Sample records for axial skeletal development

  1. Altered Axial Skeletal Development (United States)

    The axial skeleton is routinely examined in standard developmental toxicity bioassays and has proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of chemical agents. Dysmorphogenesis in the skull, vertebral column and ribs has been described in both human populations and in laboratory anima...

  2. Skeletal development in Acropora cervicornis: I. Patterns of calcium carbonate accretion in the axial corallite (United States)

    Gladfeiter, E. H.


    Scanning electron microscopy and serial petrographic thin sections were used to investigate skeletal elongation and mineralization in the perforate coral, Acropora cervicornis. The axial corallite extends by the formation of randomly oriented fusiform crystals which are deposited on its distal edge. Aragonitic needle-like crystals grow in random directions from the surface of these fusiform crystals. Only those needle-like crystals growing toward the calicoblastic epithelium (i.e. crystals whose growth axis is perpendicular to the plane of the calicoblastic cell membrane) continue to elongate. Groups of these growing crystals join to form well-defined fasciculi which make up the primary skeletal elements comprising the septotheca. The resulting skeleton is highly porous with all surfaces covered by the continuous calicoblastic epithelium. This cell layer is separated by thin mesoglea from the flagellated gastrodermis which lines the highly ramified coelenteron. Porosity and permeability of the skeleton decrease with distance from the tip. Density correspondingly increases due to the addition of aragonite to the fasciculi whose boundaries become less distinct as channels fill with calcium carbonate.


    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  4. MRI of the axial skeletal manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis

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    Levine, D.S.; Forbat, S.M.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail:


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable tool in the imaging and assessment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. MRI can demonstrate the acute and chronic changes of sacroiliitis, osteitis, discovertebral lesions, disc calcifications and ossification and arthopathic lesions, which characterize the disease, as well as the complications, which include fracture and the rare cauda equina syndrome. This article reviews the range of MRI findings commonly seen within the axial skeleton in patients with this condition.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: similarities to axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Arad, Uri; Elkayam, Ori; Eshed, Iris


    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a non-inflammatory condition that involves calcification and ossification of the spinal ligaments and entheses. While, characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions of the spine in patients with axial spondyloarthritis, another enthesitis-related disease, have been described and defined, there is a paucity of information regarding the MRI findings in DISH. The aim of this study was to describe the MRI findings of patients with DISH. We collected computed tomography studies with findings characteristic of DISH and that also had corresponding and concurrent MRI studies of the spine. For each patient, sagittal T1-weighted and STIR MRI sequences were evaluated for anterior/posterior vertebral corners of bone marrow edema (BME) and fat deposition. In total, we assessed 156 vertebral units in 10 patients that had both radiographic evidence of DISH and available MRI studies of the spine. Lesions consistent with BME corners were detected in five patients, and in three of them, three separate sites were involved, a finding that is suggestive of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the ASAS/OMERACT consensus statement. Fat deposition corners were detected in eight patients and in seven of them, several sites were involved. Spinal MRI lesions that are characteristic of axial SpA were commonly observed in a cohort of patients with DISH. This bears relevance to cases with diagnostic uncertainty and may imply overlapping pathogenetic mechanisms for new bone formation in both SpA and DISH. Further study is indicated to better characterize the similarities and differences between the MRI lesions of DISH and SpA.

  6. Skeletal development in Acropora cervicornis (United States)

    Gladfelter, Elizabeth H.


    Monthly linear extension and calcium carbonate accretion were measured over a year in the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. X-radiographs were made of cross sections of branches to analyze radial growth. Correlations were made between parameters of skeletal growth and four environmental parameters monitored over the same sampling periods: temperature, daylight hours, sun hours, plankton abundance. The results indicate that linear extension does not change during the year with the possible exception of April. It is suggested that temperatures outside an optimal range (ca. 26° 29°C for staghorn Acroporas) might cause a decrease in linear extension, however. Specific accretion (mg. mm-1) does show significant variations through the year. Calcium carbonate accretion (mean specific accretion times mean linear extension, mg. tip-1) is most strongly correlated with number of sun hours. A comparison is made between diel patterns of extension and accretion and longer term measurements. It is suggested that the accretion process is probably most influenced by some activity influenced by light. There are no annual growth bands in X-radiographs of cross-sections of the branches of A. cervicornis. This may result from secondary infilling in the skeleton.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases. (United States)

    Teven, Chad M; Farina, Evan M; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R


    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development.

  8. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefte, S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den


    In the late stages of muscle development, a unique cell population emerges that is a key player in postnatal muscle growth and muscle regeneration. The location of these cells next to the muscle fibers triggers their designation as satellite cells. During the healing of injured muscle tissue, satell

  9. Development and Testing of an Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic thrust bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help to reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical systems, computer memory systems, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.

  10. Regional brain axial and radial diffusivity changes during development. (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nguyen, Haidang D; Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M


    The developing human brain shows rapid myelination and axonal changes during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, requiring successive evaluations to determine normative values for potential pathological assessment. Fiber characteristics can be examined by axial and radial diffusivity procedures, which measure water diffusion parallel and perpendicular to axons and show primarily axonal status and myelin changes, respectively. Such measures are lacking from widespread sites for the developing brain. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired from 30 healthy subjects (age 17.7 ± 4.6 years, range 8-24 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), 18 males) using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Diffusion tensors were calculated, principal eigenvalues determined, and axial and radial diffusivity maps calculated and normalized to a common space. A set of regions of interest was outlined from widespread brain areas within rostral, thalamic, hypothalamic, cerebellar, and pontine regions, and average diffusivity values were calculated using normalized diffusivity maps and these regions of interest masks. Age-related changes were assessed with Pearson's correlations, and gender differences evaluated with Student's t-tests. Axial and radial diffusivity values declined with age in the majority of brain areas, except for midhippocampus, where axial diffusivity values correlated positively with age. Gender differences emerged within putamen, thalamic, hypothalamic, cerebellar, limbic, temporal, and other cortical sites. Documentation of normal axial and radial diffusivity values will help assess disease-related tissue changes. Axial and radial diffusivities change with age,with fiber structure and organization differing between sexes in several brain areas. The findings may underlie gender-based functional characteristics, and mandate partitioning age- and gender-related changes during developmental brain pathology evaluation.

  11. Skeletal maturation determined by cervical vertebrae development. (United States)

    San Román, Paloma; Palma, Juan Carlos; Oteo, M Dolores; Nevado, Esther


    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of cervical vertebrae radiographic assessment to predict skeletal maturation. Left hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 958 Spanish children from 5 to 18 years of age were measured. On the left hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Grave and Brown was used to assess skeletal maturation. Cervical vertebrae maturation was evaluated with lateral cephalometric radiographs using the stages described by Lamparski and by Hassel and Farman. A new method to evaluate the cervical maturation by studying the changes in the concavity of the lower border, height, and shape of the vertebral body was created. Correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the relationship between skeletal maturation values obtained by the three classifications of vertebral and skeletal maturation measured at the wrist. All correlation values obtained were statistically significant (P vertebral bodies to evaluate the maturation stage has been designed. In the population investigated, this method is as accurate as the Hassel and Farman classification and superior to the Lamparski classification. The morphological vertebral parameter best able to estimate the maturation is the concavity of the lower border of the body.

  12. Development of a miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump. (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Outa, E; Ogino, S; Otake, Y; Shiozaki, H; Fujimoto, T; Tagusari, O; Kitamura, M


    A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as a totally implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). This pump consists of an impeller combined with a guide-vane, a tube housing, and a DC motor. The pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged to the ascending aorta. Our newly developed axial flow pump system has the following advantages: 1) it is a simple and compact system, 2) minimal blood stasis both in the device and the LV cavity, 3) minimal blood contacting surface of the pump, 4) easy accessibility with a less invasive surgical procedure, and 5) low cost. A pump flow > 5 L/min was obtained against 100 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. The pump could produce a passive pulsatile flow effect with a beating heart more efficiently than other non-pulsatile pumps because of minimal pressure drop and inertia along the bypass tract. Anatomic fit studies using dissected hearts of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cadavers showed that this pump could smoothly pass through the aortic valve without any interference with mitral valve function. Recently, a dynamic pressure groove bearing and a miniature lip seal have been developed. The dynamic pressure groove bearing has a simple structure and acts as a pressure resistant sealing mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Calpain-6 deficiency promotes skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

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    Kazuo Tonami

    Full Text Available Calpains are Ca(2+-dependent modulator Cys proteases that have a variety of functions in almost all eukaryotes. There are more than 10 well-conserved mammalian calpains, among which eutherian calpain-6 (CAPN6 is unique in that it has amino acid substitutions at the active-site Cys residue (to Lys in humans, strongly suggesting a loss of proteolytic activity. CAPN6 is expressed predominantly in embryonic muscles, placenta, and several cultured cell lines. We previously reported that CAPN6 is involved in regulating microtubule dynamics and actin reorganization in cultured cells. The physiological functions of CAPN6, however, are still unclear. Here, to elucidate CAPN6's in vivo roles, we generated Capn6-deficient mice, in which a lacZ expression cassette was integrated into the Capn6 gene. These Capn6-deficient mouse embryos expressed lacZ predominantly in skeletal muscles, as well as in cartilage and the heart. Histological and biochemical analyses showed that the CAPN6 deficiency promoted the development of embryonic skeletal muscle. In primary cultured skeletal muscle cells that were induced to differentiate into myotubes, Capn6 expression was detected in skeletal myocytes, and Capn6-deficient cultures showed increased differentiation. Furthermore, we found that CAPN6 was expressed in the regenerating skeletal muscles of adult mice after cardiotoxin-induced degeneration. In this experimental system, Capn6-deficient mice exhibited more advanced skeletal-muscle regeneration than heterozygotes or wild-type mice at the same time point. These results collectively showed that a loss of CAPN6 promotes skeletal muscle differentiation during both development and regeneration, suggesting a novel physiological function of CAPN6 as a suppressor of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  14. Peripheral endocannabinoids regulate skeletal muscle development and maintenance

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    Dongjiao Zhao


    Full Text Available As a principal tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle is important for whole-body health. The role of peripheral endocannabinoids as regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism has recently gained a lot of interest, as endocannabinoid system disorders could cause peripheral insulin resistance. We investigated the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle development and maintenance. Cultures of C2C12 cells, primary satellite cells and mouse skeletal muscle single fibers were used as model systems for our studies. We found an increase in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 mRNA and endocannabinoid synthetic enzyme mRNA skeletal muscle cells during differentiation. We also found that activation of CB1 inhibited myoblast differentiation, expanded the number of satellite cells, and stimulated the fast-muscle oxidative phenotype. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle metabolism and muscle oxygen consumption, and also help to explain the effects of the peripheral endocannabinoid system on whole-body energy balance.

  15. Axial skeletal defects caused by mutation in the spondylocostal dysplasia/pudgy gene Dll3 are associated with disruption of the segmentation clock within the presomitic mesoderm. (United States)

    Dunwoodie, Sally L; Clements, Melanie; Sparrow, Duncan B; Sa, Xin; Conlon, Ronald A; Beddington, Rosa S P


    A loss-of-function mutation in the mouse delta-like3 (Dll3) gene has been generated following gene targeting, and results in severe axial skeletal defects. These defects, which consist of highly disorganised vertebrae and costal defects, are similar to those associated with the Dll3-dependent pudgy mutant in mouse and with spondylocostal dysplasia (MIM 277300) in humans. This study demonstrates that Dll3(neo) and Dll3(pu) are functionally equivalent alleles with respect to the skeletal dysplasia, and we suggest that the three human DLL3 mutations associated with spondylocostal dysplasia are also functionally equivalent to the Dll3(neo) null allele. Our phenotypic analysis of Dll3(neo)/Dll3(neo) mutants shows that the developmental origins of the skeletal defects lie in delayed and irregular somite formation, which results in the perturbation of anteroposterior somite polarity. As the expression of Lfng, Hes1, Hes5 and Hey1 is disrupted in the presomitic mesoderm, we suggest that the somitic aberrations are founded in the disruption of the segmentation clock that intrinsically oscillates within presomitic mesoderm.

  16. A novel late-onset axial myopathy associated with mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loseth, S.; Voermans, N.C.; Torbergsen, T.; Lillis, S.; Jonsrud, C.; Lindal, S.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Broman, M.; Dekomien, G.; Maddison, P.; Muntoni, F.; Sewry, C.; Radunovic, A.; Visser, M. de; Straub, V.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Jungbluth, H.


    Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are a common cause of inherited neuromuscular disorders and have been associated with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from various congenital myopathies to the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) trait without any associated w

  17. Developing cardiac and skeletal muscle share fast-skeletal myosin heavy chain and cardiac troponin-I expression.

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    Kelly C Clause

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs transplanted into injured myocardium can differentiate into fast skeletal muscle specific myosin heavy chain (sk-fMHC and cardiac specific troponin-I (cTn-I positive cells sustaining recipient myocardial function. We have recently found that MDSCs differentiate into a cardiomyocyte phenotype within a three-dimensional gel bioreactor. It is generally accepted that terminally differentiated myocardium or skeletal muscle only express cTn-I or sk-fMHC, respectively. Studies have shown the presence of non-cardiac muscle proteins in the developing myocardium or cardiac proteins in pathological skeletal muscle. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that normal developing myocardium and skeletal muscle transiently share both sk-fMHC and cTn-I proteins. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were carried out in embryonic day 13 (ED13 and 20 (ED20, neonatal day 0 (ND0 and 4 (ND4, postnatal day 10 (PND10, and 8 week-old adult female Lewis rat ventricular myocardium and gastrocnemius muscle. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that sk-fMHC was expressed as a typical striated muscle pattern within ED13 ventricular myocardium, and the striated sk-fMHC expression was lost by ND4 and became negative in adult myocardium. cTn-I was not expressed as a typical striated muscle pattern throughout the myocardium until PND10. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed that gene and protein expression patterns of cardiac and skeletal muscle transcription factors and sk-fMHC within ventricular myocardium and skeletal muscle were similar at ED20, and the expression patterns became cardiac or skeletal muscle specific during postnatal development. These findings provide new insight into cardiac muscle development and highlight previously unknown common developmental features of cardiac and skeletal muscle.

  18. Postural load and the development of musculo-skeletal illness. (United States)

    Aarås, A


    Early in the 1970s, high rates of sick-leave due to musculo-skeletal complaints were frequently recorded among workers at Standard Telefon and Kabelfabrik's (STK's) factory in Norway. Workstations were redesigned according to ergonomics principles that allowed workers a wider choice of working postures and following their introduction in 1975, there was a marked reduction in sickness absence. Postural load was studied in groups of female workers in well defined assembly tasks. Trapezius load was recorded by electromyography (EMG). Simultaneously, postural angles of the upper arm in the shoulder joint and flexion/extension of head/neck and back were measured by using pendulum potentiometers. A quantitative relationship was found for the group between its median value of static trapezius load and the development of musculo-skeletal sick-leave, as a function of length of employment. Further support for a relationship between musculo-skeletal injury and trapezius load was found for the same subjects who suffered less musculo-skeletal sick-leave, consistent with the reduced trapezius load when working at the redesigned work stands. The relationship between postural load and musculo-skeletal injury was studied in comparable groups of the female workers with respect to age, working hours per day and time of employment. Psychosocial problems, spare time activities and living habits of workers did not show any significant difference across the groups. Postural load, both in terms of the magnitude of the flexion angle of the upper arm in the shoulder joint and the distribution of the work load between flexors and extensors, appeared to influence the incidence of load-related musculo-skeletal illness in the upper part of the body. The incidence of musculo-skeletal sick-leave in a group of workers with a median static trapezius load of about 1 to 2% MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction) for most of the work day, was approximately the same as for a group of comparable female

  19. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance


    Bassett, J.H. Duncan; Williams, Graham R


    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing...

  20. Distinct growth hormone receptor signaling modes regulate skeletal muscle development and insulin sensitivity in mice


    Mavalli, Mahendra D.; DiGirolamo, Douglas J; FAN, Yong; Riddle, Ryan C.; Kenneth S Campbell; van Groen, Thomas; Frank, Stuart J; Sperling, Mark A.; Esser, Karyn A.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Clemens, Thomas L.


    Skeletal muscle development, nutrient uptake, and nutrient utilization is largely coordinated by growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effectors, in particular, IGF-1. However, it is not clear which effects of GH on skeletal muscle are direct and which are secondary to GH-induced IGF-1 expression. Thus, we generated mice lacking either GH receptor (GHR) or IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) specifically in skeletal muscle. Both exhibited impaired skeletal muscle development characterized by reductions ...

  1. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 12

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    Ogden, J.A.


    The development of the second cervical vertebra is complex. The dens (odontoid process) develops two primary ossification centers that usually coalesce within three months following birth. These centers are separated from the primary ossification center of the vertebral centrum by a cartilaginous region - the dentocentral synchondrosis. This synchondrosis is a slow growing, bipolar physis similar to the triradiate cartilage of the acetabulum. It contributes to the overall heights of both the dens as well as the vertebral body. Anatomically the dentocentral synchondrosis is below the level of the C1-C2 articulations. This cartilaginous structure is continuous throughout the vertebral body with similar cartilage in both the facet regions as well as the neurocentral synchondroses. These various cartilaginous continuities progressively close - first, the connections to the facet regions, next the neurocentral synchondroses, and finally the dentocentral synchondrosis. Remnants of the incompletely closed dentocentral synchondrosis must be distinguished from a fracture, which usually propagates along this structure as a physeal injury in infants and children. The cartilaginous epiphysis at the tip of the dens may be transverse or may form a cleft ('V') shape. At eight to ten years, a secondary ossification center - the ossiculum terminale - develops in this proximal dens epiphysis. Fusion of the ossiculum terminale with the rest of the dens occurs between ten and thirteen years.

  2. Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice. (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G; Economides, Aris N; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna


    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  3. PTHrP and skeletal development. (United States)

    Kronenberg, Henry M


    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) participates in the regulation of endochondral bone development. After the cartilage mold is established in fetal life, perichondrial cells and chondrocytes at the ends of the mold synthesize PTHrP. This ligand then acts on PTH/PTHrP receptors on chondrocytes. As chondrocytes go through a program of proliferation and then further differentiation into post-mitotic, hypertrophic chondrocytes, PTHrP action keeps chondrocytes proliferating and delays their further differentiation. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is synthesized by chondrocytes that have just stopped proliferating and is required for synthesis of PTHrP. The feedback loop between PTHrP and Ihh serves to regulate the pace of chondrocyte differentiation and the sites at which perichondrial cells first differentiate into osteoblasts. Activation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor leads to stimulation of both Gs and Gq family heterotrimeric G proteins. Genetic analyses demonstrate that Gs activation mediates the action of PTHrP to keep chondrocytes proliferating, while Gq activation opposes this action. Downstream from Gs activation, synthesis of the cyclin-cdk inhibitor, p57, is suppressed, thereby increasing the pool of proliferating chondrocytes. PTHrP's actions to delay chondrocyte differentiation are mediated by the phosphorylation of the transcription factor, SOX9, and by suppression of synthesis of mRNA encoding the transcription factor, Runx2. These pathways and undoubtedly others cooperate to regulate the pace of differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in response to PTHrP.

  4. Development of the turtle plastron, the order-defining skeletal structure. (United States)

    Rice, Ritva; Kallonen, Aki; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F


    The dorsal and ventral aspects of the turtle shell, the carapace and the plastron, are developmentally different entities. The carapace contains axial endochondral skeletal elements and exoskeletal dermal bones. The exoskeletal plastron is found in all extant and extinct species of crown turtles found to date and is synaptomorphic of the order Testudines. However, paleontological reconstructed transition forms lack a fully developed carapace and show a progression of bony elements ancestral to the plastron. To understand the evolutionary development of the plastron, it is essential to know how it has formed. Here we studied the molecular development and patterning of plastron bones in a cryptodire turtle Trachemys scripta We show that plastron development begins at developmental stage 15 when osteochondrogenic mesenchyme forms condensates for each plastron bone at the lateral edges of the ventral mesenchyme. These condensations commit to an osteogenic identity and suppress chondrogenesis. Their development overlaps with that of sternal cartilage development in chicks and mice. Thus, we suggest that in turtles, the sternal morphogenesis is prevented in the ventral mesenchyme by the concomitant induction of osteogenesis and the suppression of chondrogenesis. The osteogenic subroutines later direct the growth and patterning of plastron bones in an autonomous manner. The initiation of plastron bone development coincides with that of carapacial ridge formation, suggesting that the development of dorsal and ventral shells are coordinated from the start and that adopting an osteogenesis-inducing and chondrogenesis-suppressing cell fate in the ventral mesenchyme has permitted turtles to develop their order-specific ventral morphology.

  5. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance. (United States)

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R


    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art.

  6. MicroRNA transcriptome profiles during swine skeletal muscle development

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    Sonstegard Tad S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miR are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells, three stages of fetal growth, day-old neonate, and the adult. Results Twelve potential novel miR were detected that did not match previously reported sequences. In addition, a number of miR previously reported to be expressed in mammalian muscle were detected, having a variety of abundance patterns through muscle development. Muscle-specific miR-206 was nearly absent in proliferating satellite cells in culture, but was the highest abundant miR at other time points evaluated. In addition, miR-1 was moderately abundant throughout developmental stages with highest abundance in the adult. In contrast, miR-133 was moderately abundant in adult muscle and either not detectable or lowly abundant throughout fetal and neonate development. Changes in abundance of ubiquitously expressed miR were also observed. MiR-432 abundance was highest at the earliest stage of fetal development tested (60 day-old fetus and decreased throughout development to the adult. Conversely, miR-24 and miR-27 exhibited greatest abundance in proliferating satellite cells and the adult, while abundance of miR-368, miR-376, and miR-423-5p was greatest in the neonate. Conclusion These data present a complete set of transcriptome profiles to evaluate miR abundance at specific stages of skeletal muscle growth in swine. Identification of these miR provides an initial group of miR that may play a vital role in muscle development and growth.

  7. Differentially expressed fibroblast growth factors regulate skeletal muscle development through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms



    Several FGF family members are expressed in skeletal muscle; however, the roles of these factors in skeletal muscle development are unclear. We examined the RNA expression, protein levels, and biological activities of the FGF family in the MM14 mouse skeletal muscle cell line. Proliferating skeletal muscle cells express FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-6, and FGF-7 mRNA. Differentiated myofibers express FGF-5, FGF-7, and reduced levels of FGF-6 mRNA. FGF-3, FGF-4, and FGF-8 were not detectable by RT-PCR in ...

  8. Human age estimation combining third molar and skeletal development. (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Kaur, J; Willems, G


    The wide prediction intervals obtained with age estimation methods based on third molar development could be reduced by combining these dental observations with age-related skeletal information. Therefore, on cephalometric radiographs, the most accurate age-estimating skeletal variable and related registration method were searched and added to a regression model, with age as response and third molar stages as explanatory variable. In a pilot set up on a dataset of 496 (283 M; 213 F) cephalometric radiographs, the techniques of Baccetti et al. (2005) (BA), Seedat et al. (2005) (SE), Caldas et al. (2007) and Rai et al. (2008) (RA) were verified. In the main study, data from 460 (208 F, 224 M) individuals in an age range between 3 and 26 years, for which at the same day an orthopantogram and a cephalogram were taken, were collected. On the orthopantomograms, the left third molar development was registered using the scoring system described by Gleiser and Hunt (1955) and modified by Köhler (1994) (GH). On the cephalograms, cervical vertebrae development was registered according to the BA and SE techniques. A regression model, with age as response and the GH scores as explanatory variable, was fitted to the data. Next, information of BA, SE and BA + SE was, respectively, added to this model. From all obtained models, the determination coefficients and the root mean squared errors were calculated. Inclusion of information from cephalograms based on the BA, as well as the SE, technique improved the amount of explained variance in age acquired from panoramic radiographs using the GH technique with 48%. Inclusion of cephalometric BA + SE information marginally improved the previous result (+1%). The RMSE decreased with 1.93, 1.85 and 2.03 years by adding, respectively, BA, SE and BA + SE information to the GH model. The SE technique allows clinically the fastest and easiest registration of the degree of development of the cervical vertebrae. Therefore, the choice of

  9. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle: their role and regulation in development, disease and function. (United States)

    Güller, Isabelle; Russell, Aaron P


    Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. For skeletal muscle to consistently function at optimal levels, the efficient activation of processes that regulate muscle development, growth, regeneration and metabolism is required. Numerous conditions including neuromuscular disorders, physical inactivity, chronic disease and ageing are associated with perturbations in skeletal muscle function. A loss or reduction in skeletal muscle function often leads to increased morbidity and mortality either directly, or indirectly, via the development of secondary diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Identifying mechanisms which influence the processes regulating skeletal muscle function is a key priority. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) provides a new avenue that will extend our knowledge of factors controlling skeletal muscle function. miRNAs may also improve our understanding and application of current therapeutic approaches as well as enable the identification of new therapeutic strategies and targets aimed at maintaining and/or improving skeletal muscle health. This review brings together the latest developments in skeletal muscle miRNA biology and focuses on their role and regulation under physiological and patho-physiological conditions with an emphasis on: myogenesis, hypertrophy, atrophy and regeneration; exercise and nutrition; muscle disease, ageing, diabetes and obesity.

  10. Development of Bipotent Cardiac/Skeletal Myogenic Progenitors from MESP1+ Mesoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Sun-Kin Chan


    Full Text Available The branchiomeric skeletal muscles co-evolved with new chambers of the heart to enable predatory feeding in chordates. These co-evolved tissues develop from a common population in anterior splanchnic mesoderm, referred to as cardiopharyngeal mesoderm (CPM. The regulation and development of CPM are poorly understood. We describe an embryonic stem cell-based system in which MESP1 drives a PDGFRA+ population with dual cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation potential, and gene expression resembling CPM. Using this system, we investigate the regulation of these bipotent progenitors, and find that cardiac specification is governed by an antagonistic TGFβ-BMP axis, while skeletal muscle specification is enhanced by Rho kinase inhibition. We define transcriptional signatures of the first committed CPM-derived cardiac and skeletal myogenic progenitors, and discover surface markers to distinguish cardiac (PODXL+ from the skeletal muscle (CDH4+ CPM derivatives. These tools open an accessible window on this developmentally and evolutionarily important population.

  11. Chondrocyte hypertrophy in skeletal development, growth, and disease. (United States)

    Sun, Margaret Man-Ger; Beier, Frank


    Most of our bones form through the process of endochondral ossification, which is tightly regulated by the activity of the cartilage growth plate. Chondrocyte maturation through the various stages of growth plate physiology ultimately results in hypertrophy. Chondrocyte hypertrophy is an essential contributor to longitudinal bone growth, but recent data suggest that these cells also play fundamental roles in signaling to other skeletal cells, thus coordinating endochondral ossification. On the other hand, ectopic hypertrophy of articular chondrocytes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Thus, a better understanding of the processes that control chondrocyte hypertrophy in the growth plate as well as in articular cartilage is required for improved management of both skeletal growth disorders and osteoarthritis. This review summarizes recent findings on the regulation of hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation, the cellular mechanisms involved in hypertrophy, and the role of chondrocyte hypertrophy in skeletal physiology and pathophysiology.

  12. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Ö. Raeker


    Full Text Available During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues.

  13. Distinct growth hormone receptor signaling modes regulate skeletal muscle development and insulin sensitivity in mice. (United States)

    Mavalli, Mahendra D; DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Fan, Yong; Riddle, Ryan C; Campbell, Kenneth S; van Groen, Thomas; Frank, Stuart J; Sperling, Mark A; Esser, Karyn A; Bamman, Marcas M; Clemens, Thomas L


    Skeletal muscle development, nutrient uptake, and nutrient utilization is largely coordinated by growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effectors, in particular, IGF-1. However, it is not clear which effects of GH on skeletal muscle are direct and which are secondary to GH-induced IGF-1 expression. Thus, we generated mice lacking either GH receptor (GHR) or IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) specifically in skeletal muscle. Both exhibited impaired skeletal muscle development characterized by reductions in myofiber number and area as well as accompanying deficiencies in functional performance. Defective skeletal muscle development, in both GHR and IGF-1R mutants, was attributable to diminished myoblast fusion and associated with compromised nuclear factor of activated T cells import and activity. Strikingly, mice lacking GHR developed metabolic features that were not observed in the IGF-1R mutants, including marked peripheral adiposity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Insulin resistance in GHR-deficient myotubes derived from reduced IR protein abundance and increased inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser 1101. These results identify distinct signaling pathways through which GHR regulates skeletal muscle development and modulates nutrient metabolism.

  14. Skeletal development and adult osteology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio M. Hoyos


    Full Text Available Osteological and skeletal characters have long been proven to be particularly informative in taxonomic and systematic research. Furthermore, ossification sequences are assumed to be a potential tool to investigate developmental states and developmental modes of fossil and extant skeletal specimens. Herein, we provide a detailed account on adult osteology and skeletogenesis in the Montevideo treefrog, Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae based on evaluation of a series of cleared and stained specimens. A consensus sequence of ossification, i.e., the order of appearance of mineralized elements until early metamorphosis could be determined as (parasphenoid, presacral vertebrae I-VII, frontoparietal, exoccipital – transverse processes of presacral vertebrae I-VIII – sacral vertebra – (humerus, radioulna, ilium, femur, tibiofibula, scapula – (cleithrum, clavicle, coracoids, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, hypochord – (prootic, angulosplenial, dentary, maxilla, premaxilla, squamosal. Comparing the state of mineralized elements in individual specimens, a number of skeletal elements, including the exoccipital, frontoparietal, parasphenoid and prootic, as well as elements of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the phalanges, were found to vary intraspecifically regarding the relative time of their ossification within the ossification sequence.

  15. Stac3 is a novel regulator of skeletal muscle development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M Reinholt

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that mediate skeletal muscle development or function. We began the study by searching the gene expression databases for genes that have no known functions but are preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle. This search led to the identification of the Src homology three (SH3 domain and cysteine rich (C1 domain 3 (Stac3 gene. We experimentally confirmed that Stac3 mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. We determined if Stac3 plays a role in skeletal muscle development or function by generating Stac3 knockout mice. All Stac3 homozygous mutant mice were found dead at birth, were never seen move, and had a curved body and dropping forelimbs. These mice had marked abnormalities in skeletal muscles throughout the body, including central location of myonuclei, decreased number but increased cross-sectional area of myofibers, decreased number and size of myofibrils, disarrayed myofibrils, and streaming Z-lines. These phenotypes demonstrate that the Stac3 gene plays a critical role in skeletal muscle development and function in mice.

  16. Making skeletal muscle from progenitor and stem cells: development versus regeneration. (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Ming; Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E; Lepper, Christoph


    For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based biomachinery that is attached to skeletal elements to affect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made toward uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration.

  17. Extrasynaptic location of laminin beta 2 chain in developing and adult human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Thornell, L E; Loechel, F;


    We have investigated the distribution of the laminin beta 2 chain (previously s-laminin) in human fetal and adult skeletal muscle and compared it to the distribution of laminin beta 1. Immunoblotting and transfection assays were used to characterize a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...... to the laminin beta 2 chain. We found that laminin beta 1 chain was detected at all times during development from 10 weeks of gestation. Laminin beta 2 chain was first detected in 15 to 22-week-old fetal skeletal muscle as distinct focal immunoreactivity in the sarcolemmal basement membrane area of some...... myofibers. In the adult skeletal muscle, laminin beta 2 chain immunoreactivity was found along the entire perimeter of each of the individual myofibers in a large series of different muscles studied. Laminin beta 2 chain was similarly found in the skeletal muscle basement membranes in patients with Duchenne...

  18. Early brain enlargement and elevated extra-axial fluid in infants who develop autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Nordahl, Christine W; Young, Gregory S; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Lee, Aaron; Liston, Sarah E; Harrington, Kayla R; Ozonoff, Sally; Amaral, David G


    Prospective studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder have provided important clues about the early behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, however, is not currently made until at least 18 months of age. There is substantially less research on potential brain-based differences in the period between 6 and 12 months of age. Our objective in the current study was to use magnetic resonance imaging to identify any consistently observable brain anomalies in 6-9 month old infants who would later develop autism spectrum disorder. We conducted a prospective infant sibling study with longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points (6-9, 12-15, and 18-24 months of age), in conjunction with intensive behavioural assessments. Fifty-five infants (33 'high-risk' infants having an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder and 22 'low-risk' infants having no relatives with autism spectrum disorder) were imaged at 6-9 months; 43 of these (27 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged at 12-15 months; and 42 (26 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged again at 18-24 months. Infants were classified as meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder, other developmental delays, or typical development at 24 months or later (mean age at outcome: 32.5 months). Compared with the other two groups, infants who developed autism spectrum disorder (n = 10) had significantly greater extra-axial fluid at 6-9 months, which persisted and remained elevated at 12-15 and 18-24 months. Extra-axial fluid is characterized by excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, particularly over the frontal lobes. The amount of extra-axial fluid detected as early as 6 months was predictive of more severe autism spectrum disorder symptoms at the time of outcome. Infants who developed autism spectrum disorder also had significantly larger total cerebral volumes at both 12-15 and 18-24 months of age. This is the first magnetic

  19. The Role of Skeletal Muscle in Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sung Moon


    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is closely correlated with abnormal accumulation of visceral fat, but the role of skeletal muscle remains unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of skeletal muscle in development of NAFLD.MethodsAmong 11,116 subjects (6,242 males, we examined the effects of skeletal muscle mass and visceral fat area (VFA, by bioelectric impedance analysis on NAFLD using by the fatty liver index (FLI.ResultsOf the total subjects (9,565 total, 5,293 males included, 1,848 were classified as having NALFD (FLI ≥60. Body mass index, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM, hypertension (HTN, and metabolic syndrome were higher in males than females, but FLI showed no significant difference. The low FLI group showed the lowest VFA and highest skeletal muscle mass of all the groups. Skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR and skeletal muscle index had inverse correlations with FLI, when adjusted for age and gender. In multivariate regression analysis, SVR was negatively associated with FLI. Among SVR quartiles, the highest quartile showed very low risk of NAFLD when adjusted for age, gender, lipid profile, DM, HTN, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein from the lowest quartiles (odds ratio, 0.037; 95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 0.049.ConclusionSkeletal muscle mass was inversely associated with visceral fat area, and higher skeletal muscle mass may have a beneficial effect in preventing NAFLD. These results suggest that further studies are needed to ameliorate or slow the progression of sarcopenia.

  20. Development of a 3-dimensional design technology for axial pump impellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Jong In; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Yong Wan; Kim, Ji Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    A design procedure for axial pump impeller was developed based on traditional hydrodynamic theory and experimental correlation. A 3D geometrical modeling procedure of impeller was also developed using I-DEAS program files. In a theoretical design of axial pump impeller, a cascade assumption is used for the velocity triangular diagram. Using this diagram with assumed impeller efficiency, inlet and outlet velocity angles are obtained to determine the shapes of the impeller sections. Total pressure loss through the impeller can be estimated using experimental correlations and the efficiency is obtained from the loss, again. The design procedure continues until the converged efficiency is obtained. The geometrical modeling of the impeller to verify the design result was achieved in I-DEAS CAD software. Program file in I-DEAS was used to model the impeller easily. A FORTRAN code was developed to generate these program files. Therefore complex modeling procedure is simply treated by the generation of the program files and the execution of those in I-DEAS. It was possible to reduce the time required for design and achieve design optimization by applying the developed procedure to the design of SMART MCP. (author). 14 refs., 16 figs.

  1. Triennial Growth Symposium--A role for vitamin D in skeletal muscle development and growth. (United States)

    Starkey, J D


    Although well known for its role in bone development and mineral homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that vitamin D is capable of functioning as a regulator of skeletal muscle development and hypertrophic growth. This review will focus on the relatively limited body of evidence regarding the impact of vitamin D on prenatal development and postnatal growth of skeletal muscle in meat animal species. Recent evidence indicating that improvement of maternal vitamin D status through dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation can positively affect fetal skeletal muscle fiber number and myoblast activity in swine as well as work demonstrating that posthatch vitamin D status enhancement stimulates a satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy response in broiler chickens is discussed. The relative lack of information regarding how and when to best supply dietary vitamin D to promote optimal prenatal development and postnatal growth of skeletal muscle provides an exciting field of research. Expansion of knowledge in this area will ultimately improve our ability to efficiently and effectively produce the livestock required to meet the increasing worldwide demand for meat products.

  2. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle (United States)

    Jones, W. J.


    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  3. Identifying suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in developing skeletal muscle in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglin Niu


    Full Text Available The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial to accurately evaluate and normalize the relative expression level of target genes for gene function analysis. However, commonly used reference genes have variable expression levels in developing skeletal muscle. There are few reports that systematically evaluate the expression stability of reference genes across prenatal and postnatal developing skeletal muscle in mammals. Here, we used quantitative PCR to examine the expression levels of 15 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, RNF7, RHOA, RPS18, RPL32, PPIA, H3F3, API5, B2M, AP1S1, DRAP1, TBP, WSB, and VAPB in porcine skeletal muscle at 26 different developmental stages (15 prenatal and 11 postnatal periods. We evaluated gene expression stability using the computer algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results indicated that GAPDH and ACTB had the greatest variability among the candidate genes across prenatal and postnatal stages of skeletal muscle development. RPS18, API5, and VAPB had stable expression levels in prenatal stages, whereas API5, RPS18, RPL32, and H3F3 had stable expression levels in postnatal stages. API5 and H3F3 expression levels had the greatest stability in all tested prenatal and postnatal stages, and were the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization in developing skeletal muscle. Our data provide valuable information for gene expression analysis during different stages of skeletal muscle development in mammals. This information can provide a valuable guide for the analysis of human diseases.

  4. Identifying suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in developing skeletal muscle in pigs. (United States)

    Niu, Guanglin; Yang, Yalan; Zhang, YuanYuan; Hua, Chaoju; Wang, Zishuai; Tang, Zhonglin; Li, Kui


    The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial to accurately evaluate and normalize the relative expression level of target genes for gene function analysis. However, commonly used reference genes have variable expression levels in developing skeletal muscle. There are few reports that systematically evaluate the expression stability of reference genes across prenatal and postnatal developing skeletal muscle in mammals. Here, we used quantitative PCR to examine the expression levels of 15 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, RNF7, RHOA, RPS18, RPL32, PPIA, H3F3, API5, B2M, AP1S1, DRAP1, TBP, WSB, and VAPB) in porcine skeletal muscle at 26 different developmental stages (15 prenatal and 11 postnatal periods). We evaluated gene expression stability using the computer algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results indicated that GAPDH and ACTB had the greatest variability among the candidate genes across prenatal and postnatal stages of skeletal muscle development. RPS18, API5, and VAPB had stable expression levels in prenatal stages, whereas API5, RPS18, RPL32, and H3F3 had stable expression levels in postnatal stages. API5 and H3F3 expression levels had the greatest stability in all tested prenatal and postnatal stages, and were the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization in developing skeletal muscle. Our data provide valuable information for gene expression analysis during different stages of skeletal muscle development in mammals. This information can provide a valuable guide for the analysis of human diseases.

  5. Growth and development of skeletal muscle in mu-calpain knockout mice (United States)

    The calpain system has been identified as a potential candidate in muscle growth and development due to its role in a variety of cellular processes such as cytoskeletal remodeling and myogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and development of skeletal muscle in mu-calpain kno...

  6. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park


    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  7. Development of Electronic Circulating Pump by Axial Air-gap Type Brush less Motor for Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Uk; Lee, Chang Eon; Kim, Young Seok; Yim, Chang Soon [Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Chun [Pyung Taek Technical Junior College (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Sung Won [Bupyung Technical High School (Korea, Republic of)


    Canned type household circulating pump in the country almost depends on the act of imports, however it has disadvantage of low efficiency because an air gap of between rotor and stator is large and when the boiler is not used in a period of summer, a can and a rotor become adhered each other. Accordingly the pump is impossible to drive the initial state, and a lifetime of the pump gets shortening. To overcome these defects a electronic circulating pump by axial air-gap type brush less motor which is completely depart from the general idea for the conventional pump is developed. This paper is verified through experiments that the developed pump has good performance for reduction of size and noise, retrenchment of cost, and improvement of efficiency in comparison with the conventional pump. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  8. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding


    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

  9. The nuclear orphan receptor COUP-TFII is required for limb and skeletal muscle development. (United States)

    Lee, Christopher T; Li, Luoping; Takamoto, Norio; Martin, James F; Demayo, Francesco J; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y


    The nuclear orphan receptor COUP-TFII is widely expressed in multiple tissues and organs throughout embryonic development, suggesting that COUP-TFII is involved in multiple aspects of embryogenesis. Because of the early embryonic lethality of COUP-TFII knockout mice, the role of COUP-TFII during limb development has not been determined. COUP-TFII is expressed in lateral plate mesoderm of the early embryo prior to limb bud formation. In addition, COUP-TFII is also expressed in the somites and skeletal muscle precursors of the limbs. Therefore, in order to study the potential role of COUP-TFII in limb and skeletal muscle development, we bypassed the early embryonic lethality of the COUP-TFII mutant by using two methods. First, embryonic chimera analysis has revealed an obligatory role for COUP-TFII in limb bud outgrowth since mutant cells are unable to contribute to the distally growing limb mesenchyme. Second, we used a conditional-knockout approach to ablate COUP-TFII specifically in the limbs. Loss of COUP-TFII in the limbs leads to hypoplastic skeletal muscle development, as well as shorter limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that COUP-TFII plays an early role in limb bud outgrowth but not limb bud initiation. Also, COUP-TFII is required for appropriate development of the skeletal musculature of developing limbs.

  10. Development of severe skeletal defects in induced SHP-2-deficient adult mice: a model of skeletal malformation in humans with SHP-2 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Bauler


    SHP-2 (encoded by PTPN11 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase required for signal transduction by multiple different cell surface receptors. Humans with germline SHP-2 mutations develop Noonan syndrome or LEOPARD syndrome, which are characterized by cardiovascular, neurological and skeletal abnormalities. To study how SHP-2 regulates tissue homeostasis in normal adults, we used a conditional SHP-2 mouse mutant in which loss of expression of SHP-2 was induced in multiple tissues in response to drug administration. Induced deletion of SHP-2 resulted in impaired hematopoiesis, weight loss and lethality. Most strikingly, induced SHP-2-deficient mice developed severe skeletal abnormalities, including kyphoses and scolioses of the spine. Skeletal malformations were associated with alterations in cartilage and a marked increase in trabecular bone mass. Osteoclasts were essentially absent from the bones of SHP-2-deficient mice, thus accounting for the osteopetrotic phenotype. Studies in vitro revealed that osteoclastogenesis that was stimulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL was defective in SHP-2-deficient mice. At least in part, this was explained by a requirement for SHP-2 in M-CSF-induced activation of the pro-survival protein kinase AKT in hematopoietic precursor cells. These findings illustrate an essential role for SHP-2 in skeletal growth and remodeling in adults, and reveal some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. The model is predicted to be of further use in understanding how SHP-2 regulates skeletal morphogenesis, which could lead to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of skeletal malformations in human patients with SHP-2 mutations.

  11. Autocrine and Paracrine Actions of IGF-I Signaling in Skeletal Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongmei Wang; Daniel D. Bikle; Wenhan Chang


    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates cell growth, survival, and differentiation by acting on the IGF-I receptor, (IGF-IR)-a tyrosine kinase receptor, which elicits diverse intracellular signaling responses. All skeletal cells express IGF-I and IGF-IR. Recent studies using tissue/cell-specific gene knockout mouse models and cell culture techniques have clearly demonstrated that locally produced IGF-I is more critical than the systemic IGF-I in supporting embryonic and postnatal skeletal development and bone remodeling. Local IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling promotes the growth, survival and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteo-blasts, directly and indirectly, by altering other autocrine/paracrine signaling pathways in cartilage and bone, and by enhancing interactions among these skeletal cells through hormonal and physical means. Moreover, local IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling is critical for the anabolic bone actions of growth hormone and parathyroid hormone. Herein, we review evidence supporting the actions of local IGF-I/IGF-IR in the above aspects of skeletal development and remodeling.

  12. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (United States)

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.


    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  13. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches (United States)

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.


    We are investigating the development of the axial instability that occurs on wires in wire-array Z-pinches, which manifests itself as a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma. The modulation is evidently a result of non-uniform ablation of material from the wire core. It is known that the wavelength of this modulation reaches a constant as the pinch develops that is a strong function of the material and little else, thus it is known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we have been imaging individual wires with laser shadowgraphy primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter arrays made with Al, Cu, Ag and other wires. We document the development of this modulation from the beginning of plasma formation and show the wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. The magnetic field is also measured using B-dot probes inside the array. The change from a closed to an open field topology and its relation to the instability growth will be discussed.This research was supported by the Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances program of the National Nuclear Security Administration under DOE Cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057 and by Sandia National Laboratories contract AO258.

  14. Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Biswas; M S Bhagat; L B Rana; A Verma; L M Kukreja


    RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 lasers in kilowatt regime are presently being used for various new scientific applications in addition to laser material processing because of its versatility and superior beam quality. We have indigenously developed a compact 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 laser with moderate beam quality. In this paper the key design features of the laser and the associated high power capacitively coupled RF excitation technique are discussed in detail. Operational characteristics of this system are described along with the experimental findings.

  15. A Developed Methodology in Design of Highly Loaded Tandem Axial Flow Compressor Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Boroomand


    Full Text Available This study, primarily reports the development of a 3D design procedure for axial flow tandem compressor stages and then the method is used to design a highly loaded tandem stage. In order to investigate the effects of such arrangement, another stage with conventional loading with single blade for both rotor and stator rows is designed with similar specification. In order to ease the comparison of results, chord lengths and hub/shroud geometries are selected with the same dimensions. At the next stage a three dimensional numerical model is developed to predict the characteristic performance of both tandem and conventional stages. The model is validated with the experimental results of NASA-67 stage and the level of the accuracy of the model is presented. Employing the model to simulate the performance of both stages at design and offdesign operating points show that, tandem stage can provide higher pressure ratio with acceptable efficiency. In another word, tandem stage is capable having the same pressure ratio at lower rotational speed. The safe operation domain and loss mechanism in tandem stage are also discussed in this report.

  16. Effects of decreased muscle activity on developing axial musculature in nic b107 mutant zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der T.; Schipper, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.


    The present paper discusses the effects of decreased muscle activity (DMA) on embryonic development in the zebrafish. Wild-type zebrafish embryos become mobile around 18 h post-fertilisation, long before the axial musculature is fully differentiated. As a model for DMA, the nicb107 mutant was used.

  17. Continued development of the Nimbus/University of Pittsburgh (UOP) axial flow left ventricular assist system. (United States)

    Thomas, D C; Butler, K C; Taylor, L P; Le Blanc, P; Griffith, B P; Kormos, R L; Borovetz, H S; Litwak, P; Kameneva, M V; Choi, S; Burgreen, G W; Wagner, W R; Wu, Z; Antaki, J F


    Nimbus and the University of Pittsburgh (UOP) have continued the development of a totally implanted axial flow blood pump under the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) program. This 62 cc device has an overall length of 84 mm and an outer diameter of 34.5 mm. The inner diameter of the blood pump is 12 mm. It is being designed to be a totally implanted permanent device. A key achievement during the past year was the completion of the Model 2 pump design. Ten of these pumps have been fabricated and are being used to conduct in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the performance of different materials and hydraulic components. Efforts for optimizing the closed loop speed control have continued using mathematical modeling, computer simulations, and in vitro and in vivo testing. New hydraulic blade designs have been tested using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and flow visualization. A second generation motor was designed with improved efficiency. To support the new motor, a new motor controller fabricated as a surface mount PC board has been completed. The program is now operating under a formal QA system.

  18. TGF-βand BMP signaling in osteoblast, skeletal development, and bone formation, homeostasis and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengrui Wu; Guiqian Chen; and Yi-Ping Li


    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis. Both the Smad and p38 MAPK signaling pathways converge at transcription factors, for example, Runx2 to promote osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte differentiation from mesenchymal precursor cells. TGF-βand BMP signaling is controlled by multiple factors, including the ubiquitin–proteasome system, epigenetic factors, and microRNA. Dysregulated TGF-βand BMP signaling result in a number of bone disorders in humans. Knockout or mutation of TGF-βand BMP signaling-related genes in mice leads to bone abnormalities of varying severity, which enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. There is also crosstalk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and several critical cytokines’ signaling pathways (for example, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, PTHrP, and FGF) to coordinate osteogenesis, skeletal development, and bone homeostasis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte differentiation, skeletal development, cartilage formation, bone formation, bone homeostasis, and related human bone diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling.

  19. Axial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John


    musculature involvement in the majority of myopathies in which paraspinal musculature was examined. Even in diseases named after a certain pattern of non-axial muscle affection, such as facioscapulohumeral and limb girdle muscular dystrophies, affection of the axial musculature was often severe and early...

  20. Development of a highly efficient brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps (United States)

    Kang, K. J.; Jang, G. H.; Sung, S. J.; Chang, J. H.


    This research proposes an effective structure for a brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps. The proposed motor generates torque in both the radial and axial air gaps, while the conventional motor generates torque only in the radial air gap. The proposed motor was optimized to minimize the electromagnetic loss of the motor to increase the effective air gap length and fill-factor of the coil while decreasing the saturation of the core at the same time. The electromagnetic loss was reduced by 35% in comparison with a conventional motor.

  1. Requirement of the mouse I-mfa gene for placental development and skeletal patterning. (United States)

    Kraut, N; Snider, L; Chen, C M; Tapscott, S J; Groudine, M


    The bHLH-repressor protein I-mfa binds to MyoD family members, inhibits their activity, and blocks their nuclear import and binding to DNA. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that mouse I-mfa was highly expressed in extraembryonic lineages, in the sclerotome, and subsequently within mesenchymal precursors of the axial and appendicular skeleton, before chondrogenesis occurs. Targeted deletion of I-mfa in a C57Bl/6 background resulted in embryonic lethality around E10.5, associated with a placental defect and a markedly reduced number of trophoblast giant cells. Overexpression of I-mfa in rat trophoblast (Rcho-1) stem cells induced differentiation into trophoblast giant cells. I-mfa interacted with the bHLH protein Mash2, a negative regulator of trophoblast giant cell formation, and inhibited its transcriptional activity in cell culture. In contrast, I-mfa did not interfere with the activity of the bHLH protein Hand1, a positive regulator of giant cell differentiation. Interestingly, I-mfa-null embryos on a 129/Sv background had no placental defect, generally survived to adulthood, and exhibited delayed caudal neural tube closure and skeletal patterning defects that included fusions of ribs, vertebral bodies and abnormal formation of spinous processes. Our results indicate that I-mfa plays an important role in trophoblast and chondrogenic differentiation by negatively regulating a subset of lineage-restricted bHLH proteins.

  2. Interactome Mapping Reveals Important Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Development of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Cao


    Full Text Available The regulatory relationship and connectivity among genes involved in myogenesis and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle in pigs still remain large challenges. Presentation of gene interactions is a potential way to understand the mechanisms of developmental events in skeletal muscle. In this study, genome-wide transcripts and miRNA profiling was determined for Landrace pigs at four time points using microarray chips. A comprehensive method integrating gene ontology annotation and interactome network mapping was conducted to analyze the biological patterns and interaction modules of muscle development events based on differentially expressed genes and miRNAs. Our results showed that in total 484 genes and 34 miRNAs were detected for the duration from embryonic stage to adult in pigs, which composed two linear expression patterns with consensus changes. Moreover, the gene ontology analysis also disclosed that there were three typical biological events i.e., microstructure assembly of sarcomere at early embryonic stage, myofibril formation at later embryonic stage and function establishments of myoblast cells at postnatal stage. The interactome mappings of different time points also found the down-regulated trend of gene expression existed across the whole duration, which brought a possibility to introduce the myogenesis related miRNAs into the interactome regulatory networks of skeletal muscle in pigs.

  3. Enhanced Development of Skeletal Myotubes from Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. (United States)

    Genovese, Nicholas J; Domeier, Timothy L; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Roberts, R Michael


    The pig is recognized as a valuable model in biomedical research in addition to its agricultural importance. Here we describe a means for generating skeletal muscle efficiently from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSC) in vitro thereby providing a versatile platform for applications ranging from regenerative biology to the ex vivo cultivation of meat. The GSK3B inhibitor, CHIR99021 was employed to suppress apoptosis, elicit WNT signaling events and drive naïve-type piPSC along the mesoderm lineage, and, in combination with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine, to activate an early skeletal muscle transcription program. Terminal differentiation was then induced by activation of an ectopically expressed MYOD1. Myotubes, characterized by myofibril development and both spontaneous and stimuli-elicited excitation-contraction coupling cycles appeared within 11 days. Efficient lineage-specific differentiation was confirmed by uniform NCAM1 and myosin heavy chain expression. These results provide an approach for generating skeletal muscle that is potentially applicable to other pluripotent cell lines and to generating other forms of muscle.

  4. The evolution, development and skeletal identity of the crocodylian pelvis: revisiting a forgotten scientific debate. (United States)

    Claessens, Leon P A M; Vickaryous, Matthew K


    Unlike most tetrapods, in extant crocodylians the acetabulum is formed by only two of the three skeletal elements that constitute the pelvis, the ilium, and ischium. This peculiar arrangement is further confused by various observations that suggest the crocodylian pelvis initially develops from four skeletal elements: the ilium, ischium, pubis, and a novel element, the prepubis. According to one popular historical hypothesis, in crocodylians (and many extinct archosaurs), the pubis fuses with the ischium during skeletogenesis, leaving the prepubis as a distinct element, albeit one which is excluded from the acetabulum. Whereas the notion of a distinct prepubic element was once a topic of considerable interest, it has never been properly resolved. Here, we combine data gleaned from a developmental series of Alligator mississippiensis embryos, with a revised interpretation of fossil evidence from numerous outgroups to Crocodylia. We demonstrate that the modern crocodylian pelvis is composed of only three elements: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The reported fourth pelvic element is an unossified portion of the ischium. Interpretations of pelvic skeletal homology have featured prominently in sauropsid systematics, and the unambiguous identification of the crocodylian pubis provides an important contribution to address larger scale evolutionary questions associated with locomotion and respiration.

  5. Development of highly effective cryogenic printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) with low axial conduction (United States)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Kim, Jin-Hyuck; Jeong, Sangkwon; Jung, Jeheon


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the thermal and hydraulic performance of a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) for use in the cryogenic temperature region. Compact PCHEs with multiple corrugated, longitudinal flow microchannels were fabricated using chemical etching and diffusion bonding to evaluate their thermal and hydraulic performance. The testing of the PCHEs was conducted with helium gas at cryogenic temperatures. The pressure drop and thermal effectiveness values obtained from the measured pressures and temperatures are discussed. The thermal performance was predominantly affected by the axial conduction heat transfer in the low Reynolds number ranges of theses experiments. A simple performance calculation model is presented, and the effectiveness calculated from the model is compared with the experimental data. The design of the cryogenic PCHE was then modified to reduce axial conduction losses.

  6. Epigenetic influence of KAT6B and HDAC4 in the development of skeletal malocclusion (United States)

    Huh, Ahrin; Horton, Michael J.; Cuenco, Karen T.; Raoul, Gwenael; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Ferri, Joel; Sciote, James J.


    Introduction Genetic influences on the development of malocclusion include heritable effects on both masticatory muscles and jaw skeletal morphology. Beyond genetic variations, however, the characteristics of muscle and bone are also influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that produce differences in gene expression. We studied 2 enzymes known to change gene expressions through histone modifications, chromatin-modifying histone acetyltransferase KAT6B and deacetylase HDAC4, to determine their associations with musculoskeletal variations in jaw deformation malocclusions. Methods Samples of masseter muscle were obtained from subjects undergoing orthognathic surgery from 6 malocclusion classes based on skeletal sagittal and vertical dysplasia. The muscles were characterized for fiber type properties by immunohistochemistry, and their total RNA was isolated for gene expression studies by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Gene expressions for fast isoforms of myosins and contractile regulatory proteins and for KAT6B and HDAC4 were severalfold greater in masseter muscles from a patient with a deepbite compared with one with an open bite, and genes related to exercise and activity did not differ substantially. In the total population, expressions of HDAC4 (P = 0.03) and KAT6B (P = 0.004) were significantly greater in subjects with sagittal Class III than in Class II malocclusion, whereas HDAC4 tended to correlate negatively with slow myosin type I and positively with fast myosin gene, especially type IIX. Conclusions These data support other published reports of epigenetic regulation in the determination of skeletal muscle fiber phenotypes and bone growth. Further investigations are needed to elucidate how this regulatory model might apply to musculoskeletal development and malocclusion. PMID:24075665

  7. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu


    n-Dodecane is a promising surrogate fuel for diesel engine study because its physicochemical properties are similar to those of the practical diesel fuels. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane with 105 species and 420 reactions was developed for spray combustion simulations. The reduction starts from the most recent detailed mechanism for n-alkanes consisting of 2755 species and 11,173 reactions developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An algorithm combining direct relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR), laminar premixed flame and counter flow diffusion flame. Then it was coupled with well-established spray models and further validated in 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulations under engine-like conditions. These simulations were compared with the recent experiments with n-dodecane as a surrogate for diesel fuels. It can be seen that combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame lift-off length were well captured by the skeletal mechanism, particularly under conditions with high ambient temperatures. Simulations also captured the transient flame development phenomenon fairly well. The results further show that ignition delay may not be the only factor controlling the stabilisation of the present flames since a good match in ignition delay does not necessarily result in improved flame lift-off length prediction. The work of Zhaoyu Luo, Sibendu Som, Max Plomer, William J. Pitz, Douglas E. Longman and Tianfeng Lu was authored as part of their official duties as Employees of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 USC. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under US Law. S. Mani Sarathy hereby waives his right to

  8. Effect of weak static magnetic fields on the development of cultured skeletal muscle cells. (United States)

    Surma, Sergei V; Belostotskaya, Galina B; Shchegolev, Boris F; Stefanov, Vasily E


    We studied the effect produced on the development and functional activity of skeletal muscle cells from newborn Wistar rats in primary culture by weak static magnetic fields (WSMF; 60-400 µT) with a high capacity of penetrating the biological media. To reduce the impact of external magnetic fields, cells were cultured at 37 °C in a multilayered shielding chamber with the attenuation coefficient equal to 160. WSMF inside the chamber was created by a circular permanent magnet. We found that the application of WSMF with the magnetic field strength only a few times that of the geomagnetic field can accelerate the development of skeletal muscle cells, resulting in the formation of multinuclear hypertrophied myotubes. WSMF was shown to induce 1.5- to 3.5-fold rise in the concentration of intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i due to the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptors (RyR), which increases in the maturation of myotubes. We also found that fully differentiated myotubes at late stages of development were less sensitive to WSMF, manifesting a gradual decrease in the frequency of contractions. However, myotubes at the stage when electromechanical coupling was forming dramatically reduced the frequency of contractions during the first minutes of their exposure to WSMF.

  9. Spontaneous development of bilateral subdural hematomas in an infant with benign infantile hydrocephalus: color Doppler assessment of vessels traversing extra-axial spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, John; Spektor, Vadim; Pramanik, Bidyut; Rivera, Rafael; Pinkney, Lynne; Fefferman, Nancy [New York University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)


    We present an infant with macrocrania, who initially demonstrated prominent extra-axial fluid collections on sonography of the brain, compatible with benign infantile hydrocephalus (BIH). Because of increasing macrocrania, a follow-up sonogram of the brain was performed; it revealed progressive enlargement of the extra-axial spaces, which now had echogenic debris. Color Doppler US showed bridging veins traversing these extra-axial spaces, so it was initially thought that these spaces were subarachnoid in nature (positive cortical vein sign). However, an arachnoid membrane was identified superior to the cortex, and there was compression of true cortical vessels beneath this dural membrane. An MRI of the brain showed the extra-axial spaces to represent bilateral subdural hematomas. The pathogenesis of spontaneous development of the subdural hematomas, in the setting of BIH, is discussed. We also emphasize that visualizing traversing bridging veins through extra-axial spaces does not necessarily imply that these spaces are subarachnoid in origin. (orig.)

  10. Orthopedic coordination of dentofacial development in skeletal Class II malocclusion in conjunction with edgewise therapy. Part I. (United States)

    Bass, N M


    The skeletal Class II malocclusion may be considered to develop as a failure of the coordinating process to maintain harmonious relationships within the developing dentofacial apparatus. If the skeletal elements are too far apart for adaptation to occur and/or if there are functional abnormalities of the orofacial musculature which inhibit coordination from taking place, a malocclusion will result. An orthopedic technique and appliance system has been developed with the intention of improving those factors responsible for the development and perpetuation of the skeletal Class II malocclusion in a primary stage of treatment. This is accomplished by means of restraint and redirection of forward maxillary growth and an increase in the velocity of mandibular growth. Concurrently, adverse soft-tissue influences are eliminated or ameliorated. Edgewise appliance therapy is subsequently carried out for the final correction. The subject is considered in two articles. This first article describes the effects of the restraint of maxillary growth on craniofacial development and the dental changes produced by a maxillary removable splint with extraoral traction and shows how they can be used clinically for correction of the skeletal Class II malocclusion. The experimental and clinical evidence supporting this approach is considered, and case histories show the clinical use of the maxillary splint. This form of maxillary therapy for the skeletal Class II malocclusion has limitations, and it is desirable for it to be incorporated into a comprehensive orthopedic system.

  11. Growth hormone mediates pubertal skeletal development independent of hepatic IGF-1 production. (United States)

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Sun, Hui; Beth-On, Mordechay; Wu, Yingjie; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana


    Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions.

  12. Loss of ATRX in chondrocytes has minimal effects on skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Solomon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the human ATRX gene cause developmental defects, including skeletal deformities and dwarfism. ATRX encodes a chromatin remodeling protein, however the role of ATRX in skeletal development is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced Atrx deletion in mouse cartilage using the Cre-loxP system, with Cre expression driven by the collagen II (Col2a1 promoter. Growth rate, body size and weight, and long bone length did not differ in Atrx(Col2cre mice compared to control littermates. Histological analyses of the growth plate did not reveal any differences between control and mutant mice. Expression patterns of Sox9, a transcription factor required for cartilage morphogenesis, and p57, a marker of cell cycle arrest and hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation, was unaffected. However, loss of ATRX in cartilage led to a delay in the ossification of the hips in some mice. We also observed hindlimb polydactily in one out of 61 mutants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that ATRX is not directly required for development or growth of cartilage in the mouse, suggesting that the short stature in ATR-X patients is caused by defects in cartilage-extrinsic mechanisms.

  13. Development of axial asymmetry in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H., E-mail: [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Odahara, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-machi 1-1, Osaka 560-0043 Toyonaka (Japan); Sumikama, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Nishimura, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Li, Z. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miyashita, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Sato, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Prochniak, L. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Baba, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Berryman, J.S. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blasi, N. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bracco, A.; Camera, F. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Doornenbal, P. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Go, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    The neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo has been investigated by means of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following the {beta}-decay of {sup 110}Nb, produced using in-flight fission of a {sup 238}U beam at 345 MeV/nucleon at the RIBF facility. In addition to the ground-band members reported previously, spectroscopic information on the low-lying levels of the quasi-{gamma} band built on the second 2{sup +} state at 494 keV has been obtained for the first time. The experimental finding of the second 2{sup +} state being lower than the yrast 4{sup +} level suggests that axially-asymmetric {gamma} softness is substantially enhanced in this nucleus. The experimental results are compared with model calculations based on the general Bohr Hamiltonian method. The systematics of the low-lying levels in even-even A{approx}110 nuclei is discussed in comparison with that in the neutron-rich A{approx}190 region, by introducing the quantity E{sub S}/E(2{sub 1}{sup +}), E{sub S}=E(2{sub 2}{sup +})-E(4{sub 1}{sup +}), as a global signature of the structural evolution involving axial asymmetry.

  14. The effect of growth-mimicking continuous strain on the early stages of skeletal development in micromass culture. (United States)

    Klumpers, Darinka D; Smit, Theo H; Mooney, David J


    Embryonic skeletogenesis involves proliferation, condensation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells, and the strains and stresses inherent to these processes have been hypothesized to influence skeletal development. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growth-mimicking strain on the process of early skeletal development in vitro. To this end, we applied continuous uniaxial strain to embryonic skeletal precursor cells in micromass culture. Strain was applied at different times of culture to specifically address the effect of mechanical loading on the sequential stages of cellular proliferation, condensation and differentiation. We found that growth-mimicking strain at all three times did not affect proliferation or chondrogenic differentiation under the tested conditions. However, the timing of the applied strain did play a role in the density of mesenchymal condensations. This finding suggests that a mechanically dynamic environment, and specifically strain, can influence skeletal patterning. The growth-mimicking micromass model presented here may be a useful tool for further studies into the role of mechanical loading in early skeletal development.

  15. MicroRNA in skeletal muscle development, growth, atrophy, and disease. (United States)

    Kovanda, Anja; Režen, Tadeja; Rogelj, Boris


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are important global- as well as tissue- and cell-type-specific regulators of gene expression. Muscle-specific miRNAs or myomirs have been shown to control various processes in skeletal muscles, from myogenesis and muscle homeostasis to different responses to environmental stimuli, such as exercise. Importantly, myomirs are also involved in the development of muscle atrophy arising from aging, immobility, prolonged exposure to microgravity, or muscular and neuromuscular disorders. Additionally, muscle atrophy is both induced by and exacerbates many important chronic and infectious diseases. As global yet specific muscle regulators, myomirs are also good candidates for therapeutic use. Understanding the dynamics of myomirs expression and their role in the development of disease is necessary to determine their potential for muscle atrophy prevention.

  16. NPPB and ACAN, two novel SHOX2 transcription targets implicated in skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Aza-Carmona

    Full Text Available SHOX and SHOX2 transcription factors are highly homologous, with even identical homeodomains. Genetic alterations in SHOX result in two skeletal dysplasias; Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD, while no human genetic disease has been linked to date with SHOX2. SHOX2 is, though, involved in skeletal development, as shown by different knockout mice models. Due to the high homology between SHOX and SHOX2, and their functional redundancy during heart development, we postulated that SHOX2 might have the same transcriptional targets and cofactors as SHOX in limb development. We selected two SHOX transcription targets regulated by different mechanisms: 1 the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB involved in the endochondral ossification signalling and directly activated by SHOX; and 2 Aggrecan (ACAN, a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix, regulated by the cooperation of SHOX with the SOX trio (SOX5, SOX6 and SOX9 via the protein interaction between SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX. Using the luciferase assay we have demonstrated that SHOX2, like SHOX, regulates NPPB directly whilst activates ACAN via its cooperation with the SOX trio. Subsequently, we have identified and characterized the protein domains implicated in the SHOX2 dimerization and also its protein interaction with SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX using the yeast-two hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Immunohistochemistry of human fetal growth plates from different time points demonstrated that SHOX2 is coexpressed with SHOX and the members of the SOX trio. Despite these findings, no mutation was identified in SHOX2 in a cohort of 83 LWD patients with no known molecular defect, suggesting that SHOX2 alterations do not cause LWD. In conclusion, our work has identified the first cofactors and two new transcription targets of SHOX2 in limb development, and we hypothesize a time- and tissue-specific functional redundancy between SHOX and SHOX2.

  17. Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning. (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J


    Mammals show a very low level of variation in vertebral count, particularly in the neck. Phenotypes exhibited at various stages during the development of the axial skeleton may play a key role in testing mechanisms recently proposed to explain this conservatism. Here, we provide osteogenetic data that identify developmental criteria with which to recognize cervical vs. noncervical vertebrae in mammals. Except for sloths, all mammals show the late ossification of the caudal-most centra in the neck after other centra and neural arches. In sloths with 8-10 ribless neck vertebrae, the caudal-most neck centra ossify early, matching the pattern observed in cranial thoracic vertebrae of other mammals. Accordingly, we interpret the ribless neck vertebrae of three-toed sloths caudal to V7 as thoracic based on our developmental criterion. Applied to the unusual vertebral phenotype of long-necked sloths, these data support the interpretation that elements of the axial skeleton with origins from distinct mesodermal tissues have repatterned over the course of evolution.

  18. Osteoarticular tissue infection and development of skeletal pathology in murine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. Magnani


    Brucellosis, a frequent bacterial zoonosis, can produce debilitating chronic disease with involvement of multiple organs in human patients. Whereas acute brucellosis is well studied using the murine animal model, long-term complications of host-pathogen interaction remain largely elusive. Human brucellosis frequently results in persistent, chronic osteoarticular system involvement, with complications such as arthritis, spondylitis and sacroiliitis. Here, we focused on identifying infectious sites in the mouse that parallel Brucella melitensis foci observed in patients. In vivo imaging showed rapid bacterial dispersal to multiple sites of the murine axial skeleton. In agreement with these findings, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of bacteria in bones and limbs, and in the lower spine vertebrae of the axial skeleton where they were preferentially located in the bone marrow. Surprisingly, some animals developed arthritis in paws and spine after infection, but without obvious bacteria in these sites. The identification of Brucella in the bones of mice corroborates the findings in humans that these osteoarticular sites are important niches for the persistence of Brucella in the host, but the mechanisms that mediate pathological manifestations in these sites remain unclear. Future studies addressing the immune responses within osteoarticular tissue foci could elucidate important tissue injury mediators and Brucella survival strategies.

  19. Elastic analysis of thermal gradient bowing in rod-type fuel elements subjected to axial thrust (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.B.


    Thermal radient bowing of rod type fuel elements can be analyzed in terms of the deflections of a precurved beam. The fundamental aspects of an analysis of axially compressed multispan beams are given. Elasticity of supports in both axial and transverse directions is considered; the technique is applicable to problems in which the axial thrust depends on the transverse deflection as well as problems with prescribed axial thrust. The formulas presented constitute the theory for a computer program of broad applicability, not only in the analysis of fuel rod bowing, but also to almost any multispan beam, particularly when the effects of axial loads cannot be neglected. 17 references. (NSA 22: 22866)

  20. Development of Ar-BINMOL-Derived Atropisomeric Ligands with Matched Axial and sp(3) Central Chirality for Catalytic Asymmetric Transformations. (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Xu, Li-Wen


    Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in the development of 1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol (BINOL)-derived chiral ligands. Six years ago, a working hypothesis, that the chirality matching of hybrid chirality on a ligand could probably lead to high levels of stereoselective induction, prompted us to use the axial chirality of BINOL derivatives to generate new stereogenic centers within the same molecule with high stereoselectivity, obtaining as a result sterically favorable ligands for applications in asymmetric catalysis. This Personal Account describes our laboratory's efforts toward the development of a novel class of BINOL-derived atropisomers bearing both axial and sp(3) central chirality, the so-called Ar-BINMOLs, for asymmetric synthesis. Furthermore, on the basis of the successful application of Ar-BINMOLs and their derivatives in asymmetric catalysis, the search for highly efficient and enantioselective processes also compelled us to give special attention to the BINOL-derived multifunctional ligands with multiple stereogenic centers for use in catalytic asymmetric reactions.

  1. Early interception of skeletal-dental factors predisposing to temporomandibular disorders during child development. (United States)

    Romagnoli, M; Landi, N; Manfredini, D; Gandini, P; Bosco, M


    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comprise a heterogoneous group of pathologies or dysfunctions of the temporomandibular joints and their related neuromuscular systems. The multifactoral etiology of these disorders raises serious diagnostic and therapeutic problems. A modern approach demands close collaboration between a number of specialists in order to create the best possible treatment plan. The progressive nature of certain forms of TMD, combined with the major advantages deriving from early treatment, encourage the dental surgeon to carry out early interception of all those dental and/or skeletal anomalies which may determine the dysharmonic function and development of the facial mass, even though such anomalies may not represent the sole causes of the various forms of TMD. The general practitioner, and to an even greater extent the pediatrician, may therefore play a role of primary importance as those medical influences capable of early detection of TMD risk situations.

  2. Endosulfan Impacts on the Developing Chick Embryos: Morphological, Morphometric and Skeletal Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Mobarak


    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effects of the organochlorine pesticide Endosulfan (35% EC on the developing chick embryos. After 24 h of eggs incubation, a single dose of 7 or 14 or 21 mg Endosulfan/egg was administered through the egg air space at once. The eggs were opened on embryonic days 6 and 12 and the embryos were evaluated for viability, wet body weights and various morphological, morphometric and skeletal changes. Skeletons of 12-day-old embryos were stained by alizarin red S and Alcian blue using a whole mount double cartilage and bone staining technique. Comparing the three doses with control and with each others, the high dose treatment resulted in statistically significant more embryonic deaths, while the mid-dose caused statistically more malformed embryos. On both embryonic days, the treated embryos exhibited dose-related growth retardation, as reflected by significant reductions of embryonic wet body weight, anterior-posterior head and crown-rump lengths as well as generalized edema and hematomas formations. Also, on embryonic day 12 significant reductions of beak length, eye diameters and measurements of wing and hind-limb parts were recorded. Abnormal survivors showed high percentages of limb deformities (as limb paralysis, clinodactyly, flexion and shortness of limbs or digits, microphthalmia, microtia and omphalocele. The skeleton of treated embryos showed anomalies and incomplete chondrification and/or ossification of some skull parts (interorbital septum, frontals, parietals, palatines and external auditory apertures, cervicals, scapulae, ribs, sacrals and caudals. These findings suggest that Endosulfan exhibits embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing chick embryos in terms of growth retardation, external and skeletal malformations.

  3. Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Expression in Developing Neonatal Skeletal Muscle: Involvement of the Nerve, Gravity, and Thyroid State (United States)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Adams, G.; Haddad, F.; Zeng, M.; Qin, A.; Qin, L.; McCue, S.; Bodell, P.


    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene family encodes at least six MHC proteins (herein designated as neonatal, embryonic, slow type I (beta), and fast IIa, IIx, and IIb) that are expressed in skeletal muscle in a muscle-specific and developmentally-regulated fashion. At birth, both antigravity (e.g. soleus) and locomotor (e.g., plantaris) skeletal muscles are undifferentiated relative to the adult MHC phenotype such that the neonatal and embryonic MHC isoforms account for 80 - 90% of the MHC pool in a fast locomotor muscle; whereas, the embryonic and slow, type I isoforms account for approx. 90% of the pool in a typical antigravity muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of an intact nerve, gravity and thyroid hormone (T3), as well as certain interactions of these interventions, on MHC gene expression in developing neonatal skeletal muscles of rodents.

  4. Conrad Deep, Northern Red Sea: Development of an early stage ocean deep within the axial depression (United States)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Hübscher, C.; Gajewski, D.


    The northern Red Sea represents a continental rift in its final stage and close to the following stage of seafloor spreading. Ocean deeps within the evaporites of the northern Red Sea seem to accompany this process and are thought to be surface expressions of first seafloor spreading cells. In 1999 during R/V Meteor cruise M44/3 a dense multichannel seismic and hydroacoustic survey was conducted in order to investigate the initial formation process of the Conrad Deep, a young northern Red Sea deep. Three seismic units were differentiated in the uppermost part of the Miocene evaporites and the Plio-Quaternary sediments. A weakness zone within the evaporites, oblique to the main extension direction of the Red Sea, led to a transtension process within the evaporites that opened the deep. Its formation is directly related to the emplacement of magmatic bodies in its vicinity and the focusing of the Red Sea extension to the axial depression. The Conrad Deep is an intra-evaporite basin that cannot be regarded as surficial expression of a basement structure as the low shear strength of the evaporites decouple the sediments from the basement. However, its position and shape in combination with the accompanying geophysical anomalies point to a strong correlation with the Red Sea rifting process.

  5. Development of an accurate molecular mechanics model for buckling behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression. (United States)

    Safaei, B; Naseradinmousavi, P; Rahmani, A


    In the present paper, an analytical solution based on a molecular mechanics model is developed to evaluate the elastic critical axial buckling strain of chiral multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To this end, the total potential energy of the system is calculated with the consideration of the both bond stretching and bond angular variations. Density functional theory (DFT) in the form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is implemented to evaluate force constants used in the molecular mechanics model. After that, based on the principle of molecular mechanics, explicit expressions are proposed to obtain elastic surface Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the single-walled carbon nanotubes corresponding to different types of chirality. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the influence of the type of chirality, tube diameter, and number of tube walls in detailed. An excellent agreement is found between the present numerical results and those found in the literature which confirms the validity as well as the accuracy of the present closed-form solution. It is found that the value of critical axial buckling strain exhibit significant dependency on the type of chirality and number of tube walls.

  6. Role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis:learning from mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Su; Min Jin; Lin Chen


    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays essential roles in bone development and diseases. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs in humans can cause various congenital bone diseases, including chondrodysplasia syndromes, craniosynostosis syndromes and syndromes with dysregulated phosphate metabolism. FGF/FGFR signaling is also an important pathway involved in the maintenance of adult bone homeostasis. Multiple kinds of mouse models, mimicking human skeleton diseases caused by missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs, have been established by knock-in/out and transgenic technologies. These genetically modified mice provide good models for studying the role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeleton development and homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the mouse models of FGF signaling-related skeleton diseases and recent progresses regarding the molecular mechanisms, underlying the role of FGFs/FGFRs in the regulation of bone development and homeostasis. This review also provides a perspective view on future works to explore the roles of FGF signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis.

  7. Paternal Low Protein Diet Programs Preimplantation Embryo Gene Expression, Fetal Growth and Skeletal Development in Mice. (United States)

    Watkins, Adam J; Sirovica, Slobodan; Stokes, Ben; Isaacs, Mark; Addison, Owen; Martin, Richard A


    Defining the mechanisms underlying the programming of early life growth is fundamental for improving adult health and wellbeing. While the association between maternal diet, offspring growth and adult disease risk is well-established, the effect of father's diet on offspring development are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed male mice an imbalanced low protein diet (LPD) to determine the impact on post-fertilisation development and fetal growth. We observed that in preimplantation embryos derived from LPD fed males, expression of multiple genes within the central metabolic AMPK pathway was reduced. In late gestation, paternal LPD programmed increased fetal weight, however, placental weight was reduced, resulting in an elevated fetal:placental weight ratio. Analysis of gene expression patterns revealed increased levels of transporters for calcium, amino acids and glucose within LPD placentas. Furthermore, placental expression of the epigenetic regulators Dnmt1 and Dnmt3L were increased also, coinciding with altered patterns of maternal and paternal imprinted genes. More strikingly, we observed fetal skeletal development was perturbed in response to paternal LPD. Here, while offspring of LPD fed males possessed larger skeletons, their bones comprised lower volumes of high mineral density in combination with reduced maturity of bone apatite. These data offer new insight in the underlying programming mechanisms linking poor paternal diet at the time of conception with the development and growth of his offspring.

  8. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development. (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M; Baier, David B; Jackson, Brandon E; Dial, Kenneth P


    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an "avian" flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  9. Discovery of porcine microRNAs and profiling from skeletal muscle tissues during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available MiRNAs (microRNAs play critical roles in many important biological processes such as growth and development in mammals. In this study, we identified hundreds of porcine miRNA candidates through in silico prediction and analyzed their expression in developing skeletal muscle using microarray. Microarray screening using RNA samples prepared from a 33-day whole embryo and an extra embryo membrane validated 296 of the predicted candidates. Comparative expression profiling across samples of longissimus muscle collected from 33-day and 65-day post-gestation fetuses, as well as adult pigs, identified 140 differentially expressed miRNAs amongst the age groups investigated. The differentially expressed miRNAs showed seven distinctive types of expression patterns, suggesting possible involvement in certain biological processes. Five of the differentially expressed miRNAs were validated using real-time PCR. In silico analysis of the miRNA-mRNA interaction sites suggested that the potential mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs may play important roles in muscle growth and development.

  10. Androgen effects on skeletal muscle: implications for the development and management of frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew DL O'Connell


    Full Text Available Androgens have potent anabolic effects on skeletal muscle and decline with age in parallel to losses in muscle mass and strength. This loss of muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is the central event in development of frailty, the vulnerable health status that presages adverse outcomes and rapid functional decline in older adults. The potential role of falling androgen levels in the development of frailty and their utility as function promoting therapies in older men has therefore attracted considerable attention. This review summarizes current concepts and definitions in muscle ageing, sarcopenia and frailty, and evaluates recent developments in the study of androgens and frailty. Current evidence from observational and interventional studies strongly supports an effect of androgens on muscle mass in ageing men, but effects on muscle strength and particularly physical function have been less clear. Androgen treatment has been generally well-tolerated in studies of older men, but concerns remain over higher dose treatments and use in populations with high cardiovascular risk. The first trials of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs suggest similar effects on muscle mass and function to traditional androgen therapies in older adults. Important future directions include the use of these agents in combination with exercise training to promote functional ability across different populations of older adults, as well as more focus on the relationships between concurrent changes in hormone levels, body composition and physical function in observational studies.

  11. Androgen effects on skeletal muscle: implications for the development and management of frailty. (United States)

    O'Connell, Matthew D L; Wu, Frederick C W


    Androgens have potent anabolic effects on skeletal muscle and decline with age in parallel to losses in muscle mass and strength. This loss of muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is the central event in development of frailty, the vulnerable health status that presages adverse outcomes and rapid functional decline in older adults. The potential role of falling androgen levels in the development of frailty and their utility as function promoting therapies in older men has therefore attracted considerable attention. This review summarizes current concepts and definitions in muscle ageing, sarcopenia and frailty, and evaluates recent developments in the study of androgens and frailty. Current evidence from observational and interventional studies strongly supports an effect of androgens on muscle mass in ageing men, but effects on muscle strength and particularly physical function have been less clear. Androgen treatment has been generally well-tolerated in studies of older men, but concerns remain over higher dose treatments and use in populations with high cardiovascular risk. The first trials of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) suggest similar effects on muscle mass and function to traditional androgen therapies in older adults. Important future directions include the use of these agents in combination with exercise training to promote functional ability across different populations of older adults, as well as more focus on the relationships between concurrent changes in hormone levels, body composition and physical function in observational studies.

  12. Recruitment of skeletal muscle progenitors to secondary sites: a role for CXCR4/SDF-1 signalling in skeletal muscle development. (United States)

    Masyuk, Maryna; Brand-Saberi, Beate


    During embryonic development, myogenesis occurs in different functional muscle groups at different time points depending on the availability of their final destinations. Primary trunk muscle consists of the intrinsic dorsal (M. erector spinae) and ventral (cervical, thoracic, abdominal) muscles. In contrast, secondary trunk muscles are established from progenitor cells that have migrated initially from the somites into the limb buds and thereafter returned to the trunk. Furthermore, craniofacial muscle constitutes a group that originates from four different sources and employs a different set of regulatory molecules. Development of muscle groups at a distance from their origins involves the maintenance of a pool of progenitor cells capable of proliferation and directed cell migration. We review here the data concerning somite-derived progenitor cell migration to the limbs and subsequent retrograde migration in the establishment of secondary trunk muscle in chicken and mouse. We review the function of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in the control of this process referring to our previous work in shoulder muscle and cloacal/perineal muscle development. Some human anatomical variations and malformations of secondary trunk muscles are discussed.

  13. Expression of Wnt signaling skeletal development genes in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). (United States)

    D'Souza, Damian G; Rana, Kesha; Milley, Kristi M; MacLean, Helen E; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Bell, Justin; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Richardson, Samantha J; Danks, Janine A


    Jawed vertebrates (Gnasthostomes) are broadly separated into cartilaginous fishes (Chondricthyes) and bony vertebrates (Osteichthyes). Cartilaginous fishes are divided into chimaeras (e.g. ratfish, rabbit fish and elephant shark) and elasmobranchs (e.g. sharks, rays and skates). Both cartilaginous fish and bony vertebrates are believed to have a common armoured bony ancestor (Class Placodermi), however cartilaginous fish are believed to have lost bone. This study has identified and investigated genes involved in skeletal development in vertebrates, in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Ctnnb1 (β-catenin), Sfrp (secreted frizzled protein) and a single Sost or Sostdc1 gene (sclerostin or sclerostin domain-containing protein 1) were identified in the elephant shark genome and found to be expressed in a number of tissues, including cartilage. β-catenin was also localized in several elephant shark tissues. The expression of these genes, which belong to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is required for normal bone formation in mammals. These findings in the cartilaginous skeleton of elephant shark support the hypothesis that the common ancestor of cartilaginous fishes and bony vertebrates had the potential for making bone.

  14. A new take on an old story: chick limb organ culture for skeletal niche development and regenerative medicine evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Smith


    Full Text Available Scientific research and progress, particularly in the drug discovery and regenerative medicine fields, is typically dependent on suitable animal models to develop new and improved clinical therapies for injuries and diseases. In vivo model systems are frequently utilised, but these models are expensive, highly complex and pose a number of ethical considerations leading to the development and use of a number of alternative ex vivo model systems. The ex vivo embryonic chick long bone and limb bud models have been utilised in the scientific research field as a model to understand skeletal development for over eighty years. The rapid development of avian skeletal tissues, coupled with the ease of experimental manipulation, availability of genome sequence and the presence of multiple cell and tissue types has seen such model systems gain significant research interest in the last few years in the tissue engineering field. The models have been explored both as systems for understanding the developmental bone niche and as potential testing tools for tissue engineering strategies for bone repair and regeneration. This review details the evolution of the chick limb organ culture system and presents recent innovative developments and emerging techniques and technologies applied to these models that are aiding our understanding of skeletal developmental and regenerative medicine research and application.

  15. Development of Axial Compressor Heat-Extraction Capability for Thermal Management Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes a small business innovation research (SBIR) program for a novel compressor heat-extraction development program in response to...

  16. Embryonic development of Python sebae - I: Staging criteria and macroscopic skeletal morphogenesis of the head and limbs. (United States)

    Boughner, Julia C; Buchtová, Marcela; Fu, Katherine; Diewert, Virginia; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Richman, Joy M


    This study explores the post-ovipositional craniofacial development of the African Rock Python (Python sebae). We first describe a staging system based on external characteristics and next use whole-mount skeletal staining supplemented with Computed tomography (CT) scanning to examine skeletal development. Our results show that python embryos are in early stages of organogenesis at the time of laying, with separate facial prominences and pharyngeal clefts still visible. Limb buds are also visible. By 11 days (stage 3), the chondrocranium is nearly fully formed; however, few intramembranous bones can be detected. One week later (stage 4), many of the intramembranous upper and lower jaw bones are visible but the calvaria are not present. Skeletal elements in the limbs also begin to form. Between stages 4 (day 18) and 7 (day 44), the complete set of intramembranous bones in the jaws and calvaria develops. Hindlimb development does not progress beyond stage 6 (33 days) and remains rudimentary throughout adult life. In contrast to other reptiles, there are two rows of teeth in the upper jaw. The outer tooth row is attached to the maxillary and premaxillary bones, whereas the inner row is attached to the pterygoid and palatine bones. Erupted teeth can be seen in whole-mount stage 10 specimens and are present in an unerupted, mineralized state at stage 7. Micro-CT analysis reveals that all the young membranous bones can be recognized even out of the context of the skull. These data demonstrate intrinsic patterning of the intramembranous bones, even though they form without a cartilaginous template. In addition, intramembranous bone morphology is established prior to muscle function, which can influence bone shape through differential force application. After careful staging, we conclude that python skeletal development occurs slowly enough to observe in good detail the early stages of craniofacial skeletogenesis. Thus, reptilian animal models will offer unique

  17. Thoracic skeletal defects and cardiac malformations: a common epigenetic link? (United States)

    Weston, Andrea D; Ozolins, Terence R S; Brown, Nigel A


    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects in humans. In addition, cardiac malformations represent the most frequently identified anomaly in teratogenicity experiments with laboratory animals. To explore the mechanisms of these drug-induced defects, we developed a model in which pregnant rats are treated with dimethadione, resulting in a high incidence of heart malformations. Interestingly, these heart defects were accompanied by thoracic skeletal malformations (cleft sternum, fused ribs, extra or missing ribs, and/or wavy ribs), which are characteristic of anterior-posterior (A/P) homeotic transformations and/or disruptions at one or more stages in somite development. A review of other teratogenicity studies suggests that the co-occurrence of these two disparate malformations is not unique to dimethadione, rather it may be a more general phenomenon caused by various structurally unrelated agents. The coexistence of cardiac and thoracic skeletal malformations has also presented clinically, suggesting a mechanistic link between cardiogenesis and skeletal development. Evidence from genetically modified mice reveals that several genes are common to heart development and to formation of the axial skeleton. Some of these genes are important in regulating chromatin architecture, while others are tightly controlled by chromatin-modifying proteins. This review focuses on the role of these epigenetic factors in development of the heart and axial skeleton, and examines the hypothesis that posttranslational modifications of core histones may be altered by some developmental toxicants.

  18. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Chengyong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Zuo Zhenghong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  19. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development


    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei


    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to further our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because of a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletog...

  20. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development. (United States)

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei


    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to furthering our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt, similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because it plays a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletogenesis. To overcome the early lethality associated with the inactivation of Gpr177 in mice, conditional gene deletion is used to assess its functionality. Here we report the generation of four different mouse models with Gpr177 deficiency in various skeletogenic cell types. The loss of Gpr177 severely impairs development of the craniofacial and body skeletons, demonstrating its requirement for intramembranous and endochondral ossifications, respectively. Defects in the expansion of skeletal precursors and their differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes suggest that Wnt production and signaling mediated by Gpr177 cannot be substituted. Because the Gpr177 ablation impairs Wnt secretion, we therefore identify the sources of Wnt proteins essential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. The intercross of Wnt signaling between distinct cell types is carefully orchestrated and necessary for skeletogenesis. Our findings lead to a proposed mechanism by which Gpr177 controls skeletal development through modulation of autocrine and paracrine Wnt signals in a lineage-specific fashion.

  1. The hub wall boundary layer development and losses in an axial flow compressor rotor passage (United States)

    Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.


    The hub wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage including the rotor passage is experimentally investigated. A miniature five-hole probe was employed to measure the hub wall boundary layer inside the inlet guide vane passage, upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The hub wall boundary layer inside the rotor passage was acquired using a rotating miniature five-hole probe. The boundary layer is well behaved upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The migration of the hub wall boundary layer towards the suction surface corner is observed. The limiting streamline angles and static pressure distribution across the stage were also measured. The mean velocity profiles and the integral properties upstream, inside and downstream of the rotor, and the losses are presented and interpreted.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to desmin: evidence for stage-dependent intermediate filament immunoreactivity during cardiac and skeletal muscle development. (United States)

    Fischman, D A; Danto, S I


    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with desmin (D3 and D76) have been generated and their specificities validated by immunoblots, RIAs, and immunocytochemistry. No cross-reaction with other IFPs has been observed. The McAbs recognized different epitopes but both reside in the amino-terminal rod domain of desmin. Whereas McAb D3 produces a staining pattern characteristic of desmin throughout the development of cardiac and skeletal muscles, McAb D76 was selectively unreactive with certain regions of early (three days in ovo) embryonic cardiac anlage, with cultured cardiac myocytes derived from 7-day-old embryos, and with skeletal myotubes in early stages of myogenesis in vitro. Positive reactivity of D76 was seen at stages of myofibrillogenesis when the sarcomeres assume lateral alignment. Evidence was presented that differential reactivity of D76 did not result from the biosynthesis of a new desmin isoform or the post-translational modification of an existing protein. We suggest that the appearance of D76 immunoreactivity during striated muscle development represents an unmasking of the epitope by some IF-associated protein. Since this transition during skeletal muscle differentiation occurs during lateral alignment of the myofibrils, this antibody may serve as a useful probe for exploring this reorganization of the contractile apparatus during myogenesis and muscle regeneration.

  3. Development of a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray: analysis of differential transcript expression in phenotypically distinct muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stear Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. This information is not only important for understanding basic muscle biology but also provides underpinning knowledge for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production. Results We report on the de novo development of a composite skeletal muscle cDNA microarray, comprising 5500 clones from two developmentally distinct cDNA libraries (longissimus dorsi of a 50-day porcine foetus and the gastrocnemius of a 3-day-old pig. Clones selected for the microarray assembly were of low to moderate abundance, as indicated by colony hybridisation. We profiled the differential expression of genes between the psoas (red muscle and the longissimus dorsi (white muscle, by co-hybridisation of Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA derived from these two muscles. Results from seven microarray slides (replicates correctly identified genes that were expected to be differentially expressed, as well as a number of novel candidate regulatory genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR on selected genes was used to confirm the results from the microarray. Conclusion We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway.

  4. Development of skeletal system for mesh-type ICRP reference adult phantoms (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Wang, Zhao Jun; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Beom Sun; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik


    The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations. In order to address the limitations of the ICRP-110 phantoms, an ICRP Task Group has been recently formulated and the voxel phantoms are now being converted to a high-quality mesh format. As a part of the conversion project, in the present study, the skeleton models, one of the most important and complex organs of the body, were constructed. The constructed skeleton models were then tested by calculating red bone marrow (RBM) and endosteum dose coefficients (DCs) for broad parallel beams of photons and electrons and comparing the calculated values with those of the original ICRP-110 phantoms. The results show that for the photon exposures, there is a generally good agreement in the DCs between the mesh-type phantoms and the original voxel-type ICRP-110 phantoms; that is, the dose discrepancies were less than 7% in all cases except for the 0.03 MeV cases, for which the maximum difference was 14%. On the other hand, for the electron exposures (⩽4 MeV), the DCs of the mesh-type phantoms deviate from those of the ICRP-110 phantoms by up to ~1600 times at 0.03 MeV, which is indeed due to the improvement of the skeletal anatomy of the developed skeleton mesh models.

  5. Changes in sarcomere length during isometric tension development in frog skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Cleworth, D R; Edman, K A


    1. Changes in sarcomere length during isometric contraction of isolated semitendinosus muscle fibres from the frog were studied using laser diffraction techniques. Movements of the first-order diffraction line relative to the zero-order reference were recorded from a screen on continuously moving film. Sarcomere length changes of 50 A could be resolved in this way.2. Following a latent period of approximately 12 msec after the stimulus of a single skeletal muscle fibre at 1-2 degrees C, there appeared to be a simultaneous onset of tension development and sarcomere shortening. Provided that the fibre was uniformly excited along its length, different regions shortened together by approximately the same amount. The extent of the shortening was a function of the total compliance of the tendons and tension measuring device.3. During the plateau of a smooth tetanus no fluctuations of first-order line width or zero- to first-order line spacing were detectable at any point examined along the preparation. This finding provides evidence that, in a functionally intact fibre, no synchronous oscillations of the sarcomeres, at least no length changes exceeding 50 A, occur during a fused tetanus. Furthermore, the fact that the first-order line did not increase in width as the preparation went from rest to full activity indicates that contraction proceeds without appreciable change in distribution of sarcomere lengths.4. The sarcomere movements during relaxation differed along the length of the fibre. As the tension declined smoothly, sarcomeres in some parts of the fibre underwent further shortening, while the end sarcomeres near the tendons and in one or two regions in the middle segment of the fibre were further extended. These data indicate that the duration of the mechanical activity differs in different regions along the length of the fibre. The pattern of relaxation, i.e. the behaviour of the sarcomeres in different fibre segments, is unique to any particular fibre.

  6. AtSWEET4, a hexose facilitator, mediates sugar transport to axial sinks and affects plant development. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chao; Tian, Zhihong; Li, Jianxiong


    Plants transport photoassimilates from source organs to sink tissues through the phloem translocation pathway. In the transport phloem, sugars that escape from the sieve tubes are released into the apoplasmic space between the sieve element/companion cell complex (SE/CC) and phloem parenchyma cells (PPCs) during the process of long-distance transport. The competition for sugar acquisition between SE/CC and adjoining PPCs is mediated by plasma membrane translocators. YFP-tagged AtSWEET4 protein is localized in the plasma membrane, and PromoterAtSWEET4-GUS analysis showed that AtSWEET4 is expressed in the stele of roots and veins of leaves and flowers. Overexpression of AtSWEET4 in Arabidopsis increases plant size and accumulates more glucose and fructose. By contrast, knock-down of AtSWEET4 by RNA-interference leads to small plant size, reduction in glucose and fructose contents, chlorosis in the leaf vein network, and reduction in chlorophyll content in leaves. Yeast assays demonstrated that AtSWEET4 is able to complement both fructose and glucose transport deficiency. Transgenic plants of AtSWEET4 overexpression exhibit higher freezing tolerance and support more growth of bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121. We conclude that AtSWEET4 plays an important role in mediating sugar transport in axial tissues during plant growth and development.

  7. X-ray detectors in axial computed tomography development; Sensori di radiazioni X negli sviluppi della tomografia assiale computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislon, R.; Imperiali, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione


    The increase of potentially of axial computed tomography as a non destructive investigation method in industrial field is particularly tied to the development of the X-rays detectors. The transition from the first gas ionization detectors to the last semiconductor detectors has indeed dramatically increased the performances of tomographic systems. In this report, after a quick analysis of fundamental principles of tomography, the most significant parameters for a detector to be used in a tomographic system are reviewed. The examination of the principal kinds of detectors that have been up to now used, with their working schemes, allows to delineate their characteristics and so to compare them with the ideal detector sketched above. The necessity of using high definition arrays brings to put into evidence the inadequacy of both gas and liquid ionization detectors and also of those types of light conversion devices which utilize for signal amplification a photomultiplier tube. Systems based on charge coupled devices or on a light conversion obtained with semiconductor photodiode arrays are definitely to be preferred. The progress of the last years in microelectronic technologies has brought great improvements in this field.

  8. Development of end-bent/swept blade for multistage axial compressors; Jikuryu asshukukiyo end bent sweep yoku no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanino, T.; Kuromaru, M.; Furukawa, M.; Niizeki, Y.; Inoue, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kinoue, Y. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Okuno, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The endbent/swept (EBS) blades have been developed to improve the endwall boundary layer flows in middle stages of axial compressors. They have three distinctive features: the leading-edge sweep near the tip and hub to activate the annulus boundary layer flows, the leading-edge bend near the tip and hub to meet a preferable inlet flow condition, and the same exit metal angle of blade evaluated by a conventional vortex design method. The EBS and baseline blades were designed for both of the rotor and stator, and the stage performance testing was conducted in every combination of the rotor and stator in a low speed compressor test rig. The results showed that the maximum stage efficiency of the EBS rotor was higher than the baseline rotor and the considerable increase in surge margin was obtained by using the EBS rotor and stator. The effects of the EBS rotor and stator on the endwall boundary layer flows were clarified by the flow measurements downstream of the rotor and stator with a hot-wire and 5 hole-probe. (author)

  9. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eMazelet


    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  10. Evaluation of skeletal maturation using mandibular third molar development in Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Mehta


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was done with the following objectives: to estimate dental maturity using the Demirjian Index (DI for the mandibular third molar; to investigate the relationship between dental maturity and skeletal maturity among growing patients; to evaluate the use of the mandibular third molar as an adjunctive tool for adolescent growth assessment in combination with the cervical vertebrae; to evaluate the clinical value of the third molar as a growth evaluation index.Materials and Methods: Samples were derived from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 615 subjects (300 males and 315 females of ages ranging 9-18 years, and estimates of dental maturity (DI and skeletal maturity [cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI] were made.Results: A highly significant association (r = 0.81 for males and r = 0.72 for females was found between DI and CVMI. DI Stage B corresponded to Stage 2 of CVMI (prepeak of pubertal growth spurt in both sexes. In males, DI stages C and D represent the peak of the pubertal growth spurt. In females, stages B and C show that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has not been passed. DI stage E in females and DI Stage F in males correlate that the peak of the pubertal growth spurt has been passed. Conclusion: A highly significant association exists between DI and CVMI. Mandibular third molar DI stages are reliable adjunctive indicators of skeletal maturity.

  11. Localization of type II collagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, and short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts in the developing chick notochord and axial skeleton. (United States)

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M


    In this study we compare, by in situ hybridization, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of transcripts of avian type II collagen and the long and short forms of the (alpha 1) chain of type IX collagen during the development of the notochord and axial skeleton. We observed type II collagen and short form type IX collagen transcripts in the developing (stage 25-28) nonchondrogenic notochord. Conversely, long form type IX transcripts were not detectable in the notochord or perinotochordal sheath. Interestingly, all three transcripts colocalized in the developing chondrogenic vertebrae of the axial skeleton as well as in the chondrocranium and Meckel's cartilage. The expression of the short form of type IX collagen in these regions was more restricted than that of the long form. This report provides additional support for a complex regulatory pathway of cartilage marker gene expression in chondrogenic vs. nonchondrogenic tissues during avian embryogenesis.

  12. The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Landewé, R


    OBJECTIVE: To validate and refine two sets of candidate criteria for the classification/diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: All Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) members were invited to include consecutively new patients with chronic (> or =3 months) back...

  13. Development of a new free wake model considering a blade vane interaction for a low noise axial fan planform optimization (United States)

    Shin, Hyungki; Sun, Hyosung; Lee, Soogab


    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is an essential part for low noise axial fan design since various parameters, such as flow rate, efficiency, noise etc., should be considered. For this reason, Response Surface Method (RSM) design technique is adopted as an axial fan design method. RSM has an advantage of choosing objective functions and constraint conditions unrestrictedly on a design space. However, RSM needs a lot of independent variables to construct a proper response surface. Thus an efficient and accurate flow analysis tool is indispensable for optimization. In an axial fan, the discrete (commonly called Blade-Passage-Frequency) components are usually dominant in the noise spectrum. Especially the blade-guide vane interaction is one of most important noise sources. In order to predict this noise component efficiently at the design stage, a new free wake model named Finite Vortex Element (FVE) is devised to simulate this blade-guide vane interaction, which is very difficult to analyze numerically in a conventional free wake model. In this new free wake model, the blade-wake-guide vane interaction is described by cutting a vortex filament when the filament collides with a guide vane. This FVE model is compared with a conventional curved vortex methodology and verified by a comparison with measured data to show its effectiveness and validity. Then FVE model is coupled with RSM to implement a low noise axial fan blade optimization. Using this method, a reduction of 8 dB(A) at 2 m from fan hub in the overall noise level is achieved while the flow rate and the efficiency are maintained as the values of the baseline blade, which implies that FVE wake model coupled with RSM is very effective methodology for MDO problems such as a low noise axial fan design.

  14. The role of elasticity in normal faulting and the development of axial topography in the oceanic lithosphere (United States)

    Olive, J. L.; Behn, M. D.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Ito, G.


    In this study we compare 2D numerical simulations of lithospheric extension with and without elasticity in order to investigate its role on the development of normal faults and axial topography at oceanic spreading centers. Specifically, we use a finite difference / marker-in-cell technique to model visco-elasto-plastic (VEP) and visco-plastic (VP) deformation of the lithosphere under extension. Simulated fault zones form spontaneously as the system evolves and the associated strain localization is achieved by reducing the cohesion in proportion to the accumulated plastic strain in regions undergoing yielding. We investigate the development of different fault modes (e.g. growth of multiple faults vs. a single large-offset fault) both in a VP and a VEP lithosphere for a range of lithospheric thicknesses, spreading rates, and rates of cohesion loss. In our simulations, fault-induced bending of a VP lithosphere occurs on a larger wavelength and with less overall vertical deflection than in a VEP lithosphere. Flexural rotation of long-lived, initially steep faults does not require elasticity, but appears to have a strain-rate-dependent wavelength in a VP lithosphere. We find that thinner lithosphere and rapid weakening promote the growth of large-offset faults in both a VEP and a VP lithosphere. The effect of neglecting elasticity appears greater in thicker lithosphere, where a VP rheology favors the growth of multiple steep faults instead of a few large-offset faults. We also note that a VP lithosphere requires more total extension to achieve the same faulting pattern as a VEP lithosphere. This may be due to distributed viscous deformation taking up a portion of the extension in the VP case. To further quantify our numerical results, we develop scaling relations describing the build-up of topographic and bending stresses in a faulted VP lithosphere and compare them to those previously derived for a VEP lithosphere. These relations are then implemented in a force

  15. Light axial vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki


    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial vector states, we study whether the observed axial vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial vector meson family. In this paper we carry out analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial vector mesons, which are valuable to further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial vector mesons.

  16. Skeletal development and abnormalities of the vertebral column and of the fins in hatchery-reared turbot Scophthalmus maximus. (United States)

    Tong, X H; Liu, Q H; Xu, S H; Ma, D Y; Xiao, Z Z; Xiao, Y S; Li, J


    To describe the skeletal development and abnormalities in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, samples were collected every day from hatching to 60 days after hatching (DAH). A whole-mount cartilage and bone-staining technique was used. Vertebral ontogeny started with the formation of anterior haemal arches at 5·1 mm standard length (L(S) ) c. 11 DAH, and was completed by the full attainment of parapophyses at 16·9 mm L(S) c. 31 DAH. Vertebral centra started to develop at 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH and ossification in all centra was visible at 11·0 mm L(S) c. 25 DAH. The caudal fin appeared at 5·1 mm L(S) c. 11 DAH and ossification was visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The onset of dorsal and anal fin elements appeared at 5·8 mm L(S) c. 15 DAH and 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH, respectively. Ossifications of both dorsal fin and anal fin were visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The pectorals were the only fins present before first feeding, their ossifications were completed at 23·5 mm L(S) c. 48 DAH. Pelvic fins began forming at 7·2 mm L(S) c. 19 DAH and calcification of the whole structure was visible at 19·8 mm L(S) c. 36 DAH. In the present study, 24 types of skeletal abnormalities were observed. About 51% of individuals presented skeletal abnormalities, and the highest occurrence was found in the haemal region of the vertebral column. As for each developmental stage, the most common abnormalities were in the dorsal fin during early metamorphic period (stage 2), vertebral fusion during climax metamorphosis (stage 3) and caudal fin abnormality during both late-metamorphic period (stage 4) and post-metamorphic period (stage 5). Such research will be useful for early detection of skeletal malformations during different growth periods of reared S. maximus.

  17. Mandibuloacral dysplasia and LMNA A529V mutation in Turkish patients with severe skeletal changes and absent breast development. (United States)

    Ozer, Leyla; Unsal, Evrim; Aktuna, Suleyman; Baltaci, Volkan; Celikkol, Pelin; Akyigit, Fatma; Sen, Askin; Ayvaz, Ozge; Balci, Sevim


    Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by acroosteolysis (resorption of terminal phalanges), skin changes (hyperpigmentation), clavicular hypoplasia, craniofascial anomalies, a hook nose and prominent eyes, delayed closures of the cranial sutures, lipodystrophy, alopecia, and skeletal anomalies. MAD patients are classified according to lipodystrophy patterns: type A and type B. The vast majority of MAD cases are caused by LMNA gene mutations. MAD patients with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) have been reported to have LMNA R527H, A529V, or A529T mutations. In this report, we describe two MADA patients with progressive skeletal changes, absent breast development, and cataract in addition to the classical MAD phenotype. Both patients were found to be homozygous for the Ala529Val mutation of the LMNA gene. Our female patient is the oldest MADA patient (59 years old) who has ever been reported with the LMNA mutation and also the LMNA Ala529Val mutation. This study is the second report on MADA patients with a homozygous Ala529Val mutation.

  18. The vitamin C transporter SVCT2 is down-regulated during postnatal development of slow skeletal muscles. (United States)

    Sandoval, Daniel; Ojeda, Jorge; Low, Marcela; Nualart, Francisco; Marcellini, Sylvain; Osses, Nelson; Henríquez, Juan Pablo


    Vitamin C plays key roles in cell homeostasis, acting as a potent antioxidant as well as a positive modulator of cell differentiation. In skeletal muscle, the vitamin C/sodium co-transporter SVCT2 is preferentially expressed in oxidative slow fibers. Besides, SVCT2 is up-regulated upon the early fusion of primary myoblasts. However, our knowledge of the postnatal expression profile of SVCT2 remains scarce. Here we have analyzed the expression of SVCT2 during postnatal development of the chicken slow anterior and fast posterior latissimus dorsi muscles, ranging from day 7 to adulthood. SVCT2 expression is consistently higher in the slow than in the fast muscle at all stages. After hatching, SVCT2 expression is significantly down-regulated in the anterior latissimus dorsi, which nevertheless maintains a robust slow phenotype. Taking advantage of the C2C12 cell line to recapitulate myogenesis, we confirmed that SVCT2 is expressed in a biphasic fashion, reaching maximal levels upon early myoblasts fusion and decreasing during myotube growth. Together, these findings suggest that the dynamic expression levels of SVCT2 could be relevant for different features of skeletal muscle physiology, such as muscle cell formation, growth and activity.

  19. Altered development and protein metabolism in skeletal muscles of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) by corticosterone. (United States)

    Dong, H; Lin, H; Jiao, H C; Song, Z G; Zhao, J P; Jiang, K J


    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on protein metabolism and the amino acid composition in muscle tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). In Trial 1, two groups of 30 broiler chickens were subjected to control or CORT treatment (30 mg/kg diet) from 28 to 39 days of age. In Trial 2, three groups of chickens of 28 days of age were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 7 days: CORT (30 mg/kg diet), pair-fed (maintaining the same feed intake as CORT treatment) and control treatments. The body mass gain and feed efficiency was significantly decreased by CORT treatment, while the food intake was decreased. The breast and thigh masses (% body mass) were significantly suppressed by CORT treatment, while the abdominal fat and liver masses (%) were obviously increased. The plasma levels of glucose, urate and total amino acid were significantly elevated by CORT treatment. The capacity for protein synthesis, estimated by RNA:protein ratio, were significantly suppressed by CORT in M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris. The 3-methylhistidine concentrations were significantly increased in both M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris of CORT chickens, compared to control but not the pair-fed chickens. The amino acid composition of M. pectoralis major and M. biceps femoris was not significantly affected by CORT treatment. In conclusion, the arrested growth in skeletal muscles induced by CORT administration has tissue specificity. The CORT treatment retards the growth of skeletal muscle by suppressed protein synthesis and augmented protein catabolism.

  20. The postnatal development of the frontal axial angle of the occipitoatlantal complex; Die postnatale Entwicklung des frontalen Kondylen-Gelenkachsenwinkels C0/C1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, R.


    Purpose: The frontal axial angle of the occipitoatlantal complex in adults is well known. Clinical radiological investigations of the infantile cervical spine indicate other proportions. Extensive radiological studies concerning the postnatal development of the frontal axial angle are unknown. Knowledge about the special biomechanical relation of the infantile cervical spine is necessary for understanding several high cervical irritation syndromes in newborns. Materials and Methods: To measure the occipitoatlantal angle C0/C1, 1016 AP radiographs of the upper cervical spine were investigated. The radiographs were obtained on female and male patients ranging from 0-10 years of age. Results: The frontal axial angle C0/C1 is distinctly flatter in infants (153 in newborns at the age 0 to 3 months) and only approaches an adult state after the 10{sup th} year of life. Conclusion: the distinctly flatter configuration of the frontal axial angle C0/C1 in newborns could be interpreted as constituting a different morphology for better adaption to the biomechanical strain of the upper cervical spine during labor. The postnatal development of the frontal axial angle of the occipitoatlantal complex is illustrated. (orig.) [German] Problemstellung: Klinisch-radiologische Beobachtungen lassen vermuten, dass sich der frontale Gelenkachsenwinkel C0/C1 beim Kind gegenueber Erwachsenen flacher darstellt. Groessere radiologische Studien zur postnatalen Entwicklung des oberen Gelenkachsenwinkels sind nicht bekannt. Die Kenntnis der anatomischen Besonderheiten der infantilen Halswirbelsaeule ist jedoch fuer deren biomechanisches Verstaendnis bei verschiedenen hochzervikalen Irritationssyndromen im Saeuglingsalter von grossem Interesse. Material und Methode: Anhand der radiologischen Auswertung von 1016 kindlichen a.-p.-Roentgenaufnahmen der oberen Zervikalregion wurde das Verhalten des oberen Gelenkachsenwinkels bei Kindern untersucht. Das Alter der Kinder lag zum Aufnahmezeitpunkt

  1. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, I. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, B.F. [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital (Denmark); Keeling, J.W. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics (United States)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.


    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  3. Development of a stereo vision measurement system for a 3D three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm. (United States)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting; Hou, Chien-Lun


    In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

  4. Teratogenic effects of Gabapentin on Neural Tube and skeletal development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afshar


    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Gabapentin is a new Antiepileptic drugs that introduced for the treatment of partial and second generalized seizures. Other usages of this drug include relief of neuropathic pains such as diabetic and cancers neuropathy and also prophylaxy of migrane. There is little information about the teratogenic effects of this drug. Only few studies reported delay in ossification of bones and hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This study carried out to reveal the macroscopic malformation of this drug when used during the implantation and organogenesis periods.Materials and methods : 30 balb/c virgin females, aged 2.5 months and weighted 30±2 gr were housed in environmentally controlled room. A group of 3 females was caged with a single male of proven fertility overnight. Finding of vaginal plug on the following morning was regarded as gestational day (GD 0. Mice were divided into experimental groups; ex. І=received 1400 mg /day (20mg/kg/day and ex. II=received 1800 mg /day (26mg/kg/day doses of Gabapentin drug for 10 subsequent days and one control group which received disstilled water intraperitoneally. They were dissected in GD18 and embryos were collected and washed with normal saline. Macroscopic observation was made using a stereomicroscope and weighed using a digital scale with 0.01 accuracy. Data were analysed by ANOVA and X2 tests using of SPSS software. Results : Both experimental groups (I, II revealed similar malformations categorized as skeletal malformation and neural tube defects. Skeletal malformation was more frequent than neural tube defects and mostly included limbs defects,distortions and dislocations with significant difference compared with the control group (p<0.05. Spina bifida cystica was the most common form of neural tube defects. In the experimental group II, density and incidence of malformations and also fetuses resorption were higher than those of the other experimental group.Conclusion : This study

  5. Centronuclear myopathy--morphological relation to developing human skeletal muscle : a clinicopathological evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri N


    Full Text Available Centronuclear myopathy (CNM, an uncommon condition, is one of the congenital myopathies. It is believed to arise as a result of maturational arrest, with persistence of myotubes postnatally. However, denervation being the basic disease process and its possible influence on central nervous system causing defect in nuclear migration has also been postulated. Keeping in view these existing controversies, we have studied 17 cases of CNM (neonatal - 1, childhood - 13, adulthood - 3 during the last twelve and a half years. Diagnosis was based on histological and enzyme histochemical findings of muscle biopsy along with clinical data. Ultrastructural characterstics of muscle have been studied in 10 cases. The affected muscle fibres showed a central nucleus (40-99% with perinuclear halo. Type I fibre predominance with hypoplasia was consistently seen. Fibre type disproportion was noticed in 7 cases. The neonatal form revealed dense oxidative enzyme reaction product in the centre. The morphological features of CNM were compared with foetal skeletal muscles obtained at gestational ages ranging from 9 weeks - 36 weeks (n = 18. In the severe neonatal form th myofibres resembled the foetal myotubes. In the less severe childhood and adult form of CNM, aberrant organization of cytoskeletal network might have played a pathogenetic role in causing the disease.

  6. Precocious appearance of cardiac troponin T pre-mRNAs during early avian embryonic skeletal muscle development in ovo. (United States)

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M


    Cardiac troponin T (cTNT), a component of the muscle contractile apparatus, is transiently expressed in skeletal muscle during avian limb development. While cTNT was first detected immunohistochemically in limb buds undergoing overt myogenic differentiation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 26, about 5 days in ovo), RNA blot analyses of early, predifferentiated wing buds have revealed the presence of cTNT transcripts in limb buds as early as stage 23 (4 days in ovo). Steady-state cTNT poly(A) RNAs of stage 22 through stage 37 fore- and hindlimbs were compared using both cTNT cDNA and cTNT intron-specific probes. In the predifferentiated state, two incompletely processed RNAs (3.8 and 2.4 kb) were expressed in the absence of the mature cTNT transcript, while a third pre-mRNA (3.5 kb) appeared concomitantly with the mature mRNA as differentiation and development proceeded. In addition, a population of unique cTNT transcripts were expressed in a proximal to distal manner in wing buds which had undergone initial overt myogenic differentiation (stage 26). Some of the cTNT pre-mRNAs observed in premyogenic limbs appeared to accumulate stably in a tissue-specific manner, based on their absence from the cardiac poly(A) RNA population. These results suggest that the appearance of cardiac troponin T mRNA, as well as the polypeptide, may be regulated at multiple levels including RNA processing, stability, and/or translation during early skeletal muscle myogenesis.

  7. The Impact of Seawater Saturation State on Early Skeletal Development in Larval Corals: Insights into Scleractinian Biomineralization (United States)

    Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S.


    contrast to the fine, closed, densely packed spherulitic bundles accreted in the control system, larvae in the lower Omega treatments produced a disorganized conglomerate of large, highly faceted crystals, consistent with slow growth under low saturation state conditions. Our results suggest that the coral calcification response to changes in seawater saturation state is linked to a physiological limitation on the organism's ability to elevate the saturation state of seawater within the calcifying space. Further, our data indicate that ocean acidification due to fossil fuel CO2 emissions will likely have a strong negative effect on the recruitment and early skeletal development of larval corals over the next several decades.

  8. Development of high-performance and low-noise axial-flow fan units in their local operating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Seung; Ha, Min Ho; Cheong, Cheol Ung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of an axial-flow fan unit are improved by modifying its housing structure without changing the fan blade. The target axial-flow fan system is used to lower temperature of a compressor and a condenser in the machine room of a household refrigerator which has relatively high system resistance due to complex layout of structures inside it. First, the performance of the fan system is experimentally characterized by measuring its volume flow rate versus static pressure using a fan performance tester satisfying the AMCA (Air Movement and Control Association) regulation, AMCA 210-07. The detailed structure of flow driven by the fan is numerically investigated using a virtual fan performance tester based on computational fluid dynamics techniques. The prediction result reveals possible loss due to radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow downstream of the fan. The length of the fan housing is chosen as a design parameter for improving the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the fan unit by reducing the identified radial and tangential velocity components. Three fan units with different housing lengths longer than the original are analyzed using the virtual fan performance tester. The results confirm the improved aerodynamic performance of the proposed three designs. The flow field driven by the proposed fan unit is closely examined to find the causes for the observed performance improvements, which ensures that the radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow are reduced. Finally, the improved performance of the proposed fan systems is validated by comparing the P-Q and efficiency curves measured using the fan performance tester. The noise emission from the household refrigerator is also found to be lessened when the new fan units are installed.

  9. Improvement of livestock breeding strategies using physiologic and functional genomic information of the muscle regulatory factors gene family for skeletal muscle development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Soumillon, A.


    A defined number of skeletal muscle fibers are formed in two separate waves during prenatal development, while postnatal growth is restricted to hypertrophic muscle fiber growth. The genes of the MRF (muscle regulatory factors) gene family, consisting of 4 structurally related transcription factors

  10. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems (United States)

    Myofibrillar protein turnover is a key component of muscle growth and degeneration, requiring proteolytic enzymes to degrade the skeletal muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the calpain proteolytic system in muscle growth development using µ-calpain knockout (...

  11. Skeletal muscle (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  12. Effects of strenuous maternal exercise on fetal organ weights and skeletal muscle development in rats. (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Bagnall, K M; Belcastro, A N


    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of strenuous maternal aerobic exercise throughout gestation on fetal outcome in the rat. The strenuous exercise intensity consisted of a treadmill speed of 30 m.min-1 on a 10 degrees incline, for 120, 5 days.week-1. The rats were conditioned to run on a motor-driven treadmill by following a progressive two-week exercise program, so that by the end of the two weeks the rats were capable of running comfortably at this strenuous intensity in the non-pregnant state. Following the two-week running programme, the rats were paired by weight and randomly assigned to either a pregnant group that continued the running program throughout gestation (pregnant runner), or a pregnant group that did not continue the running program throughout pregnancy (pregnant control). At birth the neonates born to the pregnant running group did not differ in average neonatal body weight values, number per litter or total litter weight values when compared to controls, nor were superficial gross abnormalities observed in neonates born to the pregnant control or pregnant running groups. The strenuous maternal exercise intensity did not alter neonatal organ weight values (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney), nor neonatal skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius, sternomastoid, diaphragm) when compared to control values. It is suggested that maternal exercise of this intensity throughout gestation does not affect fetal outcome in the rat, and may be due to the animals accustomization to the strenuous exercise protocol prior to pregnancy.

  13. Linking dietary energy and skeletal development in the horse Vinculação de energia na dieta e desenvolvimento do esqueleto do cavalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Burton Staniar


    Full Text Available Athletic production is what is sought from the horse. As mammary development is important to the dairy cow, skeletal development is important to horses meeting their production goals. As any integrative physiologist will appreciate, the variables that come together to result in optimal skeletal development are complex. Nutrition is one of these, and it contains two broad variables; the supply of dietary nutrients and energy. This presentation will focus on dietary energy and its links with skeletal development. I propose that it is not simply the amount of dietary energy, but the way and from that that energy is supplied that impacts skeletal development. Through an understanding of how dietary energy impact skeletal development, more precise feeding management strategies can be developed to reduce the risk of skeletal abnormalities and even potentially improve skeletal integrity.Produção atlética é o que se exige do cavalo. Do mesmo modo que o desenvolvimento das glândulas mamárias é importante para vaca leiteira, o desenvolvimento do esqueleto é importante para os cavalos atingirem as metas de produção. Como qualquer fisiologista integrador vai apreciar, as variáveis necessárias para se atingir o desenvolvimento ideal do esqueleto são complexas. A nutrição é uma destas variáveis que contém outras duas mais amplas: fornecimento de nutrientes e energia da dieta. Esta apresentação irá focar na energia da dieta e seus vínculos com o desenvolvimento do esqueleto. Proponho que não é simplesmente a quantidade de energia da dieta, mas a maneira como essa energia será fornecida e quais serão os impactos sobre o desenvolvimento do esqueleto. O entendimento do impacto da energia da dieta sobre o desenvolvimento do esqueleto pode gerar estratégias de gestão de alimentação mais precisas para reduzir o risco de anormalidades esqueléticas e até melhorar potencialmente a integridade do esqueleto.

  14. Biphasic regulation of development of the high-affinity saxitoxin receptor by innervation in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.J.; Catterall, W.A.


    Specific binding of /sup 3/H-saxitoxin (STX) was used to quantitate the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. In adult triceps surae, a single class of sites with a KD . 2.9 nM and a density of 21 fmol/mg wet wt was detected. The density of these high-affinity sites increased from 2.0 fmol/mg wet wt to the adult value in linear fashion during days 2-25 after birth. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 11 or 17 reduced final saxitoxin receptor site density to 10.4 or 9.2 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively, without changing KD. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 5 did not alter the subsequent development of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 5-9 and accelerated the increase of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 9-13. After day 13, saxitoxin receptor development abruptly ceased and the density of saxitoxin receptor sites declined to 11 fmol/wg wet wt. These results show that the regulation of high-affinity saxitoxin receptor site density by innervation is biphasic. During the first phase, which is independent of continuing innervation, the saxitoxin receptor density increases to 47-57% of the adult level. After day 11, the second phase of development, which is dependent on continuing innervation, gives rise to the adult density of saxitoxin receptors.

  15. The Popeye domain containing 2 (popdc2) gene in zebrafish is required for heart and skeletal muscle development. (United States)

    Kirchmaier, Bettina C; Poon, Kar Lai; Schwerte, Thorsten; Huisken, Jan; Winkler, Christoph; Jungblut, Benno; Stainier, Didier Y; Brand, Thomas


    The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode a family of transmembrane proteins with an evolutionary conserved Popeye domain. These genes are abundantly expressed in striated muscle tissue, however their function is not well understood. In this study we have investigated the role of the popdc2 gene in zebrafish. Popdc2 transcripts were detected in the embryonic myocardium and transiently in the craniofacial and tail musculature. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of popdc2 resulted in aberrant development of skeletal muscle and heart. Muscle segments in the trunk were irregularly shaped and craniofacial muscles were severely reduced or even missing. In the heart, pericardial edema was prevalent in the morphants and heart chambers were elongated and looping was abnormal. These pathologies in muscle and heart were alleviated after reducing the morpholino concentration. However the heart still was abnormal displaying cardiac arrhythmia at later stages of development. Optical recordings of cardiac contractility revealed irregular ventricular contractions with a 2:1, or 3:1 atrial/ventricular conduction ratio, which caused a significant reduction in heart frequency. Recordings of calcium transients with high spatiotemporal resolution using a transgenic calcium indicator line (Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP)(s878)) and SPIM microscopy confirmed the presence of a severe arrhythmia phenotype. Our results identify popdc2 as a gene important for striated muscle differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. In addition it is required for the development of the cardiac conduction system.

  16. Effects of inlet distortion on the development of secondary flows in a subsonic axial inlet compressor rotor. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ., OH (United States)

    Owen, Albert K.


    Detailed flow measurements were taken inside an isolated axial compressor rotor operating subsonically near peak efficiency. Laser anemometer measurements were made with two inlet velocity profiles. One profile consisted of an unmodified baseline flow, and the second profile was distorted by placing axisymmetric screens on the hub and shroud well upstream of the rotor. A primary flow is defined in the rotor and deviations from this primary flow for each inlet flow condition identified. A comparison between the two flow deviations is made to assess the development of a passage vortex due to the distortion of the inlet flow. A comparison of experimental results with computational predictions from a Navier-Stokes solver showed good agreement between predicted and measured flow. Measured results indicate that a distorted inlet profile has minimal effect on the development of the flow in the rotor passage and the resulting passage vortex.

  17. Development of a nitric oxide-releasing analogue of the muscle relaxant guaifenesin for skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenesis. (United States)

    Wang, Guqi; Burczynski, Frank J; Hasinoff, Brian B; Zhang, Kaidong; Lu, Qilong; Anderson, Judy E


    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates activation of satellite precursor cells to enter the cell cycle. This provides new precursor cells for skeletal muscle growth and muscle repair from injury or disease. Targeting a new drug that specifically delivers NO to muscle has the potential to promote normal function and treat neuromuscular disease, and would also help to avoid side effects of NO from other treatment modalities. In this research, we examined the effectiveness of the NO donor, iosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and a muscle relaxant, methocarbamol, in promoting satellite cell activation assayed by muscle cell DNA synthesis in normal adult mice. The work led to the development of guaifenesin dinitrate (GDN) as a new NO donor for delivering nitric oxide to muscle. The results revealed that there was a strong increase in muscle satellite cell activation and proliferation, demonstrated by a significant 38% rise in DNA synthesis after a single transdermal treatment with the new compound for 24 h. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that the markers of satellite cell myogenesis, expression of myf5, myogenin, and follistatin, were increased after 24 h oral administration of the compound in adult mice. This research extends our understanding of the outcomes of NO-based treatments aimed at promoting muscle regeneration in normal tissue. The potential use of such treatment for conditions such as muscle atrophy in disuse and aging, and for the promotion of muscle tissue repair as required after injury or in neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, is highlighted.

  18. Sema4d is required for the development of the hindbrain boundary and skeletal muscle in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Zeng, Zhen; Wei, Juncheng; Jiang, Lijun; Ma, Quanfu; Wu, Mingfu; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Ye, Shuangmei; Li, Ye; Ma, Ding [Cancer Biology Research Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China); Gao, Qinglei, E-mail: [Cancer Biology Research Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China)


    Highlights: ► Sema4d was expressed at all developmental stages of zebrafish. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in defects in the hindbrain and the trunk structure. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos upregulated the expression of three hindbrain rhombomere markers. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos increased the expression of myogenic regulatory factors. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in an obvious increase of cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: Semaphorin4d (SEMA4D), also known as CD100, an oligodendrocyte secreted R-Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), affecting axonal growth is involved in a range of processes including cell adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, immune responses and tumour progression. However, its actual physiological mechanisms and its role in development remain unclear. This study has focused on the role of sema4d in the development and expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using sema4d-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. In this study the knockdown of sema4d, expressed at all developmental stages, lead to defects in the hindbrain and trunk structure of zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes appeared to be associated with the abnormal expression of three hindbrain rhombomere boundary markers, wnt1, epha4a and foxb1.2, and two myogenic regulatory factors, myod and myog. Further, a notable increase of cell apoptosis appeared in the sema4d knockdown embryos, while no obvious reduction in cell proliferation was observed. Collectively, these data suggest that sema4d plays an important role in the development of the hindbrain and skeletal muscle.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了轧辊轴向移动轧机的发展过程、工作原理、形式特点以及在国内的应用情况,分析了目前应用最普遍的HC系列轧机的板形控制特性,并对辊系配置进行了深入的探讨。%The present paper introduces the history of development, operating principle and characteristics of the rolling mill with axial shifting roll as well as its application in the Country, analyzes the feature of the shape control for the currently most broadly applied HC rolling mill and discusses in detail the setting up of the roll system.

  20. The relative expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and myostatin mRNA in the asynchronous development of skeletal muscle in ducks during early development. (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Liu, Hongxiang; Shan, Yanju; Ji, Gaige; Xu, Wenjuan; Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang


    Genetic selection is a powerful tool for modifying poultry muscle yield. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and myostatin (MSTN) are important regulators of muscle growth, especially in the myogenesis stage. This study compared the developmental pattern of the pectoralis major (PM) and lateral gastrocnemius (LM) muscles, mRNA expression characterization of IGF-I and MSTN-A and their correlation between 14 days in ovo and 1 week post-hatch in two Chinese local duck breeds. During early development, the growth of duck PM and LM followed an asynchronous pattern. Variations in PM growth rate observed with development followed the relative variations of MSTN and IGF-I expression; however, the same behavior was not observed in LM. Moreover, the profile of IGF-I expression in duck skeletal muscles indicated that genetic selection for high meat-yield poultry has altered the temporal expression of IGF-I and affected cellular characteristics and mass by hatch in a PM-specific manner. The MSTN-A expression profile showed synchronization with the growth of skeletal muscle and peaks of myofiber proliferation. The expression patterns of IGF-I and MSTN suggest that duck pectoralis fibers are prioritized for proliferation in embryogenesis. The IGF-1/MSTN-A mRNA ratios in PM and LM presented very similar trends in the changes of myofiber characteristics, and differences in the IGF-1/MSTN-A mRNA ratio in PM between the two breeds corresponded to the timing of differences in PM mass between the varieties. Our results support the hypothesis that relative levels of IGF-I and MSTN mRNA may participate in ordering muscle growth rates with selected development.

  1. Phenotypic Characterization of miR-92a−/− Mice Reveals an Important Function of miR-92a in Skeletal Development (United States)

    Penzkofer, Daniela; Bonauer, Angelika; Fischer, Ariane; Tups, Alexander; Brandes, Ralf P.; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Dimmeler, Stefanie


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) emerged as key regulators of gene expression. Germline hemizygous deletion of the gene that encodes the miR-17∼92 miRNA cluster was associated with microcephaly, short stature and digital abnormalities in humans. Mice deficient for the miR-17∼92 cluster phenocopy several features such as growth and skeletal development defects and exhibit impaired B cell development. However, the individual contribution of miR-17∼92 cluster members to this phenotype is unknown. Here we show that germline deletion of miR-92a in mice is not affecting heart development and does not reduce circulating or bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, but induces skeletal defects. MiR-92a−/− mice are born at a reduced Mendelian ratio, but surviving mice are viable and fertile. However, body weight of miR-92a−/− mice was reduced during embryonic and postnatal development and adulthood. A significantly reduced body and skull length was observed in miR-92a−/− mice compared to wild type littermates. µCT analysis revealed that the length of the 5th mesophalanx to 5th metacarpal bone of the forelimbs was significantly reduced, but bones of the hindlimbs were not altered. Bone density was not affected. These findings demonstrate that deletion of miR-92a is sufficient to induce a developmental skeletal defect. PMID:24979655

  2. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia. (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi


    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  3. Development of a quality, high throughput DNA analysis procedure for skeletal samples to assist with the identification of victims from the World Trade Center attacks. (United States)

    Holland, Mitchell M; Cave, Christopher A; Holland, Charity A; Bille, Todd W


    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers on September 11, 2001, represented the single largest terrorist-related mass fatality incident in the history of the United States. More than 2,700 individuals of varied racial and ethnic background lost their lives that day. Through the efforts of thousands of citizens, including recovery workers, medical examiners, and forensic scientists, the identification of approximately 1,500 victims had been accomplished through June 2003 (the majority of these identifications were made within the first 8-12 months). The principal role of The Bode Technology Group (Bode) in this process was to develop a quality, high throughput DNA extraction and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis procedure for skeletal elements, and to provide STR profiles to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) in New York City to be used for identification of the victims. A high throughput process was developed to include electronic accessioning of samples, so that the numbering system of the OCME was maintained; rapid preparation and sampling of skeletal fragments to allow for the processing of more than 250 fragments per day; use of a 96-well format for sample extraction, DNA quantification, and STR analysis; and use of the Applied Biosystems 3100 and 3700 instrumentation to develop STR profiles. Given the highly degraded nature of the skeletal remains received by Bode, an advanced DNA extraction procedure was developed to increase the quantity of DNA recovery and reduce the co-purification of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification inhibitors. In addition, two new STR multiplexes were developed specifically for this project, which reduced the amplicon size of the STR loci, and therefore, enhanced the ability to obtain results from the most challenged of samples. In all, the procedures developed allowed for the analysis of more than 1,000 skeletal samples each week. Approximately 13,000 skeletal fragments were analyzed at least once

  4. How to diagnose axial spondyloarthritis early


    Rudwaleit, M.; van der Heijde, D.; Khan, M.; Braun, J.; Sieper, J.


    Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP), the leading symptom of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), precedes the development of radiographic sacroiliitis, sometimes by many years.

  5. Unusual florid skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashebu, Samuel D.; Dahniya, Mohamed H.; Muhtaseb, Sayeed A.; Aduh, Prosper [Department of Radiology, Al-Adan Hospital (Kuwait)


    We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with advanced and unusual skeletal manifestations - a rare occurrence in developed countries nowadays. The literature is briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal muscle satellite cells: mediators of muscle growth during development and implications for developmental disorders. (United States)

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L


    Satellite cells (SCs) are the muscle stem cells responsible for longitudinal and cross-sectional postnatal growth and repair after injury and which provide new myonuclei when needed. We review their morphology and contribution to development and their role in sarcomere and myonuclear addition. SCs, similar to other tissue stem cells, cycle through different states, such as quiescence, activation, and self-renewal, and thus we consider the signaling mechanisms involved in maintenance of these states. The role of the SC niche and their interactions with other cells, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, are all emerging as major factors that affect aging and disease. Interestingly, children with cerebral palsy appear to have a reduced SC number, which could play a role in their reduced muscular development and even in muscular contracture formation. Finally, we review the current information on SC dysfunction in children with muscular dystrophy and emerging therapies that target promotion of myogenesis and reduction of fibrosis.

  7. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Ignacio [Musculoskeletal Research Fellow at NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Centro de Diagnostico Dr. Enrique Rossi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenberg, Zehava [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zember, Jonathan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)


    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  8. Relationship of Skeletal Muscle Development and Growth to Breast Muscle Myopathies: A Review. (United States)

    Velleman, Sandra G


    Selection in meat-type birds has focused on growth rate, muscling, and feed conversion. These strategies have made substantial improvements but have affected muscle structure, repair mechanisms, and meat quality, especially in the breast muscle. The increase in muscle fiber diameters has reduced available connective tissue spacing, reduced blood supply, and altered muscle metabolism in the breast muscle. These changes have increased muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis but have limited muscle repair mechanisms mediated by the adult myoblast (satellite cell) population of cells, likely resulting in the onset of myopathies. This review focuses on muscle growth mechanisms and how changes in the cellular development of the breast muscle may be associated with breast muscle myopathies occurring in meat-type birds.

  9. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer


    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms (United States)

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.


    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  11. Expression and Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 beta in Developing and Mature Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperman, Yael; Issler, Orna; Vaughan, Joan; Bilezikjian, Louise; Vale, Wylie; Chen, Alon


    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (SM) tissue where it is suggested to inhibit interactions between insulin signaling pathway components affecting whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about factors regulating SM CRFR2 ex

  12. Conservative treatment for a growing patient with a severe, developing skeletal Class III malocclusion and open bite. (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhu, Ping; Le, Linda; Cai, Bin


    An 8-year-old Chinese girl sought treatment for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion and open-bite skeletal pattern. Traditionally, patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion are treated after they have stopped growing, and then they are treated with a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgery approach. But the risks and expenses of this treatment plan are not acceptable to all patients. This young patient was treated with facemask therapy, a maxillary expansion device, and a molar occlusal splint for maxillary developmental stimulation with control of vertical jaw growth. After the completion of orthopedic therapy, 2 × 4 technology was used to adjust molar positions. A bonded tongue crib was used in the early permanent dentition to help the patient break her bad tongue habits. Straight-wire appliances were used for 16 months to adjust the occlusal relationship. This achieved significant improvement in anterior tooth relationships and facial profile esthetics. At the 2-year posttreatment follow-up, the results were satisfactory. The success of the sagittal relationship correction between the maxilla and the mandible for a skeletal Class III malocclusion depends on the coordination of transverse and vertical relationships combined with the growth potential of each patient.

  13. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D


    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  14. NOx Emissions Characteristics and Correlation Equations of Two P and W's Axially Staged Sector Combustors Developed Under NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.


    Two P&W (Pratt & Whitney)'s axially staged sector combustors have been developed under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. One combustor was developed under ERA Phase I, and the other was developed under ERA Phase II. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions characteristics and correlation equations for these two sector combustors are reported in this article. The Phase I design was to optimize the NOx emissions reduction potential, while the Phase II design was more practical and robust. Multiple injection points and fuel staging strategies are used in the combustor design. Pilot-stage injectors are located on the front dome plate of the combustor, and main-stage injectors are positioned on the top and bottom (Phase I) or on the top only (Phase II) of the combustor liners downstream. Low power configuration uses only pilot-stage injectors. Main-stage injectors are added to high power configuration to help distribute fuel more evenly and achieve lean burn throughout the combustor yielding very low NOx emissions. The ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) landing-takeoff NOx emissions are verified to be 88 percent (Phase I) and 76 percent (Phase II) under the ICAO CAEP/6 (Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection 6th Meeting) standard, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction, and the combustors proved to have stable combustion with room to maneuver on fuel flow splits for operability.

  15. Zebrafish SPI-1 (PU.1) marks a site of myeloid development independent of primitive erythropoiesis : Implications for axial patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieschke, GJ; Oates, AC; Paw, BH; Thompson, MA; Hall, NE; Ward, AC; Ho, RK; Zon, LI; Layton, JE


    The mammalian transcription factor SPI-1 (synonyms: SPI1, PU.1, or Sfpi1) plays a critical role in myeloid development. To examine early myeloid commitment in the zebrafish embryo, we isolated a gene from zebrafish that is a SPI-1 orthologue on the basis of homology and phylogenetic considerations.

  16. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flemming H Gravesen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes


    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  17. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing. (United States)

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr


    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  18. Characterization of porcine SKIP gene in skeletal muscle development: polymorphisms, association analysis, expression and regulation of cell growth in C2C12 cells. (United States)

    Xiong, Qi; Chai, Jin; Deng, Changyan; Jiang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Huang, Tao; Suo, Xiaojun; Zhang, Nian; Li, Xiaofeng; Yang, Qianping; Chen, Mingxin; Zheng, Rong


    Skeletal muscle and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase (SKIP) was identified as a 5'-inositol phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) to PI(3,4)P2 and negatively regulates insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in skeletal muscle. In this study, two new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine SKIP introns 1 and 6 were detected. The C1092T locus in intron 1 showed significant associations with some meat traits, whereas the A17G locus in intron 6 showed significant associations with some carcass traits. Expression analysis showed that porcine SKIP is upregulated at d 65 of gestation and Meishan fetuses have higher and prolonged expression of SKIP compared to Large White at d 100 of gestation. Ectopic expression of porcine SKIP decreased insulin-induced cell proliferation and promoted serum starvation-induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase in C2C12. Our results suggest that SKIP plays a negative regulatory role in skeletal muscle development partly by preventing cell proliferation.

  19. Numerical simulation of axial flow compressors.


    Jesuino Takachi Tomita


    This work deals with the numerical simulation of axial flow compressors, from design to performance prediction. The stage performance prediction uses the meanline flow properties. Stage-stacking is used to analyse a multi-stage compressor. A computer program, written in FORTRAN, was developed and is able to design an axial flow compressor given air mass flow, total pressure ratio, overall efficiency and design speed. All geometrical data relevant to the compressor performance prediction is ca...

  20. Comparison of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients - baseline characteristics, treatment adherence, and development of clinical variables during three years of anti-TNF therapy in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Kapetanovic, Meliha C; Petersson, Ingemar F


    BACKGROUND: The relationship between non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently debated. Using observational data from the South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group register, we thus aimed to compare clinical development and treatment adherence...

  1. The Development of Water Hydraulic Transmission and Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Pump (Motor)%水压传动及柱塞泵(马达)的现状和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 张铁华; 李壮云


    介绍了国内外水压传动技术及其水压轴向柱塞泵(马达)的设计制造和发展。%Introduces the developments of Water Hydraulic transmission and Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Pump (Motor). The challenges for designing water hydraulic components and analyzed.

  2. Task IV: Development of Circumferential Inlet Distortion through a Representative Eleven Stage High-speed Axial Compressor (United States)

    Tan, Choon-Sooi; Suder, Kenneth (Technical Monitor)


    The concepts and the procedure developed in Task I and Task III were used to determine the response of an eleven-stage high-speed compressor to an inlet distortion of 180 deg. circumferential extent for contrasting against its performance under uniform inlet flow. Using the computed results at the inlet to and outlet of the compressor, the computed total pressure ratio and efficiency for the clean condition are determined to be 14.22 and 76.9 percent respectively. As for the distorted case, these are determined to be 10.35 and 71.8 percent respectively, showing deterioration 76.9 percent vs 71.8 percent). The physical consistency of the computed flow field was assessed as a means of demonstrating the applicability and utility of the body force representation for inlet distortion computations. Specifically the computed evolution of the distorted pattern in static pressure and total pressure from compressor inlet to exit is examined. For the eleven-stage compressor examined here, the deterioration in performance has been found to be particularly severe in the last 2 stages. This suggests that the last two stages could be redesigned to alleviate the observed deterioration thus making the compressor performance insensitive to circumferential inlet distortion. This can potentially be accomplished by first determining what should the body force distribution of the last two stages should be to achieve minimal or no deterioration in performance in the last two stages. One can then in principle proceed to determine the blade design to yield such a body force distribution.

  3. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans


    force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  4. Small deletions disturb desmin architecture leading to breakdown of muscle cells and development of skeletal or cardioskeletal myopathy. (United States)

    Kaminska, Anna; Strelkov, Sergei V; Goudeau, Bertrand; Olivé, Montse; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Fidzianska, Anna; Simon-Casteras, Monique; Shatunov, Alexey; Dalakas, Marinos C; Ferrer, Isidro; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Vicart, Patrick; Goldfarb, Lev G


    Desmin ( DES) mutations have been recognized as a cause of desmin-related myopathy (OMIM 601419), or desminopathy, a disease characterized by progressive limb muscle weakness and accumulation of desmin-reactive granular aggregates in the myofibers. We have studied three families with skeletal or cardioskeletal myopathy caused by small in-frame deletions in the desmin gene. The newly identified in-frame deletions E359_S361del and N366del alter the heptad periodicity within a critical 2B coiled-coil segment. Structural analysis reveals that the E359_S361 deletion introduces a second stutter immediately downstream of the naturally occurring stutter, thus doubling the extent of the local coiled-coil unwinding. The N366del mutation converts the wild-type stutter into a different type of discontinuity, a stammer. A stammer, as opposed to a stutter, is expected to cause an extra overwinding of the coiled-coil. These mutations alter the coiled-coil geometry in specific ways leading to fatal damage to desmin filament assembly. Expression studies in two cell lines confirm the inability of desmin molecules with this changed architecture to polymerize into a functional filamentous network. This study provides insights into molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of desmin mutation-associated skeletal and cardioskeletal myopathy.

  5. Expression of GDF-5 during Limb Skeletal Development of Mice and the effect of GDF-5 on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukun Zhang; Shuhua Yang; Li Sun; Cao Yang; Zhewei Ye; Dehao Fu


    Objective: To investigate the expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) during limb skeletal development of mice and the effect of GDF-5 on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Methods: The expression of GDF-5 mRNA and protein in mouse fetal limb buds were detected in embryonic day 11.5-15.5 (El1.5-15.5) by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Type Ⅱ collagen protein was examined with immunocytochemistry and the sulfate glycosaminoglycan was measured by Alcian blue. Results: During early stage of developmental skeletogenesis, the expression of GDF-5mRNA was constant and began with embryos E11.5, highlighted at embryos E12.5 and E13.5, subsequently dropped at embryos E14.5 and E15.5.There was very significant difference (P < 0.01) in average light density ratio of GDF-5/β-actin between E12.5-13.5 and the other three days. The expression of GDF-5 protein had a similar change with mRNA during limb skeletogenesis. Immunocytochemistry showed that GDF-5 could promote expression of Type Ⅱ collagen protein and histological staining of proteoglycan with Alcian blue revealed the deposition of typical cartilage extracellular matrix components. Conclusion: GDF-5 can enhance chondrogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, which plays an important role in limb skeletal development and joint formation.

  6. Development of a 3D Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm with Three Vertical-Axial Pneumatic Actuators Combined with a Stereo Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Lin


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot’s end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H∞ tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end

  7. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system. (United States)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting


    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  8. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells


    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  9. Altered mRNA Splicing, Chondrocyte Gene Expression and Abnormal Skeletal Development due to SF3B4 Mutations in Rodriguez Acrofacial Dysostosis (United States)

    Nevarez, Lisette; Pogue, Robert; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.


    The acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) are a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders with craniofacial and limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome is a severe, usually perinatal lethal AFD, characterized by severe retrognathia, oligodactyly and lower limb abnormalities. Rodriguez syndrome has been proposed to be a severe form of Nager syndrome, a non-lethal AFD that results from mutations in SF3B4, a component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP). Furthermore, a case with a phenotype intermediate between Rodriguez and Nager syndromes has been shown to have an SF3B4 mutation. We identified heterozygosity for SF3B4 mutations in Rodriguez syndrome, confirming that the phenotype is a dominant disorder that is allelic with Nager syndrome. The mutations led to reduced SF3B4 synthesis and defects in mRNA splicing, primarily exon skipping. The mutations also led to reduced expression in growth plate chondrocytes of target genes, including the DLX5, DLX6, SOX9, and SOX6 transcription factor genes, which are known to be important for skeletal development. These data provide mechanistic insight toward understanding how SF3B4 mutations lead to the skeletal abnormalities observed in the acrofacial dysostoses. PMID:27622494

  10. Study on the Axial Dispersion of Liquid in Column Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鵾; 曾爱武; 高长宝; 余国琮


    An experimental study on the axial dispersion of liquid was carried out in a 0.382-m-ID flotation column packed with different structured packings or free of packings. The correlations of axial Peclet numbers with the liquid and gas superficial Reynolds numbers were developed for various packings. Among the packings tested, it is found that in the column packed with 250Y or 350Y packings the axial dispersion is the lowest. The addition of frother can decrease the axial dispersion. By the simulation analysis of the one-dimension dispersion model of packed flotation column, it is found that small axial dispersion, high collection rate constant and low axial liquid velocity can increase the collection zone recovery.

  11. Skeletal and body composition evaluation (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.


    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  12. 轴流风力灭火机的发展及其结构讨论%Development of Axial-flow Pneumatic Fire Extinguishers and Discussion about Their Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏伟; 秦瑞鸿; 俞国胜


    In recent years, the research and development of axial-flow pneumatic fire extinguishers has shifted from proposing design concept,constructing fan performance test benches and establishing numerical models for simulation analysis to per-formance discussion and design improvement stage of axial-flow pneumatic fire extinguishers with different structures. Seen from the structural form,experiments and inner flow analysis are conducted of total pressure and outlet wind speed of axial-flow pneumatic fire extinguishers with three structural arrangements,i.e. single stage with rotor blade,counter-rotating struc-ture and single stage with both rotor and stator blades. The result shows that the structure of single stage with both rotor and stator blades can effectively improve the total pressure of axial-flow pneumatic fire extinguishers but that the outlet speed re-mains to be improved.%近几年来,轴流风力灭火机的研发已从设计构想的提出、风机性能实验台搭建、数值分析模型的建立迈向了对不同结构下轴流风力灭火机性能讨论和设计改进阶段。在其结构形式上,目前主要对单级动叶、对旋及动静叶单级结构三种布置形式下轴流风力灭火机全压及出口风速的优劣进行实验和内流分析。结果表明,动静叶单级结构能够有效地提高轴流风力灭火机全压,但出口风速还有待提高。

  13. Analysis of thin-walled cylindrical composite shell structures subject to axial and bending loads: Concept development, analytical modeling and experimental verification (United States)

    Mahadev, Sthanu

    Continued research and development efforts devoted in recent years have generated novel avenues towards the advancement of efficient and effective, slender laminated fiber-reinforced composite members. Numerous studies have focused on the modeling and response characterization of composite structures with particular relevance to thin-walled cylindrical composite shells. This class of shell configurations is being actively explored to fully determine their mechanical efficacy as primary aerospace structural members. The proposed research is targeted towards formulating a composite shell theory based prognosis methodology that entails an elaborate analysis and investigation of thin-walled cylindrical shell type laminated composite configurations that are highly desirable in increasing number of mechanical and aerospace applications. The prime motivation to adopt this theory arises from its superior ability to generate simple yet viable closed-form analytical solution procedure to numerous geometrically intense, inherent curvature possessing composite structures. This analytical evaluative routine offers to acquire a first-hand insight on the primary mechanical characteristics that essentially govern the behavior of slender composite shells under typical static loading conditions. Current work exposes the robustness of this mathematical framework via demonstrating its potential towards the prediction of structural properties such as axial stiffness and bending stiffness respectively. Longitudinal ply-stress computations are investigated upon deriving the global stiffness matrix model for composite cylindrical tubes with circular cross-sections. Additionally, this work employs a finite element based numerical technique to substantiate the analytical results reported for cylindrically shaped circular composite tubes. Furthermore, this concept development is extended to the study of thin-walled, open cross-sectioned, curved laminated shells that are geometrically

  14. A new approach to radial and axial gauges (United States)

    Weigert, Heribert; Heinz, Ulrich


    We develop a new path integral formulation of QCD in radial and axial gauges. This formalism yields free propagators which are free of gauge poles. We find that radial gauges are ghost free. In axial gauges ghosts cannot generally be excluded from the formalism due to the need to fix the residual gauge freedom.

  15. Crosstalk between intestinal microbiota, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as an early event in systemic low-grade inflammation and the development of obesity and diabetes. (United States)

    Bleau, Christian; Karelis, Antony D; St-Pierre, David H; Lamontagne, Lucie


    Obesity is associated with a systemic chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the development of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. However, the etiology of this obesity-related pro-inflammatory process remains unclear. Most studies have focused on adipose tissue dysfunctions and/or insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells as well as changes in adipokine profile and macrophage recruitment as potential sources of inflammation. However, low-grade systemic inflammation probably involves a complex network of signals interconnecting several organs. Recent evidences have suggested that disturbances in the composition of the gut microbial flora and alterations in levels of gut peptides following the ingestion of a high-fat diet may be a cause of low-grade systemic inflammation that may even precede and predispose to obesity, metabolic disorders or type 2 diabetes. This hypothesis is appealing because the gastrointestinal system is first exposed to nutrients and may thereby represent the first link in the chain of events leading to the development of obesity-associated systemic inflammation. Therefore, the present review will summarize the latest advances interconnecting intestinal mucosal bacteria-mediated inflammation, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in a coordinated circuitry favouring the onset of a high-fat diet-related systemic low-grade inflammation preceding obesity and predisposing to metabolic disorders and/or type 2 diabetes. A particular emphasis will be given to high-fat diet-induced alterations of gut homeostasis as an early initiator event of mucosal inflammation and adverse consequences contributing to the promotion of extended systemic inflammation, especially in adipose and muscular tissues.

  16. Skeletally Dugundji spaces



    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  17. Investigation on a procedure for optimal axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    On the basis of a previously developed procedure for control of axial depth of cut in high accuracy micromilling operations, this paper presents an investigation on the estimation of the uncertainty of the set axial depth of cut....

  18. Build Axial Gradient Field by Using Axial Magnetized Permanent Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Axial magnetic field produced by an axial magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent rings, if they are magnetized in the same directions, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced. If they are magnetized in opposite direction,an axial gradient magnetic field can be generated, with the field range changing from -B0 to B0. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field was fabricated, the measured results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. For wider usage,it is desirable for the field gradient to be changed. Some methods to produce the variable gradient field are presented. These kinds of axial gradient magnetic field can also be used as a beam focusing for linear accelerator if the periodic field can be produced along the beam trajectory. The axial magnetic field is something like a solenoid, large stray field will leak to the outside environment if no method is taken to control them. In this paper, one method is illustrated to shield off the outside leakage field.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪涛; 张强勇; 袁圣渤; 王超; 高强


    针对目前已有岩石直接拉伸试验装置的不足,研制轴向对中装置包括黏接对中装置和拉伸对中装置,两套对中装置可分别消除岩石试件黏接过程中的偏心和拉伸过程中的偏心,保证试件处于轴心受拉的状态。使用轴向对中装置和万能试验机,采用标准岩石试件进行直接拉伸试验,测试砂岩、灰岩和花岗岩的抗拉强度、极限拉应变和拉伸弹性模量,并给出拉应力–应变曲线。直接拉伸试验结果表明:岩石试件的拉断破坏面大都出现在试件中部;绝大部分岩石试件为脆性拉断破坏;岩石内部的裂隙对其抗拉性能影响很大,为了能精确测试岩石的抗拉强度指标,试验前应对试件进行严格的筛选。%To overcome the deficiency of existing direct tension test device,axial positioning devices were developed,including an axial positioning device for bonding and an axial positioning device for tension. The two sets of axial positioning devices eliminated the bonding eccentricity and the tensile eccentricity respectively, ensuring that rock specimen be pulled in uniaxial tension state. The direct tension tests of rocks were then carried out using the axial positioning devices and the universal testing machine. The tensile strength,the ultimate tensile strain and the tensile elastic modulus of sandstone,limestone and granite were measured. In the direct tensile test, the standard rock specimen was used. The tensile stress-strain curves of these rocks were obtained. The failure surfaces of rock specimen were found to appear at the middle of specimen mostly. The most of the rock specimens displayed the mode of brittle failure. The fractures of rock influenced greatly the tensile properties of rock. In order to measure the tensile strength of rock accurately,the rock specimen should be selected strictly before testing.

  20. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio


    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  1. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M


    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  2. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)


    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  3. Numerical simulation and analysis of axial instabilities occurrence and development in turbomachines. Application to a break transient in a helium nuclear reactor; Simulation numerique et analyse du declenchement et du developpement des instabilites axiales dans les turbomachines: application a un transitoire de breche dans un reacteur nucleaire a helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauveron, N


    The subject of the present work was to develop models able to simulate axial instabilities occurrence and development in multistage turbomachines. The construction of a 1D unsteady axisymmetric model of internal flow in a turbomachine (at the scale of the row) has followed different steps: generation of steady correlations, adapted to different regimes (off-design conditions, low mass flowrate, negative mass flow rate); building of a model able to describe transient behaviour; use of implicit time schemes adapted to long transients; validation of the model in comparison of experimental investigations, measurements and numerical results from the bibliography. This model is integrated in a numerical tool, which has the capacity to describe the gas dynamics in a complete circuit containing different elements (ducts, valves, plenums). Thus, the complete model can represent the coupling between local and global phenomena, which is a very important mechanism in axial instability occurrence and development. An elementary theory has also been developed, based on a generalisation of Greitzer's model. These models, which were validated on various configurations, have provided complementary elements for the validation of the complete model. They have also allowed a more comprehensive description of physical phenomena at stake in instability occurrence and development by quantifying various effects (inertia, compressibility, performance levels) and underlying the main phenomena (in particular the collapse and recovery kinetics of the plenum), which were the only retained in the final elementary theory. The models were first applied to academic configurations (compression system), and then to an innovative industrial project: a helium cooled fast nuclear reactor with a Brayton cycle. The use of the models have brought comprehensive elements to surge occurrence due to a break event. It has been shown that surge occurrence is highly dependent of break location and that surge

  4. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani


    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  5. Dissipative axial inflation (United States)

    Notari, Alessio; Tywoniuk, Konrad


    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term phi/fγ F ~F, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρR, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff fγ, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if fγ is smaller than the field excursion phi0 by about a factor of at least Script O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4-5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with fγ. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρR rather than dot phi2/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/fγ to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/fG to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed phi0~ fG.

  6. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul


    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  7. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  8. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  9. Development of Correlations for Windage Power Losses Modeling in an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Geometrical Features of the Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rasekh


    Full Text Available In this paper, a set of correlations for the windage power losses in a 4 kW axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (AFPMSM is presented. In order to have an efficient machine, it is necessary to optimize the total electromagnetic and mechanical losses. Therefore, fast equations are needed to estimate the windage power losses of the machine. The geometry consists of an open rotor–stator with sixteen magnets at the periphery of the rotor with an annular opening in the entire disk. Air can flow in a channel being formed between the magnets and in a small gap region between the magnets and the stator surface. To construct the correlations, computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations through the frozen rotor (FR method are performed at the practical ranges of the geometrical parameters, namely the gap size distance, the rotational speed of the rotor, the magnet thickness and the magnet angle. Thereafter, two categories of formulations are defined to make the windage losses dimensionless based on whether the losses are mainly due to the viscous forces or the pressure forces. At the end, the correlations can be achieved via curve fittings from the numerical data. The results reveal that the pressure forces are responsible for the windage losses for the side surfaces in the air-channel, whereas for the surfaces facing the stator surface in the gap, the viscous forces mainly contribute to the windage losses. Additionally, the results of the parametric study demonstrate that the overall windage losses in the machine escalate with an increase in either the rotational Reynolds number or the magnet thickness ratio. By contrast, the windage losses decrease once the magnet angle ratio enlarges. Moreover, it can be concluded that the proposed correlations are very useful tools in the design and optimizations of this type of electrical machine.

  10. Expression profile of IGF-I-calcineurin-NFATc3-dependent pathway genes in skeletal muscle during early development between duck breeds differing in growth rates. (United States)

    Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang; Shan, Yanju; Xu, Wenjuan; Chen, Wenfeng; Song, Chi; Song, Weitao


    The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-calcineurin (CaN)-NFATc signaling pathways have been implicated in the regulation of myocyte hypertrophy and fiber-type specificity. In the present study, the expression of the CnAα, NFATc3, and IGF-I genes was quantified by RT-PCR for the first time in the breast muscle (BM) and leg muscle (LM) on days 13, 17, 21, 25, and 27 of embryonic development, as well as at 7 days posthatching (PH), in Gaoyou and Jinding ducks, which differ in their muscle growth rates. Consistent expression patterns of CnAα, NFATc3, and IGF-I were found in the same anatomical location at different development stages in both duck breeds, showing significant differences in an age-specific fashion. However, the three genes were differentially expressed in the two different anatomical locations (BM and LM). CnAα, NFATc3, and IGF-I messenger RNA (mRNA) could be detected as early as embryonic day 13 (ED13), and the highest level appeared at this stage in both BM and LM. Significant positive relationships were observed in the expression of the studied genes in the BM and LM of both duck breeds. Also, the expression of these three genes showed a positive relationship with the percentage of type IIb fibers and a negative relationship with the percentage of type I fibers and type IIa fibers. Our data indicate differential expression and coordinated developmental regulation of the selected genes involved in the IGF-I-calcineurin-NFATc3 pathway in duck skeletal muscle during embryonic and early PH growth and development; these data also indicate that this signaling pathway might play a role in the regulation of myofiber type transition.

  11. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas


    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...... the role of skeletal muscle transverse tubules as potential modulators of tissue insulin responsiveness....

  12. Comparative analyses by sequencing of transcriptomes during skeletal muscle development between pig breeds differing in muscle growth rate and fatness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of muscle transcriptome during development and between breeds differing in muscle growth is necessary to uncover the complex mechanism underlying muscle development. Herein, we present the first transcriptome-wide longissimus dorsi muscle development research concerning Lantang (LT, obese and Landrace (LR, lean pig breeds during 10 time-points from 35 days-post-coitus (dpc to 180 days-post-natum (dpn using Solexa/Illumina's Genome Analyzer. The data demonstrated that myogenesis was almost completed before 77 dpc, but the muscle phenotypes were still changed from 77 dpc to 28 dpn. Comparative analysis of the two breeds suggested that myogenesis started earlier but progressed more slowly in LT than in LR, the stages ranging from 49 dpc to 77 dpc are critical for formation of different muscle phenotypes. 595 differentially expressed myogenesis genes were identified, and their roles in myogenesis were discussed. Furthermore, GSK3B, IKBKB, ACVR1, ITGA and STMN1 might contribute to later myogenesis and more muscle fibers in LR than LT. Some myogenesis inhibitors (ID1, ID2, CABIN1, MSTN, SMAD4, CTNNA1, NOTCH2, GPC3 and HMOX1 were higher expressed in LT than in LR, which might contribute to more slow muscle differentiation in LT than in LR. We also identified several genes which might contribute to intramuscular adipose differentiation. Most important, we further proposed a novel model in which MyoD and MEF2A controls the balance between intramuscular adipogenesis and myogenesis by regulating CEBP family; Myf5 and MEF2C are essential during the whole myogenesis process while MEF2D affects muscle growth and maturation. The MRFs and MEF2 families are also critical for the phenotypic differences between the two pig breeds. Overall, this study contributes to elucidating the mechanism underlying muscle development, which could provide valuable information for pig meat quality improvement. The raw data have been submitted to Gene

  13. Axial Current and Noether Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Prasanta


    A decade ago, a Lagrangian density has been proposed by the author where only the local symmetries of the Lorentz subgroup of (A)ds group is retained. This formalism has been found to produce some results encompassing that of standard Einstein-Hilbert formalism. In the present article, the conserved axial vector matter currents, constructed in some earlier paper, have been found to be a result of Noether's theorem. PACS: 04.20.Fy, 04.20.Cv, 11.40.-q Keywords: Torsion, Axial Current, Noether's Theorem

  14. Relativistic RPA in axial symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, D Pena; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034317


    Covariant density functional theory, in the framework of self-consistent Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) and Relativistic Random Phase approximation (RPA), is for the first time applied to axially deformed nuclei. The fully self-consistent RMF+RRPA equations are posed for the case of axial symmetry and non-linear energy functionals, and solved with the help of a new parallel code. Formal properties of RPA theory are studied and special care is taken in order to validate the proper decoupling of spurious modes and their influence on the physical response. Sample applications to the magnetic and electric dipole transitions in $^{20}$Ne are presented and analyzed.

  15. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle



    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the ...

  16. Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Gelfer, Gita; Perry, Lisa; Deodhar, Atul


    Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton that includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Patients with AS experience chronic pain due to sacroiliac joint and spinal inflammation, and may develop spinal ankylosing with syndesmophyte formation. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) have shown promise in the management of AS and axSpA by targeting the underlying inflammatory process, and providing symptomatic relief. Whether they alter the progression of the disease is uncertain. Golimumab is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets and downregulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The use of golimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of axSpA as well as improve patient function and quality reported outcomes. This review focuses on the biological rationale and the results of clinical trials with golimumab for the treatment of axSpA.

  17. Osteology and postmetamorphic development of Telmatobius oxycephalus (Anura: Telmatobiidae) with an analysis of skeletal variation in the genus. (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián


    The osteological diversity among species of Telmatobius has been considered conservative. Nonetheless, the degree of ossification of several features varies both intraspecifically and interspecifically. Herein, intraspecific osteological variation and postmetamorphic ontogenetic changes in osteological features are described in Telmatobius oxycephalus. These data are compared with published descriptions of congeners. There is a considerable intraspecific osteological variation in T. oxycephalus, with cranial characters varying polymorphically, and the hyoid and postcranial characters being sexually dimorphic. This intraspecific variation is expressed by subtle differences in the degree of ossification or mineralization. Interspecific variation also can be described in terms of differential development of osteological features; these differences are more obvious than intraspecifically variable characters. The adult skeletons of several species of Telmatobius resemble the morphology observed in early stages of postmetamorphic development of T. oxycephalus. This is especially evident in the neopalatines, parasphenoid, sphenethmoid, exoccipitals, prootics, vomers, nasals, and plectra. These results suggest that within the conservative osteological architecture of Telmatobius, the variation observed is the result of heterochronic changes during the ossification process.

  18. Molecular characterization of the porcine JHDM1A gene associated with average daily gain: evaluation its role in skeletal muscle development and growth. (United States)

    Peng, Yong-Bo; Fan, Bin; Han, Xue-Lei; Xu, Xue-Wen; Rothschild, Max F; Yerle, Martine; Liu, Bang


    JHDM1A, a member of the JHDM (JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase) family, plays an central role in gene silencing, cell cycle, cell growth and cancer development through histone H3K36 demethylation modification. Here reported the cloning, expression, chromosomal location and association analysis with growth traits of porcine JHDM1A gene. Sequence analysis showed that the porcine JHDM1A gene encodes 1,162 amino acids and contains JmjC, F-box, and CXXC zinc-finger domains, which coding sequence and deduced protein shares 91 and 99% similarity with human JHDM1A, respectively. Spatio-Temporal expression analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of porcine JHDM1A had significantly higher levels in the middle (65 days) and later (90 days) period's embryo skeletal muscle than that of 33 days, and showed a ubiquitously expression but with the highest abundance in kidney, lung and liver of an adult pig. Radiation hybrid mapping and the following linkage mapping data indicate that JHDM1A maps to 2p17 region of pig chromosome 2 (SSC2). Allele frequency differences were detected in different pig breeds and an association study was performed with a SNP within 3'UTR. The results showed that there is a tendency for allele frequencies to differ between the fast growth breeds (Yorkshire) and slow growth pig breeds (Qingping pigs, Yushan Black pigs, Erhualian pigs and Dahuabai pigs). The association analysis using a Berkshire × Yorkshire F(2) population indicated that the C224G polymorphism had a highly significant association with average daily gain on test (P growth and quality traits.

  19. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner


    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  20. Thermophoresis of Axially Symmetric Bodies (United States)


    Sweden Abstract. Thermophoresis of axially symmetric bodies is investigated to first order in the Knudsen-mimber, Kn. The study is made in the limit...derived. Asymptotic solutions are studied. INTRODUCTION Thermophoresis as a phenomenon has been known for a long time, and several authors have approached

  1. Effect of tibial bone resection on the development of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in foetal sheep. (United States)

    West, J M; Williams, N A; Luff, A R; Walker, D W


    To determine if longitudinal bone growth affects the differentiation of fast- and slow-twitch muscles, the tibial bone was sectioned at 90 days gestation in foetal sheep so that the lower leg was permanently without structural support. At 140 days (term is approximately 147 days) the contractile properties of whole muscles, activation profiles of single fibres and ultrastructure of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from the hindlimbs were studied. The contractile and activation profiles of the slow-twitch soleus muscles were significantly affected by tibial bone resection (TIBX). The soleus muscles from the TIBX hindlimbs showed: (1) a decrease in the time to peak of the twitch responses from 106.2 +/- 10.7 ms (control, n = 4) to 65.1 +/- 2.48 ms (TIBX, n = 5); (2) fatigue profiles more characteristic of those observed in the fast-twitch muscles: and (3) Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres similar to those from intact hindlimbs at earlier stages of gestation. In the FDL, TIBX did not significantly change whole muscle twitch contraction time, the fatigue profile or the Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres. Electron microscopy showed an increased deposition of glycogen in both soleus and FDL muscles. This study shows that the development of the slow-twitch phenotype is impeded in the absence of the physical support normally provided by the tibial bone. We suggest that longitudinal stretch is an important factor in allowing full expression of the slow-twitch phenotype.

  2. Optimization of axial blowers. Optimierung von Axial-Ventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, W.


    For the optimum possible design of axial blowers, trials are evaluated in the article, which are based on the grid profile examined by N. Scholz. The computation for the pressure number and the primary degree of efficiency are shown as well as the evaluation of the effect of the Reynolds and mach number on the degree of efficiency and determination of the secondary losses. In a final example, the dimensions of a blower are computed from the data determined during the trials. (orig.).

  3. Axial Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia Is Caused by C21orf2 Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (axial SMD is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by dysplasia of axial skeleton and retinal dystrophy. We conducted whole exome sequencing and identified C21orf2 (chromosome 21 open reading frame 2 as a disease gene for axial SMD. C21orf2 mutations have been recently found to cause isolated retinal degeneration and Jeune syndrome. We found a total of five biallelic C21orf2 mutations in six families out of nine: three missense and two splicing mutations in patients with various ethnic backgrounds. The pathogenic effects of the splicing (splice-site and branch-point mutations were confirmed on RNA level, which showed complex patterns of abnormal splicing. C21orf2 mutations presented with a wide range of skeletal phenotypes, including cupped and flared anterior ends of ribs, lacy ilia and metaphyseal dysplasia of proximal femora. Analysis of patients without C21orf2 mutation indicated genetic heterogeneity of axial SMD. Functional data in chondrocyte suggest C21orf2 is implicated in cartilage differentiation. C21orf2 protein was localized to the connecting cilium of the cone and rod photoreceptors, confirming its significance in retinal function. Our study indicates that axial SMD is a member of a unique group of ciliopathy affecting skeleton and retina.

  4. 骨龄在评估颅面生长发育中的应用及其影响因素%The application of skeletal age in the assessment of craniofacial growth and development and related influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    准确的骨龄评估可以评价个体发育所处的阶段,为正畸临床选择矫治时机和预测颅面生长发育潜力提供重要的参考依据。本文从骨龄评估颅面生长发育的研究现状、影响骨龄评估颅面生长发育准确性的因素、骨龄评估颅面生长发育的改进与发展趋势三个方面展开论述,观点总结如下。①手腕骨龄,尤其是Fishman手腕骨龄分期法是一种有机的、相对简单并可靠的骨龄评估方法;颈椎骨龄分期法不用接受额外的X线照射,易于观察下颌生长高峰期,尤其是适应当今影像数字化趋势的颈椎骨龄定量分期法;②骨龄准确性受种族、性别、评定方法本身特点等因素的影响,应找到适合特定患者的骨龄评估方法;③环境因素,尤其是生物钟长期紊乱可导致骨发育异常,影响骨龄评估的准确性,提出通过调节生物钟治疗颅面生长发育异常的新方法,并期望发现评价颅面生长发育的新指标、新标准,提高骨龄评估生长发育的准确性。%Accurate skeletal age evaluation can assess the stage of individual development,and therefore provide the important refer-ence for orthodontists to choose proper treatment timing and predict the growth potential. This paper explores three aspects,including the research status of the assessment of craniofacial growth and development,the influencing factors of skeletal age evaluation accuracy, and the improvement and development of skelatal age evaluation. The views are summarized as follows:①The hand-wrist skeletal age, especially Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators ( SMI) ,is organic, simple and reliable. The method of Cervical Vertebrae Maturation ( CVM) , especially Quantitative Cervical Vertebral Maturation ( QCVM) , has attracted more and more attention, and there is no need for additional x-ray exposure and it is easy to observe the mandibular growth peak. ②The accuracy of skeletal age

  5. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia


    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  6. Axial blanket for 16NGF Angra 1 fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadde, Luciano Martins; Faria, Eduardo Fernandes [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails:;; Sang-Keun You [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. (KNFC), Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:


    Angra-1, Kori-2 and Krsko are nuclear power plants with the same design. However, the fuel assemblies have some differences in design due to the countries strategies and the differences in the fabrication process. The 16NGF (16x16 Next Generation Fuel) was developed by INB, KNFC and Westinghouse in order to be used in these three nuclear power plants and the 'Axial Blanket' is one of the new features for the 16NGF design. The main purpose of the Axial Blanket Optimization study is to determine which axial blanket enrichment and length would provide the better fuel cycle cost benefit. All of the calculations were performed using Gadolinium as Burnable Absorber and solid pellets type for Axial Blanket. The results indicate 1.8 w/o U235 enrichment and 8 inches length as the best option of Axial Blanket from the fuel cycle cost benefit standpoint. The economy is about 1.8%. The difference in the reload cost in the range between 1.5 and 2.6 w/o U235 enrichment and for the 6 and 8 inches length is not so significant. Due that, from the Fq limit standpoint and also for longer cycle length requirements, a higher axial blanket enrichment (2.6 w/o) and shorter length (6 inches) is recommended. (author)

  7. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... for velocity, pressure andradial position are derived from the conservationlaws for mass, tangential momentum and energy.The resulting system of equations is non-linear and, dueto mass conservation and pressure equilibrium far downstream of the rotor,strongly coupled.The equations are solved using the Newton...

  8. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J


    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  9. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity. (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni


    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  10. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  11. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system. (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M


    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  12. Axial Spondyloarthritis: An Evolving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ziadé


    Full Text Available Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA is the prototype of a family of inter-related yet heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical and genetic manifestations: the spondyloarthritides (SpAs. The condition mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton, and has a clear classification scheme, wider epidemiological data, and distinct therapeutic guidelines when compared with other SpAs. However, the concept of AxSpA has not been immutable over time and has evolved tremendously on many levels over the past decades. This review identifies the evolution of the AxSpA concept at two levels. First, at the level of classification, the old classifications and rationales leading to the current Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification are reviewed, and the advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Second, at the therapeutic level, current and future treatments are described and treatment strategies are discussed.

  13. [Axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis]. (United States)

    Nordström, Dan; Kauppi, Markku


    Current classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis do not allow diagnosis before radiographic changes are visible in sacroiliacal joints. The the new axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) criteria include axial SpA without radiographic changes as well as established ankylosing spondylitis, recognizing them as a continuum of the same disease. This is of major importance as the burden of early SpA is comparable to that of later stage disease. Diagnosis relies on inflammatory MRI findings which is the most significant change compared to earlier criteria. Emerging data on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blocking therapies already in early but also in established disease have given new promising alternatives for treatment of this often very cumbersome disease, that rarely responds to classic DMARDs.

  14. Conserved and divergent expression patterns of markers of axial development in reptilian embryos: Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko. (United States)

    Yoshida, Michio; Kajikawa, Eriko; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Noro, Miyuki; Iwai, Tatsuhiro; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kobayashi, Kensaku; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shinichi


    The processes of development leading up to gastrulation have been markedly altered during the evolution of amniotes, and it is uncertain how the mechanisms of axis formation are conserved and diverged between mouse and chick embryos. To assess the conservation and divergence of these mechanisms, this study examined gene expression patterns during the axis formation process in Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko preovipositional embryos. The data suggest that NODAL signaling, similarly to avian embryos but in contrast to eutherian embryos, does not have a role in epiblast and hypoblast development in reptilian embryos. The posterior marginal epiblast (PME) is the initial molecular landmark of axis formation in reptilian embryos prior to primitive plate development. Ontogenetically, PME may be the precursor of the primitive plate, and phylogenetically, Koller's sickle and posterior marginal zone in avian development may have been derived from the PME. Most of the genes expressed in the mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE genes), especially signaling antagonist genes, are not expressed in the hypoblast of turtle and gecko embryos, though they are expressed in the avian hypoblast. This study proposes that AVE gene expression in the hypoblast and the visceral endoderm could have been independently established in avian and eutherian lineages, similar to the primitive streak that has been independently acquired in these lineages.

  15. Significance of axial length monitoring in children with congenital cataract and update of measurement methods. (United States)

    Zhan, Jiao; Lin, Haotian; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi


    Congenital cataract is the main cause of blindness in children, with significantly varying treatment effects. The development of axial length is an important factor that affects the prognosis of these children. However, when compared with the eyes of normal children, the mechanism of growth of the axial length is so complicated that the reported findings differ significantly in terms of the measuring apparatus, assessment methods, and statistical outcome, making the rule of axial length development still unclear. In this paper, we first review the process of axial length development in normal healthy children and compare different hypotheses about certain factors that could affect the development of axial length. The results of some current research about the characteristics of axial length development in congenital cataract children are then reviewed. Lastly, the advantages and disadvantages of current axial length measurements methods are compared and analyzed. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the complexity and importance of axial length development and to suggest better use of axial length monitoring measurements in congenital cataract children for pediatric ophthalmologists, with the hope of offering assistance that will enhance long-term therapeutic effects for these children.

  16. Golimumab for treatment of axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis


    Axial spondyloarthritis comprises two forms: nonradiographic (nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) and radiographic (better known as ankylosing spondylitis), which are often considered as two stages of one disease. Historically, all currently available TNF-α inhibitors were first investigated in ankylosing spondylitis and later on in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This year, EMA has granted golimumab approval for the treatment of active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis based on the recently published data from the GO-AHEAD study. This article summarizes recent data on efficacy and safety of golimumab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

  17. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sugiyama


    Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of

  18. Development of Axial Flow Pump with a Hydrodynamic-magnetically Levitated Impeller for Heart Assistance%磁-液悬浮轴流泵心脏辅助装置研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国荣; 朱晓东; 郝宗超; 田步升; 陈海丰


      Object: To suspend the impeller of axial flow pumps by hydrodynamic, magnetically levitating field. Methods: The newly developed axial fow pump is composed of a cylindric pump house, a impeller with magnetic rotor and a diffuser. The axial displacement of the impel er is restricted by the magnetic feld formed by the rotor and the electromagnetic stator. A tiny gap, the hydrodynamic levitating gap, is formed between the blade tip of the impl er and pump house since the diameter of impel er is slightly less than the inner-diamiter of the cylindric pump house. Hydrodynamic force wil produced inside this gap on rotating of the impel er, limiting its radial movement. Thuse the impel er wil be ful y suspended by hydrodynamic––magnetical force. A outlet diffuser is arranged behind the impel er to enhance the pump effciency, with its blades projected directly from the wal of the pump house, eliminating the center hub which is usual y for holding the diffuser blades, making a hol ow space in the diffuser center. This design al ow some blood fow through the centric passage to wash out the “dead area”behind the impel er, in favor of enhancement of antithrombotic performance. Results: Currently the prototype of the hydrodynamic, magnetical levitating axial fow pump is 23mm in diameter and 65mm in length, yielding a fow rate of 5L/min at 100 mmHg pressure with a rotating speed of 14000rpm. The normalized hemolysis index (NIH) is 0.12g/100L. Conclusion: Our newly developed axial fow pump with hydrodynamic, magnetical y levitated impel er is feasible for left ventricular assistance, just for in vivo animal test in future studies.%  目的:应用磁力和流体动压控制实现轴流泵叶轮的完全悬浮。材料和方法:磁-液悬浮轴流泵由轴流泵泵筒,轴流叶轮,尾导叶叶片等组成。采用约束磁力限制旋转叶轮的轴向位移,约束磁力由旋转叶轮轮毂中的永磁体与轴流泵电机定子铁芯之间通过磁相

  19. Defining and Generating Axial Lines from Street Center Lines for better Understanding of Urban Morphologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xintao


    Axial lines are defined as the longest visibility lines for representing individual linear spaces in urban environments. The least number of axial lines that cover the free space of an urban environment constitute what is often called an axial map. This is a fundamental tool in space syntax, a theory developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues for characterizing the underlying urban morphologies. For a long time, generating axial lines with help of some graphic software has been a tedious manual process that is criticized for being time consuming, subjective, or even arbitrary. In this paper, we redefine axial lines as the least number of individual straight line segments mutually intersected along natural streets that are generated from street center lines using the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Based on this new definition, we develop an automatic solution to generating the newly defined axial lines from street center lines. We apply this solution to six typical street networks (three from North Am...

  20. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.


    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  1. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid


    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  2. Development and in vitro study of miniature implantable axial flow blood pump%植入式微型轴流血泵的研制及体外实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉璇; 张杰民; 施超; 刘晓程


    Objective The research of impeller blood pump has been the key point in cardiac surgery and biomedical engineering fields in recent years. To investigate hydrodynamies of self researched and developed mini axial flow pump, parameters of pump were tested on a homemade mimic vitro platform. Methods Hydrodynamics tests were performed in vitro mimic circulation, water and 30% glycerin in water as respeetive circulatory mediator to simulate blood. Results Flow rates can reach 6. 19L/min and 5.08L/min respectively in water and 30% glycerin, when rotation speed was 13000rpm and pressure was 100mmHg. Conclusion Axial flow blood pump has good hydrodynamics to substitute for left ventricle, whieh can meet the demand of assisted circulation in congestive heart failure patients.%目的 近年来,叶轮血泵的研究已经成为心脏外科和生物医学工程领域关注的焦点.通过体外模拟循环实验台对自行研发设计的微型轴流血泵进行测试,探讨血泵的体外流体力学特性.方法 分别利用水及30%甘油水溶液作为循环介质模拟血液在体外模拟循环条件下进行血泵流体力学测试.结果 在血泵转速为13000 rpm,压力为100 mmHg时,分别以水及30%甘油水溶液作为循环介质.其对应流量达到6.19 L/min和5.08 L/min.结论 该轴流血泵的基本流体力学性能良好,其流体力学特性已经完全可以替代左心室功能,满足临床心衰患者辅助循环需求.

  3. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)


    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  4. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.


    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  5. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle. (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B


    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  6. High Sugar Intake and Development of Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Mice: A Protective Role for PPAR-δ Agonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benetti


    Full Text Available Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-δ agonists may serve for treating metabolic diseases. However, the effects of PPAR-δ agonism within the skeletal muscle, which plays a key role in whole-body glucose metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the signaling pathways activated in the gastrocnemius muscle by chronic administration of the selective PPAR-δ agonist, GW0742 (1 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks, in male C57Bl6/J mice treated for 30 weeks with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS, the major sweetener in foods and soft-drinks (15% wt/vol in drinking water. Mice fed with the HFCS diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia. In the gastrocnemius muscle, HFCS impaired insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and reduced GLUT-4 and GLUT-5 expression and membrane translocation. GW0742 administration induced PPAR-δ upregulation and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Diet-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and expression of inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase and intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 were attenuated by drug treatment. These effects were accompanied by reduction in the serum concentration of interleukin-6 and increase in muscular expression of fibroblast growth factor-21. Overall, here we show that PPAR-δ activation protects the skeletal muscle against the metabolic abnormalities caused by chronic HFCS exposure by affecting multiple levels of the insulin and inflammatory cascades.

  7. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong


    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  8. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases. (United States)

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn


    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations.

  9. Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James


    Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  10. Recent Results on High-Pressure Axial Blowers (United States)

    Eckert, B.


    Considerable progress has, in recent times, been attained in the development of the high-pressure axial blower by well-planned research. The efforts are directed toward improving the efficiencies, which are already high for the axial blower, and in particular the delivery pressure heads. For high pressures multistage arrangements are used. Of fundamental importance is the careful design of all structural parts of the blower that are subject to the effects of the flow. In the present report, several recent results and experiences are reported, which are based on results of German engine research.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length


    Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.


    Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...

  12. Skeletal Effects of Smoking. (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E


    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  13. System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology (United States)

    Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.


    The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

  14. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...

  15. The Emergence of Axial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Svenonius


    Full Text Available Many languages have specialized locative words or morphemes translating roughly into words like ‘front,’ ‘back,’ ‘top,’ ‘bottom,’ ‘side,’ and so on. Often, these words are used instead of more specialized adpositions to express spatial meanings corresponding to ‘behind,’ ‘above,’ and so on. I argue, on the basis of a cross-linguistic survey of such expressions, that in many cases they motivate a syntactic category which is distinct from both N and P, which I call AxPart for ‘Axial Part’; I show how the category relates to the words which instantiate it, and how the meaning of the construction is derived from the combination of P[lace] elements, AxParts, and the lexical material which expresses them.

  16. Unsteady Flows in Axial Turbomachines (United States)

    Marble, F. E.; Rannie, W. D.


    Of the various unsteady flows that occur in axial turbomachines certain asymmetric disturbances, of wave length large in comparison with blade spacing, have become understood to a certain extent. These disturbances divide themselves into two categories: self-induced oscillations and force disturbances. A special type of propagating stall appears as a self-induced disturbance; an asymmetric velocity profile introduced at the compressor inlet constitutes a forced disturbance. Both phenomena have been treated from a unified theoretical point of view in which the asymmetric disturbances are linearized and the blade characteristics are assumed quasi-steady. Experimental results are in essential agreement with this theory wherever the limitations of the theory are satisfied. For the self-induced disturbances and the more interesting examples of the forced disturbances, the dominant blade characteristic is the dependence of total pressure loss, rather than the turning angle, upon the local blade inlet angle.

  17. Multi-axial mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered cartilage: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Waldman


    Full Text Available The development of tissue engineered cartilage is a promising new approach for the repair of damaged or diseased tissue. Since it has proven difficult to generate cartilaginous tissue with properties similar to that of native articular cartilage, several studies have used mechanical stimuli as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the developed tissue. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multi-axial loading applied during in vitro tissue formation to better reflect the physiological forces that chondrocytes are subjected to in vivo. Dynamic combined compression-shear stimulation (5% compression and 5% shear strain amplitudes increased both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis (76 ± 8% and 73 ± 5%, respectively over the static (unstimulated controls. When this multi-axial loading condition was applied to the chondrocyte cultures over a four week period, there were significant improvements in both extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation and the mechanical properties of the in vitro-formed tissue (3-fold increase in compressive modulus and 1.75-fold increase in shear modulus. Stimulated tissues were also significantly thinner than the static controls (19% reduction suggesting that there was a degree of ECM consolidation as a result of long-term multi-axial loading. This study demonstrated that stimulation by multi-axial forces can improve the quality of the in vitro-formed tissue, but additional studies are required to further optimize the conditions to favour improved biochemical and mechanical properties of the developed tissue.

  18. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, P.M.


    This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

  19. A simple and rapid method to characterize lipid fate in skeletal muscle


    Massart, Julie; Juleen R Zierath; Chibalin, Alexander V.


    Background Elevated fatty acids contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and affect skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since elevated intramuscular lipids and insulin resistance is strongly correlated, aberrant lipid storage or lipid intermediates may be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the dynamic metabolic fate of lipids in primary human skeletal muscle cells and in intact mouse skeletal muscle. We report a simple and fa...

  20. Zebrafish Fins as a Model System for Skeletal Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marí-Beffa


    Full Text Available Recent studies on the morphogenesis of the fins of Danio rerio (zebrafish during development and regeneration suggest that a number of inductive signals involved in the process are similar to some of those that affect bone and cartilage differentiation in mammals and humans. Akimenko et al. (2002 has shown that bone morphogenetic protein-2b (BMP2b is involved in the induction of dermal bone differentiation during fin regeneration. Many other groups have also shown that molecules from the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily (TGFβ, including BMP2, are effective in promoting chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo in higher vertebrates, including humans. In the present study, we review the state of the art of this topic by a comparative analysis of skeletal tissue development, regeneration and renewal processes in tetrapods, and fin regeneration in fishes. A general conclusion of this study states that lepidotrichia is a special skeletal tissue different to cartilage, bone, enamel, or dentine in fishes, according to its extracellular matrix (ECM composition. However, the empirical analysis of inducing signals of skeletal tissues in fishes and tetrapods suggests that lepidotrichia is different to any responding features with main skeletal tissues. A number of new inductive molecules are arising from fin development and regeneration studies that might establish an empirical basis for further molecular approaches to mammal skeletal tissues differentiation. Despite the tissue dissimilarity, this empirical evidence might finally lead to clinical applications to skeletal disorders in humans.

  1. The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges (United States)

    Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.


    An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer

  2. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan


    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  3. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  4. Suspected fetal skeletal malformations or bone diseases: how to explore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie [Erasme Hospital, Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)


    Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Although US has proved reliable for the prenatal detection of skeletal abnormalities, the precise diagnosis of a dysplasia is often difficult to make before birth (especially in the absence of a familial history) due to their various phenotypic presentations, the variability in the time at which they manifest and often, the lack of precise molecular diagnosis. In addition to the accuracy of the antenatal diagnosis, it is very important to establish a prognosis. This is a clinically relevant issue as skeletal dysplasias may be associated with severe disability and may even be lethal. We will therefore describe the respective role of two-dimensional (2-D) US, three-dimensional (3-D) US and CT in the antenatal assessment of skeletal malformations. (orig.)

  5. [Mandibular osteomyelitis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with severe axial and peripheral involvement]. (United States)

    Tomotani, Daniere Yurie Vieira; Miranda, Aryádine Allinne Machado de; Almeida, Lorena Penha; Mubarac, Rebecca Souza; Neves, Anne Christine Garcia; Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia Euzébio


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly the axial skeletal system, causing pain and functional incapacity. The peripheral joint involvement occurs in 30 to 40% of cases. Osteomyelitis of the mandible was relatively common before the advent of preventive antibiotic therapy and restorative dentistry. Currently, the infection of the facial bones is a rare condition, being the odontogenic infection the most responsible for cases with mandibular involvement. The authors report the case of a EA patient, with severe peripheral involvement, which progressed to osteomyelitis of the jaw, secondary to the odontogenic infection due to delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin


    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  7. Axial variation in the three-spine stickleback: genetic and environmental factors. (United States)

    Ahn, D G; Gibson, G


    Subtle differences in the pattern of arrangement of types of vertebrae and associated median skeletal structures between a benthic and limnetic species pair of three-spine stickleback from Paxton Lake, British Columbia, are typical of those found throughout the range of the Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex. We established laboratory colonies from just three individuals of each species, and studied the effect of three generations of inbreeding on axial morphology. There was sufficient divergence in the location of individual elements between families to regenerate close to the entire range of axial diversity seen in threespine sticklebacks worldwide. Analysis of the patterns of variance and covariance between the axial locations of elements provides evidence for the action of both meristic and homeotic processes in the generation of morphological divergence within each species. Hybrid sticklebacks produced by the cross of limnetic and benthic parents tend to have intermediate morphologies, with dominance of either parental type evident for some elements. Effects of temperature and salinity were found to be small in direct comparison with between-family effects, and varied according to genetic background. These results demonstrate that considerable genetic variation for axial morphology is maintained in natural populations of three-spine stickleback, and that differences between populations may be brought about rapidly by changes in frequency of alleles that have coordinated effects along the body axis.

  8. Role of skeletal muscle proteoglycans during myogenesis. (United States)

    Brandan, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jaime


    Skeletal muscle formation during development and the adult mammal consists of a highly organised and regulated the sequence of cellular processes intending to form or repair muscle tissue. This sequence includes, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Proteoglycans (PGs), macromolecules formed by a core protein and glycosaminoglycan chains (GAGs) present a great diversity of functions explained by their capacity to interact with different ligands and receptors forming part of their signalling complex and/or protecting them from proteolytic cleavage. Particularly attractive is the function of the different types of PGs present at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This review is focussed on the advances reached to understand the role of PGs during myogenesis and skeletal muscular dystrophies.

  9. Experimental investigations on an axial grooved cryogenic heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Muniappan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and studies of a trapezoidal axial grooved nitrogen heat pipe. A special liquid nitrogen cryostat has been designed and developed for evaluating the performance of heat pipe where the condenser portion is connected to the cold sink externally. Experiments have been performed on the heat pipe as well as on an equivalent diameter copper rod at different heat loads. The steady state performance of the heat pipe is compared with that of copper rod.

  10. Etanercept for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis


    Presently, tumor necrosis factor α antagonist therapy is the only effective alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the entire spectrum of axial spondyloarthritis, including non-radiographic and radiographic (=ankylosing spondylitis) forms. Recently, etanercept has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, increasing the number of available treatment options for this indication. The latest data on etanercept concerning clinical efficacy and safety in short-term and long-term treatment of patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who do not respond to the first-line therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggests good efficacy and safety profiles similar to that observed previously in ankylosing spondylitis. This article reviews recent data on the efficacy and safety of etanercept and is focused on the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This article will also discuss the role of etanercept in the context of current and developing treatment options.

  11. Characterization of the proteinaceous skeletal organic matrix from the precious coral Corallium konojoi. (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Karl, Kristian; Nonaka, Masanori; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu; Wörheide, Gert


    The Japanese red and pink corals are known to be precious because of their commercial value resulting from their use in ornaments, jewelry, and medicine. Precious corals are very interesting models for biomineralization studies and possess two different skeletal structures: an axial skeleton and an endoskeleton (sclerites). Although it has long been known that the organic matrix proteins existing in coral skeletons are critical for the oriented precipitation of CaCO3 crystals, these proteins in moderate deep-sea Japanese precious corals remain uncharacterized. Therefore, in this study, we performed skeletal whole proteome analyses using 1D and 2D electrophoresis, nano-LC, and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. We identified a total of 147 functional coral skeletal organic matrix proteins (120 from the sclerites and 36 from the axial skeleton), including two calcium-binding calmodulin. Among the organic matrix proteins identified, nine key proteins are highly typical and common in both skeletons. Strong glycosylation activity, which is essential for skeletal formation in calcifying organisms, was detected in both skeletons. This work demonstrates unique biomineralization-related proteins in precious corals and provides the first description of the major proteinaceous components of CaCO3 minerals in precious corals, enabling the comparative investigation of biocalcification in other octocorals.

  12. New Anomaly of the Axial-Vector Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Han-Xin


    By computing the axial-vector current operator equation, we find the anomalous axial-vector curl equation besides the well-known anomalous axial-vector divergence equation (the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly) and discuss its implication.``

  13. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;


    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  14. 海洋酸化对海水青鳉胚胎骨骼发育的影响%Impact of ocean acidification on skeletal development in embryonic marine medaka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓杰; 肖潇; 李超; 岳娜


    In this study,the impact of ocean acidification on the skeletal development in embryonic marine medaka was investigated.The seawater carbonate system in the water was maintained stable by aerating with ambient air (450×10-6 CO2 )and CO2-enriched air (1 160×10-6 or 1 783×10-6 CO2 ).Newly fertilized medaka eggs were exposed to three levels of pCO2/pH (8.14,7.85 and 7.67)until to the main hatch occurring.Skeletons of 30 new-hatched larvae from each CO2 treatment were cleared,stained and photographed.Lengths of well stained 28 skeletal elements for ecah fish was measured using digital photograph and analyzed by image analysis software.Results showed that,the effects of exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations on the length of representative skeletal elements were not significant.It suggested that the skeletal development of marine medaka would not be seriously affected by the changes in CO2 concentrations that are predicted to occur over the next 100 to 200 years.%本文在实验室模拟近期海洋酸化水平,对海洋酸化对海水青鳉鱼(Oryzia melastigma )胚胎骨骼发育的影响进行了初步研究。实验中,通过往实验水体中充入一定浓度 CO2气体酸化海水。对照组 CO2分压为450×10-6,两个处理组 CO2浓度分别为1160×10-6和1783×10-6,对应的水体 pH 值分别为8.14,7.85和7.67。将海水青鳉鱼受精卵放入实验水体中至仔鱼孵化出膜,对初孵仔鱼经骨骼染色、显微拍照,挑取了仔鱼头部、躯干及尾部骨骼染色清晰的28个骨骼参数的长度进行了显微软件测量及数据统计分析。结果发现,酸化处理对实验鱼所测量的骨骼长度影响均不显著。因此推测,未来100~200年间海洋酸化对海水青鳉鱼的胚胎及初孵仔鱼的骨骼发育没有显著影响。

  15. Exercise, hormones and skeletal adaptations during childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Laddu, Deepika R; Going, Scott B


    Although primarily considered a disorder of the elderly, emerging evidence suggests the antecedents of osteoporosis are established during childhood and adolescence. A complex interplay of genetic, environmental, hormonal and behavioral factors determines skeletal development, and a greater effort is needed to identify the most critical factors that establish peak bone strength. Indeed, knowledge of modifiable factors that determine skeletal development may permit optimization of skeletal health during growth and could potentially offset reductions in bone strength with aging. The peripubertal years represent a unique period when the skeleton is particularly responsive to loading exercises, and there is now overwhelming evidence that exercise can optimize skeletal development. While this is not controversial, the most effective exercise prescription and how much investment in this prescription is needed to significantly impact bone health continues to be debated. Despite considerable progress, these issues are not easy to address, and important questions remain unresolved. This review focuses on the key determinants of skeletal development, whether exercise during childhood and adolescence should be advocated as a safe and effective strategy for optimizing peak bone strength, and whether investment in exercise early in life protects against the development of osteoporosis and fractures later in life.

  16. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin


    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  17. Axial thermal rotation of slender rods. (United States)

    Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa


    Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain's axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.

  18. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.


    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  19. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang


    It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar


    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  1. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings (United States)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel


    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drives for diesel engines by capturing both their spatial periodicity and axial motion. The Method of Varying Amplitudes is employed in the analysis. It is shown that the compound wave traveling in the axially moving periodic string comprises many components with different frequencies and wavenumbers. This is in contrast to non-moving periodic structures, for which all components of the corresponding compound wave feature the same frequency. Due to this "multi-frequency" character of the wave motion, the conventional notion of frequency band-gaps appears to be not applicable for the moving periodic strings. Thus, for such structures, by frequency band-gaps it is proposed to understand frequency ranges in which the primary component of the compound wave attenuates. Such frequency band-gaps can be present for a moving periodic string, but only if its axial velocity is lower than the transverse wave speed, and, the higher the axial velocity, the narrower the frequency band-gaps. The revealed effects could be of potential importance for applications, e.g. they indicate that due to spatial inhomogeneity, oscillations of axially moving periodic chains always involve a multitude of frequencies.

  2. An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S


    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...

  3. The Definition and Measurement of Axial Psoriatic Arthritis. (United States)

    Lubrano, Ennio; Parsons, Wendy Joanne; Marchesoni, Antonio; Olivieri, Ignazio; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Cauli, Alberto; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Scarpa, Raffaele; Brunese, Luca


    This review seeks to update the state of the art of axial psoriatic arthritis (axPsA). The definition and assessment of axPsA can be problematic because no agreement and no definitive data on this topic have been published, resulting in uncertainty as to the best approach to deal with these patients. A few recent scientific reports show new data on the possible coincidence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and axPsA, as well as on the radiological assessment as measured with the validated instruments for axPsA. Moreover, the role of magnetic resonance imaging has also been evaluated for this intriguing subset. All data confirmed that radiological assessment is a useful tool to detect typical findings of axPsA, while other imaging techniques remain to be validated. Finally, there is no evidence to support treatment of axPsA with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, while a "leap" to biologic agents is the only treatment after failure with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

  4. Aerodynamic optimisation of an industrial axial fan blade



    Numerical optimisation methods have successfully been used for a variety of aerodynamic design problems over quite a few years. However the application of these methods to the aerodynamic blade shape optimisation of industrial axial fans has received much less attention in the literature probably given the fact that the majority of resources available to develop these automated design approaches is to be found in the aerospace field. This work presents the develo...

  5. Axial Vibration Confinement in Nonhomogenous Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choura


    Full Text Available A design methodology for the vibration confinement of axial vibrations in nonhomogenous rods is proposed. This is achieved by a proper selection of a set of spatially dependent functions characterizing the rod material and geometric properties. Conditions for selecting such properties are established by constructing positive Lyapunov functions whose derivative with respect to the space variable is negative. It is shown that varying the shape of the rod alone is sufficient to confine the vibratory motion. In such a case, the vibration confinement requires that the eigenfunctions be exponentially decaying functions of space, where the notion of spatial domain stability is introduced as a concept dual to that of the time domain stability. It is also shown that vibration confinement can be produced if the rod density and/or stiffness are varied with respect to the space variable while the cross-section area is kept constant. Several case studies, supporting the developed conditions imposed on the spatially dependent functions for vibration confinement in vibrating rods, are discussed. Because variation in the geometric and material properties might decrease the critical buckling loads, we also discuss the buckling problem.

  6. Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.


    Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum......, but where subsequently the load starts to increase again, it is found that near the local load minimum, the buckling pattern switches back to a periodic type of pattern. The inelastic material behavior of the panel is described in terms of J(2) corner theory, which avoids the sometimes unrealistically high...

  7. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等


    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  8. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging]. (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J


    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  9. Ritual relieved axial dystonia triggered by gaze-evoked amaurosis. (United States)

    Jacome, D E


    A woman with chronic posttraumatic axial lateropulsion cervical dystonia ("belly dancer's head") found relief of her spontaneous dystonic spasms by the sequential performance of an elaborate motor ritual. During an episode of left optic papillitis caused by central retinal vein occlusion, gaze-evoked amaurosis of the left eye developed, preceded by achromatopsia, during left lateral gaze. Gaze-evoked amaurosis triggered axial dystonia, which was followed by her unique, stereotyped, dystonia-relieving ritual that simulated a slow dance. Visual symptoms improved progressively in 1 year. Eventually, she was unable to trigger her dystonia by eye movements. Spontaneous dystonia remained otherwise unchanged from before the episode of papillitis and was still relieved by her unique ritual.

  10. Plasticity around an Axial Surface Crack in a Cylindrical Shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    and Ratwani,3–5 it generalises Dugdale's assumption of a concentrated yield zone in the plane of the crack but, contrary to that model, transverse shear effects are included and a continuous stress distribution is assumed in the yield zone. The inherent difficulties arising from the use of shell theory...... field in an axially cracked cylindrical shell arising from use of classical eighth order shallow shell theory is removed when use is made of a tenth order shell theory which accounts for transverse shear deformations. Although the membrane stresses are only moderately affected, the influence...... on the bending stresses is considerable. In the case of surface cracks moments are induced due to the eccentricity of the crack and transverse shear effects should therefore be included. A plasticity model for a rectangular axial surface crack is developed. Like a previous surface crack model by Erdogen...

  11. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.


    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  12. Does I-131-MIBG underestimate skeletal disease burden in neuroblastoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barai Sukanta


    Full Text Available Background: Controversy persists as to the need for both MIBG and bone scanning in routine evaluation of neuroblastoma. Aim: To compare the efficacy of I-131- metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scan against that of conventional Tc99m- methylene diphosphonate (MDP bone scan for the detection of skeletal deposition of neuroblastoma. Methods and Material: The study included 57 patients (36 boys, 21 girls: age range 1-14 years of neuroblastoma who underwent both bone scan with Tc99m-MDP and I-131-MIBG scan within 15 days of each other at presentation and during follow-up. Results: At presentation 11(19.2% patients had evidence of skeletal metastases on MDP scan against 7 patients who showed bony secondaries on MIBG scan. Of the 7 patients, with positive MIBG and MDP scans, MDP scan detected 11 sites whereas MIBG scan detected 7 sites. On follow-up study, 3 patients with initial abnormal MDP scan but normal MIBG scan, developed skeletal metastases detectable on MIBG scan, whereas 3 of the 46 patients who had normal MDP and MIBG scan at presentation; developed skeletal metastases detectable on MDP scan. MIBG scan was concordant in 2 of them but was normal in the third patient. Conclusion: I-131-MIBG underestimates skeletal disease burden in neuroblastoma. Therefore, Tc99m-MDP bone scan should remain a part of routine assessment of patients with neuroblastoma.

  13. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin


    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  14. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography. (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin


    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  15. Reducing axial mixing in flotation columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Taweel, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Moharam, M.R.; Hassan, T.A. [Al Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); El Mofty, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)


    The axial mixing characteristics of a pilot-scale flotation column were investigated with the objective of identifying means to mitigate the extent of axial mixing that adversely affects its grade/recovery performance. A wide range of design and operating conditions wa investigated and the experimental results, obtained using the dynamic response method, were analyzed using three axial mixing models. The dynamic response of the column can best be described using the axial dispersion model. The results obtained suggest that the value of the axial dispersion coefficient, E{sub L}, can be significantly reduced by judicial selection of hydrodynamic conditions and/or the use of column inserts that suppress the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to the operation of conventional flotation columns. Up to 40% reduction in the value of E{sub L} was thus obtained by using spargers that produce more uniform bubble sizes, while up to 30% reductions were obtained by controlling the residual frother concentration. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Axial Non-linear Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction - Keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeyman A.


    Full Text Available This keynote lecture describes recent analytical and numerical advances in the modeling of the axial nonlinear dynamic interaction between a single pile and its embedding soil. On one hand, analytical solutions are developed for assessing the nonlinear axial dynamic response of the shaft of a pile subjected to dynamic loads, and in particular to vibratory loads. Radial inhomogeneity arising from shear modulus degradation is evaluated over a range of parameters and compared with those obtained by other authors and by a numerical radial discrete model simulating the pile and soil movements from integration of the laws of motion. New approximate non linear solutions for axial pile shaft behaviour developed from general elastodynamic equations are presented and compared to existing linear solutions. The soil non linear behaviour and its ability to dissipate mechanical energy upon cyclic loading are shown to have a significant influence on the mechanical impedance provided by the surrounding soil against pile shaft movement. The limitations of over-simplified modelling of pile response are highlighted.

  17. Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) (United States)

    ... Information... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Search ...

  18. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front (United States)

    Robins, P.


    Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval

  19. Glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Beck-Nielsen, H


    amplification (TSA) technique to detect the localization of glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. We found expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 in developing human muscle fibers showing a distinct expression pattern. 1) GLUT-1 is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells during gestation......, but its expression is markedly reduced around birth and is further reduced to undetectable levels within the first year of life; 2) GLUT-3 protein expression appears at 18 wk of gestation and disappears after birth; and 3) GLUT-4 protein is diffusely expressed in muscle cells throughout gestation, whereas...... after birth, the characteristic subcellular localization is as seen in adult muscle fibers. Our results show that GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 seem to be of importance during muscle fiber growth and development. GLUT-5 protein was undetectable in fetal and adult skeletal muscle fibers. In adult muscle...

  20. 爱拔益加肉公鸡骨骼肌生长发育规律及组织学特性%Skeletal Muscle Growth, Development and Histological Characteristics of Arbor Acres Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月超; 蔡辉益; 闫海洁; 陈晓琳; 张姝; 张爱华; 杨斌; 郭军蕊


    本试验旨在研究爱拔益加( AA)肉公鸡骨骼肌的生长发育规律和组织学特性,建立骨骼肌纤维直径与活重、肌肉重的异速生长模型,为营养因子调控骨骼肌的生长发育提供理论支持。选用1日龄AA肉公鸡84只(1个组),随机分为6个重复(笼),每个重复14只鸡。按照NRC(1994)推荐营养水平配制饲粮,自由采食和饮水。结果表明:Gompertz 模型能较好拟合AA肉公鸡活重、胸肌重和腿肌重随日龄的变化关系,R2≥0.97,拐点日龄分别为41.18、35.64和38.63日龄。骨骼肌纤维直径随日龄增加不断增加,同日龄不同骨骼肌纤维直径和生长强度不同,胸肌纤维在7日龄生长强度最高,大腿肌纤维在14、35日龄生长强度最高,小腿肌纤维在14日龄生长强度最高。幂回归能较好拟合肌纤维直径随日龄的变化关系,R2≥0.91。胸肌、大腿肌、小腿肌纤维直径与活重的曲线回归异速方程拟合结果分别以幂回归和多项式回归、多项式回归、多项式回归和线性回归最好;胸肌纤维直径随胸肌重变化的拟合方程中以幂回归、多项式回归最好,R2≥0.99,大腿肌纤维直径随腿肌重变化的拟合方程中以多项式回归最好,R2=0.97,小腿肌纤维直径随腿肌重变化拟合方程中以对数回归、多项式回归最好,R2≥0.99。以上F检验均达到极显著水平(P<0.01)。%The skeletal muscle growth, development and histological characteristics of Arbor Acres ( AA ) male broilers were investigated and the models of allometric relationships between skeletal muscle fiber diameter and live weight, muscle weight were established in order to provide a theoretical basis for nutritional factors regulating the growth and development of skeletal muscle. A total of 84 one-day-old AA male broilers ( one group) were randomly designed into 6 replicates with 14 broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed with standard diets that were formulated according to

  1. Skeletal muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J.M.; Brennan, D.D.; Taylor, D.H.; Eustace, S.J. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Holloway, D.P.; O' Keane, J.C. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Pathology, Dublin (Ireland); Hurson, B. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Dublin (Ireland)


    A case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging painful right thigh mass is presented. She had a known diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma following a hysterectomy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. She subsequently developed a single hepatic metastatic deposit that responded well to radiofrequency ablation. Whole-body MRI and MRA revealed a vascular mass in the sartorius muscle and a smaller adjacent mass in the gracilis muscle, proven to represent metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine origin. To our knowledge, metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the skeletal muscle has not been described previously in the English medical literature. (orig.)

  2. Skeletal muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma. (United States)

    O'Brien, J M; Brennan, D D; Taylor, D H; Holloway, D P; Hurson, B; O'Keane, J C; Eustace, S J


    A case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging painful right thigh mass is presented. She had a known diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma following a hysterectomy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. She subsequently developed a single hepatic metastatic deposit that responded well to radiofrequency ablation. Whole-body MRI and MRA revealed a vascular mass in the sartorius muscle and a smaller adjacent mass in the gracilis muscle, proven to represent metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine origin. To our knowledge, metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the skeletal muscle has not been described previously in the English medical literature.

  3. Mechanisms of osteolytic and osteoblastic skeletal lesions (United States)

    David Roodman, G; Silbermann, Rebecca


    The bone is a frequent site for tumor metastasis, and cancer in the bone results in marked disturbances of bone remodeling that can be lytic, blastic or a combination of the two. Patients with advanced malignancies that have metastasized to the bone frequently suffer from debilitating skeletal-related events, including pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression syndromes, disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and severe cancer-related pain. This review will discuss recent studies on the mechanisms responsible for osteolytic and osteoblastic metastasis and how their identification has resulted in the development of new agents for patients with metastatic bone disease. PMID:26539296

  4. Revealing atropisomer axial chirality in drug discovery. (United States)

    LaPlante, Steven R; Edwards, Paul J; Fader, Lee D; Jakalian, Araz; Hucke, Oliver


    An often overlooked source of chirality is atropisomerism, which results from slow rotation along a bond axis due to steric hindrance and/or electronic factors. If undetected or not managed properly, this time-dependent chirality has the potential to lead to serious consequences, because atropisomers can be present as distinct enantiomers or diastereoisomers with their attendant different properties. Herein we introduce a strategy to reveal and classify compounds that have atropisomeric chirality. Energy barriers to axial rotation were calculated using quantum mechanics, from which predicted high barriers could be experimentally validated. A calculated rotational energy barrier of 20 kcal mol(-1) was established as a suitable threshold to distinguish between atropisomers and non-atropisomers with a prediction accuracy of 86%. This methodology was applied to subsets of drug databases in the course of which atropisomeric drugs were identified. In addition, some drugs were exposed that were not yet known to have this chiral attribute. The most valuable utility of this tool will be to predict atropisomerism along the drug discovery pathway. When used in concert with our compound classification scheme, decisions can be made during early discovery stages such as "hit-to-lead" and "lead optimization," to foresee and validate the presence of atropisomers and to exercise options of removing, further stabilizing, or rendering the chiral axis of interest more freely rotatable via SAR design, thereby decreasing this potential liability within a compound series. The strategy can also improve drug development plans, such as determining whether a drug or series should be developed as a racemic mixture or as an isolated single compound. Moreover, the work described herein can be extended to other chemical fields that require the assessment of potential chiral axes.

  5. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics


    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  6. Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)


    An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.

  7. Axial symmetry and conformal Killing vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mars, M; Mars, Marc; Senovilla, Jose M.M.


    Axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformal symmetry are studied and it is shown that, if there is no further conformal symmetry, the axial Killing vector and the conformal Killing vector must commute. As a direct consequence, in conformally stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes, no restriction is made by assuming that the axial symmetry and the conformal timelike symmetry commute. Furthermore, we prove that in axisymmetric spacetimes with another symmetry (such as stationary and axisymmetric or cylindrically symmetric spacetimes) and a conformal symmetry, the commutator of the axial Killing vector with the two others mush vanish or else the symmetry is larger than that originally considered. The results are completely general and do not depend on Einstein's equations or any particular matter content.

  8. Atlanto-axial infection after acupuncture. (United States)

    Robinson, A; Lind, C R P; Smith, R J; Kodali, V


    A 67-year-old man presented with neck cellulitis following acupuncture for cervical spondylosis. Blood cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Increased neck pain and bacteraemia prompted MRI, which showed atlanto-axial septic arthritis without signs of infection of the tissues between the superficial cellulitic area and the atlanto-axial joint, thus making direct extension of infection unlikely. It is more likely that haematogenous spread of infection resulted in seeding in the atlanto-axial joint, with the proximity of the arthritis and acupuncture site being coincidental. Acupuncture is a treatment option for some indolent pain conditions. As such, acupuncture services are likely to be more frequently utilised. A history of acupuncture is rarely requested by the admitting doctor and seldom offered voluntarily by the patient, especially where the site of infection due to haematogenous spread is distant from the needling location. Awareness of infectious complications following acupuncture can reduce morbidity through early intervention.

  9. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, R; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Zanotti, J M


    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order $O(a)$ effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  10. Axial-transversal coupling in the free nonlinear vibrations of Timoshenko beams with arbitrary slenderness and axial boundary conditions (United States)

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe


    The nonlinear free oscillations of a straight planar Timoshenko beam are investigated analytically by means of the asymptotic development method. Attention is focused for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the nonlinear coupling between the axial and the transversal oscillations of the beam, which are decoupled in the linear regime. The existence of coupled and uncoupled motion is discussed. Furthermore, the softening versus hardening nature of the backbone curves is investigated in depth. The results are summarized by means of behaviour charts that illustrate the different possible classes of motion in the parameter space. New, and partially unexpected, phenomena, such as the changing of the nonlinear behaviour from softening to hardening by adding/removing the axial vibrations, are highlighted.

  11. Skeletal stem cells in space and time. (United States)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo


    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration.

  12. A comparative evaluation of skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes with skeletal anchored and conventional facemask protraction therapy (United States)

    Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Singh, Navneet; Kalra, Shilpa


    Objective: To cephalometrically evaluate and compare the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue changes after maxillary protraction with skeletally anchored and conventional facemask. Methods: The data for the study were collected from the pre- and post-treatment records of patients of maxillary retrusion treated with skeletally anchored and conventional facemask therapy. Twenty subjects were included in the study and were categorized into two groups, namely skeletal anchored maxillary protraction (SAMP) group with the mean age of 10.10 ± 1.1 years and conventional facemask maxillary protraction (CFMP) group with the mean age of 9.90 ± 1.1 years. Pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms were assessed. Results: The data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean duration of treatment in SAMP group and CFMP group was 5.8 months and 10 months, respectively. The mean forward displacement of the maxilla (vertical point A) was 3.40 ± 1.07 mm in SAMP group and 2.80 ± 0.79 mm in CFMP group. The mandible showed downward and backward rotation in both the groups with more rotation in CFMP group. A significant increase in maxillary incisor inclination was seen in CFMP group as compared to SAMP group. A significant decrease was found in mandibular incisor inclination in both the treatment groups. The soft tissue changes corresponded to underlying skeletal tissue. Conclusions: SAMP is proven to be a better treatment modality as compared to CFMP for achieving true skeletal changes and minimal dental changes in cases with developing skeletal Class III with maxillary retrusion. PMID:27556021

  13. Design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel for BWR reactors; Diseno y optimizacion axial de combustible nuclear para reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A


    In the present thesis, the modifications made to the axial optimization system based on Tabu Search (BT) for the axial design of BWR fuel type are presented, developed previously in the Nuclear Engineering Group of the UNAM Engineering Faculty. With the modifications what is mainly looked is to consider the particular characteristics of the mechanical design of the GE12 fuel type, used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV) and that it considers the fuel bars of partial longitude. The information obtained in this thesis will allow to plan nuclear fuel reloads with the best conditions to operate in a certain cycle guaranteeing a better yield and use in the fuel burnt, additionally people in charge in the reload planning will be favored with the changes carried out to the system for the design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel, which facilitate their handling and it reduces their execution time. This thesis this developed in five chapters that are understood in the following way in general: Chapter 1: It approaches the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, it describes the physical and chemical composition of the atoms as well as that of the uranium isotopes, the handling of the uranium isotope by means of the nuclear fission until arriving to the operation of the nuclear reactors. Chapter 2: The nuclear fuel cycle is described, the methods for its extraction, its conversion and its enrichment to arrive to the stages of the nuclear fuel management used in the reactors are described. Beginning by the radial design, the axial design and the core design of the nuclear reactor related with the fuel assemblies design. Chapter 3: the optimization methods of nuclear fuel previously used are exposed among those that are: the genetic algorithms method, the search methods based on heuristic rules and the application of the tabu search method, which was used for the development of this thesis. Chapter 4: In this part the used methodology to the

  14. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail:; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E


    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  15. Axial Nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Harraud, P A; Guichon, P; Jansen, K; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M


    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length $L=2.1$ fm and $L=2.8$ fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely $a=0.089$ fm, $a=0.070$ fm and $a=0.056$ fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  16. Optimization of Axial Intensity Point Spread Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; GAN Fuxi; CHEN Zhongyu


    It is known that for the converged laser beam, the axial intensity distribution corresponds to a Gaussian curve, that is, the intensity on the focal plane is the peak intensity. When it defocuses, the intensity would decrease rapidly. In optical data storage, for instance, we expect the intensity within a certain distance to be almost equal. In this paper, we propose to use a pure phase superresolution apodizer to optimize the axial intensity distribution of the converged laser beam and at the same time improve the resolution. The intensity point spread function remains almost identical in a wide range within the focal depth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes


    Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.

  18. Influence of herbicides Derby and Axial on the accumulation of nutrient elements by winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Mykhalska


    Full Text Available The effect of foliar treatment with herbicides Derby and Axial and amide nitrogen on the elements accumulation by winter wheat was studied. The simultaneous applying of Derby and Axial with carbamide contributed to higher accumulation of the trace elements – components of plants redox-system (iron and copper as well as magnesium, potassium and boron which are important for the development of integrated systems of protection and nutrition of cultural plant.

  19. Prolonged Culture of Aligned Skeletal Myotubes on Micromolded Gelatin Hydrogels (United States)

    Bettadapur, Archana; Suh, Gio C.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Wang, Evelyn R.; Hua, Clara; Huber, Holly A.; Viscio, Alyssa A.; Kim, Joon Young; Strickland, Julie B.; McCain, Megan L.


    In vitro models of skeletal muscle are critically needed to elucidate disease mechanisms, identify therapeutic targets, and test drugs pre-clinically. However, culturing skeletal muscle has been challenging due to myotube delamination from synthetic culture substrates approximately one week after initiating differentiation from myoblasts. In this study, we successfully maintained aligned skeletal myotubes differentiated from C2C12 mouse skeletal myoblasts for three weeks by utilizing micromolded (μmolded) gelatin hydrogels as culture substrates, which we thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Compared to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microcontact printed (μprinted) with fibronectin (FN), cell adhesion on gelatin hydrogel constructs was significantly higher one week and three weeks after initiating differentiation. Delamination from FN-μprinted PDMS precluded robust detection of myotubes. Compared to a softer blend of PDMS μprinted with FN, myogenic index, myotube width, and myotube length on μmolded gelatin hydrogels was similar one week after initiating differentiation. However, three weeks after initiating differentiation, these parameters were significantly higher on μmolded gelatin hydrogels compared to FN-μprinted soft PDMS constructs. Similar results were observed on isotropic versions of each substrate, suggesting that these findings are independent of substrate patterning. Our platform enables novel studies into skeletal muscle development and disease and chronic drug testing in vitro.

  20. Behavior of Unbonded Flexible Risers Subject to Axial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任少飞; 唐文勇; 郭晋挺


    Owing to nonlinear contact problems with slip and friction, a lot of limiting assumptions are made when developing analytical models to simulate the behavior of an unbonded flexible riser. Meanwhile, in order to avoid convergence problems and excessive calculating time associated with running the detailed finite element (FE) model of an unbonded flexible riser, interlocked carcass and zeta layers with complicated cross section shapes are replaced by simple geometrical shapes (e.g. hollow cylindrical shell) with equivalent orthotropic materials. But the simplified model does not imply the stresses equivalence of these two layers. To solve these problems, based on ABAQUS/Explicit, a numerical method that is suitable for the detailed FE model is proposed. In consideration of interaction among all component layers, the axial stiffness of an eight-layer unbonded flexible riser subjected to axial tension is predicted. Compared with analytical and experimental results, it is shown that the proposed numerical method not only has high accuracy but also can substantially reduce the calculating time. In addition, the impact of the lay angle of helical tendons on axial stiffness is discussed.

  1. Characteristics of tip-leakage flow in an axial fan (United States)

    Park, Keuntae; Choi, Haecheon; Choi, Seokho; Sa, Yongcheol


    An axial fan with a shroud generates complicated vortical structures by the interaction of the axial flow with the fan blades and shroud near the blade tips. Large eddy simulation (LES) is performed for flow through a forward-swept axial fan, operating at the design condition of Re = 547,000 based on the radius of blade tip and the tip velocity. A dynamic global model (Lee et al. 2010) is used for a subgrid-scale model, and an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi 2006) is adopted for the present simulation. It is found that two vortical structures are formed near the blade tip: the main tip leakage vortex (TLV) and the auxiliary TLV. The main TLV is initiated near the leading edge, develops downstream, and impinges on the pressure surface of the next blade, where the pressure fluctuations and turbulence intensity become high. On the other hand, the auxiliary TLV is initiated at the aft part of the blade but is relatively weak such that it merges with the main TLV. Supported by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2014-C2-014).

  2. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian


    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the held of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The Fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations ( <2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete held of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-cr...

  3. The new performance calculation method of fouled axial flow compressor. (United States)

    Yang, Huadong; Xu, Hong


    Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  4. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Yang


    Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  5. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant. (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina


    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  6. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt. (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira


    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  7. Coexistence of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and Late-Onset Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Sixty-year-old Patient


    Zeliha Ünlü; Gülgün Yılmaz; Aslıhan Ulusoy


    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are two diseases characterized by ossification of the ligaments and tendons in both the axial skeleton and peripheral sites with very different pathologies. Coexistence of DISH and AS is a rare condition and there are relatively few cases in the English-language literature. In this paper, we report a human leukocyte antigen-B27-negative patient who presented with the typical appearance of DISH on the dorsal radiog...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen


    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  9. Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers (United States)

    Encke, W.


    A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.

  10. Excitation modes in non-axial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.; Ginnochio, J.N.


    Excitation modes of non-axial quadrupole shapes are investigated in the framework of interacting boson models. Both {gamma}-unstable and {gamma}-rigid nuclear shapes are considered for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 6 refs.

  11. Ankylosing Spondylitis versus Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Sørensen, Inge J; Østergaard, Mikkel


    OBJECTIVE: To compare baseline disease activity and treatment effectiveness in biologic-naive patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who initiate tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment and to study the role of potential confounders...

  12. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel


    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...

  13. Effect of Control Blade History, and Axial Coolant Density and Burnup Profiles on BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL


    A technical basis for peak reactivity boiling water reactor (BWR) burnup credit (BUC) methods was recently generated, and the technical basis for extended BWR BUC is now being developed. In this paper, a number of effects related to extended BWR BUC are analyzed, including three major operational effects in BWRs: the coolant density axial distribution, the use of control blades during operation, and the axial burnup profile. Specifically, uniform axial moderator density profiles are analyzed and compared to previous results and an additional temporal fidelity study combing moderator density profiles for three different fuel assemblies is presented. Realistic control blade histories and cask criticality results are compared to previously generated constructed control blade histories. Finally, a preliminary study of the axial burnup profile is provided.

  14. Role of autophagy in COPD skeletal muscle dysfunction. (United States)

    Hussain, Sabah N A; Sandri, Marco


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease caused by parenchymal damage and irreversible airflow limitation. In addition to lung dysfunction, patients with COPD develop weight loss, malnutrition, poor exercise performance, and skeletal muscle atrophy. The latter has been attributed to an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and protein degradation. Several reports have confirmed that enhanced protein degradation and atrophy of limb muscles of COPD patient is mediated in part through activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that this activation is triggered by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Until recently, the importance of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in protein degradation of skeletal muscles has been largely ignored, however, recent evidence suggests that this pathway is actively involved in recycling of cytosolic proteins, organelles, and protein aggregates in normal skeletal muscles. The protective role of autophagy in the regulation of muscle mass has recently been uncovered in mice with muscle-specific suppression of autophagy. These mice develop severe muscle weakness, atrophy, and decreased muscle contractility. No information is yet available about the involvement of the autophagy in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in COPD patients. Pilot experiments on vastus lateralis muscle samples suggest that the autophagy-lysosome system is induced in COPD patients compared with control subjects. In this review, we summarize recent progress related to molecular structure, regulation, and roles of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in normal and diseased skeletal muscles. We also speculate about regulation and functional importance of this system in skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients.

  15. Factors regulating fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Alsted, Thomas Junker; Jeppesen, Jacob


    In modern societies, oversupply of calories leads to obesity and chronic metabolic stress, which may lead to development of disease. Oversupply of calories is often associated with elevated plasma lipid concentrations and accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle leading to decreased insulin...

  16. New roles for Smad signaling and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass


    Goodman, Craig A.; Hornberger, Troy A.


    Skeletal muscle is essential for normal bodily function and the loss of skeletal muscle (i.e. muscle atrophy/wasting) can have a major impact on mobility, whole-body metabolism, disease resistance, and quality of life. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of therapies that can prevent the loss, or increase, of skeletal muscle mass. However, in order to develop such therapies, we will first have to develop a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate muscle mas...

  17. Deletion of skeletal muscle SOCS3 prevents insulin resistance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M; Sylow, Lykke


    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin...... of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy...... expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance....

  18. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?


    Masi, Alfonse T.


    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hype...

  19. Imaging and interpretation of axial spondylarthritis: the radiologist's perspective--consensus of the Arthritis Subcommittee of the ESSR. (United States)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Mascarenhas, Vasco V; Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona; Boutry, Nathalie; Plagou, Athena; Klauser, Andrea; Wick, Marius; Platzgummer, Hannes; Jans, Lennart; Mester, Adam; Kainberger, Franz; Aström, Gunnar; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Eshed, Iris


    This article reflects the radiologist's perspective on the imaging and interpretation of axial spondylarthritis (SpA). The arthritis subcommittee of the European Society of Skeletal Radiology provides a consensus for the following questions: When and how should we image? How should we analyze the images? How should we interpret the imaging findings? To answer these questions, we address the indications in imaging axial SpA and the different imaging techniques, with a special focus on magnetic resonance imaging protocols. The value of different imaging modalities is discussed. For adequate image analysis, knowledge of the anatomy and the pathologic changes in chronic and acute inflammation of the sacroiliac joints and the spine is mandatory. Differential diagnoses of inflammatory lesions of the sacroiliac joints and the spine are addressed due to their importance in image interpretation.

  20. Effect of flow maldistribution and axial conduction on compact microchannel heat exchanger (United States)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon


    When a compact microchannel heat exchanger is operated at cryogenic environments, it has potential problems of axial conduction and flow maldistribution. To analyze these detrimental effects, the heat exchanger model that includes both axial conduction and flow maldistribution effect is developed in consideration of the microchannel heat exchanger geometry. A dimensionless axial conduction parameter (λ) is used to describe the axial conduction effect, and the coefficient of variation (CoV) is introduced to quantify the flow maldistribution condition. The effectiveness of heat exchanger is calculated according to the various values of the axial conduction parameter and the CoV. The analysis results show that the heat exchanger effectiveness is insensitive when λ is less than 0.005, and effectiveness is degraded with the large value of CoV. Three microchannel heat exchangers are fabricated with printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) technology for validation purpose of the heat exchanger model. The first heat exchanger is a conventional heat exchanger, the second heat exchanger has the modified cross section to eliminate axial conduction effect, and the third heat exchanger has the modified cross section and the cross link in parallel channel to mitigate flow maldistribution effect. These heat exchangers are tested in cryogenic single-phase, and two-phase environments. The third heat exchanger shows the ideal thermal characteristic, while the other two heat exchangers experience some performance degradation due to axial conduction or flow maldistribution. The impact of axial conduction and flow maldistribution effects are verified by the simulation results and compared with the experimental results.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal myogenesis


    Saccone, Valentina; Puri, Pier Lorenzo


    During embryogenesis a timely and coordinated expression of different subsets of genes drives the formation of skeletal muscles in response to developmental cues. In this review, we will summarize the most recent advances on the “epigenetic network” that promotes the transcription of selective groups of genes in muscle progenitors, through the concerted action of chromatin-associated complexes that modify histone tails and microRNAs (miRNAs). These epigenetic players cooperate to establish fo...

  2. Automatic Generation of the Axial Lines of Urban Environments to Capture What We Perceive

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin


    Based on the concepts of isovists and medial axes, we developed a set of algorithms that can automatically generate the axial lines for representing individual linearly stretched parts of open space of an urban environment. Open space is the space between buildings, where people can freely move around. The generation of the axial lines has been a key aspect of space syntax research, conventionally relying on hand-drawn axial lines of an urban environment, often called the axial map, for urban morphological analysis. Although various attempts have been made towards an automatic solution, few of them can produce the axial map that is identical to the hand-drawn one, and none of them really works for different urban environments. Our algorithms are proved to provide a better solution than existing ones. Throughout this paper, we have also argued and demonstrated that the axial lines constitute a true skeleton, superior to the medial axes, in capturing what we perceive about the urban environment. Keywords: Visib...

  3. Influence of aeration and initial water thickness on axial velocity attenuation of jet flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-ru WEI; Jun DENG; Bin LIU


    With the development of ski-jump energy dissipation for high and large discharge among the hydraulic projects,the effects of characteristics of water flow on energy dissipation are increasingly important.In the present study,the effects of aeration and the initial water thickness on axial velocity attenuation of jet flow were analyzed,using variance analysis and numerical calculated methods.From the analysis of test data,both of the air concentration and initial water thickness are sensitive factors for the axial velocity attenuation of jet flow along the axial way,and there is no significant interaction effect between the aeration and initial water thickness.Aeration has a more significant effect on the axial velocity attenuation of jet flow.Decreasing the initial water thickness of jet flow can reduce the length of jet core,and make the initial position of axial velocity attenuation closer to the nozzle exit.The numerical calculation results show that aeration can contribute to the enhancement of entrainment ability of jet flow,which may improve the interaction between jet flow and surroundings.For ski-jump energy dissipation among the hydraulic projects,combining aeration with decreasing initial water thickness of jet flow is an effective way to enhance the rate of axial velocity attenuation.

  4. An Axial Sliding Test for machine elements surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran;


    Throughout the years, it has become more and more important to find new methods for reducing friction and wear occurrence in machine elements. A possible solution is found in texturing the surfaces under tribological contact, hence the development and spread of plateau-honed surface for cylinder...... liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed Axial Sliding Test. It presents four major components: a rod, a sleeve...

  5. Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)


    An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.

  6. Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bourg, N; Dupuis, G; Barroca, T; Bon, P; Lécart, S; Fort, E; Lévêque-Fort, S


    Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Herein we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) can be captured using a hig-NA objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometer precision. We introduce a new technique for 3D nanoscopy that combines direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM) imaging with dedicated detection of SAF emission. We demonstrate that our approach of a Direct Optical Nanoscopy with Axially Localized Detection (DONALD) yields a typical isotropic 3D localization precision of 20 nm.

  7. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.


    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  8. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on survival, growth and skeletal development in the early benthic juvenile sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma). (United States)

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria


    Co-occurring ocean warming, acidification and reduced carbonate mineral saturation have significant impacts on marine biota, especially calcifying organisms. The effects of these stressors on development and calcification in newly metamorphosed juveniles (ca. 0.5 mm test diameter) of the intertidal sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, an ecologically important species in temperate Australia, were investigated in context with present and projected future conditions. Habitat temperature and pH/pCO2 were documented to place experiments in a biologically and ecologically relevant context. These parameters fluctuated diurnally up to 10 °C and 0.45 pH units. The juveniles were exposed to three temperature (21, 23 and 25 °C) and four pH (8.1, 7.8, 7.6 and 7.4) treatments in all combinations, representing ambient sea surface conditions (21 °C, pH 8.1; pCO2 397; ΩCa 4.7; ΩAr 3.1), near-future projected change (+2-4 °C, -0.3-0.5 pH units; pCO2 400-1820; ΩCa 5.0-1.6; ΩAr 3.3-1.1), and extreme conditions experienced at low tide (+4 °C, -0.3-0.7 pH units; pCO2 2850-2967; ΩCa 1.1-1.0; ΩAr 0.7-0.6). The lowest pH treatment (pH 7.4) was used to assess tolerance levels. Juvenile survival and test growth were resilient to current and near-future warming and acidification. Spine development, however, was negatively affected by near-future increased temperature (+2-4 °C) and extreme acidification (pH 7.4), with a complex interaction between stressors. Near-future warming was the more significant stressor. Spine tips were dissolved in the pH 7.4 treatments. Adaptation to fluctuating temperature-pH conditions in the intertidal may convey resilience to juvenile H. erythrogramma to changing ocean conditions, however, ocean warming and acidification may shift baseline intertidal temperature and pH/pCO2 to levels that exceed tolerance limits.

  9. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells



    Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural fr...

  10. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J


    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  11. Consistent formulation of the spacelike axial gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnel, A.; Van der Rest-Jaspers, M.


    The usual formulation of the spacelike axial gauge is afflicted with the difficulty that the metric is indefinite while no ghost is involved. We solve this difficulty by introducing a ghost whose elimination is such that the metric becomes positive for physical states. The technique consists in the replacement of the gauge condition nxA = 0 by the weaker one partial/sub 0/nxAroughly-equal0.

  12. Correction of static axial alignment in children with knee varus or valgus deformities through guided growth: Does it also correct dynamic frontal plane moments during walking? (United States)

    Böhm, Harald; Stief, Felix; Sander, Klaus; Hösl, Matthias; Döderlein, Leonhard


    Malaligned knees are predisposed to the development and progression of unicompartmental degenerations because of the excessive load placed on one side of the knee. Therefore, guided growth in skeletally immature patients is recommended. Indication for correction of varus/valgus deformities are based on static weight bearing radiographs. However, the dynamic knee abduction moment during walking showed only a weak correlation to malalignment determined by static radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to measure the effects of guided growth on the normalization of frontal plane knee joint moments during walking. 15 legs of 8 patients (11-15 years) with idiopathic axial varus or valgus malalignment were analyzed. 16 typically developed peers served as controls. Instrumented gait analysis and clinical assessment were performed the day before implantation and explantation of eight-plates. Correlation between static mechanical tibiofemoral axis angle (MAA) and dynamic frontal plane knee joint moments and their change by guided growth were performed. The changes in dynamic knee moment in the frontal plane following guided growth showed high and significant correlation to the changes in static MAA (R=0.97, pknee moment before treatment showed a more pathological one after treatment. In conclusion, the changes in the dynamic load situation during walking can be predicted from the changes in static alignment. If pre-surgical gait analysis reveals a natural load situation, despite a static varus or valgus deformity, the intervention must be critically discussed.

  13. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini


    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  14. Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection (United States)

    Bourg, N.; Mayet, C.; Dupuis, G.; Barroca, T.; Bon, P.; Lécart, S.; Fort, E.; Lévêque-Fort, S.


    Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Here, we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called supercritical-angle fluorescence can be captured using a high-numerical-aperture objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometre precision. We introduce a new technique for three-dimensional nanoscopy that combines direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) with dedicated detection of supercritical-angle fluorescence emission. We demonstrate that our approach of direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection (DONALD) typically yields an isotropic three-dimensional localization precision of 20 nm within an axial range of ∼150 nm above the coverslip.

  15. Development of an axially staged annular combustor with low residence times in the main stage. Final report; Entwicklung eines gestuften Brenners in Ringanordnung mit kleiner Aufenthaltszeit in der Hauptzone. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.J. [BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany). Abt. Brennkammerentwicklung; Theisen, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Flugantriebe


    Within the project presented an axially staged annular combustor has been investigated. Staged combustion significantly reduces emissions of nitrogen oxide without sacrifying combustion efficiency and stability during low power conditions. The cold flow in the combustion module was analysed in water analogy tests. Stability of the main fuel injectors was investigated in a low pressure sector rig, high pressure tests were focused on nitric oxides and smoke emissions and on the detection of the temperature pattern at the combustor exit. Based on these results a second configuration was derived. Improved mixing of the pilot stage exhaust gases into the primary zone of the main stage was achieved. This configuration revealed a considerable reduction of nitric oxide emissions as well as a more even exit temperature pattern. The aerothermal design and optimisation of the staged combustor and the interpretation of the experimental results were supported by means of CFD calculations. The accuracy of the prediction of pollutant emissions could be enhanced by the incorporation of an advanced laminar-flamelet combustion model. Fuel/air mixing as well as the combustion process were investigated in a planar model of the staged combustor at LFA, University of Munich, by means of laser-spectroscopic methods. Under atmospheric conditions 2D concentrations of OH, O{sub 2}, and NO were measured. Characteristic differences of the combustion process for the staged and unstaged mode, respectively, were detected. The general applicability of planar temperature measurement by means of `2 lines thermometry` could be demonstrated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Vorhabens wurde eine axial gestufte Ringbrennkammer untersucht, die eine deutliche Senkung der Stickoxidemissionen bewirkt, ohne den Ausbrand und die Stabilitaet im unteren Lastbereich zu verschlechtern. In Wasseranalogieversuchen wurde die kalte Stroemung analysiert und optimiert. Die Stabilitaet der

  16. Skeletal Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Enze


    Looking toward 21 century, smaller, cleaner and more energy-efficient technology will be an important trend in the development of chemical industry. In light of the new process requirements,a number of technology breakthroughs have occurred. One of these discoveries, the magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), has been proven a powerful process for intensification. Since its initial research in the late 1980's at Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), the MSB technology and related catalytic material have matured rapidly through an intensive research and engineering program, primarily focused on its scaling-up.In this paper, we report the discovery of a novel skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy and its use in magnetically stabilized bed (MSB). Amorphous alloys are new kinds of catalytic materials with short-range order but long-range disorder structure. In comparison with Raney Ni, the skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy has an increasingly higher activity in the hydrogenation of reactive groups and compounds including nitro, nitrile, olefin, acetylene, aromatics, etc. Up to now, the amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts, SRNA series catalyst, one with high Ni ratio have been commercially manufactured more than four year. The new SRNA catalyst has been successfully implemented for hydrogenation applications in slurry reactor at Balin Petrochemical, SINOPEC.SRNA catalyst with further improvement in catalytic activity and stability raise its relative stability to 2~4 times of that of conventional catalyst. In the course of the long-cycle operation of SRNA-4 the excellent catalyst activity and stability can bring about such advantage as low reaction temperature, good selectivity and low catalyst resumption.Magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), a fluidized bed of magnetizable particles by applying a spatially uniform and time-invariant magnetic field oriented axially relative to the fluidizing fluid flow, had many advantages such as the low pressure drop and

  17. Maternal obesity down-regulates microRNA (miRNA) let-7g expression, a possible mechanism for enhanced adipogenesis during ovine fetal skeletal muscle development (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Du, Min


    Background Obesity in women of childbearing age is increasing at an alarming rate. Growing evidence shows that maternal obesity induces detrimental effects on offspring health including pre-disposition to obesity. We have shown that maternal obesity increases fetal intramuscular adipogenesis at mid-gestation. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate mRNA stability. We hypothesized that maternal obesity alters fetal muscle miRNA expression, thereby influencing intramuscular adipogenesis. Methods Non-pregnant ewes received a control diet (Con, fed 100% of NRC recommendations, n = 6) or obesogenic diet (OB; 150% NRC recommendations, n = 6) from 60 days before to 75 days after conception when the fetal longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was sampled and miRNA expression analyzed by miRNA microarray. One of miRNAs with differential expression between Con and OB fetal muscle, let-7g, was further tested for its role in adipogenesis and cell proliferation in C3H10T1/2 cells. Results A total of 155 miRNAs were found with a signal above 500, among which, 3 miRNAs, hsa-miR-381, hsa-let-7g and bta-miR-376d, were differentially expressed between Con and OB fetuses, and confirmed by QRT-PCR analyses. Reduced expression of miRNA let-7g, an abundantly expressed miRNA, in OB fetal muscle was correlated with higher expression of its target genes. Over-expression of let-7g in C3H10T1/2 cells reduced their proliferation rate. Expression of adipogenic markers decreased in cells over-expressing let-7g, and the formation of adipocytes was also reduced. Over-expression of let-7g decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Fetal muscle miRNA expression was altered due to maternal obesity, and let-7g down-regulation may enhance intramuscular adipogenesis during fetal muscle development in the setting of maternal obesity. PMID:22614057

  18. An Investigation of Craniocervical Posture in Class II & Class III Skeletal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HoseinZadeh-Nik


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Craniocervical Posture is a factor in the development and function of Craniofacial Structure. Previous studies of different samples have demonstrated associations between craniocervical posture and craniofacial morphology.Purpose: This study aimed lo examine whether any significant association is evident or not between craniocervical posture and the occurrence of Class il & Class III skeletal malocclusions.Materials and Methods: A sample of 76 subjects with Class II & Class III skeletal malocclusion aged 9-i 1 and>18 years were selected. None of them had received orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken in natural head position (NHP, and craniocervical and craniohorizental angels were traced and determined for analysis of craniocervical posture. Results: According to the craniocervical posture, most class II skeletal patients have flexed heads and class MI skeletal patients have extended heads, as a result malocclusion in these patients seems to become more severe. With increase in age. class II skeletal patients have more flexed their heads and malocclusion become more severe, while with increase in age in class ill skeletal patients, their heads become extended and once again malocclusion thought lo be more severe. In class II skeletal patients, craniocervical posture has a significant correlation with the vertical growth pattern, but shows little correlation with the horizontal growth pattern. In class 111 skeletal patients, craniocervical posture shows no correlation to any of the vertical & horizontal growth patterns, of course the mean of vertical angles is less in these patients and probably in order to make these relation significant in Class III skeletal patients there is need for more samples, in class II & class III skeletal patients, the amount of Na.prep-point A and pog-Na.prep with craniocervical posture shows a significant correlation. Conclusion: Consideration of craniocervical

  19. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis? (United States)

    Masi, Alfonse T


    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated

  20. Effects of Axial Non-uniform Tip Clearances on Aerodynamic Performance of a Transonic Axial Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei MA; Baihe LI


    This paper presents a numerical investigation of effects of axial non-uniform tip clearances on the aerodynamic performance of a transonic axial compressor rotor (NASA Rotor 37). The three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated with the datum tip clearance of 0.356 mm at the design wheel speed of 17188.7 rpm. The simulation results are well consistent with the measurement results, which verified the numeri-cal method. Then the three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated respectively with different axial non-uniform tip clearances. The calculation results showed that optimal axial non-uniform tip clearances could improve the compressor performance, while the efficiency and the pressure ratio of the com-pressor were increased. The flow mechanism is that the axial non-uniform tip clearance can weaken the tip leak-age vortex, blow down low-energy fluids in boundary layers and reduce both flow blockage and tip loss.

  1. Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia


    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  2. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia


    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  3. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.


    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  4. [Effects of rutaecarpine on inflammatory cytokines in insulin resistant primary skeletal muscle cells]. (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Wen; Nie, Xu-Qiang; Shi, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Yuan, Ye; Bian, Ka


    It is now well established that inflammation plays an important role in the development of numerous chronic metabolic diseases including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Skeletal muscle is responsible for 75% of total insulin-dependent glucose uptake; consequently, skeletal muscle IR is considered to be the primary defect of systemic IR development. Our pre- vious study has shown that rutaecarpine (Rut) can benefit blood lipid profile, mitigate inflammation, and improve kidney, liver, pan- creas pathology status of T2DM rats. However, the effects of Rut on inflammatory cytokines in the development of IR-skeletal muscle cells have not been studied. Thus, our objective was to investigate effects of Rut on inflammatory cytokines interleukiri (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in insulin resistant primary skeletal muscle cells (IR-PSMC). Primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells were prepared from 5 neonate SD rats, and the primary rat skeletal muscle cells were identified by cell morphology, effect of ru- taecarpine on cell proliferation by MTT assay. IR-PSMC cells were induced by palmitic acid (PA), the glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase and peroxidase (GOD-POD) method. The effects of Rut on inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in IR-PSMC cells were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The results show that the primary skeletal muscle cells from neonatal rat cultured for 2-4 days, parallel alignment regularly, and cultured for 7 days, cells fused and myotube formed. It was shown that Rut in concentration 0-180. 0 μmol x L(-1) possessed no cytotoxic effect towards cultured primary skeletal muscle cells. However, after 24 h exposure to 0.6 mmol x L(-1) PA, primary skeletal muscle cells were able to induce a state of insulin resistance. The results obtained indicated significant decrease (P inflammatory cytokines in the IR-PSMC cells.

  5. Analysis and calibration of stage axial vibration for synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography. (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Li, Chen; Liu, Zhenzhong


    Synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography (SR nano-CT) is a powerful analysis tool and can be used to perform chemical identification, mapping, or speciation of carbon and other elements together with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. In practical applications, there are often challenges for SR nano-CT due to the misaligned geometry caused by the sample stage axial vibration. It occurs quite frequently because of experimental constraints from the mechanical error of manufacturing and assembly and the thermal expansion during the time-consuming scanning. The axial vibration will lead to the structure overlap among neighboring layers and degrade imaging results by imposing artifacts into the nano-CT images. It becomes worse for samples with complicated axial structure. In this work, we analyze the influence of axial vibration on nano-CT image by partial derivative. Then, an axial vibration calibration method for SR nano-CT is developed and investigated. It is based on the cross correlation of plane integral curves of the sample at different view angles. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with the full-field transmission X-ray microscope nano-CT setup at the beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results demonstrate that the presented method can handle the stage axial vibration. It can work for random axial vibration and needs neither calibration phantom nor additional calibration scanning. It will be helpful for the development and application of synchrotron radiation nano-CT systems.

  6. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohlendieck, Kay


    Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.

  7. In utero undernutrition programs skeletal and cardiac muscle metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany eBeauchamp


    Full Text Available In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease.

  8. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics in aging and heart failure. (United States)

    Liu, Sophia Z; Marcinek, David J


    Changes in mitochondrial capacity and quality play a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. In vivo measurements of mitochondrial capacity provide a clear link between physical activity and mitochondrial function in aging and heart failure, although the cause and effect relationship remains unclear. Age-related decline in mitochondrial quality leads to mitochondrial defects that affect redox, calcium, and energy-sensitive signaling by altering the cellular environment that can result in skeletal muscle dysfunction independent of reduced mitochondrial capacity. This reduced mitochondrial quality with age is also likely to sensitize skeletal muscle mitochondria to elevated angiotensin or beta-adrenergic signaling associated with heart failure. This synergy between aging and heart failure could further disrupt cell energy and redox homeostasis and contribute to exercise intolerance in this patient population. Therefore, the interaction between aging and heart failure, particularly with respect to mitochondrial dysfunction, should be a consideration when developing strategies to improve quality of life in heart failure patients. Given the central role of the mitochondria in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction, mitochondrial quality may provide a common link for targeted interventions in these populations.

  9. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Cheol Kim


    Full Text Available Ho Cheol Kim1, Mahroo Mofarrahi2, Sabah NA Hussain21Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongsang University Hospital, Jinju, Korea; 2Critical Care and Respiratory Divisions, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a debilitating disease characterized by inflammation-induced airflow limitation and parenchymal destruction. In addition to pulmonary manifestations, patients with COPD develop systemic problems, including skeletal muscle and other organ-specific dysfunctions, nutritional abnormalities, weight loss, and adverse psychological responses. Patients with COPD often complain of dyspnea on exertion, reduced exercise capacity, and develop a progressive decline in lung function with increasing age. These symptoms have been attributed to increases in the work of breathing and in impairments in gas exchange that result from airflow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation. However, there is mounting evidence to suggest that skeletal muscle dysfunction, independent of lung function, contributes significantly to reduced exercise capacity and poor quality of life in these patients. Limb and ventilatory skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients has been attributed to a myriad of factors, including the presence of low grade systemic inflammatory processes, nutritional depletion, corticosteroid medications, chronic inactivity, age, hypoxemia, smoking, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, protein degradation and changes in vascular density. This review briefly summarizes the contribution of these factors to overall skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with COPD, with particular attention paid to the latest advances in the field.Keywords: skeletal muscles, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diaphragm, quadriceps, fatigue, disuse, atrophy, smoking, exercise

  10. New roles for Smad signaling and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A


    Skeletal muscle is essential for normal bodily function and the loss of skeletal muscle (i.e. muscle atrophy/wasting) can have a major impact on mobility, whole-body metabolism, disease resistance, and quality of life. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of therapies that can prevent the loss, or increase, of skeletal muscle mass. However, in order to develop such therapies, we will first have to develop a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate muscle mass. Fortunately, our knowledge is rapidly advancing, and in this review, we will summarize recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the roles that Smad signaling and the synthesis of phosphatidic acid play in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

  11. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker


    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  12. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.


    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  13. Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome. (United States)

    Rafique, Muhammad; Zia, Shumaila


    Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome (COFSS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder. We describe an 8 months old Saudi girl, a product of consanguineous parents with unremarkable pre-natal and postnatal history and birth weight 2 kg. She was having microcephaly, micrognathia, micro-ophthalmia, large low set ears, upper lip overhanging the lower lip and congenital contractures. Growth and development were severely retarded. MRI and MRS (magnetic resonance spectrometry) of brain displayed severe brain atrophy and hypo/demyelination of white matter. The relationship between COFSS and differential diagnoses, Cockayne syndrome (CS), Pena-Shokier phenotype (PSP) and Neu-Lexova syndrome (NLS) are discussed. Pre-natal diagnosis followed by appropriate management in time may be helpful to reduce its incidence in the community.

  14. Correlation of sexual maturation with skeletal age of southern Chinese girls. (United States)

    So, L L


    The correlation of skeletal maturation with the chronological ages of the onset of four secondary sexual characteristics (menarche, appearance of pubic hair and axillary hair, and breast development) was studied in a group of 117 Southern Chinese girls aged between 11 years, 9 months and 12 years, 3 months, who were born and brought up in Hong Kong. The skeletal maturation was assessed from left hand and wrist radiographs by the Greulich and Pyle Atlas Method (1959). The early maturers in sexual maturation were significantly more advanced in skeletal maturity with p < 0.001.

  15. Altered expression and insulin-induced trafficking of Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galuska, Dana; Kotova, Olga; Barres, Romain


    Skeletal muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase plays a central role in the clearance of K(+) from the extracellular fluid, therefore maintaining blood [K(+)]. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in peripheral tissue is impaired in insulin resistant states. We determined effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and exercise...... function precede the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Disturbances in skeletal muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase regulation, particularly the alpha(2)-subunit, may contribute to impaired ion homeostasis in insulin-resistant states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  16. Histological image data of limb skeletal tissue from larval and adult Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine D. McCusker


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Cartilage and bone cells do not participate in skeletal regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum limbs” [1]. Here we present image data of the post-embryonic development of the forelimb skeletal tissue of Ambystoma Mexicanum. Histological staining was performed on sections from the intact limbs of young (6.5 cm and old (25 cm animals, and on dissected skeletal tissues (cartilage, bone, and periosteum from these animals.

  17. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy. (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John


    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  18. 微小RNA调节骨骼肌发育与损伤修复的作用及其机制%Effect and mechanism of microRNA in regulating skeletal muscle development and damage repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军; 柴家科


    microRNAs是一类非编码小RNAs分子,新近发现其具有重要的调节基因表达的功能,它能通过抑制翻译和降解靶mRNA来负性调控转录后水平的基因表达,miRNAs已经被证实在肌肉发育和肌细胞增殖和分化的调节中具有重要作用.最近研究发现,肌肉特异性转录因子控制一些microRNAs的表达,通过多种机制调节肌肉发育和功能.结合信息学、生物化学和遗传基因学方法,不仅将阐明骨骼肌microRNAs调控网络,更好地理解肌肉组织的调节,还将通过鉴定候选microRNAs的潜在临床应用靶点,增加肌肉营养不良的治疗干预的新机会.%MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression.They negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by translational repression and target mRNA degradation.miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in muscle development and in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation.Recent studies have revealed that myogenic transcription factors control the expression of a collection of miRNAs,which act through multiple mechanisms to modulate muscle development and function.Combining informatics,biochemical and genetic approaches will not only be expected to reveal the elucidation of the miRNA regulatory network in skeletal muscle and to bring a better knowledge on muscle tissue regulation,but will also raise new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in muscular dystrophies by identifying candidate miRNAs as potential targets for clinical application.

  19. The term 'non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis' is much more important to classify than to diagnose patients with axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Deodhar, Atul; Strand, Vibeke; Kay, Jonathan; Braun, Juergen


    The term axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) now is used frequently to describe patients with predominantly axial symptoms who fit into the spectrum of a well-recognised rheumatic disease that continues to be known as ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The 2009 Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria, developed to identify patients with early or atypical disease which could not be classified by the 1984 modified New York (mNY) criteria for AS, have led to a differentiation between non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and radiographic axSpA, which is largely synonymous with AS. The main reason to distinguish between these ends of the spectrum of axSpA was that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFi) approved for AS could obtain additional labelling for nr-axSpA and be used to treat all patients manifesting clinical features of axSpA. These two terms are distinguished by the degree of 'radiographic sacroiliitis' assessed by conventional radiography, according to the 1984 mNY criteria for AS. Since this differentiation has been shown to be not very reliable, we argue that the terms nr-axSpA and AS should only be used for classification of patients with axSpA and not as separate diagnoses. Therefore, we propose that only the term axSpA be used to diagnose patients, unless there is a meaningful medical reason to differentiate nr-axSpA from AS. The available data justify performing randomised controlled trials designed to obtain regulatory approval for therapeutic agents in patients across the entire spectrum of axSpA.

  20. Tangential Velocity Profile for Axial Flow Through Two Concentric Rotating Cylinders with Radial Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girishwar Nath


    Full Text Available A closed form solution of the Navier-Stokes equations has been obtained in the case of steady axisymmetric flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid between two concentric rotating cylinders composed of an insulating material under the influence of radial magnetic field. It has been found that the velocity components are less than those of the classical hydrodynamic case. In the presence of the magnetic field, the tangential velocity becomes fully developed in a smaller axial distance than in the absence of the magnetic field. For small Reynolds number, the fully developed tangential velocity is achieved in a small axial distance, but it requires greater axial distance for large Reynolds number.

  1. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea). (United States)

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna


    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear.

  2. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.


    calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled. PMID:19492083

  3. Single Band Helical Antenna in Axial Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh


    Full Text Available Helical antennas have been widely used in a various useful applications, due to their low weight and low profile conformability, easy and cheap realization.Radiation properties of this antenna are examined both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate new helical antenna structure for Applications. CST MWS Software is used for the simulation and design calculations of the helical antennas. The axial ratio, return loss, VSWR, Directivity, gain, radiation pattern is evaluated. Using CST MWS simulation software proposed antenna is designed/simulated and optimized. The antenna exhibits a single band from 0 GHz to 3 GHz for GPS and several satellite applications

  4. Tunable axial potentials for atom chip waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Stickney, James A; Imhof, Eric; Kroese, Bethany R; Crow, Jonathon A R; Olson, Spencer E; Squires, Matthew B


    We present a method for generating algebraically precise magnetic potentials along the axis of a cold atom waveguide near the surface of an atom chip. With a single chip design consisting of several wire pairs, various axial potentials can be created, including double wells, triple wells, and pure harmonic traps with suppression of higher order terms. We characterize the error along a harmonic trap between the expected algebraic form and magnetic field simulations and find excel- lent agreement, particularly at small displacements from the trap center. Finally, we demonstrate experimental control over the bottom fields of an asymmetric double well potential.

  5. Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ulaş Erdem


    Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.

  6. Aerodynamics of Advanced Axial-Flow Turbomachinery. (United States)


    cementing in place short segments of lb ga. (1.2 mm I.D.) hypodermic tubing in drillud holes carefully aligned normal to the sidewall profile at the...PRESSURE I REFERENCE SCANPREF I I SYSTEM 0YTE NECKED- PRF NEEDLE VALVE PE PRRSSUE TRANSDUCER AMPLIF IER] POSITIONER TEMPERATURES I STO BE READ I...Compressors. U.S. NASA SP-36. 1965. 23. Hearsey, R. M. A Revised Computer Program for Axial Compressor Design Volume 1: Theory , Descriptions and User’s

  7. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft



    This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method....

  8. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.


    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  9. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S. Deshmukh


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle proteomics are challenging. This review describes the technical limitations of skeletal muscle proteomics as well as emerging developments in proteomics workflow with respect to samples preparation, liquid chromatography (LC, MS and computational analysis. These technologies have not yet been fully exploited in the field of skeletal muscle proteomics. Future studies that involve state-of-the-art proteomics technology will broaden our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations as well as molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  10. Prediction of Skeletal Medial–Lateral for transfemoral ischial containment sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Dillon, PhD


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the pelvis is critical for well-fitting and comfortable ischial containment sockets. The "Skeletal Medial-Lateral (ML" is intrusive and unreliable to measure in vivo. This study aimed to determine how accurately the Skeletal ML could be predicted and to identify which measurements were significant predictors. Computed tomography scans were randomly sampled from a cadaveric database (n = 200. Inclusion criteria were age > 20 yr; lower-limb alignment that replicated the anatomical position; and no evidence of osteological trauma, implants, or bony growths. Multivariate linear regression models were developed to predict the Skeletal ML based on a suite of independent variables, including sex, body mass, and distance between pelvic landmarks. The regression model explained 76% of the variance in the Skeletal ML (p < 0.001. Variables that contributed significantly to the prediction of the Skeletal ML (p < 0.05 included body mass, sex, inter-greater trochanter distance, pelvic depth, and age. Significant predictors of the Skeletal ML dimension characterize variation in subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness and pelvic morphology. The Skeletal ML could be predicted with relatively small errors (standard error of estimate = 7 mm that could be easily and reliably adjusted during socket fitting. Further research is needed to test the predictive tool in a real-world setting.

  11. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario


    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  12. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo


    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  13. Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling Predisposes Middle-Aged Mice to Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Sung, Miranda M. Y.; Kao, Cindy K. C.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Koves, Timothy R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Jacobs, Rene L.; Vance, Dennis E.; Light, Peter E.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Febbraio, Maria; Dyck, Jason R. B.


    OBJECTIVE-Although advanced age is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, a clear understanding of the changes that occur during middle age that contribute to the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance is currently lacking. Therefore, we sought to investigate how middle age impacts skeletal m

  14. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;


    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...

  15. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD. (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine


    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  16. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund


    and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma......Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  17. Role of axial muscles in powering mouth expansion during suction feeding in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L


    Suction-feeding fishes capture food by fast and forceful expansion of the mouth cavity, and axial muscles probably provide substantial power for this feeding behavior. Dorsal expansion of the mouth cavity can only be powered by the epaxial muscles, but both the sternohyoid, shortening against an immobile pectoral girdle to retract the hyoid, and the hypaxial muscles, shortening to retract both the pectoral girdle and hyoid, could contribute ventral expansion power. To determine whether hypaxial muscles generate power for ventral expansion, and the rostrocaudal extent of axial muscle shortening during suction feeding, we measured skeletal kinematics and muscle shortening in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The three-dimensional motions of the cleithrum and hyoid were measured with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), and muscle shortening was measured with fluoromicrometry, wherein changes in the distance between radio-opaque intramuscular markers are measured using biplanar X-ray video recording. We found that the hypaxials generated power for ventral suction expansion, shortening (mean of 6.2 mm) to rotate the pectoral girdle caudoventrally (mean of 9.3 deg) and retract the hyoid (mean of 8.5 mm). In contrast, the sternohyoid shortened minimally (mean of 0.48 mm), functioning like a ligament to transmit hypaxial shortening to the hyoid. Hypaxial and epaxial shortening were not confined to the rostral muscle regions, but extended more than halfway down the body during suction expansion. We conclude that hypaxial and epaxial muscles are both crucial for powering mouth expansion in largemouth bass, supporting the integration of axial and cranial musculoskeletal systems for suction feeding.

  18. Severe Intraoperative Hypercapnia Complicating an Unsual Malfunction of the Inner Tube of a Co-axial (BAIN'S Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Emam Youssef


    Full Text Available The Bain's co-axial circuit system is fully established in general anaesthesia practice. It is favoured for its light weight and suitability for head and neck surgery. However, there are numerous published reports of malfunction of the inner tube of the Bain's co-axial circuit, with potentially lethal complications for the patient. This report presents a case in which a patient connected to a reused Bain's circuit (Datex-Ohmeda developed severe hypercapnia in the early intraoperative period due to unusual defect of the inner tube. This report tests and outlines the integrity of co-axial circuits and also reviews the available literature.

  19. Single Rod Vibration in Axial Flow (United States)

    Weichselbaum, Noah; Wang, Shengfu; Bardet, Philippe


    Fluid structure interaction of a single rod in axial flow is a coupled dynamical system present in many application including nuclear reactors, steam generators, and towed antenna arrays. Fluid-structure response can be quantified thanks to detailed experimental data where both structure and fluid responses are recorded. Such datum deepen understanding of the physics inherent to the system and provide high-dimensionality quantitative measurements to validate coupled structural and CFD codes with various level of complexity. In this work, single rods fixed on both ends in a concentric pipe, are subjected to an axial flow with Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter of Re =4000. Rods of varying material stiffness and diameter are utilized in the experiment resulting in a range of dimensionless U between 0.5 and 1, where U = (ρA/EI)1/2uL. Experimental measurements of the velocity field around the rod are taken with PIV from time-resolved Nd:YLF laser and a high speed CMOS camera. Three-dimensional and temporal vibration and deflection of the rod is recorded with shadowgraphy utilizing two sets of pulsed high power LED and dedicated CMOS camera. Through integration of these two diagnostics, it is possible to reconstruct the full FSI domain providing unique validation data.

  20. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers (United States)

    Behrendt, D. R.


    A method of measuring axial residual stresses in boron fibers is presented. With this method, the axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius is determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diam fibers are similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25% of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 MN sq m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data are presented for 203-micron diam B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102-micron diam B/W and boron on carbon (B/C) show that the residual stresses are similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core are observed. Fracture of boron fibers is discussed.

  1. Axial level-dependent molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the genesis of the embryonic neural plate. (United States)

    Kondoh, Hisato; Takada, Shinji; Takemoto, Tatsuya


    The transcription factor gene Sox2, centrally involved in neural primordial regulation, is activated by many enhancers. During the early stages of embryonic development, Sox2 is regulated by the enhancers N2 and N1 in the anterior neural plate (ANP) and posterior neural plate (PNP), respectively. This differential use of the enhancers reflects distinct regulatory mechanisms underlying the genesis of ANP and PNP. The ANP develops directly from the epiblast, triggered by nodal signal inhibition, and via the combined action of TFs SOX2, OTX2, POU3F1, and ZIC2, which promotes the the ANP development and inhibits other cell lineages. In contrast, the PNP is derived from neuromesodermal bipotential axial stem cells that develop into the neural plate when Sox2 is activated by the N1 enhancer, whereas they develop into the paraxial mesoderm when the N1 enhancer is repressed by the action of TBX6. The axial stem cells are maintained by the activity of WNT3a and T (Brachyury). However, at axial levels more anterior to the 8th somites (cervical levels), the development of both the neural plate and somite proceeds in the absence of WNT3a, T, or TBX6. These observations indicate that distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms determine neural plate genesis based on the axial level, and contradict the classical concept of the term "neural induction," which assumes a pan-neural plate mechanism.

  2. 浮选柱中液相轴向返混的研究%Study on the Axial Dispersion of Liquid in Column Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹍; 曾爱武; 高长宝; 余国琮


    An experimental study on the axial dispersion of liquid was carried out in a 0.382-m-ID flotation columnpacked with different structured packings or free of packings. The correlations of axial Peclet numbers with theliquid and gas superficial Reynolds numbers were developed for various packings. Among the packings tested, itis found that in the column packed with 250Y or 350Y packings the axial dispersion is the lowest. The additionof frother can decrease the axial dispersion. By the simulation analysis of the one-dimension dispersion model ofpacked flotation column, it is found that small axial dispersion, high collection rate constant and low axial liquidvelocity can increase the collection zone recovery.

  3. Axial shape index calculation for the 3-level excore detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Byung Sop; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Sung Jae [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A new method based on the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is developed to calculate axial shape index (ASI) for the 3-level excore detector. The ACE algorithm, a type of nonparametric regression algorithms, yields an optimal relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. In this study, the simple correlation between ASI and excore detector signals is developed using the Younggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 (YGN-3) data without any preprocessing on the relationships between independent variables and dependent variable. The numerical results show that simple correlations exist between the three excore signals and ASI of the core. The accuracy of the new method is much better than those of the current CPC and COLSS algorithms. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.


    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  5. Stiffness Characteristics of Joshi’s External Stabilization System under Axial Compression: a Finite Element Method Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar


    Full Text Available A finite element model of fractured tibia with Joshi’s External Stabilizing System (JESS mounted on it was developed using 3D beam elements in the ANSYS software. The model was loaded in axial compression and the average axial stiffness of the model was calculated. The analytical value of axial stiffness was compared with reported experimental value to validate the finite element model. The validated model was used to carry out parametric studies on the model to determine the axial properties of JESS. It was observed that axial stiffness of JESS increased by 58% when k-wire diameter was varied from 2 mm to 4 mm while keeping other geometric configurations of the device constant; however, the axial stiffness of the device does not show any significant improvement when the diameter of medio-lateral pins in diaphyseal hold were increased. The findings should help in understanding the axial properties of JESS so that it can be used judiciously in clinical applications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Huailiang; Zhang Fuxiang


    A hybrid approach is presented to investigate the dynamic behavior of an axially slide-spin flexible rocket with nonlinear clearance. The equations of motion of the flexible rocket are derived based upon Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Hamilton principle and the finite element method. The characteristics of clearance between the spinning rocket and launcher are considered to be piecewise linear. Numerical solution is developed by direct integration method and demonstrates the validity of the method. The coupled dynamic behavior of axial motion and transverse vibrations of rocket are analyzed, and the influences of axially moving acceleration, spin speed, linking stiffness of elastic "shoes", and the nonlinearity of clearance on the motion attitude of rocket are studied.

  7. White matter biomarkers from fast protocols using axially symmetric diffusion kurtosis imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Brian; Shemesh, Noam; Lund, Torben E; Sangill, Ryan; Østergaard, Leif; Jespersen, Sune N


    White matter tract integrity (WMTI) can be used to characterize tissue microstructure in areas with axisymmetric fiber bundles. Several WMTI biomarkers have now been validated against microscopy and provided promising results in studies of brain development and aging, as well as in a number of brain disorders. In a clinical setting, however, the diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) protocol utilized as part of WMTI imaging may be prohibitively long. Consequently, the diagnostic value of the WMTI parameters is rarely explored outside of dedicated animal studies and clinical studies of slowly progressing diseases. Here, we evaluate WMTI based on recently introduced axially symmetric DKI which has lower data demand than conventional DKI. We compare WMTI parameters derived from conventional DKI to those from axially symmetric DKI and to parameters calculated analytically from the axially symmetric tensors. We also assess the effect of the imposed symmetry on the kurtosis fractional anisotropy (KFA). We employ numeric...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Feng-huan; ZHAO Long-mao; YANG Gui-tong


    The dynamic response of a double-walled carbon nanotube embedded in elastic medium subjected to periodic disturbing forces is investigated. Investigation of the dynamic buckling of a double-walled carbon nanotube develops continuum model. The effect of the van der Waals forces between two tubes and the surrounding elastic medium for axial dynamic buckling are considered. The buckling model subjected to periodic disturbing forces and the critical axial strain and the critical frequencies are given. It is found that the critical axial strain of the embedded multi-walled carbon nanotube due to the intertube van der Waals forces is lower than that of an embedded single-walled carbon nanotube. The van der Waals forces and the surrounding elastic medium affect region of dynamic instability. The van der Waals forces increase the critical frequencies of a double-walled carbon nanotube. The effect of the surrounding elastic medium for the critical frequencies is small.

  9. Axial spondyloarthritis: a new disease entity, not necessarily early ankylosing spondylitis. (United States)

    Robinson, Philip Cameron; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Reveille, John D; Brown, Matthew A


    New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis have been developed with the goal of increasing sensitivity of criteria for early inflammatory spondyloarthritis. However these criteria substantially increase heterogeneity of the resulting disease group, reducing their value in both research and clinical settings. Further research to establish criteria based on better knowledge of the natural history of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, its aetiopathogenesis and response to treatment is required. In the meantime the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis remain a very useful classification criteria set, defining a relatively homogenous group of cases for clinical use and research studies.

  10. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination. (United States)

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D


    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  11. Design and Test of a Transonic Axial Splittered Rotor (United States)


    geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial compressor rotor with splitter blades. Predictive numerical simulations were conducted and...ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial compressor rotor with splitter blades. Predictive numerical simulations were...that uses commercial-off-the-shelf software ( MATLAB , SolidWorks, and ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial

  12. Rotordynamics of Turbine Labyrinth Seals with Rotor Axial Shifting


    Jinxiang Xi; Rhode, David L.


    Rotors in high-performance steam turbines experience a significant axial shifting during starting and stopping processes due to thermal expansion, for example. This axial shifting could significantly alter the flow pattern and the flow-induced rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals, which in turn, can considerably affect the rotor-seal system performance. This paper investigates the influence of the rotor axial shifting on leakage rate as well as rotordynamic forces in hi...

  13. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise-induced PDH...... in arm than leg muscles during exercise in humans may be the result of lower PDH-E1? content and not a muscle type dependent difference in PDH regulation. Both low muscle glycogen and increased plasma FFA are associated with upregulation of PDK4 protein and less exercise-induced increase in PDHa activity...... in human skeletal muscle. It may be noted that the increased PDK4 protein associated with elevated plasma FFA occurs already 2 hours after different dietary intake. A week of physical inactivity (bed rest), leading to whole body glucose intolerance, does not affect muscle PDH-E1? content, or the exercise...

  14. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  15. Modular functional organisation of the axial locomotor system in salamanders. (United States)

    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Vanessa; Mathou, Alexia


    Most investigations on tetrapod locomotion have been concerned with limb movements. However, there is compelling evidence that the axial musculoskeletal system contributes to important functions during locomotion. Adult salamanders offer a remarkable opportunity to examine these functions because these amphibians use axial undulations to propel themselves in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this article, we review the currently available biological data on axial functions during various locomotor modes in salamanders. We also present data showing the modular organisation of the neural networks that generate axial synergies during locomotion. The functional implication of this modular organisation is discussed.

  16. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D' Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. (UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick (USA))


    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

  17. Prediction of Skeletal Medial-Lateral for transfemoral ischial containment sockets. (United States)

    Dillon, Michael P; Fernandez, Richard G D; Erbas, Bircan; Briggs, Chris; Quigley, Matthew


    Accurate measurement of the pelvis is critical for well-fitting and comfortable ischial containment sockets. The "Skeletal Medial-Lateral (ML)" is intrusive and unreliable to measure in vivo. This study aimed to determine how accurately the Skeletal ML could be predicted and to identify which measurements were significant predictors. Computed tomography scans were randomly sampled from a cadaveric database (n = 200). Inclusion criteria were age > 20 yr; lower-limb alignment that replicated the anatomical position; and no evidence of osteological trauma, implants, or bony growths. Multivariate linear regression models were developed to predict the Skeletal ML based on a suite of independent variables, including sex, body mass, and distance between pelvic landmarks. The regression model explained 76% of the variance in the Skeletal ML (p socket fitting. Further research is needed to test the predictive tool in a real-world setting.

  18. Skeletal Dysplasias Associated with Mild Myopathy—A Clinical and Molecular Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Piróg


    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system is a complex assembly of tissues which acts as scaffold for the body and enables locomotion. It is often overlooked that different components of this system may biomechanically interact and affect each other. Skeletal dysplasias are diseases predominantly affecting the development of the osseous skeleton. However, in some cases skeletal dysplasia patients are referred to neuromuscular clinics prior to the correct skeletal diagnosis. The muscular complications seen in these cases are usually mild and may stem directly from the muscle defect and/or from the altered interactions between the individual components of the musculoskeletal system. A correct early diagnosis may enable better management of the patients and a better quality of life. This paper attempts to summarise the different components of the musculoskeletal system which are affected in skeletal dysplasias and lists several interesting examples of such diseases in order to enable better understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal system.

  19. Developmental changes in the protein profiles of human cardiac and skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Tipler, T D; Edwards, Y H; Hopkinson, D A


    1. The use of SDS electrophoresis as a tool for the analysis of development processes in man has been evaluated. 2. The protein profiles of cardiac and skeletal muscle from foetal (10--24 weeks gestation) infant and adult specimens have been analysed and striking developmental changes were found which involved all the major proteins. 3. Before 20 weeks gestation the soluble protein profile of skeletal muscle appears to consist largely of extracellular proteins. 4. Myoglobin was found in foetal cardiac muscle from 20 weeks gestation but was not demonstrable in foetal (greater than 24 weeks) skeletal muscle. Foetal and adult myoglobin were indistinguishable. 5. A limited survey of the protein patterns of brain, liver and kidney was carried out. In general these tissues show less developmental change than skeletal or cardiac muscle.

  20. The STARS signaling pathway: a key regulator of skeletal muscle function. (United States)

    Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita A; Russell, Aaron P


    During the last decade, the striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), a muscle-specific protein, has been proposed to play an increasingly important role in skeletal muscle growth, metabolism, regeneration and stress adaptation. STARS influences actin dynamics and, as a consequence, regulates the myocardin-related transcription factor A/serum response factor (MRTF-A/SRF) transcriptional program, a well-known pathway controlling skeletal muscle development and function. Muscle-specific stress conditions, such as exercise, positively regulates, while disuse and degenerative muscle diseases are associated with a downregulation of STARS and its downstream partners, suggesting a pivotal role for STARS in skeletal muscle health. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the known role and regulation of STARS and the members of its signaling pathway, RhoA, MRTF-A and SRF, in skeletal muscle.

  1. Salamander limb regeneration involves the activation of a multipotent skeletal muscle satellite cell population. (United States)

    Morrison, Jamie I; Lööf, Sara; He, Pingping; Simon, András


    In contrast to mammals, salamanders can regenerate complex structures after injury, including entire limbs. A central question is whether the generation of progenitor cells during limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair occur via separate or overlapping mechanisms. Limb regeneration depends on the formation of a blastema, from which the new appendage develops. Dedifferentiation of stump tissues, such as skeletal muscle, precedes blastema formation, but it was not known whether dedifferentiation involves stem cell activation. We describe a multipotent Pax7+ satellite cell population located within the skeletal muscle of the salamander limb. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle dedifferentiation involves satellite cell activation and that these cells can contribute to new limb tissues. Activation of salamander satellite cells occurs in an analogous manner to how the mammalian myofiber mobilizes stem cells during skeletal muscle tissue repair. Thus, limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair share common cellular and molecular programs. Our findings also identify satellite cells as potential targets in promoting mammalian blastema formation.

  2. First experiences with simultaneous skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction of noma-related facial defects. (United States)

    Giessler, Goetz A; Borsche, André; Lim, Paul K; Schmidt, Andreas B; Cornelius, C-Peter


    Noma victims suffer from a three-dimensional facial soft-tissue loss. Some may also develop complex viscerocranial defects, due to acute osteitis, chronic exposure, or arrested skeletal growth. Reconstruction has mainly focused on soft tissue so far, whereas skeletal restoration was mostly avoided. After successful microvascular soft tissue free flap reconstruction, we now included skeletal restoration and mandibular ankylosis release into the initial step of complex noma surgery. One free rib graft and parascapular flap, one microvascular osteomyocutaneous flap from the subscapular system, and two sequential chimeric free flaps including vascularized bone were used as the initial steps for facial reconstruction. Ankylosis release could spare the temporomandibular joint. Complex noma reconstruction should include skeletal restoration. Avascular bone is acceptable in cases with complete vascularized graft coverage. Microsurgical chimeric flaps are preferable as they can reduce the number and complexity of secondary operations and provide viable, infection-resistant bone supporting facial growth.

  3. Treatment of pelvic Ewing's sarcoma in children and the effect on the skeletal growth and development%儿童骨盆尤文肉瘤的治疗以及对骨骼生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付军; 郭征; 王臻; 栗向东; 李靖; 陈国景; 吴智钢


    Objective To explore the effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and computer-assisted surgery on children and adolescents with primary pelvic Ewing's sarcoma,and assess the therapeutic effect on the pelvic skeletal growth and development.Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 10 children with primary pelvic Ewing's sarcoma treated between Jan 2001 and Oct 2010 at the Department of Oncologic Orthopaedics at Xijing Hospital.There were 3 girls and 7 boys in the age of 7 to 16 years (average 12.7 years).All patients were pathologically diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma.There were two cases in the sacroiliac joint,one in the ilium,one in the pubic bone,and 6 cases in peri-acetabular area including 5 below the triradiate cartilage and one above the triradiate cartilage,without cartilage invasion.All patients underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy,resection and reconstruction surgery and postoperative chemotherapy.CDP,ADM and IFO regimen chemotherapy were given as the main treatment.Five cases were treated by traditional resection and reconstruction,and after 2008,five cases were treated by computer-assisted surgery.During the reconstruction,the hip rotation center was put at a depressed location.All of the 10 cases underwent postoperative radiotherapy in a dose of 45-55 Gy.Results All patients were followed-up for 12-72 months (mean:37.8 months).One child had tumor recurrence and lung metastasis and 9 patients had no evidence of disease (NED).After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy,the oncologic statuses (RECIST)were:1 CR,8 PR and 1 SD.The functional recoveries after surgery (Enneking's) were:4 cases excellent,4 good,1 fair and 1 poor.Five cases who underwent computer-assisted surgery achieved a good reconstruction without local recurrence.There were no effects on skeletal growth in 8 cases.An unbalanced hip rotational center occurred in one case,and a compemsatory scoliosis was found in another case.There were no serious complications in all patients.Conclusions The comprehensive

  4. The axial age and the problems of the twentieth century: Du Bois, Jaspers, and universal history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Boy


    The axial age debate has put big questions of social and cultural change back on the agenda of sociology. This paper takes this development as an occasion to reflect on how social thought works with (and against) nineteenth-century intellectual traditions in its efforts to understand history on a ma

  5. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  6. Casimir Energy in the Axial Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Kirsten, K; Esposito, Giampiero; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Kirsten, Klaus


    The zero-point energy of a conducting spherical shell is studied by imposing the axial gauge via path-integral methods, with boundary conditions on the electromagnetic potential and ghost fields. The coupled modes are then found to be the temporal and longitudinal modes for the Maxwell field. The resulting system can be decoupled by studying a fourth-order differential equation with boundary conditions on longitudinal modes and their second derivatives. The exact solution of such equation is found by using a Green-function method, and is obtained from Bessel functions and definite integrals involving Bessel functions. Complete agreement with a previous path-integral analysis in the Lorenz gauge, and with Boyer's value, is proved in detail.

  7. The Axial Part Phrase in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takamine


    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the categorial status of spatial terms in locative/directional expressions in Japanese. I will show that a certain class of spatial terms have a distinct categorial status from both regular postpositions and nouns. On one hand, syntactic diagnostics such as doubling, coordination by to, and co-occurrence with demonstratives indicate that these spatial terms belong to a nominal category rather than to a postpositional category. On the other hand, the fact that these spatial terms are modified by range modifiers indicates that they are more similar to regular postpositions than to nouns. On the basis of these diagnostics, I will argue that spatial terms in Japanese need to be assigned a new category Axial Part Phrase which is proposed by Svenonius 2006.

  8. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poul


    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail. 

  9. Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery (United States)

    Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.


    A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.

  10. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.; White, S.J.; Rasmussen, J.E.


    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized.

  11. Screening and Identification of Differential Expressed Genes in Different Development Stages of Bovine Skeletal Muscles%不同发育阶段蒙古牛肌肉组织差异表达基因的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荣莉; 王峰; 张焱如; 周欢敏


    In order to find the genetic mechanism which impact on the meat quanlity in different development stages of bovine at the molecular levels, we used mRNA differential display reverse-transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) to identify differentially expressed genes in different development stages of bovine skeletal muscles. A total of 6 ESTs were found and subsequently compared with the nucleotide sequences in GenBank database using BLAST. SI was highly similar to the bovine coffilin 2 (CFL2) gene, the others(S2 to S6) were no significant similarity with existing genes or ESTs and were reguarded as the new EST. The mRNA expression of CFL2 gene was examined by relative quantitative PCR. The results indicated that the expression of CFL2 of 5 years old Mongolia bovine's muscle tissue was 3. 8 times more than 16 months old one's. It was well known that the excessive expression of CFL2 could inhibit G-actin polymerization and accumulation of high quality type 1 muscle fiber, therefore, it demonstrated that the high expression of CFL2 gene might cause decline of the meat traits of Mongolia bovine.%应用mRNA差异显示技术,对两个发育阶段(16月龄和5岁龄)蒙古牛臀肌组织差异表达的基因进行研究,从分子水平分析影响不同发育阶段蒙古牛肉品质的遗传机制.经mRNA差异筛选获得6条差异表达的EST片段,与GenBank中序列进行相似性比对后发现,其中一条序列S1与牛的丝切蛋白2 (cofilin 2,CFL2)基因高度同源(相似性99%),确认S1就是牛的CFL2基因;另外5条S2- S6在数据库中未发现同源序列,确定为新的EST片段.采用相对定量PCR方法对差异表达基因CFL2进行真实性鉴定和差异表达量检测,结果显示,CFL2基因在5岁龄蒙古牛肌肉组织中的表达量是16月龄的3.8倍.过量的丝切蛋白2可以抑制单体型肌动蛋白的聚合及1型优质肌纤维的累积,其高表达可能导致了蒙古牛肉质性状的下降.

  12. Theoretical analysis of oxygen supply to contracted skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Groebe, K; Thews, G


    Honig and collaborators reported striking contradictions in current understanding of O2 supply to working skeletal muscle. Therefore we re-examined the problem by means of a new composite computer simulation. As inclusion of erythrocytic O2 desaturation and oxygen transport and consumption inside the muscle cell into a single model would entail immense numerical difficulties, we broke up the whole process into its several components: O2 desaturation of erythrocytes O2 transport and consumption in muscle fiber capillary transit time characterizing the period of contact between red cell and muscle fiber. "Erythrocyte model" as well as "muscle fiber model" both consist of a central core cylinder surrounded by a concentric diffusion layer representing the extracellular resistance to O2 diffusion (Fig. 1). Resistance layers in both models are to be conceived of as one and the same anatomical structure--even though in each model their shape is adapted to the respective geometry. By means of this overlap region a spatial connexion between both is given, whereas temporal coherence governing O2 fluxes and red cell spacing is derived from capillary transit time. Analysis of individual components is outlined as follows: Assuming axial symmetry of the problem a numerical algorithm was employed to solve the parabolic system of partial differential equations describing red cell O2 desaturation. Hb-O2 reaction kinetics, free and facilitated O2 diffusion in axial and radial directions, and red cell movement in capillary were considered. Resulting time courses of desaturation, which are considerably faster than the ones computed by Honig et al., are given in the following table (see also Fig. 3). (Formula: see text) Furthermore, we studied the respective importance of the several processes included in our model: Omission of longitudinal diffusion increased desaturation time by 15% to 23%, whereas effects of reaction kinetics and axial movement were 5% and 2% respectively. For time

  13. Axial dechanneling and its application to defect analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, K.; Goetz, G.; Hehl, K. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik)


    Within the basic description of Lindhard a theoretical model of axial dechanneling starting from the master equation for transverse energy distribution is developed. In contrast to the diffusion model, large changes in transverse energy are included which are of special importance for defects. Numerical results of the minimum backscattering yield for perfect crystals, crystals with point defects and crystals with dislocations show good agreement with experimental data for different temperatures and energies. This is the basis for the application to defect analysis. For point defects the measurement of temperature dependence of the minimum yield proved to be a very suitable method for the determination of preferred lattice positions if they are not too far from the string (< or approx. 0.07 nm in silicon).

  14. Skyrme RPA for spherical and axially symmetric nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Repko, Anton; Nesterenko, V O; Reinhard, P -G


    Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is the basic method for calculation of excited states of nuclei over the Hartree-Fock ground state, suitable also for energy density functionals (EDF or DFT). We developed a convenient formalism for expressing densities and currents in a form of reduced matrix elements, which allows fast calculation of spectra for spherical nuclei. All terms of Skyrme functional were taken into account, so it is possible to calculate electric, magnetic and vortical/toroidal/compression transitions and strength functions of any multipolarity. Time-odd (spin) terms in Skyrme functional become important for magnetic M1 and isovector toroidal E1 transitions. It was also found that transition currents in pygmy region (low-lying part of E1 resonance) exhibit isoscalar toroidal flow, so the previously assumed picture of neutron-skin vibration is not the only mechanism present in pygmy transitions. RPA calculations with heavy axially-symmetric nuclei now become feasible on ordinary PC. Detailed formul...

  15. Operational Experience with a Cryogenic Axial-Centrifugal Compressor

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Löhlein, K; Purtschert, W; Ziegler, B L; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Brunovsky, I; Tucek, L


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires large refrigeration capacity at 1.8 K. Compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures is therefore inevitable. Together with subcontractors, Linde Kryotechnik has developed a prototype machine. This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating at ambient temperature. Integrated in a test facility for superconducting magnets the machine has been commissioned without major problems and successfully gone through the acceptance test in autumn 1995. Subsequent steps were initiated to improve efficiency of this prototype. This paper describes operating experience gained so far and reports on measured performance prior to and after constructional modifications.

  16. Fast imaging of mean, axial and radial diffusion kurtosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian; Shemesh, Noam; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj


    Abstract Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is being increasingly reported to provide sensitive biomarkers of subtle changes in tissue microstructure. However, DKI also imposes larger data requirements than diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), hence, the widespread adaptation and exploration of DKI would...... for the first time, and referred to as axially symmetric DKI. The second approach is applicable in tissues with a priori known principal diffusion direction, and does not require fitting of any kind. The approaches are evaluated in human brain in vivo as well as in fixed rat spinal cord, and are demonstrated...... benefit from more efficient acquisition and computational methods. To meet this demand, we recently developed a method capable of estimating mean kurtosis with only 13 diffusion weighted images. This approach was later shown to provide very accurate mean kurtosis estimates and to be more efficient...

  17. Experimental investigation of axially aligned flow past spinning cylinders (United States)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva


    Experimental and numerical results of ongoing subsonic investigations of the flow field about axially aligned spinning cylinders with variable inter-cylinder spacing are presented. The experimental design is capable of investigating wake dynamics of the modeled system up to a Reynolds Number of 300,000 and rotation numbers up to 2. The experimental results are used to validate and confirm numerical simulations with and without the effects of swirl. The focus of the overall effort is an understanding of the dynamics of multi-body problems in a flow field, as such we relate the ongoing effort to previous studies by both the authors and the community at large and our ongoing work in developing accurate plant models for use in engineering analysis and design. Funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  18. The genetics of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Robinson, Philip C; Brown, Matthew A


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and spondyloarthritis are strongly genetically determined. The long-standing association with HLA-B27 is well described, although the mechanism by which that association induces AS remains uncertain. Recent developments include the description of HLA-B27 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in European and Asian populations. An increasing number of non-MHC genetic associations have been reported, which provided amongst other things the first evidence of the involvement of the IL-23 pathway in AS. The association with ERAP1 is now known to be restricted to HLA-B27 positive disease. Preliminary studies on the genetics of axial spondyloarthritis demonstrate a lower HLA-B27 carriage rate compared with AS. Studies with larger samples and including non-European ethnic groups are likely to further advance the understanding of the genetics of AS and spondyloarthritis.

  19. A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L


    CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

  20. Design of axial-flux permanent-magnet low-speed machines and performance comparison between radial-flux and axial-flux machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviainen, A.


    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analytical design of surface-mounted axial-flux permanent-magnet machines. Emphasis has been placed on the design of axial-flux machines with a one-rotor-two-stators configuration. The design model developed in this study incorporates facilities to include both the electromagnetic design and thermal design of the machine as well as to take into consideration the complexity of the permanent-magnet shapes, which is a typical requirement for the design of high-performance permanent-magnet motors. A prototype machine with rated 5 kW output power at 300 min{sup -1} rotation speed has been designed and constructed for the purposes of ascertaining the results obtained from the analytical design model. A comparative study of low-speed axial-flux and low-speed radial-flux permanent-magnet machines is presented. The comparative study concentrates on 55 kW machines with rotation speeds 150 min{sup -1}, 300 min{sup -1} and 600 min{sup -1} and is based on calculated designs. A novel comparison method is introduced. The method takes into account the mechanical constraints of the machine and enables comparison of the designed machines, with respect to the volume, efficiency and cost aspects of each machine. It is shown that an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with one-rotor-two-stators configuration has generally a weaker efficiency than a radial-flux permanent-magnet machine if for all designs the same electric loading, air-gap flux density and current density have been applied. On the other hand, axial-flux machines are usually smaller in volume, especially when compared to radial-flux machines for which the length ratio (axial length of stator stack vs. air-gap diameter) is below 0.5. The comparison results show also that radial-flux machines with a low number of pole pairs, p < 4, outperform the corresponding axial-flux machines. (orig.)

  1. Enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects assessed by ‘head-to-toe’ whole-body MRI and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Eshed, Iris; Østergaard, Mikkel


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to detect axial and peripheral enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and in healthy subjects (HS). Furthermore, to develop MRI enthesitis indices based on WBMRI and validate...

  2. Biogenetically inspired synthesis and skeletal diversification of indole alkaloids (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Haruki; Oikawa, Hideaki; Oguri, Hiroki


    To access architecturally complex natural products, chemists usually devise a customized synthetic strategy for constructing a single target skeleton. In contrast, biosynthetic assembly lines often employ divergent intramolecular cyclizations of a polyunsaturated common intermediate to produce diverse arrays of scaffolds. With the aim of integrating such biogenetic strategies, we show the development of an artificial divergent assembly line generating unprecedented numbers of scaffold variations of terpenoid indole alkaloids. This approach not only allows practical access to multipotent intermediates, but also enables systematic diversification of skeletal, stereochemical and functional group properties without structural simplification of naturally occurring alkaloids. Three distinct modes of [4+2] cyclizations and two types of redox-mediated annulations provided divergent access to five skeletally distinct scaffolds involving iboga-, aspidosperma-, andranginine- and ngouniensine-type skeletons and a non-natural variant within six to nine steps from tryptamine. The efficiency of our approach was demonstrated by successful total syntheses of (±)-vincadifformine, (±)-andranginine and (-)-catharanthine.

  3. Mind the gap - tip leakage vortex in axial turbines (United States)

    Dreyer, M.; Decaix, J.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Farhat, M.


    The tendency of designing large Kaplan turbines with a continuous increase of output power is bringing to the front the cavitation erosion issue. Due to the flow in the gap between the runner and the discharge ring, axial turbine blades may develop the so called tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavitation with negative consequences. Such vortices may interact strongly with the wake of guide vanes leading to their multiple collapses and rebounds. If the vortex trajectory remains close to the blade tip, these collapses may lead to severe erosion. One is still unable today to predict its occurrence and development in axial turbines with acceptable accuracy. Numerical flow simulations as well as the actual scale-up rules from small to large scales are unreliable. The present work addresses this problematic in a simplified case study representing TLV cavitation to better understand its sensitivity to the gap width. A Naca0009 hydrofoil is used as a generic blade in the test section of EPFL cavitation tunnel. A sliding mounting support allowing an adjustable gap between the blade tip and wall was manufactured. The vortex trajectory is visualized with a high speed camera and appropriate lighting. The three dimensional velocity field induced by the TLV is investigated using stereo particle image velocimetry. We have taken into account the vortex wandering in the image processing to obtain accurate measurements of the vortex properties. The measurements were performed in three planes located downstream of the hydrofoil for different values of the flow velocity, the incidence angle and the gap width. The results clearly reveal a strong influence of the gap width on both trajectory and intensity of the tip leakage vortex.

  4. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle;


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....... One group (n = 13) were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF) while the other group (n = 13) where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. RESULTS: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively....... Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05) difference...

  5. A Novel bioreactor with mechanical stimulation for skeletal tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrović


    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical stimulation is believed to be necessary for the functional assembly of skeletal tissues, which are normally exposed to a variety of biomechanical signals in vivo. In this paper, we present a development and validation of a novel bioreactor aimed for skeletal tissue engineering that provides dynamic compression and perfusion of cultivated tissues. Dynamic compression can be applied at frequencies up to 67.5 Hz and displacements down to 5 m thus suitable for the simulation of physiological conditions in a native cartilage tissue (0.1-1 Hz, 5-10 % strain. The bioreactor also includes a load sensor that was calibrated so to measure average loads imposed on tissue samples. Regimes of the mechanical stimulation and acquisition of load sensor outputs are directed by an automatic control system using applications developed within the LabView platform. In addition, perfusion of tissue samples at physiological velocities (10–100 m/s provides efficient mass transfer, as well as the possibilities to expose the cells to hydrodynamic shear and simulate the conditions in a native bone tissue. Thus, the novel bioreactor is suited for studies of the effects of different biomechanical signals on in vitro regeneration of skeletal tissues, as well as for the studies of newly formulated biomaterials and cell biomaterial interactions under in vivo-like settings.

  6. Premature aging in skeletal muscle lacking serum response factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lahoute

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process.

  7. 补充运动饮料可加速等动肌力峰力矩产生%Increased Rate of Peak Torque Development in Human Skeletal Muscle following Isokinetic Training with Sports Beverages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣; 王守都


    Objective :The present study examined the effect of isokinetic training with sports beverages on the rate of peak torque development in athlete skeletal muscle during maximal muscle contraction .Methods :Twenty-seven taekwondo athletes in universitiy were randomly divided into four groups ,TD group (n= 7) with routine professional training and isokinetic ex-ercise with sports beverages ,T group (n= 6) with routine professional training and isokinetic exercise with water ,D group (n=7) with routine professional training and with beverages ,C group (n= 7) with routine professional training and with water .Experimental session for 10 weeks ,included training for 6 weeks and detraining 4 weeks .Subjects were asked to complete quadriceps and hamstring muscle isokinetic training in two legs ,including 2 sets of 7 repetitions concentric contraction at 60 °/s and 18 repetitions concentric contraction at 180 °/s ,and 7 rep-etitions eccentric contraction at 20°/s ,then 18 repetitions concentric contraction at 180 °/s ,1-min rest in set ,3- min rest interval set ,3 days a week .Moment of skeletal muscle eccentric contraction was 150% of the maximum moment of resistance in the first 3 weeks ,and 220%in last 3 weeks .Sports beverages were carbohydrate solution (6% wt/vol) including creatine (0 .1g/kg weight) ,carbohydrate (1g/kg weight) and protein (0 .4g/kg weight) .Drank 1/3 before isokinetic exercise ,then 150 ml per 15 minutes until finishing exercise ,the remaining solution was drunk up after finishing exercise in TD group and Dgroup .The volume of water was (kg weight)/6% ml .The maximum torque ,iEMG and completion time were measured in predominant leg at 60°/s and 180°/s before training ,after 6 weeks training and 4 weeks de-training ,calculated RFD and RER .Results :(1 ) RFD and RER of hamstring muscle increased in TD group than D group at 60°/s ( P< 0 .05 ) after 6 weeks training .RFD and RER of quadriceps were higher in TD group than T ,D ,C groups at 180

  8. Dental Age in Orthodontic Patients with Different Skeletal Patterns (United States)

    Lauc, Tomislav; Nakaš, Enita; Latić-Dautović, Melina; Džemidžić, Vildana; Tiro, Alisa; Rupić, Ivana; Kostić, Mirjana


    Objective. To evaluate the difference between chronological and dental age, calculated by Willems and Cameriere methods, in various skeletal patterns according to Steiner's ANB Classification. Methods. This retrospective cross-sectional study comprised the sample of 776 participants aged between 7 and 15 years (368 males and 408 females). For each participant, panoramic images (OPT) and laterolateral cephalograms (LC) were collected from the medical database. On LC ANB angle was measured; on OPT dental age (DA) was calculated while chronological age (CA) and sex were recorded. The sample was divided into three subgroups (Class I, Class II, and Class III) with similar distribution based on the chronological age and ANB angle. CA was calculated as the difference between the date of OPT imaging and the date of birth, while DA was evaluated using Willems and Cameriere methods. ANB angle was measured on LC by two independent investigators using the cephalometric software. Differences between sexes and the difference between dental and chronological age were tested by independent and paired samples t-test, respectively; one-way ANOVA was used to test differences among ANB classes with Tukey post hoc test to compare specific pairs of ANB classes. Results. The significant difference was found between Class III and other two skeletal classes in males using both dental age estimation methods. In Class III males dental age was ahead averagely by 0.41 years when using Willems method, while Cameriere method overestimated CA for 0.22 years. Conclusion. In males with Class III skeletal pattern, dental development is faster than in Classes I and II skeletal pattern. This faster development is not present in females.

  9. Three-dimensional ultrasound strain imaging of skeletal muscles (United States)

    Gijsbertse, K.; Sprengers, A. M. J.; Nillesen, M. M.; Hansen, H. H. G.; Lopata, R. G. P.; Verdonschot, N.; de Korte, C. L.


    In this study, a multi-dimensional strain estimation method is presented to assess local relative deformation in three orthogonal directions in 3D space of skeletal muscles during voluntary contractions. A rigid translation and compressive deformation of a block phantom, that mimics muscle contraction, is used as experimental validation of the 3D technique and to compare its performance with respect to a 2D based technique. Axial, lateral and (in case of 3D) elevational displacements are estimated using a cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. After transformation of the displacements to a Cartesian coordinate system, strain is derived using a least-squares strain estimator. The performance of both methods is compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated displacements with the calculated theoretical displacements of the phantom experiments. We observe that the 3D technique delivers more accurate displacement estimations compared to the 2D technique, especially in the translation experiment where out-of-plane motion hampers the 2D technique. In vivo application of the 3D technique in the musculus vastus intermedius shows good resemblance between measured strain and the force pattern. Similarity of the strain curves of repetitive measurements indicates the reproducibility of voluntary contractions. These results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a valuable imaging tool to quantify complex tissue motion, especially when there is motion in three directions, which results in out-of-plane errors for 2D techniques.

  10. Biomechanical comparison of four different miniscrew types for skeletal anchorage in the mandibulo-maxillary area. (United States)

    Mischkowski, R A; Kneuertz, P; Florvaag, B; Lazar, F; Koebke, J; Zöller, J E


    This study compared four miniscrew types for skeletal anchorage (Aarhus, FAMI, Dual Top and Spider) regarding their biomechanical properties contributing to primary stability. Insertion torque measurements and pull-out tests in axial (0 degrees ) as well as in the 20 degrees and 40 degrees direction were performed. Stiffness of the screw-bone construct was calculated from the load-displacement curve. Conic FAMI and Dual Top screws had higher insertion torques. Insertion torques were raised by drill-free insertion of FAMI and Dual Top screws. Statistically significant differences were found between the 4 screw types in pull-out tests. The highly significant differences between the four screws for peak load in the axial (0 degrees ) and 20 degrees direction were not apparent in 40 degrees angular loads. For the conical screws, peak load values increased in angular compared with axial load. The Dual Top screw achieved the highest values for peak load and stiffness. 12 Dual Top and 1 Spider screw heads fractured in the pull-out tests. A conical drill-free screw design achieves higher primary stability compared with cylindrical self-tapping screws. This effect was more obvious in insertion torque estimations rather than in pull-out tests. The Dual Top screws, although biomechanically superior to other screw types, were most prone to fractures.

  11. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;


    during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion, and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable, and thus one of the few organ systems which can be experimentally manipulated (e.g. by exercise) to study physiologic regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  12. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy]. (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A


    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  13. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C


    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  14. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B


    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  15. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.


    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  16. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I


    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), psmooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  17. Atropisomerism: the effect of the axial chirality in bioactive compounds; Atropoisomerismo: o efeito da quiralidade axial em substancias bioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anderson Rouge dos; Pinheiro, Alessandra Campbell; Sodero, Ana Carolina Renno; Cunha, Andrea Sousa da; Padilha, Monica Costa; Sousa, Priscila Mesquita de; Fontes, Silvia Paredes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Veloso, Marcia Paranho [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Lab. de Avaliacao e Sintese de Substancias Bioativas (LASSBio)]. E-mail:


    Atropisomerism is a special kind of stereoisomeric relationship that arises from the freezing of a certain conformation of an organic molecule, associated with a high rotational barrier about a single covalent bond. Atropisomerism has been originally described in orto-functionalized biphenyl derivatives, but a lot of other organic functionalities can present this structural phenomenon, characterized by the presence of chiral properties in compounds that do not present classical stereogenic centers. Atropisomeric compounds, intermediates and catalysts have well-know importance in organic synthesis, but the influence of the axial chirality in substances able to modulate biological systems is still not very exploited in drug design and development. In this context, the present account describes the importance of this structural property in the medicinal chemistry of different classes of bioactive compounds or therapeutic agents, emphasizing how atropisomerism could affect the molecular recognition of a ligand or a prototype by the target bioreceptor. (author)

  18. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A


    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  19. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server


    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  20. Improved axial position detection in optical tweezers measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene


    We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial...

  1. Through flow analysis within axial flow turbomachinery blade rows (United States)

    Girigoswami, H.


    Using Katsanis' Through Flow Code, inviscid flow through an axial flow compressor rotor blade as well as flow through inlet guide vanes are analyzed and the computed parameters such as meridional velocity distribution, axial velocity distribution along radial lines, and velocity distribution over blade surfaces are presented.

  2. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  3. An Unbroken Axial-Vector Current Conservation Law (United States)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.


    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space in which a neutrino is characterized by left as well as by right space-time coordinates. Therefore, it is not surprising that whatever the main purposes experiments about a quasielastic axial-vector mass say in favor of an axial-vector mirror Minkowski space-time.

  4. Exosomes from differentiating human skeletal muscle cells trigger myogenesis of stem cells and provide biochemical cues for skeletal muscle regeneration. (United States)

    Choi, Ji Suk; Yoon, Hwa In; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Young Chan; Yang, Seong Hyun; Kim, In-San; Cho, Yong Woo


    Exosomes released from skeletal muscle cells play important roles in myogenesis and muscle development via the transfer of specific signal molecules. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes secreted during myotube differentiation from human skeletal myoblasts (HSkM) could induce a cellular response from human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs) and enhance muscle regeneration in a muscle laceration mouse model. The exosomes contained various signal molecules including myogenic growth factors related to muscle development, such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA). Interestingly, exosome-treated HASCs fused with neighboring cells at early time points and exhibited a myotube-like phenotype with increased expression of myogenic proteins (myosin heavy chain and desmin). On day 21, mRNAs of terminal myogenic genes were also up-regulated in exosome-treated HASCs. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that exosomes from differentiating HSkM reduced the fibrotic area and increased the number of regenerated myofibers in the injury site, resulting in significant improvement of skeletal muscle regeneration. Our findings suggest that exosomes act as a biochemical cue directing stem cell differentiation and provide a cell-free therapeutic approach for muscle regeneration.

  5. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy. (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J


    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.


    Crouse, J. E.


    The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified

  7. On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kirezli, Pınar


    Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...

  8. Axial vibration analysis of nanocones based on nonlocal elasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qi Guo; Shao-Pu Yang


    Carbon nanocones have quite fascinating electronic and structural properties,whose axial vibration is seldom investigated in previous studies.In this paper,based on a nonlocal elasticity theory,a nonuniform rod model is applied to investigate the small-scale effect and the nonuniform effect on axial vibration of nanocones.Using the modified Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WBK) method,an asymptotic solution is obtained for the axial vibration of general nonuniform nanorods.Then,using similar procedure,the axial vibration of nanocones is analyzed for nonuniform parameters,mode number and nonlocal parameters.Explicit expressions are derived for mode frequencies of clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions.It is found that axial vibration frequencies are highly overestimated by the classical rod model because of ignorance of the effect of small length scale.

  9. Skeletal malocclusion: a developmental disorder with a life-long morbidity. (United States)

    Joshi, Nishitha; Hamdan, Ahmad M; Fakhouri, Walid D


    The likelihood of birth defects in orofacial tissues is high due to the structural and developmental complexity of the face and the susceptibility to intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations. Skeletal malocclusion is caused by the distortion of the proper mandibular and/or maxillary growth during fetal development. Patients with skeletal malocclusion may suffer from dental deformities, bruxism, teeth crowding, trismus, mastication difficulties, breathing obstruction and digestion disturbance if the problem is left untreated. In this review, we focused on skeletal malocclusion that affects 27.9% of the US population with different severity levels. We summarized the prevalence of class I, II and III of malocclusion in different ethnic groups and discussed the most frequent medical disorders associated with skeletal malocclusion. Dental anomalies that lead to malocclusion such as tooth agenesis, crowding, missing teeth and abnormal tooth size are not addressed in this review. We propose a modified version of malocclusion classification for research purposes to exhibit a clear distinction between skeletal vs. dental malocclusion in comparison to Angle's classification. In addition, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on orthodontic (malocclusion) data through the BigMouth Dental Data Repository to calculate potential association between malocclusion with other medical conditions. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the need to identify genetic and environmental factors that cause or contribute risk to skeletal malocclusion and the possible association with other medical conditions to improve assessment, prognosis and therapeutic approaches.

  10. Progressive skeletal myopathy, a phenotypic variant of desmin myopathy associated with desmin mutations. (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Goudeau, Bertrand; Park, Kye-Yoon; Takeda, Kazuyo; Simon-Casteras, Monique; Vasconcelos, Olavo; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Shatunov, Alexey; Nagle, James W; Sivakumar, Kumaraswamy; Vicart, Patrick; Goldfarb, Lev G


    Desmin myopathy is a familial or sporadic disorder characterized by the presence of desmin mutations that cause skeletal muscle weakness associated with cardiac conduction block, arrhythmia and heart failure. Distinctive histopathologic features include intracytoplasmic accumulation of desmin-reactive deposits and electron-dense granular aggregates in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. We describe two families with features of adult-onset slowly progressive skeletal myopathy without cardiomyopathy. N342D point mutation was present in the desmin helical rod domain in patients of family 1, and I451M mutation was found in the non-helical tail domain in patients of family 2. Of interest, the same I451M mutation has previously been reported in patients with cardiomyopathy and no signs of skeletal myopathy. Some carriers of the I451M mutation did not develop any disease, suggesting incomplete penetrance. Expression studies demonstrated inability of the N342D mutant desmin to form cellular filamentous network, confirming the pathogenic role of this mutation, but the network was not affected by the tail-domain I451M mutation. Progressive skeletal myopathy is a rare phenotypic variant of desmin myopathy allelic to the more frequent cardio-skeletal form.

  11. Genetic Dissection of the Physiological Role of Skeletal Muscle in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Hagiwara


    Full Text Available The primary deficiency underlying metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance, in which insulin-responsive peripheral tissues fail to maintain glucose homeostasis. Because skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-induced glucose uptake, impairments in skeletal muscle’s insulin responsiveness play a major role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. For example, skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes patients and their offspring exhibit reduced ratios of slow oxidative muscle. These observations suggest the possibility of applying muscle remodeling to recover insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome. Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to external stimulations such as exercise; however, in practice it is often not practical or possible to enforce the necessary intensity to obtain measurable benefits to the metabolic syndrome patient population. Therefore, identifying molecular targets for inducing muscle remodeling would provide new approaches to treat metabolic syndrome. In this review, the physiological properties of skeletal muscle, genetic analysis of metabolic syndrome in human populations and model organisms, and genetically engineered mouse models will be discussed in regard to the prospect of applying skeletal muscle remodeling as possible therapy for metabolic syndrome.

  12. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling. (United States)

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P


    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  13. Stall inception in a high-speed axial compressor (United States)

    Cameron, Joshua David

    A research program designed to provide understanding of the fluid dynamic mechanisms that lead to rotating stall in the Notre Dame Stage 01 high-speed axial compressor is described. The stalling behavior of this compressor was studied with unsteady casing pressure measurements from a circumferentially spaced array of sensors. In addition, over rotor casing surface streak measurements were performed to investigate the time-averaged end-wall flow near the rotor at operating points near stall. Several investigative tools were applied to the analysis and interpretation of the unsteady casing pressure data. Traditional methods such as visual inspection, spatial Fourier decomposition, traveling wave energy and wavelet analysis were shown to be insufficient to characterize the pre-stall and stall inception behavior of the compressor. A new technique based on a windowed two-point correlation between adjacent sensors was developed and demonstrated to provide spatial and temporal resolution of both pre-stall and stall inception behavior. The spatial correlation technique was then applied to the analysis of stall inception data from experiments with asymmetric tip clearance. The non-uniform tip clearance was produced using the magnetic bearings which levitate the rotor shaft of the Notre Dame Transonic Axial Compressor facility. Both steady rotor centerline offset and rotor whirl were investigated. The results of these experiments, along with the surface streak measurements, provide evidence in support of recent computational observations (found in the literature) that predict that short length scale stall inception is related to specific features of the rotor tip clearance flow.

  14. Nonlocal continuum analysis of a nonlinear uniaxial elastic lattice system under non-uniform axial load (United States)

    Hérisson, Benjamin; Challamel, Noël; Picandet, Vincent; Perrot, Arnaud


    The static behavior of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) axial chain under distributed loading is examined. The FPU system examined in the paper is a nonlinear elastic lattice with linear and quadratic spring interaction. A dimensionless parameter controls the possible loss of convexity of the associated quadratic and cubic energy. Exact analytical solutions based on Hurwitz zeta functions are developed in presence of linear static loading. It is shown that this nonlinear lattice possesses scale effects and possible localization properties in the absence of energy convexity. A continuous approach is then developed to capture the main phenomena observed regarding the discrete axial problem. The associated continuum is built from a continualization procedure that is mainly based on the asymptotic expansion of the difference operators involved in the lattice problem. This associated continuum is an enriched gradient-based or nonlocal axial medium. A Taylor-based and a rational differential method are both considered in the continualization procedures to approximate the FPU lattice response. The Padé approximant used in the continualization procedure fits the response of the discrete system efficiently, even in the vicinity of the limit load when the non-convex FPU energy is examined. It is concluded that the FPU lattice system behaves as a nonlocal axial system in dynamic but also static loading.

  15. Detection of chromosomal regions showing differential gene expression in human skeletal muscle and in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

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    Bortoluzzi Stefania


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhabdomyosarcoma is a relatively common tumour of the soft tissue, probably due to regulatory disruption of growth and differentiation of skeletal muscle stem cells. Identification of genes differentially expressed in normal skeletal muscle and in rhabdomyosarcoma may help in understanding mechanisms of tumour development, in discovering diagnostic and prognostic markers and in identifying novel targets for drug therapy. Results A Perl-code web client was developed to automatically obtain genome map positions of large sets of genes. The software, based on automatic search on Human Genome Browser by sequence alignment, only requires availability of a single transcribed sequence for each gene. In this way, we obtained tissue-specific chromosomal maps of genes expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma or skeletal muscle. Subsequently, Perl software was developed to calculate gene density along chromosomes, by using a sliding window. Thirty-three chromosomal regions harbouring genes mostly expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma were identified. Similarly, 48 chromosomal regions were detected including genes possibly related to function of differentiated skeletal muscle, but silenced in rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion In this study we developed a method and the associated software for the comparative analysis of genomic expression in tissues and we identified chromosomal segments showing differential gene expression in human skeletal muscle and in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, appearing as candidate regions for harbouring genes involved in origin of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma representing possible targets for drug treatment and/or development of tumor markers.

  16. MT1-MMP and type II collagen specify skeletal stem cells and their bone and cartilage progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabova, L.; Yamada, S.S.; Wimer, H.;


    Skeletal formation is dependent on timely recruitment of skeletal stem cells and their ensuing synthesis and remodeling of the major fibrillar collagens, type I collagen and type II collagen, in bone and cartilage tissues during development and postnatal growth. Loss of the major collagenolytic...... activity associated with the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) results in disrupted skeletal development and growth in both cartilage and bone, where MT1-MMP is required for pericellular collagen dissolution. We show here that reconstitution of MT1-MMP activity in the type II collagen...

  17. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

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    Kesha Rana


    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  18. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kesha Rana; Nicole KL Lee; Jeffrey D Zajac; Helen E MacLean


    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor(AR)‑regulated genes ininvitroandinvivomodels. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factormyogenin was signiifcantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity(ARΔZF2) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating thatmyogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligaseFbxo32 was repressed by 12h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, andc‑Myc expression was decreased in testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7, p57Kip2, Igf2 andcalcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all butp57Kip2was also decreased in testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase‑mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  19. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Anthony [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Patel, Ketan, E-mail: [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)


    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  20. Angiotensin II induces differential insulin action in rat skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Surapongchai, Juthamard; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon


    Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia. At the cellular level, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the soleus muscle of the ANGII-100 group was 33% lower (P study demonstrates for the first time that chronic infusion with these two pressor doses of ANGII induced differential metabolic responses at both the systemic and skeletal muscle levels.

  1. Regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth in exercise and disease. (United States)

    Haas, Tara L; Nwadozi, Emmanuel


    Capillaries, which are the smallest and most abundant type of blood vessel, form the primary site of gas, nutrient, and waste transfer between the vascular and tissue compartments. Skeletal muscle exhibits the capacity to generate new capillaries (angiogenesis) as an adaptation to exercise training, thus ensuring that the heightened metabolic demand of the active muscle is matched by an improved capacity for distribution of gases, nutrients, and waste products. This review summarizes the current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth. The multi-step process of angiogenesis is coordinated through the integration of a diverse array of signals associated with hypoxic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and mechanical stresses within the active muscle. The contributions of metabolic and mechanical factors to the modulation of key pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules are discussed within the context of responses to a single aerobic exercise bout and short-term and long-term training. Finally, the paradoxical lack of angiogenesis in peripheral artery disease and diabetes and the implications for disease progression and muscle health are discussed. Future studies that emphasize an integrated analysis of the mechanisms that control skeletal muscle capillary growth will enable development of targeted exercise programs that effectively promote angiogenesis in healthy individuals and in patient populations.

  2. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth. (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W


    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal "catch-up" growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population.

  3. Image-based modelling of skeletal muscle oxygenation. (United States)

    Zeller-Plumhoff, B; Roose, T; Clough, G F; Schneider, P


    The supply of oxygen in sufficient quantity is vital for the correct functioning of all organs in the human body, in particular for skeletal muscle during exercise. Disease is often associated with both an inhibition of the microvascular supply capability and is thought to relate to changes in the structure of blood vessel networks. Different methods exist to investigate the influence of the microvascular structure on tissue oxygenation, varying over a range of application areas, i.e. biological in vivo and in vitro experiments, imaging and mathematical modelling. Ideally, all of these methods should be combined within the same framework in order to fully understand the processes involved. This review discusses the mathematical models of skeletal muscle oxygenation currently available that are based upon images taken of the muscle microvasculature in vivo and ex vivo Imaging systems suitable for capturing the blood vessel networks are discussed and respective contrasting methods presented. The review further informs the association between anatomical characteristics in health and disease. With this review we give the reader a tool to understand and establish the workflow of developing an image-based model of skeletal muscle oxygenation. Finally, we give an outlook for improvements needed for measurements and imaging techniques to adequately investigate the microvascular capability for oxygen exchange.

  4. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Rana, Kesha; Lee, Nicole K L; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E


    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (AR(ΔZF2)) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57(Kip2), Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle, and the expression of all but p57(Kip2) was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  5. Association between physique characteristics and hand skeletal aging status. (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between skeletal aging traits (obtained from evaluation of hand radiographs) and physique characteristics, including indices of obesity, skeletal size, muscular development, and the somatotypes of Heath and Carter (1967) and of Deriabin (1985). To achieve our aims, we used multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's and canonical correlation analyses. The studied population comprised 629 males and 561 females aged 18-90 years, all members of the Chuvasha (Russian Federation). The present study provides evidence for a connection between hand bone aging traits and physique characteristics. The cortical index showed a small but significant correlation with adiposity and the index of overall physique, but bone mineral density (BMD) traits were not correlated with the index of overall physique. Deriabin's set of somatotypes was significantly correlated with BMD, but could explain only 2% of its variation. Significant correlations of the hand osteoarthritis trait were observed with indices of adiposity. Also observed were statistically significant canonical correlations with both sets of somatotypes, which enabled us to predict 2-3% of hand osteoarthritis variation by a combination of somatotype components. Osseometric score evinced statistically significant correlations with most indices of physique as well as with a combination of somatotype components. These findings may prove helpful in epidemiological studies, because they show that body composition is the factor that is statistically significantly associated with skeletal aging.

  6. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling. (United States)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter


    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria.

  7. Control of vertebrate skeletal mineralization by polyphosphates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Omelon

    (4(3- and free calcium lowers the relative apatite saturation, preventing formation of apatite crystals. Identified in situ within resorbing bone and mineralizing cartilage by the fluorescent reporter DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, polyphosphate formation prevents apatite crystal precipitation while accumulating high local concentrations of total calcium and phosphate. When mineralization is required, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme associated with skeletal and cartilage mineralization, cleaves orthophosphates from polyphosphates. The hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates in the calcium-polyphosphate complex increases orthophosphate and calcium concentrations and thereby favors apatite mineral formation. The correlation of alkaline phosphatase with this process may be explained by the destruction of polyphosphates in calcifying cartilage and areas of bone formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that polyphosphate formation and hydrolytic degradation constitute a simple mechanism for phosphate accumulation and enzymatic control of biological apatite saturation. This enzymatic control of calcified tissue mineralization may have permitted the development of a phosphate-based, mineralized endoskeleton that can be continually remodeled.

  8. Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis/axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Rudwaleit, Martin; Taylor, William J


    The concept of spondyloarthritides (or spondyloarthropathies, SpAs) that comprises a group of interrelated disorders has been recognised since the early 1970s. While the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria and the Amor criteria have been developed to embrace the entire group of SpAs, new criteria for psoriatic arthritis have been developed recently. The Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) study, a large one of more than 1000 patients, led to a new set of validated classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Since their publication in 2006 the CASPAR criteria are widely used in clinical studies. In ankylosing spondylitis, the 1984 modified New York criteria have been used widely in clinical studies and daily practice but are not applicable in early disease when the characteristic radiographical signs of sacroiliitis are not visible but active sacroiliitis is readily detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This led to the concept of axial SpA that includes patients with and without radiographical damage; candidate criteria for axial SpA were developed based on proposals for a structured diagnostic approach. These criteria were validated in the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) study on new classification criteria for axial SpA, a large international prospective study. In this new criteria, sacroiliitis showing up on MRI has been given as much weight as sacroiliitis on radiographs, thereby also identifying patients with early axial SpA. Both the CASPAR and the ASAS criteria for axial SpA are likely to be of use as diagnostic criteria.

  9. Coexistence of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and Late-Onset Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Sixty-year-old Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Ünlü


    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH and ankylosing spondylitis (AS are two diseases characterized by ossification of the ligaments and tendons in both the axial skeleton and peripheral sites with very different pathologies. Coexistence of DISH and AS is a rare condition and there are relatively few cases in the English-language literature. In this paper, we report a human leukocyte antigen-B27-negative patient who presented with the typical appearance of DISH on the dorsal radiograph and also had sacroileitis, suggesting AS. We discussed prognosis of the late-onset case and the interaction of two diseases in this coexistence.

  10. Nitinol stent design - understanding axial buckling. (United States)

    McGrath, D J; O'Brien, B; Bruzzi, M; McHugh, P E


    Nitinol׳s superelastic properties permit self-expanding stents to be crimped without plastic deformation, but its nonlinear properties can contribute towards stent buckling. This study investigates the axial buckling of a prototype tracheobronchial nitinol stent design during crimping, with the objective of eliminating buckling from the design. To capture the stent buckling mechanism a computational model of a radial force test is simulated, where small geometric defects are introduced to remove symmetry and allow buckling to occur. With the buckling mechanism ascertained, a sensitivity study is carried out to examine the effect that the transitional plateau region of the nitinol loading curve has on stent stability. Results of this analysis are then used to redesign the stent and remove buckling. It is found that the transitional plateau region can have a significant effect on the stability of a stent during crimping, and by reducing the amount of transitional material within the stent hinges during loading the stability of a nitinol stent can be increased.

  11. Axially Symmetric Post-Newtonian Stellar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Akímushkin


    Full Text Available We introduce a method to obtain self-consistent, axially symmetric disklike stellar models in the first post-Newtonian (1PN approximation. By using in the field equations of the 1PN approximation a distribution function (DF corresponding to a Newtonian model, two fundamental equations determining the 1PN corrections are obtained. The rotation curves of the corrected models differs from the classical ones and the corrections are clearly appreciable with values of the mass and radius of a typical galaxy. On the other hand, the relativistic mass correction can be ignored for all models. Resumen. Presentamos un método para obtener modelos estelares discoidales, axialmente simétricos, auto-consistentes en la primera aproximación post-Newtoniana (1PN. Usando en las ecuaciones de campo de la aproximación 1PN una función de distribución conocida (DF que corresponde a un modelo Newtoniano, se obtienen dos ecuaciones fundamentales para determinar las correcciones 1PN. Las curvas de rotación de los modelos corregidos difieren de las clásicas y las correcciones son claramente apreciables con los valores de la masa y el radio de una galaxia típica. Por otro lado, la corrección relativista de la masa se puede ignorar para todos los modelos.

  12. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva F. M. A.


    Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.

  13. New treatment targets for axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Sieper, Joachim


    Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients can be divided into those with structural damage in the SI joint visible on X-rays, termed radiographic axSpA or AS, and those in an earlier phase of the disease, without structural damage in the SI joint, termed non-radiographic axSpA. TNF-blockers have been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of active axSpA. Interestingly, conventional DMARDs and also non-TNF-blocker biologics targeting IL-1, IL-6 and T cells (abatacept) are not effective. Recent interest has focused on the cytokines IL-23 and IL-17 as potential treatment targets in axSpA. An open-label trial with ustekinumab showed a good efficacy in AS patients. Two placebo-controlled phase 3 trials with a mAb blocking IL-17, secukinumab, showed a good reduction in disease activity, similar to that shown for TNF blockers. Probably triggered by inflammation, new bone formation is another hallmark in AS and a potentially important treatment target. However, a previously reported inhibitory effect of NSAID treatment could not be confirmed in a recent NSAID trial.

  14. Computerized axial tomography in clinical pediatrics. (United States)

    McCullough, D C; Kufta, C; Axelbaum, S P; Schellinger, D


    Computerized axial tomography (CAT), a noninvasive radiologie method, provides a new dimension in screening and diagnosis of intracranial pathology. Evaluation of 725 scans in infants and children demonstrates that CAT may be performed with negligible risk, although sedation and restraint are essential to the successful performance of studies in children under 6 years of age. CAT is the preferred initial diagnostic method in suspected hydrocephalls and is accurate in the detection and precise localization of brain tumors. The management of hydrocephalus and brain tumors has been significantly altered by the availability of CAT. Few invasive neuroradiologic procedures are required and pneumography is especially curtailed. Serial scanning is the best available method of monitoring ventricular alterations in hydrocephalus, tumor size during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and postoperative recurrence of benign neoplasms. Complex intracranial anomalies are detectable with computerized tomography, but complete definition of pathology often requires angiography and air studies. Limited clinical experience in detecting neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage suggests that CAT will be a valuable tool for futlre investigations of that problem.

  15. Análisis de la fuerza axial en un transportador de sinfín // Analysis of axial force in a screw conveyor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés


    Full Text Available Durante el movimiento de un material en un transportador de sinfín surge una fuerza en dirección axial que influye en laselección de uno de los cojinetes de apoyo del equipo. En el artículo aparecen algunas soluciones constructivas que tienen encuentan la fuerza axial. Por otro lado se establece la relación entre la fuerza axial y el empuje axial y se precisa de quiendepende el sentido del empuje axial. Por último se propone un modelo matemático que relaciona la fuerza axial con la potenciarequerida por el equipo.Palabras claves: Transportador de sinf in, fuerza axial , empuje axial ._________________________________________________________________________AbstractDuring the movement of material in a screw conveyor surge a force in axial direction that influence in the selection of one ofthe equipment support bearings. Some constructive solutions appear in the article for considering the axial force. In the otherhand it is established the relation between axial force and axial thurst and it is precised whose direction thurst axial depend of.Finally it is proposed a mathematic model that relates the axial force with the power required by the equipment.Key words: Screw conveyor, axial force, axial thurst .

  16. Skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors: Two case reports and review of the literature. (United States)

    Hori, Takeshi; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Suzuki, Kayo; Kanamori, Masahiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu


    Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from enterochromaffin cells. Skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors are considered to be extremely rare. In this study, we present two cases of carcinoid tumors that metastasized to the bone. Furthermore, we review 50 published case reports and reveal the features of skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors. The first case involved a 59-year-old man with a history of multiple metastases of a lung carcinoid tumor. The patient complained of back pain and numbness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed metastases in the thoracic spine. A spinal decompression was performed and the symptoms were resolved. The second case involved a 74-year-old man had been diagnosed with a lung carcinoid tumor 15 years previously and complained of left thigh pain. A radiograph showed osteolytic lesions in the shaft of the left femur. We repaired the femur using an intramedullary nail following curettage of the tumor. A radiograph of the femur revealed a callus on the pathological fracture. The patient was able to walk using a crutch 3 months after surgery. We reviewed 50 cases that described skeletal metastasis from carcinoid tumors. The average age of the patients was 54.9 years and 33 patients (66%) were male. The most common site of skeletal metastasis was the spine. We also investigated the survival rate of patients who developed skeletal metastasis from carcinoid tumors. The findings showed that survival of patients who developed osteolytic skeletal metastasis was worse than that of patients who developed osteosclerotic skeletal metastasis.

  17. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia by Targeted Capture Sequencing of Maternal Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Dan

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia.Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples.Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential to be used to facilitate the prenatal diagnosis

  18. Skeletal muscle disorders of glycogenolysis and glycolysis. (United States)

    Godfrey, Richard; Quinlivan, Ros


    Skeletal muscle disorders of glycogenolysis and glycolysis account for most of the conditions collectively termed glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). These disorders are rare (incidence 1 in 20,000-43,000 live births), and are caused by autosomal or X-linked recessive mutations that result in a specific enzyme deficiency, leading to the inability to utilize muscle glycogen as an energy substrate. McArdle disease (GSD V) is the most common of these disorders, and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Symptoms of McArdle disease and most other related GSDs include exercise intolerance, muscle contracture, acute rhabdomyolysis, and risk of acute renal failure. Older patients may exhibit muscle wasting and weakness involving the paraspinal muscles and shoulder girdle. For patients with these conditions, engaging with exercise is likely to be beneficial. Diagnosis is frequently delayed owing to the rarity of the conditions and lack of access to appropriate investigations. A few randomized clinical trials have been conducted, some focusing on dietary modification, although the quality of the evidence is low and no specific recommendations can yet be made. The development of EUROMAC, an international registry for these disorders, should improve our knowledge of their natural histories and provide a platform for future clinical trials.

  19. Osteogenic sarcoma with skeletal muscle metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Shek, T.W.H. [Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Wang Shihchang [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital (Singapore); Wong, J.W.K.; Chien, E.P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong)


    Two cases of osteogenic sarcoma with skeletal muscle metastases are described. A 40-year-old woman presented with progressive swelling of both calves and a soft tissue back lump. She had been diagnosed with mandibular chondroblastic osteogenic sarcoma 6 years earlier. Radiographs showed calcified masses. MRI scans and bone scintigraphy revealed multiple soft tissue masses in both calves. Bone scintigraphy also showed uptake in the back lump, right thigh and left lung base. Biopsy confirmed metastatic chondroblastic osteogenic sarcoma, which initially responded well to chemotherapy. However, the metastatic disease subsequently progressed rapidly and she died 21 months after presentation. The second case concerns a 20-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture of the humerus, which was found to be due to osteoblastic osteogenic sarcoma. He developed cerebral metastases 17 months later, followed by metastases at other sites. Calcified masses were subsequently seen on radiographs of the abdomen and chest. CT scans confirmed the presence of densely calcified muscle metastases in the abdominal wall, erector spinae and gluteal muscles. The patient`s disease progressed rapidly and he died 30 months after presentation. (orig.) With 6 figs., 29 refs.

  20. Active axial spondyloarthritis: potential role of certolizumab pegol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranatunga S


    Full Text Available Sriya Ranatunga, Anne V Miller Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA Abstract: The axial spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that predominantly affect the axial joints. This group includes ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathy. While the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathies is not clear, immunologically active tissues primarily include the entheses, ie, the areas where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules attach to bone and to the annulus fibrosis at the vertebrae. One of the major mediators of the immune response in this group of diseases is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα. Blockade of TNFα results in reduced vascularity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovial tissues of affected joints. Certolizumab pegol (CZP is an Fc-free, PEGylated anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody. CZP has unique properties that differ from other available TNFα inhibitors by virtue of its lack of an Fc region, which minimizes potential Fc-mediated effects, and its PEGylation, which improves drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. It has been shown in clinical trials that CZP improves patient outcomes and reduces inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in both ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathies. These data support CZP as a treatment option for axial spondyloarthropathies. Keywords: axial spondyloarthropathy, certolizumab pegol, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, therapy

  1. A high resolution TOF-PET concept with axial geometry and digital SiPM readout

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, C; Joram, C; Schneider, T


    The axial arrangement of long scintillation crystals is a promising concept in PET instrumentation to address the need for optimized resolution and sensitivity. Individual crystal readout and arrays of wavelength shifter strips placed orthogonally to the crystals lead to a 3D-detection of the annihilations photons. A fully operational demonstrator scanner, developed by the AX-PET collaboration, proved the potential of this concept in terms of energy and spatial resolution as well as sensitivity. This paper describes a feasibility study, performed on axial prototype detector modules with 100 mm long LYSO crystals, read out by the novel digital Silicon Photomultipliers (dSiPM) from Philips. With their highly integrated readout electronics and excellent intrinsic time resolution, dSiPMs allow for compact, axial detector modules which may extend the potential of the axial PET concept by time of fl ight capabilities (TOF-PET). A coincidence time resolution of 211 ps (FWHM) was achieved in the coincidence of two ax...

  2. Investigation of liquid phase axial dispersion in Taylor bubble flow by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J.H.


    Full Text Available A gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow occurs in small diameter channels in which gas bubbles are separated by slugs of pure liquid. This type of flow regime is well suited for solid catalyzed gas-liquid reactors in which the reaction efficiency is a strong function of axial dispersion in the regions of pure liquid. This paper presents an experimental study of liquid phase axial dispersion in a Taylor bubble flow developed in a horizontal tube using high speed photography and radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD analysis. A parametric dependence of axial dispersion on average volume fraction of gas phase was also investigated by varying the relative volumetric flow rates of the two phases. 137mBa produced from a 137Cs/137mBa radionuclide generator was used as radiotracer and measurements were made using the NaI(Tl scintillation detectors. Validation of 137mBa in the form of barium chloride as aqueous phase radiotracer was also carried out. Axial Dispersion Model (ADM was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system and the results of the experiment are presented. It was observed that the system is characterized by very high values of Peclet Number (Pe∼102 which reveals an approaching plug type flow. The experimental and model estimated values of mean residence times were observed in agreement with each other.

  3. Spontaneous, drug-induced, and drug-free remission in peripheral and axial spondyloarthritis. (United States)

    Poddubnyy, Denis; Gensler, Lianne S


    In spondyloarthritis (SpA), spontaneous remission is best described in reactive arthritis, a form of peripheral SpA. Prior SpA observational studies suggested that a significant percentage of patients reached spontaneous remission; however, these patients were followed up under older, broader European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria or were not defined by specific criteria. In general, they were mixed populations of peripheral and axial disease, and the subsets were not differentiated when assessing end points such as remission. There are limited data on the natural history of axial SpA, in part because of the evolution of the criteria with the more recently developed Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria, including the designation of non-radiographic axial SpA and peripheral SpA. Clinical trials have been conducted with various remission end points including withdrawal of therapy to determine remission maintenance. The following review addresses the potential for remission in axial and peripheral SpA based on the data from both observational studies and clinical trials.

  4. Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Axial Backmixing Through Structured Packing at Elevated Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 刘春江; 唐忠利; 袁希钢; 余国琮


    An experimental study of the extent of axial backmixing in both gas and liquid phases was conducted in a 150 mm ID column packed with Mellapak 250Y corrugated structured packing. The column was operated at pressures ranging from 0.3 MPa to 2.0 MPa with nitrogen and water flowing countercurrently through the packing.The amount of axial backmixing was experimentally evaluated by the pulse response techniques using hydrogen in gas phase and an aqueous solution of NaC1 in liquid phase as inert tracers. The response of the tracer was monitored by means of thermal conductivity in the gas phase and electrical conductance in the liquid phase. The experimentally determined residence time distribution (RTD) curves were interpreted in terms of the diffusion-type model. The results indicated that the axial backmixing in the gas increased notably with gas flowrate and slightly with operating pressure and liquid flowrate. The liquid-phase axial backmixing was an increasing function of both gas and liquid flowrates and insensitive to pressure. Various correlations were developed for reproducing the experimental mixing data. The agreement between experimental and correlated data appeared to be acceptable and within ±20% of difference.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Axial Magnetic Forces for DVD Spindle Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The axial magnetic force, induced by the complicated flux linkage distribution from rotor magnet and stator slotted, is constructed by different relative heights and calculated by 3D finite element method (FEM) to analyze the dynamic characteristics for a DVD spindle motor. The axial magnetic force is designed to provide an axial stiffness and govern the natural frequency of the dynamic performance. According to the simulation results and experimental measurements, the dynamic behaviors are significantly improved with a variation of relative height of rotor magnet and stator slotted on a DVD spindle motor.

  6. The axial charges of the hidden-charm pentaquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guang-Juan; Zhu, Shi-Lin


    With the chiral quark model, we have calculated the axial charges of the pentaquark states with $(I,I_3)=(\\frac{1}{2},\\frac{1}{2})$ and $J^{P}=\\frac{1}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$. The $P_c$ states with the same $J^P$ quantum numbers but different color-spin-flavor configurations have very different axial charges, which encode important information on their underlying structures. For some of the $J^{P}=\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm}$ or $\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$ pentaquark states, their axial charges are much smaller than that of the proton.

  7. Tensile Property of Bi-axial Warp Knitted Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The tensile property of bi-axial warp knitted fabrics is tested and compared with that of the plain weave fabric. The results show that there are obvious differences between the tensile property of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric and that of a plain weave fabric.The former can give fuller play to the property of a high modulus yarn than the latter. The tensile strength of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric is linear with the number of yarns in the direction of force.

  8. Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei


    The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined.It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter,the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass.Moreover,the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality.It is shown that the EURO thirdgeneration gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star.

  9. Investigation of unsteady flow in axial turbine stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Martin


    Full Text Available The never ending process to increase the efficiency of turbine stages introduced an idea to create an axial turbine stage test rig as part of closed loop transonic wind tunnel at Vyzkumny a zkusebni letecky ustav (VZLU. Studying of unsteady flow field behaviours in turbine stages is nowadays essential in the development process. Therefore, the test rig was designed with focusing on possibility of detailed studying of unsteady flow fields in turbine stages. New methodologies and new instrumentations were developed at VZLU and successfully integrated to gain valuable information from experiments with turbine stages. Two different turbine stages were tested during the facility introduction process. The measurement of these two models demonstrated how flexible the test rig is. One of them was an enlarged model of small gas turbine stage. The other was scaled-down model of stage of intermediate-pressure steam turbine. The external characteristics of both models were acquired during experiments as well as the detailed unsteady flow field measurement. Turbine stages were tested in various regimes in order to check the capabilities of the facility, methodology and instrumentation together. The paper presents results of unsteady flow field investigation in the enlarged turbine stage with unshrouded rotor. The interaction of structures developed in a stator with the rotor flow field is depicted and the influence of turbine load on evolution of secondary flows in rotor is analysed.

  10. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration. (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick


    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  11. Skeletal mechanism generation for surrogate fuels using directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Kyle E; Raju, Mandhapati P


    A novel implementation for the skeletal reduction of large detailed reaction mechanisms using the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA) is developed and presented with examples for three hydrocarbon components, n-heptane, iso-octane, and n-decane, relevant to surrogate fuel development. DRGEPSA integrates two previously developed methods, directed relation graph-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA) and directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP), by first applying DRGEP to efficiently remove many unimportant species prior to sensitivity analysis to further remove unimportant species, producing an optimally small skeletal mechanism for a given error limit. It is illustrated that the combination of the DRGEP and DRGASA methods allows the DRGEPSA approach to overcome the weaknesses of each, specifically that DRGEP cannot identify all unimportant species and that DRGASA shields unimportant species from removal. Skeletal mechanisms for n-heptane and iso-octane ...

  12. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  13. Musculo-skeletal loading conditions at the hip during walking and stair climbing. (United States)

    Heller, M O; Bergmann, G; Deuretzbacher, G; Dürselen, L; Pohl, M; Claes, L; Haas, N P; Duda, G N


    Musculo-skeletal loading plays an important role in the primary stability of joint replacements and in the biological processes involved in fracture healing. However, current knowledge of musculo-skeletal loading is still limited. In the past, a number of musculo-skeletal models have been developed to estimate loading conditions at the hip. So far, a cycle-to-cycle validation of predicted musculo-skeletal loading by in vivo measurements has not been possible. The aim of this study was to determine the musculo-skeletal loading conditions during walking and climbing stairs for a number of patients and compare these findings to in vivo data. Following total hip arthroplasty, four patients underwent gait analysis during walking and stair climbing. An instrumented femoral prosthesis enabled simultaneous measurement of in vivo hip contact forces. On the basis of CT and X-ray data, individual musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity were developed for each patient. Muscle and joint contact forces were calculated using an optimization algorithm. The calculated peak hip contact forces both over- and under-estimated the measured forces. They differed by a mean of 12% during walking and 14% during stair climbing. For the first time, a cycle-to-cycle validation of predicted musculo-skeletal loading was possible for walking and climbing stairs in several patients. In all cases, the comparison of in vivo measured and calculated hip contact forces showed good agreement.Thus, the authors consider the presented approach as a useful means to determine valid conditions for the analysis of prosthesis loading, bone modeling or remodeling processes around implants and fracture stability following internal fixation.

  14. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges. (United States)

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W


    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs.

  15. 3D micro-particle image modeling and its application in measurement resolution investigation for visual sensing based axial localization in an optical microscope (United States)

    Wang, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolai; Bi, Shusheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinhua


    Visual sensing based three dimensional (3D) particle localization in an optical microscope is important for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Compared with the lateral (X and Y) localization, it is more challenging to achieve a high resolution measurement of axial particle location. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of different factors on axial measurement resolution through an analytical approach. Analytical models were developed to simulate 3D particle imaging in an optical microscope. A radius vector projection method was applied to convert the simulated particle images into radius vectors. With the obtained radius vectors, a term of axial changing rate was proposed to evaluate the measurement resolution of axial particle localization. Experiments were also conducted for comparison with that obtained through simulation. Moreover, with the proposed method, the effects of particle size on measurement resolution were discussed. The results show that the method provides an efficient approach to investigate the resolution of axial particle localization.

  16. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Raghav


    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed.

  17. The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi


    Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.

  18. The Development and Control of Axial Vortices over Swept Wings


    Klute, Sandra M.


    The natural unsteadiness in the post-breakdown flowfield of a 75° sweep delta wing at 40° angle of attack was studied with dual and single point hot-wire anemometry in the Engineering Science and Mechanics (ESM) Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number Re = 210,000. Data were taken in five crossflow planes surrounding the wing's trailing edge. Results showed a dominant narrowband Strouhal frequency of St = 1.5 covering approximately 80% of the area with lower-intensity broadband secondary freque...

  19. Update on the American College of Rheumatology/Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network/Spondylitis Association of America axial spondyloarhtritis treatment guidelines project. (United States)

    Ward, Michael M


    The American College of Rheumatology, the Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network, and the Spondylitis Association of America have begun collaborating on a project to develop treatment guidelines for axial spondyloarthritis. The project will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method, which is based on systematic literature reviews and quantitative evidence summaries, to develop treatment recommendations for the use of pharmacological interventions, rehabilitation, surgery, preventive care, and disease monitoring in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.

  20. Skeletal muscle as an immunogenic organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund


    During the past few years, a possible link between skeletal muscle contractile activity and immune changes has been established. This concept is based on the finding that exercise provokes an increase in a number of cytokines. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced......; expressed and released by muscle fibers and exert either paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Human skeletal muscle has the capacity to express several myokines belonging to distinct different cytokine classes and contractile activity plays a role in regulating the expression...... of cytokines in skeletal muscle. In the present review, we focus on the myokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-15 and their possible anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and metabolic roles....