; Kong, Otto C.W., E-mail: otto@phy.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-12-15

    We revisit the notion of possible relativity or kinematic symmetries mutually connected through Lie algebra contractions under a new perspective on what constitutes a relativity symmetry. Contractions of an SO(m,n) symmetry as an isometry on an m+n dimensional geometric arena which generalizes the notion of spacetime are discussed systematically. One of the key results is five different contractions of a Galilean-type symmetry G(m,n) preserving a symmetry of the same type at dimension m+n−1, e.g. a G(m,n−1), together with the coset space representations that correspond to the usual physical picture. Most of the results are explicitly illustrated through the example of symmetries obtained from the contraction of SO(2,4), which is the particular case for our interest on the physics side as the proposed relativity symmetry for “quantum spacetime”. The contractions from G(1,3) may be relevant to real physics.

  4. Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2014-01-01

    We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree $P$ in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree $P$, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree $P$? To answer this (essen...

  5. Dynamical flavor origin of ZN symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Dhen, Mikaël; Fong, Chee Sheng; Vicente, Avelino

    2015-05-01

    Discrete Abelian symmetries (ZN ) are a common "artifact" of beyond the standard model physics models. They provide different avenues for constructing consistent scenarios for lepton and quark mixing patterns, radiative neutrino mass generation as well as dark matter stabilization. We argue that these symmetries can arise from the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian U (1 ) factors contained in the global flavor symmetry transformations of the gauge-invariant kinetic Lagrangian. This will be the case provided the ultraviolet completion responsible for the Yukawa structure involves scalar fields carrying nontrivial U (1 ) charges. Guided by minimality criteria, we demonstrate the viability of this approach with two examples: first, we derive the "scotogenic" model Lagrangian, and second, we construct a setup where the spontaneous symmetry-breaking pattern leads to a Z3 symmetry which enables dark matter stability as well as neutrino mass generation at the two-loop order. This generic approach can be used to derive many other models, with residual ZN or ZN1×⋯×ZNk symmetries, establishing an intriguing link between flavor symmetries, neutrino masses and dark matter.

  6. Axial stress corrosion cracking forming method to metal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, it is more difficult in a metal tube, to intentionally cause a stress corrosion cracking in axial direction than in circumferential direction. In the present invention, a bevel is formed on a metal tube and welding is conducted in circumferential direction along the bevel, and welding is conducted in axial direction partially to the portion welded in circumferential direction. Namely, a bevel is formed in circumferential direction to an abutting portion of thick-walled metal tubes with each other, welding is conducted in circumferential direction along the bevel, and welding is conducted in axial direction partially to a portion welded in circumferential direction. With such procedures, since tensile stress in the circumferential direction is increased partially at a portion welded in axial direction, stress corrosion cracking is caused in axial direction at the portion. Then, stress corrosion cracking in axial direction can thus be formed on the thick-walled metal tube. (N.H.)

  7. Axial electron channeling statistical method of site occupancy determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Jia

    2001-01-01

    [1]Johnson, W., Sowerby, R., Venter, R. D., Plane Strain Slip Line Fields for Metal Deformation Processes——A Source Book and Bibliography, New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.[2]Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.[3]Sokolovsky, V. V., Theory of Plasticity(in Russia), Moskow: Nat. Tech. Press, 1950.[4]Kachanov, L. M., Foundations Theory of Plasticity, London: North-Holland, 1975.[5]Shield, R. T., On the plastic flow of metal condition of axial symmetry, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1955, 233A: 267.[6]Lippmann, H., IUTAM Symposium on Metal Forming Plasticity, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979.[7]Spencer, A. J. M., The approximate solution of certain problem of axially-symmetric plastic flow, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1964, 12: 231.[8]Wang, R., Xiong, Z. H., Wang, W. B., Foundation of Plasticity (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1982.[9]Collins, I. E., Dewhurst, P., A slip line field analysis of asymmetrical hot rolling, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1975, 17: 643.[10]Collins, I. F., Slip line field analysis of forming processes in plane strain and axial symmetry, Advanced Technology of Plasticity, 1984, 11: 1074.[11]Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y., Liu, C. Y. et al., Unified plane-strain slip line field theory system, J. Civil Engineering (in Chinese), 1997, 30(2): 14[12]Simmons, J. A., Hauser, F., Dorn, E., Mathematical Theories of Plastic Deformation Under Impulsive Loading, Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962.[13]Lin, C. C., On a perturbation theory based on the method of characteristies, J. Math. Phys., 1954, 33: 117—134.[14]Hopkins, H. G., The method of characteristics and its applications to the theory of stress waver in solids, in Engineering Plasticity, Combridge: Combridge University Press, 1968, 277—315.[15]Shield, R. T., The plastic indentation of a layer by a flat punch, Quart. Appl. Math., 1955, 13: 27.[16]Haar, A., von

  8. Kac-Moody Symmetry in Hosotani Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry of the massive tower of fields in higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theory compactified on a space-time of the form M_d x S^1 is clarified. The transformations form a loop algebra, a class of Kac-Moody algebras. Since the symmetry is spontaneously broken, vector fields "eat" Goldstone bosons and acquire masses. The field of zero-mass mode can also become massive provided that the field of the internal component develops a vacuum expectation value. The relation between the "restoration" of the symmetry in massive modes and the gauge transformation of the zero-mode vacuum field is discussed.

  9. Insight into Phenomena of Symmetry Breaking Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Tong; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that symmetry-breaking (SB) bifurcation is just a transition of different forms of symmetry, while still preserving system's symmetry. SB bifurcation always associates with a periodic saddle-node bifurcation, identifiable by a zero maximum of the top Lyapunov exponent of the system. In addition, we show a significant phase portrait of a newly born periodic saddle and its stable and unstable invariant manifolds, together with their neighbouring flow pattern of Poincaré mapping points just after the periodic saddle-node bifurcation, thus gaining an insight into the mechanism of SB bifurcation.

  10. Borchers' commutation relations and modular symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckert, B

    1995-01-01

    Recently Borchers has shown that in a theory of local observables, certain unitary and antiunitary operators, which are obtained from an elementary construction suggested by Bisognano and Wichmann, commute with the translation operators like Lorentz boosts and \\pct-operators, respectively. We conclude from this that as soon as the operators considered implement {\\em any} symmetry, this symmetry can be fixed up to at most some translation. As a symmetry, we admit any unitary or antiunitary operator under whose adjoint action any algebra of local observables is mapped onto an algebra which can be localized somewhere in Minkowski space.

  11. Nuclear symmetry energy and neutron skin thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M; Viñas, X; Roca-Maza, X

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the neutron skin thickness is investigated. Constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy are deduced from the neutron skin data obtained in experiments with antiprotonic atoms. Two types of neutron skin are distinguished: the "surface" and the "bulk". A combination of both types forms neutron skin in most of nuclei. A prescription to calculate neutron skin thickness and the slope of symmetry energy parameter $L$ from the parity violating asymmetry measured in the PREX experiment is proposed.

  12. Fractal Symmetries: Ungauging the Cubic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Dominic J

    2016-01-01

    Gauging is a ubiquitous tool in many-body physics. It allows one to construct highly entangled topological phases of matter from relatively simple phases and to relate certain characteristics of the two. Here we develop a gauging procedure for general submanifold symmetries of Pauli Hamiltonians, including symmetries of fractal type. We show a relation between the pre- and post- gauging models and use this to construct short range entangled phases with fractal like symmetries, one of which is mapped to the cubic code by the gauging.

  13. Implications of Local Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local chiral symmetry to its diagonal vector symmetry naturally realizes a complete geometrical structure more general than that of Yang-Mills (YM) theory, rather similar to that of gravity. A good example is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with respect to the Chiral Color model. Also, a new anomaly-free particle content for a Chiral Color model is introduced: the Chiral Color can be realized without introducing whole new generations of quarks and leptons, but by simply enlarging each generation with new exotic fermions.

  14. Inversion symmetry protected topological insulators and superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dung-Hai; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional topological insulator represents a class of novel quantum phases hosting robust gapless boundary excitations, which is protected by global symmetries such as time reversal, charge conservation and spin rotational symmetry. In this work we systematically study another class of topological phases of weakly interacting electrons protected by spatial inversion symmetry, which generally don't support stable gapless boundary states. We classify these inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors in the framework of K-theory, and construct their lattice models. We also discuss quantized response functions of these inversion-protected topological phases, which serve as their experimental signatures.

  15. \\cal{PT} -symmetry in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-07-01

    We propose a scheme to realize parity-time ( {PT} )-symmetry in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as superatoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. We show that Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a four-level inverted Y-type configuration is highly efficient to generate the refractive index for a probe field, with a symmetric (antisymmetric) profile spatially in the corresponding real (imaginary) part. Comparing with earlier investigations, the present scheme provides a versatile platform to control the system from {PT} -symmetry to non-PT -symmetry via different external parameters, i.e., coupling field detuning, probe field intensity and control field intensity.

  16. Symmetries of linearized gravity from adjoint operators

    CERN Document Server

    Aksteiner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Using a covariant formulation it is shown that the Teukolsky equation and the Teukolsky-Starobinsky identities for spin-1 and linearized gravity on a vacuum type D background are self-adjoint. This fact is used to construct symmetry operators for each of the four cases. We find both irreducible second order symmetry operators for spin-1, a known fourth order, and a new sixth order symmetry operator for linearized gravity. The results are connected to Hertz and Debye potentials and to the separability of the Teukolsky equation.

  17. Gauge origin of discrete flavor symmetries in heterotic orbifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that non-Abelian discrete symmetries in orbifold string models have a gauge origin. This can be understood when looking at the vicinity of a symmetry enhanced point in moduli space. At such an enhanced point, orbifold fixed points are characterized by an enhanced gauge symmetry. This gauge symmetry can be broken to a discrete subgroup by a nontrivial vacuum expectation value of the Kähler modulus T. Using this mechanism it is shown that the Δ(54 non-Abelian discrete symmetry group originates from a SU(3 gauge symmetry, whereas the D4 symmetry group is obtained from a SU(2 gauge symmetry.

  18. Universal Axial Algebras and a Theorem of Sakuma

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J I; Rehren, F; Shpectorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the first half of this paper, we define axial algebras: nonassociative commutative algebras generated by axes, that is, semisimple idempotents---the prototypical example of which is Griess' algebra [C85] for the Monster group. When multiplication of eigenspaces of axes is controlled by fusion rules, the structure of the axial algebra is determined to a large degree. We give a construction of the universal Frobenius axial algebra on $n$ generators with a specified fusion rules, of which all...

  19. Modular functional organisation of the axial locomotor system in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Vanessa; Mathou, Alexia

    2014-02-01

    Most investigations on tetrapod locomotion have been concerned with limb movements. However, there is compelling evidence that the axial musculoskeletal system contributes to important functions during locomotion. Adult salamanders offer a remarkable opportunity to examine these functions because these amphibians use axial undulations to propel themselves in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this article, we review the currently available biological data on axial functions during various locomotor modes in salamanders. We also present data showing the modular organisation of the neural networks that generate axial synergies during locomotion. The functional implication of this modular organisation is discussed.

  20. Transverse vibration characteristics of axially moving viscoelastic plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yin-feng; WANG Zhong-min

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics and stability of axially moving viscoelastic rectangular thin plate are investigated. Based on the two dimensional viscoelastic differential constitutive relation, the differential equations of motion of the axially moving viscoelastic plate are established. Dimensionless complex frequencies of an axially moving viscoelastic plate with four edges simply supported, two opposite edges simply supported and other two edges clamped are calculated by the differential quadrature method. The effects of the aspect ratio, moving speed and dimensionless delay time of the material on the transverse vibration and stability of the axially moving viscoelastic plate are analyzed.