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Sample records for axial skeletal development

  1. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampmann, L.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  2. Skeletal development in Acropora palmata (Lamarck 1816): a scanning electron microscope (SEM) comparison demonstrating similar mechanisms of skeletal extension in axial versus encrusting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, E. H.

    2007-12-01

    Many Acropora palmata colonies consist of an encrusting basal portion and erect branches. Linear growth of the skeleton results in extension along the substrate (encrusting growth), lengthening of branches (axial growth) and thickening of branches and crust (radial growth). Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to compare the mechanisms of skeletal extension between encrusting growth and axial growth. In encrusting growth, the distal margin of the skeleton lacks corallites (which develop about 1 mm from the edge); in contrast, in axial growth, axial corallites along the branch tip form the distal portion of the skeleton. In both locations, the distal margin of the skeleton consists of a lattice-like structure composed of rods that extend from the body of the skeleton and bars that connect these rods. An actively extending skeleton is characterized by sharply pointed rods and partially developed bars. Distal growth of rods (and formation of bars) is effected by the formation of new sclerodermites. Each sclerodermite begins with the deposition of fusiform crystals (that range in length from 1 to 5 μm). These provide a surface for nucleation and growth of spherulitic tufts, clusters of short (<1 μm long) aragonite needles. The needles that are oriented perpendicular to the axis of the skeletal element (rod or bar), and perpendicular to the overlying calicoblastic epithelium, continue extension to appear on the surface of the skeleton as 10-15 μm wide bundles (of needle tips) called fasciculi. However, some crusts that abut competitors for space have a different morphology of skeletal elements (rods and bars). The distal edge of these crusts terminates in blunt coalescing rods, and bars that are fully formed. Absence of fusiform crystals, lack of sharply pointed rods and bars, and full development of sclerodermites characterize a skeletal region that has ceased, perhaps only temporarily, skeletal extension.

  3. Axial Skeletal Scintigraphy in Cancer of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galasko, C. S.B. [Royal Postgraduate Medical School and Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1969-05-15

    An initial study was made on eight patients shown to have osseous metastases on X-ray. Each patient was examined on two occasions after the injection of {sup 87m}Sr and {sup 18}F. Regions known to contain metastases were examined at regular intervals after each injection. The scintigrams were compared with X-ray skeletal surveys. In all patients the {sup 18}F scintigram gave better results than the {sup 87m}Sr scan. All metastases present on X-ray were detected with the gamma camera and in six patients the scintigram revealed additional lesions. The optimum times for scanning were 1 1/4-3 hours after injection of {sup 18}F and 3-4 1/2 hours after {sup 87m}Sr. Axial skeleton scintigrams using {sup 18}F and a gamma camera are now being done on: (i) patients with apparently 'early' cancer of the breast. (ii) patients who have had a mastectomy and in whom there is a suspicion but no overt evidence of metastases. (iii) patients with advanced cancer of the breast. By means of this method it is hoped: (a) to detect lesions not present on X-ray. (b) to assess progress following hormonal therapy. 'Healing' lesions tend to have a diminished uptake of the isotope, and the varying pattern may prove to be more easy to interpret than conventional X-rays. The technique of axial skeleton scanning with the gamma camera and {sup 18}F, and the results obtained in over 60 patients with cancer of the breast, are reported. (author)

  4. On exposure to anorexia nervosa, the temporal variation in axial and appendicular skeletal development predisposes to site-specific deficits in bone size and density: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, E; Karlsson, M K; Duan, Y

    2000-11-01

    Skeletal development is heterogeneous. Throughout growth, bone size is more maturationally advanced than the mineral being accrued within its periosteal envelope; before puberty, appendicular growth is more rapid than axial growth; during puberty, appendicular growth slows and axial growth accelerates. We studied women with differing age of onset of anorexia nervosa to determine whether this temporal heterogeneity in growth predisposed to the development of deficits in bone size and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), which varied by site and severity depending on the age at which anorexia nervosa occurred. Bone size and vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 210 women aged 21 years (range, 12-40 years) with anorexia nervosa. Results were expressed as age-specific SDs (mean +/- SEM). Bone width depended on the age of onset of anorexia nervosa; when the onset of anorexia nervosa occurred (1) before 15 years of age, deficits in vertebral body and femoral neck width did not differ (-0.77+/-0.27 SD and -0.55+/-0.17 SD, respectively); (2) between 15 and 19 years of age, deficits in vertebral body width (-0.95+/-0.16 SD) were three times the deficits in femoral neck width (-0.28+/-0.14 SD; p anorexia nervosa. No deficit in bone width was observed at the femoral neck. Deficits in vBMD at the vertebra and femoral neck were independent of the age of onset of anorexia nervosa but increased as the duration of anorexia nervosa increased, being about 0.5 SD lower at the vertebra than femoral neck. We infer that the maturational development of a region at the time of exposure to disease, and disease duration, determine the site, magnitude, and type of trait deficit in anorexia nervosa. Bone fragility due to reduced bone size and reduced vBMD in adulthood is partly established during growth.

  5. The skeletal maturation status estimated by statistical shape analysis: axial images of Japanese cervical vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S M; Kim, Y-I; Choi, Y-S; Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Cho, B-H; Park, S-B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate axial cervical vertebral (ACV) shape quantitatively and to build a prediction model for skeletal maturation level using statistical shape analysis for Japanese individuals. The sample included 24 female and 19 male patients with hand-wrist radiographs and CBCT images. Through generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components (PCs) analysis, the meaningful PCs were extracted from each ACV shape and analysed for the estimation regression model. Each ACV shape had meaningful PCs, except for the second axial cervical vertebra. Based on these models, the smallest prediction intervals (PIs) were from the combination of the shape space PCs, age and gender. Overall, the PIs of the male group were smaller than those of the female group. There was no significant correlation between centroid size as a size factor and skeletal maturation level. Our findings suggest that the ACV maturation method, which was applied by statistical shape analysis, could confirm information about skeletal maturation in Japanese individuals as an available quantifier of skeletal maturation and could be as useful a quantitative method as the skeletal maturation index.

  6. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

  7. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  8. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, S.M.; Ogden, J.A.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-six pairs of proximal radioulnar and elbow units from cadavers and prepared skeletons ranging in age from full-term neonates to fourteen years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air/cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate the osseous and cartilaginous portions of the developing epiphyses. These roentgenographic aspects are discussed and illustrated to provide a reference index. The skeletal development is outlined with regard to the diagnosis of several traumatic skeletal diseases as dislocation of elbow or radial head. Moteggia fracture dislocation and Nursemaid's elbow. (orig./WU)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Serial axial and sagittal section studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Hideo (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Faculty of Education); Morimoto, Takehiko; Sano, Nozomi; Takahashi, Mitsugi; Nagai, Hironao; Tawa, Ritsuko; Yoshimatsu, Makoto; Woo Young-Jong; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in thirteen patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy was performed to estimate pathological changes. Serial axial and sagittal sections of the right lower extremity were recorded. In the early stage, the T{sub 1} values of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were slightly lower than the control values, and in the late stage, the values were much lower in all muscles examined. In sagittal sections, the gastrocnemius muscle in the early stage showed a high density area at the distal region adjacent to soleus muscle, and the soleus muscle showed a high density area adjacent to the gestrocnemius muscle. In serial axial sections, high density areas of the anterior and posterior tibialis muscles appeared first at their proximal and peripheral regions. It was concluded that the sequence of appearance of pathological changes was different not only among individual muscles but also among various regions of each muscle; the high density changes appeared first at myotendon junctions. (author).

  10. Role of skeletal muscle in lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Gugic, Dijana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2012-07-01

    Skeletal (striated) muscle is one of the four basic tissue types, together with the epithelium, connective and nervous tissues. Lungs, on the other hand, develop from the foregut and among various cell types contain smooth, but not skeletal muscle. Therefore, during earlier stages of development, it is unlikely that skeletal muscle and lung depend on each other. However, during the later stages of development, respiratory muscle, primarily the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles, execute so called fetal breathing-like movements (FBMs), that are essential for lung growth and cell differentiation. In fact, the absence of FBMs results in pulmonary hypoplasia, the most common cause of death in the first week of human neonatal life. Most knowledge on this topic arises from in vivo experiments on larger animals and from various in vitro experiments. In the current era of mouse mutagenesis and functional genomics, it was our goal to develop a mouse model for pulmonary hypoplasia. We employed various genetically engineered mice lacking different groups of respiratory muscles or lacking all the skeletal muscle and established the criteria for pulmonary hypoplasia in mice, and therefore established a mouse model for this disease. We followed up this discovery with systematic subtractive microarray analysis approach and revealed novel functions in lung development and disease for several molecules. We believe that our approach combines elements of both in vivo and in vitro approaches and allows us to study the function of a series of molecules in the context of lung development and disease and, simultaneously, in the context of lung's dependence on skeletal muscle-executed FBMs.

  11. Correcting the axial shrinkage of skeletal muscle thick sections visualized by confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáček, Jiří; Kreft, M.; Čebašek, V.; Eržen, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 2 (2012), s. 107-112 ISSN 0022-2720 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillaries * confocal microscopy * sample deformation * shrinkage * skeletal muscle * 3D Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2012

  12. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence. (orig.)

  13. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  14. Body Composition Assessment in Axial CT Images Using FEM-Based Automatic Segmentation of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Jägersand, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The proportions of muscle and fat tissues in the human body, referred to as body composition is a vital measurement for cancer patients. Body composition has been recently linked to patient survival and the onset/recurrence of several types of cancers in numerous cancer research studies. This paper introduces a fully automatic framework for the segmentation of muscle and fat tissues from CT images to estimate body composition. We developed a novel finite element method (FEM) deformable model that incorporates a priori shape information via a statistical deformation model (SDM) within the template-based segmentation framework. The proposed method was validated on 1000 abdominal and 530 thoracic CT images and we obtained very good segmentation results with Jaccard scores in excess of 90% for both the muscle and fat regions.

  15. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  16. Development of throughflow calculation code for axial flow compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min; No, Hee Cheon

    2005-01-01

    The power conversion systems of the current HTGRs are based on closed Brayton cycle and major concern is thermodynamic performance of the axial flow helium gas turbines. Particularly, the helium compressor has some unique design challenges compared to the air-breathing compressor such as high hub-to-tip ratios throughout the machine and a large number of stages due to the physical property of the helium and thermodynamic cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a design and analysis code for helium compressor that can estimate the design point and off-design performance accurately. KAIST nuclear system laboratory has developed a compressor design and analysis code by means of throughflow calculation and several loss models. This paper presents the outline of the development of a throughflow calculation code and its verification results

  17. Peripheral endocannabinoids regulate skeletal muscle development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiao Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a principal tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle is important for whole-body health. The role of peripheral endocannabinoids as regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism has recently gained a lot of interest, as endocannabinoid system disorders could cause peripheral insulin resistance. We investigated the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle development and maintenance. Cultures of C2C12 cells, primary satellite cells and mouse skeletal muscle single fibers were used as model systems for our studies. We found an increase in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 mRNA and endocannabinoid synthetic enzyme mRNA skeletal muscle cells during differentiation. We also found that activation of CB1 inhibited myoblast differentiation, expanded the number of satellite cells, and stimulated the fast-muscle oxidative phenotype. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle metabolism and muscle oxygen consumption, and also help to explain the effects of the peripheral endocannabinoid system on whole-body energy balance.

  18. Effects of increasing doses of samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate on axial and appendicular skeletal growth in juvenile rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essman, Stephanie C.; Lewis, Michael R.; Fox, Derek B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Targeted radiotherapy using samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate ( 153 Sm-EDTMP) is currently under investigation for treatment of osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma often occurs in children, and previous studies on a juvenile rabbit model demonstrated that clinically significant damage to developing physeal cartilage may occur as a result of systemic 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP on skeletal structures during growth to maturity and to determine if there is a dose response of 153 Sm-EDTMP on growth of long bones. Methods: Female 8-week-old New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups plus controls. Each rabbit was intravenously administered a predetermined dose of 153 Sm-EDTMP. Multiple bones of each rabbit were radiographed every 2 months until physeal closure, with subsequent measurements made to assess for abbreviated bone growth. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the differences in bone length between groups, with significance set at P 153 Sm-EDTMP. Further investigation regarding the effects of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals on bone growth and physeal cartilage is warranted

  19. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

  20. Effects of increasing doses of samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate on axial and appendicular skeletal growth in juvenile rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essman, Stephanie C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail: essmans@missouri.edu; Lewis, Michael R. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: Targeted radiotherapy using samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) is currently under investigation for treatment of osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma often occurs in children, and previous studies on a juvenile rabbit model demonstrated that clinically significant damage to developing physeal cartilage may occur as a result of systemic {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP on skeletal structures during growth to maturity and to determine if there is a dose response of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP on growth of long bones. Methods: Female 8-week-old New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups plus controls. Each rabbit was intravenously administered a predetermined dose of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. Multiple bones of each rabbit were radiographed every 2 months until physeal closure, with subsequent measurements made to assess for abbreviated bone growth. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the differences in bone length between groups, with significance set at P<.05. Results: Significant differences in lengths of multiple bones were detected between the high-dose group and other treatment groups and controls at each time interval. A significant difference in lengths of the tibias was also noted in the medium-treatment group, compared to controls. Mean reduction of bone length was first detected at 4 months and did not increase significantly over time. Conclusions: These data suggest that clinically significant bone shortening may occur as a result of high-dosage administration of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. Further investigation regarding the effects of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals on bone growth and physeal cartilage is warranted.

  1. Insights into skeletal muscle development and applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T; Andersen, R; Sherman, S P; Pyle, A D

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic and postnatal development of skeletal muscle entails highly regulated processes whose complexity continues to be deconstructed. One key stage of development is the satellite cell, whose niche is composed of multiple cell types that eventually contribute to terminally differentiated myotubes. Understanding these developmental processes will ultimately facilitate treatments of myopathies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by compromised cell membrane structure, resulting in severe muscle wasting. One theoretical approach is to use pluripotent stem cells in a therapeutic setting to help replace degenerated muscle tissue. This chapter discusses key myogenic developmental stages and their regulatory pathways; artificial myogenic induction in pluripotent stem cells; advantages and disadvantages of DMD animal models; and therapeutic approaches targeting DMD. Furthermore, skeletal muscle serves as an excellent paradigm for understanding general cell fate decisions throughout development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, S.M.; Ogden, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one pairs of distal humeri were obtained from human cadavers ranging in age from fullterm neonates to fourteen years. These were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Specimen roentgenography using air/cartilage interfacing demonstrated both osseous and cartilaginous components of the epiphyses. These roentgenographic aspects of development are discussed and illustrated to provide a basic reference index. The supracondylar region is characterized by a fossa which initially is in both metaphysis and epiphysis, but migrates to the metaphysis completely within the first year On either side of the fossa are osseous columns, which contrast with the broad metaphyseal bone above the columns. Within the fossa, anteriorly and posteriorly, are fat pads which may be elevated by intraarticular hematoma or reactive joint fluid. The physeal contour initially is transverse and smooth. Lappet formation progressively demarcates the epicondylar physeal regions, with the medial one becoming a functionally, but not histologically separate region. The capitellum is the first region to develop a secondary ossification center. This progressively expands into the trochlear portion of the epiphysis, a factor which predisposes to lateral condyle fracture propagation across the trochlear articular surface. The trochlea characteristically ossifies by multiple foci which fuse over time, often creating an irregular appearance to the developing ossification center. Epicondylar ossification tends to be from solitary foci. The lateral epicondylar center fuses with the capitellar center, whereas the medial epicondyle tends to be a functionally separate entity throughout development and does not normally fuse to the trochlear ossification center. (orig.)

  3. Applying Next Generation Sequencing to Skeletal Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Margot Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have dramatically increased the throughput and lowered the cost of DNA sequencing. In this thesis, I apply these technologies to unresolved questions in skeletal development and disease. Firstly, I use targeted re-sequencing of genomic DNA to identify the genetic cause of the cartilage tumor syndrome, metachondromatosis (MC). I show that the majority of MC patients carry heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PTPN11 gene, which encodes a p...

  4. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the second cervical vertebra is complex. The dens (odontoid process) develops two primary ossification centers that usually coalesce within three months following birth. These centers are separated from the primary ossification center of the vertebral centrum by a cartilaginous region - the dentocentral synchondrosis. This synchondrosis is a slow growing, bipolar physis similar to the triradiate catilage of the acetabulum. It contributes to the overall heights of both the dens as well as the vertebral body. Anatomically the dentocentral synchondrosis is below the level of the C1-C2 articulations. This cartilaginous structure is continuous throughout the vertebral body with similar cartilage in both the facet regions as well as the neurocentral synchondroses. These various cartilaginous continuities progressively close - first, the connections to the facet regions, next the neurocentral synchondroses, and finally the dentocentral synchondrosis. Remnants of the incompletely closed dentocentral synchondrosis must be distinguished from a fracture, which usually propagates along this structure as a physeal injury in infants and children. The cartilaginous epiphysis at the tip of the dens may be transverse or may form a cleft ('V') shape. At eight to ten years, a secondary ossification center - the ossiculum terminale - develops in this proximal dens epiphysis. Fusion of the ossiculum terminale with the rest of the dens occurs between ten and thirteen years. (orig.)

  5. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-four first cervical vetebra were removed from cadavers and skeletons ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years. These were studied roentgenographically to duplicate anterio-posterior and transverse appearances without superimposition of the skull or other vertebra. Ossification was present in both posterior (neural) arches at birth. These ossification centers extended toward the rudimentary spinous process to form the posterior synchondrosis. Each also extended anteriorly into the articular facet region. The posterior ossification centers formed all the bone present in the facets. Anteriomedial to each facet a neurocentral synchondrosis formed on each side of the expanding anterior ossification center. The anterior ossification center appeared between six months and two years. Normally a single center formed. However anterior ossification was sometimes multifocal. Infrequently the posterior centers extended into the anterior arch and met as a single anterior synchondrosis. By four to six years the posterior synchondrosis and the anterior neurocentral synchondroses were fused. All three synchondroses fused at approximately the same time, although the posterior one often slightly preceded the anterior ones. Accordingly, the spinal canal of C1 reached maximum size at this stage of development. Further growth was then limited to periosteal addition on the external surface, leading to thickening and increased height, but without significantly altering the size of the spinal canal. (orig.)

  6. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children, Tampa, FL

    1984-01-01

    The patella initially ossifies at between three and five years, commencing as multiple foci that rapidly coalesce. As the patellar ossification center enlarges the expanding margins may be irregular and associated with accessory ossification centers. These are most common superolaterally and may lead to the development of a bipartite patella. The bipartite patella has cartilaginous continuity despite the appearance of osseous discontinuity. The patella expands to all cartilaginous contours during late adolescence when the epiphyseal ossification centers around the knee are also in the final stages of maturation. The only cartilage not replaced is that occupying the superior two-thirds of the articular surface (the lower one-third is covered by the fat pad). The subchondral plate does not assume the actual articular contours until the late stages of osseous maturation (after ten to twelve years). Accordingly, typical measurements such as medial and lateral angulation cannot be accurately done prior to the final stages of patellar ossification expansion and maturation. The tibial tuberosity begins ossification at between seven and nine years as a distal focus. This progressively enlarges proximally and anteriorly, while the main tibial ossification center concomitantly expands downward into the tuberosity. A section of epiphyseal cartilage usually remains between these two ossification centers until close to physeal maturity. The anterior chondro-osseous region at the site of patellar tendon attachment is a biomechanically susceptible region that may be acutely or chronically traumatized to create an Osgood-Schlatter lesion. The physis associated with the tibial tuberosity is histologically modified in a proximal to distal gradation of columnar adaptation to specific biomechanical demands in this region. Closure of the tuberosity physis occurs in a proximal to distal direction. (orig.)

  7. Development of axial tomography technique for the study of steam explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Seo, S. W.; You, S. [Handong Golbal Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    In this report, axial tomography applying to steam explosion is implemented. When steam explosion experiment is performed, we have seen the difficulty with physical modeling due to the complex phenomena of generated steam, propagation of shock wave and bubble breakup and coalescence. Hence, the uncertainty due to these phenomena is occurred. The fast and global measurement of the steam distribution is imperative to understand the complex phenomena performed during the steam explosion, KAERI have developed the fast and global measuring instrument to monitor such phenomena of axial steam distribution. Generally, X-ray is used as measuring method, but this method is very expensive and has limited measurement area. So we need new method that can substitute X-ray method and in this research, ECT method is replaced. The research is performed dividing within two parts: Software and Hardware. In the software part, the electric field analysis code and algorithm for inverse projection were developed. And, in the hardware part, capacitance measurement circuit is developed to measure up to fF level. Operable axial tomography was analyzed with concept design of axial tomography appropriate to steam explosion accident and analysis code for axial electric field analysis and inverse algorithm were developed, moreover, designing signal analysis system for axial tomography was performed.

  8. Embryonic development of the axial column in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Katharine E; Coates, Michael I; Gillis, J Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The morphological patterns and molecular mechanisms of vertebral column development are well understood in bony fishes (osteichthyans). However, vertebral column morphology in elasmobranch chondrichthyans (e.g., sharks and skates) differs from that of osteichthyans, and its development has not been extensively studied. Here, we characterize vertebral development in an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, using microCT, paraffin histology, and whole-mount skeletal preparations. Vertebral development begins with the condensation of mesenchyme, first around the notochord, and subsequently around the neural tube and caudal artery and vein. Mesenchyme surrounding the notochord differentiates into a continuous sheath of spindle-shaped cells, which forms the precursor to the mineralized areolar calcification of the centrum. Mesenchyme around the neural tube and caudal artery/vein becomes united by a population of mesenchymal cells that condenses lateral to the sheath of spindle-shaped cells, with this mesenchymal complex eventually differentiating into the hyaline cartilage of the future neural arches, hemal arches, and outer centrum. The initially continuous layers of areolar tissue and outer hyaline cartilage eventually subdivide into discrete centra and arches, with the notochord constricted in the center of each vertebra by a late-forming "inner layer" of hyaline cartilage, and by a ring of areolar calcification located medial to the outer vertebral cartilage. The vertebrae of elasmobranchs are distinct among vertebrates, both in terms of their composition (i.e., with centra consisting of up to three tissues layers-an inner cartilage layer, a calcified areolar ring, and an outer layer of hyaline cartilage), and their mode of development (i.e., the subdivision of arch and outer centrum cartilage from an initially continuous layer of hyaline cartilage). Given the evident variation in patterns of vertebral construction, broad taxon sampling, and

  9. Wnt Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Development and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Francesco; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Wnt is a family of signaling molecules involved in embryogenesis, adult tissue repair, and cancer. They activate canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling cascades in target cells. Several studies, within the last decades, showed that several Wnt ligands are involved in myogenesis and both canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways regulate muscle formation and the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the roles of Wnt signaling during muscle development and an updated description of Wnt functions during muscle repair. Lastly, we discuss the crosstalk between Wnt and TGFβ signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Performance Analysis Program for an Axial Compressor with Meanline Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Young; Park, Moo Ryong; Choi, Bum Suk; Song, Je Wook

    2009-01-01

    Axial-flow compressor is one of the most important parts of gas turbine units with axial turbine and combustor. Therefore, precise prediction of performance is very important for development of new compressor or modification of existing one. Meanline analysis is a simple, fast and powerful method for performance prediction of axial-flow compressors with different geometries. So, Meanline analysis is frequently used in preliminary design stage and performance analysis for given geometry data. Much correlations for meanline analysis have been developed theoretically and experimentally for estimating various types of losses and flow deviation angle for long time. In present study, meanline analysis program was developed to estimate compressor losses, incidence angles, deviation angles, stall and surge conditions with many correlations. Performance prediction of one stage axial compressors is conducted with this meanline analysis program. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show a good agreement. This meanline analysis program can be used for various types of single stage axial-flow compressors with different geometries, as well as multistage axial-flow compressors

  11. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  12. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art.

  13. Expression of Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy L; St-Pierre, Marie-Eve; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Parks, Tara E C; Langlois, Stéphanie; Penuela, Silvia; Jasmin, Bernard J; Cowan, Kyle N

    2018-05-10

    Pannexin 1 (Panx1) and Pannexin 3 (Panx3) are single membrane channels recently implicated in myogenic commitment, as well as myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, their expression patterns during skeletal muscle development and regeneration had yet to be investigated. Here, we show that Panx1 levels increase during skeletal muscle development becoming highly expressed together with Panx3 in adult skeletal muscle. In adult mice, Panx1 and Panx3 were differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. We also report that Panx1/PANX1 and Panx3/PANX3 are co-expressed in mouse and human satellite cells, which play crucial roles in skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, Panx1 and Panx3 levels were modulated in muscle degeneration/regeneration, similar to the pattern seen during skeletal muscle development. As Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by skeletal muscle degeneration and impaired regeneration, we next used mild and severe mouse models of this disease and found a significant dysregulation of Panx1 and Panx3 levels in dystrophic skeletal muscles. Together, our results are the first demonstration that Panx1 and Panx3 are differentially expressed amongst skeletal muscle types with their levels being highly modulated during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and dystrophy. These findings suggest that Panx1 and Panx3 channels may play important and distinct roles in healthy and diseased skeletal muscles. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cell death induced by gamma irradiation of developing skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, M.; Blanco, R.; Rivera, R.; Cinos, C.; Ferrer, I.

    1995-01-01

    Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a single dose of 2 Gy gamma rays and killed from 6 h to 5 d later. Increased numbers of dying cells, characterised by their extreme chromatin condensation and often nuclear fragmentation were seen in skeletal muscle 6 h after irradiation. Dying cells decreased to nearly normal values 48 h later. In situ labelling of nuclear DNA fragmentation identified individual cells bearing fragmented DNA. The effects of gamma rays were suppressed following cycloheximide i.p. at a dose of 1 μg/g body weight given at the time of irradiation. Taken together, the present morphological and pharmacological results suggest that gamma ray induced cell death in skeletal muscle is apoptotic, and that the process is associated with protein synthesis. Finally, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunoreactive cells, which were abundant in control rats, decreased in number 48 h after irradiation. However, a marked increase significantly above normal age values was observed at the 5th day, thus suggesting that regeneration occurs following irradiation-induced cell death in developing muscle. (author)

  15. MicroRNA transcriptome profiles during swine skeletal muscle development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonstegard Tad S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miR are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells, three stages of fetal growth, day-old neonate, and the adult. Results Twelve potential novel miR were detected that did not match previously reported sequences. In addition, a number of miR previously reported to be expressed in mammalian muscle were detected, having a variety of abundance patterns through muscle development. Muscle-specific miR-206 was nearly absent in proliferating satellite cells in culture, but was the highest abundant miR at other time points evaluated. In addition, miR-1 was moderately abundant throughout developmental stages with highest abundance in the adult. In contrast, miR-133 was moderately abundant in adult muscle and either not detectable or lowly abundant throughout fetal and neonate development. Changes in abundance of ubiquitously expressed miR were also observed. MiR-432 abundance was highest at the earliest stage of fetal development tested (60 day-old fetus and decreased throughout development to the adult. Conversely, miR-24 and miR-27 exhibited greatest abundance in proliferating satellite cells and the adult, while abundance of miR-368, miR-376, and miR-423-5p was greatest in the neonate. Conclusion These data present a complete set of transcriptome profiles to evaluate miR abundance at specific stages of skeletal muscle growth in swine. Identification of these miR provides an initial group of miR that may play a vital role in muscle development and growth.

  16. Histone Deacetylases in Bone Development and Skeletal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins. Eleven of the 18 Hdacs encoded by the human and mouse genomes depend on Zn2+ for enzymatic activity, while the other 7, the sirtuins (Sirts), require NAD2+. Collectively, Hdacs and Sirts regulate numerous cellular and mitochondrial processes including gene transcription, DNA repair, protein stability, cytoskeletal dynamics, and signaling pathways to affect both development and aging. Of clinical relevance, Hdacs inhibitors are United States Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapeutics and are candidate therapies for other common diseases including arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, heart disease, HIV infection, neurodegeneration, and numerous aging-related disorders. Hdacs and Sirts influence skeletal development, maintenance of mineral density and bone strength by affecting intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as bone resorption. With few exceptions, inhibition of Hdac or Sirt activity though either loss-of-function mutations or prolonged chemical inhibition has negative and/or toxic effects on skeletal development and bone mineral density. Specifically, Hdac/Sirt suppression causes abnormalities in physiological development such as craniofacial dimorphisms, short stature, and bone fragility that are associated with several human syndromes or diseases. In contrast, activation of Sirts may protect the skeleton from aging and immobilization-related bone loss. This knowledge may prolong healthspan and prevent adverse events caused by epigenetic therapies that are entering the clinical realm at an unprecedented rate. In this review, we summarize the general properties of Hdacs/Sirts and the research that has revealed their essential functions in bone forming cells (e.g., osteoblasts and chondrocytes) and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Finally, we offer predictions on future research in this area and the utility of

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Chicken Skeletal Muscle during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Ouyang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1. We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.666 and p < 0.05. There were 19 up- and 32 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. E16 group, 238 up- and 227 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. D1 group, and 13 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins in E16 vs. D1 group. Protein interaction network analyses indicated that these differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the pathway of protein synthesis, muscle contraction, and oxidative phosphorylation. Integrative analysis of proteome and our previous transcriptome data found 189 differentially expressed proteins that correlated with their mRNA level. The interactions between these proteins were also involved in muscle contraction and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. The lncRNA-protein interaction network found four proteins DMD, MYL3, TNNI2, and TNNT3 that are all involved in muscle contraction and may be lncRNA regulated. These results provide several candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of chicken embryonic muscle development, and enable us to better understanding their regulation networks and biochemical pathways.

  18. Simulation of Axial Combustion Instability Development and Suppression in Solid Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Greatrix

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the design of solid-propellant rocket motors, the ability to understand and predict the expected behaviour of a given motor under unsteady conditions is important. Research towards predicting, quantifying, and ultimately suppressing undesirable strong transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. An updated numerical model incorporating recent developments in predicting negative and positive erosive burning, and transient, frequency-dependent combustion response, in conjunction with pressure-dependent and acceleration-dependent burning, is applied to the investigation of instability-related behaviour in a small cylindrical-grain motor. Pertinent key factors, like the initial pressure disturbance magnitude and the propellant's net surface heat release, are evaluated with respect to their influence on the production of instability symptoms. Two traditional suppression techniques, axial transitions in grain geometry and inert particle loading, are in turn evaluated with respect to suppressing these axial instability symptoms.

  19. Wall boundary layer development near the tip region of an IGV of an axial flow compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Sitaram, N.

    1983-01-01

    The annulus wall boundary layer inside the blade passage of the inlet guide vane (IGV) passage of a low-speed axial compressor stage was measured with a miniature five-hole probe. The three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields were measured at various axial and tangential locations. Limiting streamline angles and static pressures were also measured on the casing of the IGV passage. Strong secondary vorticity was developed. The data were analyzed and correlated with the existing velocity profile correlations. The end wall losses were also derived from these data.

  20. Development of Axial Continuous Metal Expeller for melt conditioning of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassinath, Z.; Prasada Rao, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    ACME (Axial, centrifugal metal expeller) is a novel processing technology developed independently for conditioning liquid metal prior to solidification processing. The ACME process is based on an axial compressor and uses a rotor stator mechanism to impose a high shear rate and a high intensity of turbulence to the liquid metal, so that the conditioned liquid metal has uniform temperature and uniform chemical composition as it is expelled. The microstructural refinement is achieved through the process of dendrite fragmentation while taking advantage of the thixotropic property of semisolid metal slurry so that it can be conveyed for further downstream operations. This paper introduces the concept and its advantages over current technologies. (paper)

  1. Development of Axial Continuous Metal Expeller for melt conditioning of alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinath, Z.; Prasada Rao, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    ACME (Axial, centrifugal metal expeller) is a novel processing technology developed independently for conditioning liquid metal prior to solidification processing. The ACME process is based on an axial compressor and uses a rotor stator mechanism to impose a high shear rate and a high intensity of turbulence to the liquid metal, so that the conditioned liquid metal has uniform temperature and uniform chemical composition as it is expelled. The microstructural refinement is achieved through the process of dendrite fragmentation while taking advantage of the thixotropic property of semisolid metal slurry so that it can be conveyed for further downstream operations. This paper introduces the concept and its advantages over current technologies.

  2. Development of Axial Tomography for Steam Explosion Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Seo, Shi Won; Song, Jin Ho

    2006-01-01

    Visual understanding of complicated system leads us often to the intuitive enlightenment of the invisible causes of the effect. When it is formulated based on the rigorous mathematics, the produced formula or correlation will be very useful in design and analysis of the engineering system. In this point of view, the tomography technology can be a tool to meet such a purpose. However, the traditional hard ray tomography using high energy radiation cannot meet the case due to heavy shielding structure which obstructs access of the sensing unit to the very complicated and limited space. Therefore, the recent development of the electric tomography is noteworthy in the application to the industrial process monitoring. It has the merit not only of low cost but also of easier access to the limited space than the hard ray tomography

  3. The development of an air injection system for the forced response testing of axial compressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wegman, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A phase-controllable, air injection exciter system was developed to enable measurement of the forced response properties of a transonic axial compressor blisk. The project was performed as part of the FP7 European framework program project FUTURE...

  4. Human age estimation combining third molar and skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Kaur, J; Willems, G

    2012-03-01

    The wide prediction intervals obtained with age estimation methods based on third molar development could be reduced by combining these dental observations with age-related skeletal information. Therefore, on cephalometric radiographs, the most accurate age-estimating skeletal variable and related registration method were searched and added to a regression model, with age as response and third molar stages as explanatory variable. In a pilot set up on a dataset of 496 (283 M; 213 F) cephalometric radiographs, the techniques of Baccetti et al. (2005) (BA), Seedat et al. (2005) (SE), Caldas et al. (2007) and Rai et al. (2008) (RA) were verified. In the main study, data from 460 (208 F, 224 M) individuals in an age range between 3 and 26 years, for which at the same day an orthopantogram and a cephalogram were taken, were collected. On the orthopantomograms, the left third molar development was registered using the scoring system described by Gleiser and Hunt (1955) and modified by Köhler (1994) (GH). On the cephalograms, cervical vertebrae development was registered according to the BA and SE techniques. A regression model, with age as response and the GH scores as explanatory variable, was fitted to the data. Next, information of BA, SE and BA + SE was, respectively, added to this model. From all obtained models, the determination coefficients and the root mean squared errors were calculated. Inclusion of information from cephalograms based on the BA, as well as the SE, technique improved the amount of explained variance in age acquired from panoramic radiographs using the GH technique with 48%. Inclusion of cephalometric BA + SE information marginally improved the previous result (+1%). The RMSE decreased with 1.93, 1.85 and 2.03 years by adding, respectively, BA, SE and BA + SE information to the GH model. The SE technique allows clinically the fastest and easiest registration of the degree of development of the cervical vertebrae. Therefore, the choice of

  5. ANSYS UIDL-Based CAE Development of Axial Support System for Optical Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Hua; Shao, Liang

    2008-09-01

    The Whiffle-tree type axial support mechanism is widely adopted by most relatively large optical mirrors. Based on the secondary developing tools offered by the commonly used Finite Element Anylysis (FEA) software ANSYS, ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) is used for creating the mirror FEA model driven by parameters, and ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL) for generating custom menu of interactive manner, whereby, the relatively independent dedicated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) module is embedded in ANSYS for calculation and optimization of axial Whiffle-tree support of optical mirrors. An example is also described to illustrate the intuitive and effective usage of the dedicated module by boosting work efficiency and releasing related engineering knowledge of user. The philosophy of secondary-developed special module with commonly used software also suggests itself for product development in other industries.

  6. Simulation of Axial Combustion Instability Development and Suppression in Solid Rocket Motors

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Greatrix

    2009-01-01

    In the design of solid-propellant rocket motors, the ability to understand and predict the expected behaviour of a given motor under unsteady conditions is important. Research towards predicting, quantifying, and ultimately suppressing undesirable strong transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. An updated numerical model incorporating recent developments in predi...

  7. Development of a magnetic fluid shaft seal for an axial-flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazumitsu; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Yozu, Ryouhei; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2003-10-01

    A rotating impeller in a rotary blood pump requires a supporting system in blood, such as a pivot bearing or magnetic suspension. To solve potential problems such as abrasive wear and complexity of a supporting system, a magnetic fluid seal was developed for use in an axial-flow blood pump. Sealing pressures at motor speeds of up to 8,000 rpm were measured with the seal immersed in water or bovine blood. The sealing pressure was about 200 mm Hg in water and blood. The calculated theoretical sealing pressure was about 230 mm Hg. The seal remained perfect for 743 days in a static condition and for 180+ days (ongoing test) at a motor speed of 7,000 rpm. Results of measurement of cell growth activity indicated that the magnetic fluid has no negative cytological effects. The specially designed magnetic fluid shaft seal is useful for an axial-flow blood pump.

  8. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Ö. Raeker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues.

  9. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeker, Maide Ö.; Russell, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues. PMID:22190853

  10. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Early brain enlargement and elevated extra-axial fluid in infants who develop autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Nordahl, Christine W; Young, Gregory S; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Lee, Aaron; Liston, Sarah E; Harrington, Kayla R; Ozonoff, Sally; Amaral, David G

    2013-09-01

    Prospective studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder have provided important clues about the early behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, however, is not currently made until at least 18 months of age. There is substantially less research on potential brain-based differences in the period between 6 and 12 months of age. Our objective in the current study was to use magnetic resonance imaging to identify any consistently observable brain anomalies in 6-9 month old infants who would later develop autism spectrum disorder. We conducted a prospective infant sibling study with longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points (6-9, 12-15, and 18-24 months of age), in conjunction with intensive behavioural assessments. Fifty-five infants (33 'high-risk' infants having an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder and 22 'low-risk' infants having no relatives with autism spectrum disorder) were imaged at 6-9 months; 43 of these (27 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged at 12-15 months; and 42 (26 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged again at 18-24 months. Infants were classified as meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder, other developmental delays, or typical development at 24 months or later (mean age at outcome: 32.5 months). Compared with the other two groups, infants who developed autism spectrum disorder (n = 10) had significantly greater extra-axial fluid at 6-9 months, which persisted and remained elevated at 12-15 and 18-24 months. Extra-axial fluid is characterized by excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, particularly over the frontal lobes. The amount of extra-axial fluid detected as early as 6 months was predictive of more severe autism spectrum disorder symptoms at the time of outcome. Infants who developed autism spectrum disorder also had significantly larger total cerebral volumes at both 12-15 and 18-24 months of age. This is the first magnetic

  12. Development of a 3-dimensional flow analysis procedure for axial pump impellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Jong In; Park, Jin Seok; Huh, Houng Huh; Chang, Moon Hee

    1999-06-01

    A fluid dynamic analysis procedure was developed using the three-dimensional solid model of an axial pump impeller which was theoretically designed using I-DEAS CAD/CAM/CAE software. The CFD software FLUENT was used in the flow field analysis. The steady-state flow regime in the MCP impeller and diffuser was simulated using the developed procedure. The results of calculation were analyzed to confirm whether the design requirements were properly implemented in the impeller model. The validity of the developed procedure was demonstrated by comparing the calculation results with the experimental data available. The pump performance at the design point could be effectively predicted using the developed procedure. The computed velocity distributions have shown a good agreement with the experimental data except for the regions near the wall. The computed head, however, was over-predicted than the experiment. The design period and cost required for the development of an axial pump impeller can be significantly reduced by applying the proposed methodology. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Axial level-specific regulation of neuronal development: lessons from PITX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Martin, Donna M

    2015-02-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is vital for proper control of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of developing neurons. Pitx2 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is highly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain. In humans, mutations in PITX2 result in Rieger syndrome, characterized by defects in the development of the eyes, umbilicus, and teeth and variable abnormalities in the brain, including hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia. Alternative splicing of Pitx2 in the mouse results in three isoforms, Pitx2a, Pitx2b, and Pitx2c, each of which is expressed symmetrically along the left-right axis of the brain throughout development. Here, we review recent evidence for axial and brain region-specific requirements for Pitx2 during neuronal migration and differentiation, highlighting known isoform contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  15. Sall4-Gli3 system in early limb progenitors is essential for the development of limb skeletal elements

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Ryutaro; Kawakami, Hiroko; Wong, Julia; Oishi, Isao; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The limb skeletal elements that have unique morphology and distinct locations are developed from limb progenitors, derived from the lateral plate mesoderm. These skeletal elements arise during limb development. In this study, we show genetic evidence that function of Sall4 is essential prior to limb outgrowth for development of the anterior-proximal skeletal elements. Furthermore, genetic interaction between Sall4 and Gli3 is upstream of establishing Shh (Sonic hedgehog) expression, and there...

  16. Insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and fetal growth and skeletal development (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Sifakis, Stavros; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E

    2014-08-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II have a predominant role in fetal growth and development. IGFs are involved in the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of fetal cells in vitro and the IGF serum concentration has been shown to be closely correlated with fetal growth and length. IGF transcripts and peptides have been detected in almost every fetal tissue from as early in development as pre‑implantation to the final maturation stage. Furthermore, IGFs have been demonstrated to be involved in limb morphogenesis. However, although ablation of Igf genes in mice resulted in growth retardation and delay in skeletal maturation, no impact on outgrowth and patterning of embryonic limbs was observed. Additionally, various molecular defects in the Igf1 and Igf1r genes in humans have been associated with severe intrauterine growth retardation and impaired skeletal maturation, but not with truncated limbs or severe skeletal dysplasia. The conflicting data between in vitro and in vivo observations with regard to bone morphogenesis suggests that IGFs may not be the sole trophic factors involved in fetal skeletal growth and that redundant mechanisms may exist in chondro- and osteogenesis. Further investigation is required in order to elucidate the functions of IGFs in skeletal development.

  17. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

  18. Development and external validation of nomograms to predict the risk of skeletal metastasis at the time of diagnosis and skeletal metastasis-free survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Xia, Liangping; Wang, Yan; He, Shasha; Chen, Haiyang; Liang, Shaobo; Peng, Peijian; Hong, Shaodong; Chen, Yong

    2017-09-06

    The skeletal system is the most common site of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); various prognostic factors have been reported for skeletal metastasis, though most studies have focused on a single factor. We aimed to establish nomograms to effectively predict skeletal metastasis at initial diagnosis (SMAD) and skeletal metastasis-free survival (SMFS) in NPC. A total of 2685 patients with NPC who received bone scintigraphy (BS) and/or 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and 2496 patients without skeletal metastasis were retrospectively assessed to develop individual nomograms for SMAD and SMFS. The models were validated externally using separate cohorts of 1329 and 1231 patients treated at two other institutions. Five independent prognostic factors were included in each nomogram. The SMAD nomogram had a significantly higher c-index than the TNM staging system (training cohort, P = 0.005; validation cohort, P system (P skeletal metastasis, which may improve counseling and facilitate individualized management of patients with NPC.

  19. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  20. Development of leak-rupture criteria for axially through-wall cracked pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.K.; Leis, B.N. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, J-integral based fracture mechanics were used to characterize the fracture behaviour of a pipeline from crack initiation and stable growth to tearing instability. The aim of the study was to develop an effective leak-rupture criterion for pipelines with axial through-wall cracks (TWC). The J driving force for cracked plates and pipes was estimated using a plastic influence function method. The EPRI estimation scheme and R6 method were used to obtain a general estimate of the J-integral of the pipe. The failure pressures of a TWC pipe at fracture initiation and instability were then modelled in order to define a leak-rupture boundary. Fracture initiation and instability analyses for the TWC pipeline were illustrated. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to improve the accuracy of J driving force estimation and the leak-rupture criterion for pipeline applications. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Development of an Intelligent Capacitive Mass Sensor Based on Co-axial Cylindrical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir ABU AL AISH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear, robust and intelligent capacitive mass sensor made of a co-axial cylindrical capacitor. It is designed such that the mass under measurement is directly proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The average value of the output voltage of a capacitance to voltage converter is proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The output of the converter is measured and displayed, as mass, with the help of microcontroller. The results are free from the effect of stray capacitances which cause errors at low values of capacitances. Developed sensor is linear, free from errors due to temperature and highly flexible in design. The proto-type of the mass sensor can weigh up to 4 kilogram only.

  2. A contemporary Colombian skeletal reference collection: A resource for the development of population specific standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Medina, Cesar; González-Colmenares, Gretel; Restrepo, Hadaluz Osorio; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Guerrero

    2016-09-01

    Several authors who have discussed human variability and its impact on the forensic identification of bodies pose the need for regional studies documenting the global variation of the attributes analyzed osteological characteristics that aid in establishing biological profile (sex, ancestry, biological age and height). This is primarily accomplished by studying documented human skeletal collections in order to investigate secular trends in skeletal development and aging, among others in the Colombian population. The purpose of this paper is to disclose the details of the new "Contemporary Colombian Skeletal Reference Collection" that currently comprises 600 identified skeletons of both sexes, who died between 2005 and 2008; and which contain information about their cause of death. This collection has infinite potential for research, open to the national and international community, and still has pending opportunities to address a variety of topics such as studies on osteopathology, bone trauma and taphonomic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of severe skeletal defects in induced SHP-2-deficient adult mice: a model of skeletal malformation in humans with SHP-2 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Bauler

    2011-03-01

    SHP-2 (encoded by PTPN11 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase required for signal transduction by multiple different cell surface receptors. Humans with germline SHP-2 mutations develop Noonan syndrome or LEOPARD syndrome, which are characterized by cardiovascular, neurological and skeletal abnormalities. To study how SHP-2 regulates tissue homeostasis in normal adults, we used a conditional SHP-2 mouse mutant in which loss of expression of SHP-2 was induced in multiple tissues in response to drug administration. Induced deletion of SHP-2 resulted in impaired hematopoiesis, weight loss and lethality. Most strikingly, induced SHP-2-deficient mice developed severe skeletal abnormalities, including kyphoses and scolioses of the spine. Skeletal malformations were associated with alterations in cartilage and a marked increase in trabecular bone mass. Osteoclasts were essentially absent from the bones of SHP-2-deficient mice, thus accounting for the osteopetrotic phenotype. Studies in vitro revealed that osteoclastogenesis that was stimulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL was defective in SHP-2-deficient mice. At least in part, this was explained by a requirement for SHP-2 in M-CSF-induced activation of the pro-survival protein kinase AKT in hematopoietic precursor cells. These findings illustrate an essential role for SHP-2 in skeletal growth and remodeling in adults, and reveal some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. The model is predicted to be of further use in understanding how SHP-2 regulates skeletal morphogenesis, which could lead to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of skeletal malformations in human patients with SHP-2 mutations.

  4. Development an efficient calibrated nonlocal plate model for nonlinear axial instability of zirconia nanosheets using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S; Fattahi, A M

    2017-08-01

    New ceramic materials containing nanoscaled crystalline phases create a main object of scientific interest due to their attractive advantages such as biocompatibility. Zirconia as a transparent glass ceramic is one of the most useful binary oxides in a wide range of applications. In the present study, a new size-dependent plate model is constructed to predict the nonlinear axial instability characteristics of zirconia nanosheets under axial compressive load. To accomplish this end, the nonlocal continuum elasticity of Eringen is incorporated to a refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. A perturbation-based solving process is put to use to derive explicit expressions for nonlocal equilibrium paths of axial-loaded nanosheets. After that, some molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for axial instability response of square zirconia nanosheets with different side lengths, the results of which are matched with those of the developed nonlocal plate model to capture the proper value of nonlocal parameter. It is demonstrated that the calibrated nonlocal plate model with nonlocal parameter equal to 0.37nm has a very good capability to predict the axial instability characteristics of zirconia nanosheets, the accuracy of which is comparable with that of MD simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, Michael P; Njaine, Brian; Ricciardi, Filomena; Stone, Oliver A; Hölper, Soraya; Krüger, Marcus; Kostin, Sawa; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD), lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy.

  6. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Housley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD, lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy.

  7. Effects of decreased muscle activity on developing axial musculature in nic b107 mutant zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der T.; Schipper, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the effects of decreased muscle activity (DMA) on embryonic development in the zebrafish. Wild-type zebrafish embryos become mobile around 18 h post-fertilisation, long before the axial musculature is fully differentiated. As a model for DMA, the nicb107 mutant was used.

  8. Axial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    Classically, myopathies are categorized according to limb or cranial nerve muscle affection, but with the growing use of magnetic resonance imaging it has become evident that many well-known myopathies have significant involvement of the axial musculature. New disease entities with selective axial...

  9. Development of gas-solid direct contact heat exchanger by use of axial flow cyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akihiko; Yokomine, Takehiko [Kyushu University (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences; Nagafuchi, Tatsuro [Miura Co. Ltd., Matsuyamashi (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    A heat exchanger between particulate or granular materials and gas is developed. It makes use of a swirling gas flow similar to the usual cyclone separators but the difference from them is that the swirl making gas is issued into the cyclone chamber with downward axial velocity component. After it turns the flow direction near the bottom of the chamber, the low temperature gas receives heat from high temperature particles supplied from above at the chamber's center. Through this configuration, a direct contact and quasi counter-flow heat exchange pattern is realized so that the effective recovery of heat carried by particles is achieved. A model heat exchanger was manufactured via several numerical experiments and its performances of heat exchange as well as particle recovery were examined. Attaching a small particle diffuser below the particle-feeding nozzle brought about a drastic improvement of the heat exchange performance without deteriorating the particle recovery efficiency. The outlet gas temperature much higher than the particle outlet temperature was finally obtained, which is never realized in the parallel flow heat exchanger. (author)

  10. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, G.E.; Ontell, M.; Cox, R.; Sassoon, D.; Buckingham, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization, we have investigated the temporal sequence of myosin gene expression in the developing skeletal muscle masses of mouse embryos. The probes used were isoform-specific, 35S-labeled antisense cRNAs to the known sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and myosin alkali light chain gene transcripts. Results showed that both cardiac and skeletal myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain mRNAs were first detected between 9 and 10 d post coitum (p.c.) in the myotomes of the most rostral somites. Myosin transcripts appeared in more caudal somites at later stages in a developmental gradient. The earliest myosin heavy chain transcripts detected code for the embryonic skeletal (MHCemb) and beta-cardiac (MHC beta) isoforms. Perinatal myosin heavy chain (MHCpn) transcripts begin to accumulate at 10.5 d p.c., which is much earlier than previously reported. At this stage, MHCemb is the major MHC transcript. By 12.5 d p.c., MHCpn and MHCemb mRNAs are present to an equal extent, and by 15.5 d p.c. the MHCpn transcript is the major MHC mRNA detected. Cardiac MHC beta transcripts are always present as a minor component. In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c. the two MLC mRNAs are present at similar levels, and by 15.5 d p.c., MLC1F is the predominant MLC transcript detected. Transcripts for the ventricular/slow (MLC1V) and another fast skeletal myosin light chain (MLC3F) are not detected in skeletal muscle before 15 d p.c., which marks the beginning of the fetal stage of muscle development. This is the first stage at which we can detect differences in expression of myosin genes between developing muscle fibers. We conclude that, during the development of the myotome and body wall muscles, different myosin genes follow independent patterns of activation and acculumation

  11. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velleman Sandra G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia, 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy, and 16wk (market age from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2 maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of

  12. Development of Evaluation Technology for Detection of Axial Crack at Eggcrate Intersection of Steam Generator Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sik; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Han, Jung Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Song, Myung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of outer diameter (OD) axial stress corrosion crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube in operating power plant is inspected primarily by the eddy current test using bobbin coil probe. Therefore, the characteristics of the bobbin coil signal from the axial crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube should be understood for the accurate and earlier detection of the crack. In this study, the mockup assembly simulating the steam generator tube with OD axial stress corrosion crack and tube support egg crate was manufactured, and the characteristics of bobbin coil eddy current signal was examined in order to extract the improved evaluation technique for the detection of the crack

  13. Emerging new tools to study and treat muscle pathologies: genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement, and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because while on the one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best-studied stem cell-dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine-based therapies for skeletal muscle. Future therapeutic strategies should take advantage of rapidly developing technologies enabling the differentiation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells, along with precise genome editing, which will go hand in hand with a steady and focused approach to understanding underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease. In this review, I focus on highlighting the recent advances that particularly have relied on developmental and molecular biology approaches to understanding muscle development and stem cell function. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Leptin administration affects growth and skeletal development in a rat intrauterine growth restriction model: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-El Dadon, Shimrit; Shahar, Ron; Katalan, Vered; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Reifen, Ram

    2011-09-01

    Skeletal abnormalities are one of the hallmarks of growth delay during gestation. The aim of this study was to determine changes induced by leptin in skeletal growth and development in a rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Intrauterine growth retardation was induced prepartum and the effects of leptin to mothers prenatally or to offspring postnatally were studied. Radii were harvested and tested mechanically and structurally. Tibias were evaluated for growth-plate morphometry. On day 40 postpartum, total bone length and mineral density and tibial growth-plate width and numbers of cells within its zones of offspring treated with leptin were significantly greater than in the control group. Postnatal leptin administration in an IUGR model improves the structural properties and elongation rate of bone. These findings could pave the way to preventing some phenotypic presentations of IUGR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikodijević, Angelina; Udovicić, Bozidar; Milić, Jasmina; Nikolić, Predrag

    2008-08-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I) in the period of mixed dentition. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1--the children with skeletal class III and group 2--the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and theupper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of the upper jaw body.

  16. Linear and nonlinear development of m=0 instability in a diffuse Bennett Z-pinch equilibrium with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, I.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Makhin, V.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sheared axial flow on the Z-pinch sausage instability has been examined with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Diffuse Bennett equilibria in the presence of axial flows with parabolic and linear radial profiles have been considered, and a detailed study of the linear and nonlinear development of small perturbations from these equilibria has been performed. The consequences of both single-wavelength and random-seed perturbations were calculated. It was found that sheared flows changed the internal m=0 mode development by reducing the linear growth rates, decreasing the saturation amplitude, and modifying the instability spectrum. High spatial frequency modes were stabilized to small amplitudes and only long wavelengths continued to grow. Full stability was obtained for supersonic plasma flows.

  17. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I

  18. Sall4-Gli3 system in early limb progenitors is essential for the development of limb skeletal elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Ryutaro; Kawakami, Hiroko; Wong, Julia; Oishi, Isao; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-21

    Limb skeletal elements originate from the limb progenitor cells, which undergo expansion and patterning to develop each skeletal element. Posterior-distal skeletal elements, such as the ulna/fibula and posterior digits develop in a Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent manner. However, it is poorly understood how anterior-proximal elements, such as the humerus/femur, the radius/tibia and the anterior digits, are developed. Here we show that the zinc finger factors Sall4 and Gli3 cooperate for proper development of the anterior-proximal skeletal elements and also function upstream of Shh-dependent posterior skeletal element development. Conditional inactivation of Sall4 in the mesoderm before limb outgrowth caused severe defects in the anterior-proximal skeletal elements in the hindlimb. We found that Gli3 expression is reduced in Sall4 mutant hindlimbs, but not in forelimbs. This reduction caused posteriorization of nascent hindlimb buds, which is correlated with a loss of anterior digits. In proximal development, Sall4 integrates Gli3 and the Plzf-Hox system, in addition to proliferative expansion of cells in the mesenchymal core of nascent hindlimb buds. Whereas forelimbs developed normally in Sall4 mutants, further genetic analysis identified that the Sall4-Gli3 system is a common regulator of the early limb progenitor cells in both forelimbs and hindlimbs. The Sall4-Gli3 system also functions upstream of the Shh-expressing ZPA and the Fgf8-expressing AER in fore- and hindlimbs. Therefore, our study identified a critical role of the Sall4-Gli3 system at the early steps of limb development for proper development of the appendicular skeletal elements.

  19. MicroRNA-128 targets myostatin at coding domain sequence to regulate myoblasts in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhou, Bo; Li, Pinghua; Schinckel, Allan P; Liang, Tingting; Wang, Han; Li, Huizhi; Fu, Lingling; Chu, Qingpo; Huang, Ruihua

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a critical role in skeletal muscle development. In a previous study we observed that miR-128 was highly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, its function in regulating skeletal muscle development is not clear. Our hypothesis was that miR-128 is involved in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. In this study, through bioinformatics analyses, we demonstrate that miR-128 specifically targeted mRNA of myostatin (MSTN), a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis, at coding domain sequence (CDS) region, resulting in down-regulating of myostatin post-transcription. Overexpression of miR-128 inhibited proliferation of mouse C2C12 myoblast cells but promoted myotube formation; whereas knockdown of miR-128 had completely opposite effects. In addition, ectopic miR-128 regulated the expression of myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenin (MyoG), paired box (Pax) 3 and 7. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between the expression of miR-128 and MSTN protein expression in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results reveal that there is a novel pathway in skeletal muscle development in which miR-128 regulates myostatin at CDS region to inhibit proliferation but promote differentiation of myoblast cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu; Som, Sibendu K.; Sarathy, Mani; Plomer, Max; Pitz, William J.; Longman, Douglas E.; Lu, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR

  1. Skeletal development of the glenoid and glenoid-coracoid interface in the pediatric population: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothary, Shefali [Mount Sinai Beth Israel, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Radiology Department, NYU Langone Medical Center: Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States); Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Poncinelli, Leonardo L. [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Radiology Department, NYU Langone Medical Center: Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States); Kwong, Steven [School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Radiology Department, NYU Langone Medical Center: Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-09-15

    To assess the MRI appearance of normal skeletal development of the glenoid and glenoid-coracoid interface in the pediatric population. To the best of our knowledge, this has not yet been studied in detail in the literature. An IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review of 105 consecutive shoulder MRI studies in children, ages 2 months to 18 years was performed. The morphology, MR signal, and development of the following were assessed: (1) scapular-coracoid bipolar growth plate, (2) glenoid and glenoid-coracoid interface secondary ossification centers, (3) glenoid advancing osseous surface. The glenoid and glenoid-coracoid interface were identified in infancy as a contiguous, cartilaginous mass. A subcoracoid secondary ossification center in the superior glenoid was identified and fused in all by age 12 and 16, respectively. In ten studies, additional secondary ossification centers were identified in the inferior two-thirds of the glenoid. The initial concavity of the glenoid osseous surface gradually transformed to convexity, matching the convex glenoid articular surface. The glenoid growth plate fused by 16 years of age. Our study, based on MRI, demonstrated a similar pattern of development of the glenoid and glenoid coracoid interface to previously reported anatomic and radiographic studies, except for an earlier development and fusion of the secondary ossification centers of the inferior glenoid. The pattern of skeletal development of the glenoid and glenoid-coracoid interface follows a chronological order, which can serve as a guideline when interpreting MRI studies in children. (orig.)

  2. A gene network switch enhances the oxidative capacity of ovine skeletal muscle during late fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental transition between the late fetus and a newborn animal is associated with profound changes in skeletal muscle function as it adapts to the new physiological demands of locomotion and postural support against gravity. The mechanisms underpinning this adaption process are unclear but are likely to be initiated by changes in hormone levels. We tested the hypothesis that this developmental transition is associated with large coordinated changes in the transcription of skeletal muscle genes. Results Using an ovine model, transcriptional profiling was performed on Longissimus dorsi skeletal muscle taken at three fetal developmental time points (80, 100 and 120 d of fetal development and two postnatal time points, one approximately 3 days postpartum and a second at 3 months of age. The developmental time course was dominated by large changes in expression of 2,471 genes during the interval between late fetal development (120 d fetal development and 1-3 days postpartum. Analysis of the functions of genes that were uniquely up-regulated in this interval showed strong enrichment for oxidative metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle indicating enhanced mitochondrial activity. Histological examination of tissues from these developmental time points directly confirmed a marked increase in mitochondrial activity between the late fetal and early postnatal samples. The promoters of genes that were up-regulated during this fetal to neonatal transition were enriched for estrogen receptor 1 and estrogen related receptor alpha cis-regulatory motifs. The genes down-regulated during this interval highlighted de-emphasis of an array of functions including Wnt signaling, cell adhesion and differentiation. There were also changes in gene expression prior to this late fetal - postnatal transition and between the two postnatal time points. The former genes were enriched for functions involving the extracellular matrix and immune

  3. Spontaneous development of bilateral subdural hematomas in an infant with benign infantile hydrocephalus: color Doppler assessment of vessels traversing extra-axial spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, John; Spektor, Vadim; Pramanik, Bidyut; Rivera, Rafael; Pinkney, Lynne; Fefferman, Nancy [New York University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We present an infant with macrocrania, who initially demonstrated prominent extra-axial fluid collections on sonography of the brain, compatible with benign infantile hydrocephalus (BIH). Because of increasing macrocrania, a follow-up sonogram of the brain was performed; it revealed progressive enlargement of the extra-axial spaces, which now had echogenic debris. Color Doppler US showed bridging veins traversing these extra-axial spaces, so it was initially thought that these spaces were subarachnoid in nature (positive cortical vein sign). However, an arachnoid membrane was identified superior to the cortex, and there was compression of true cortical vessels beneath this dural membrane. An MRI of the brain showed the extra-axial spaces to represent bilateral subdural hematomas. The pathogenesis of spontaneous development of the subdural hematomas, in the setting of BIH, is discussed. We also emphasize that visualizing traversing bridging veins through extra-axial spaces does not necessarily imply that these spaces are subarachnoid in origin. (orig.)

  4. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu

    2014-03-04

    n-Dodecane is a promising surrogate fuel for diesel engine study because its physicochemical properties are similar to those of the practical diesel fuels. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane with 105 species and 420 reactions was developed for spray combustion simulations. The reduction starts from the most recent detailed mechanism for n-alkanes consisting of 2755 species and 11,173 reactions developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An algorithm combining direct relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR), laminar premixed flame and counter flow diffusion flame. Then it was coupled with well-established spray models and further validated in 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulations under engine-like conditions. These simulations were compared with the recent experiments with n-dodecane as a surrogate for diesel fuels. It can be seen that combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame lift-off length were well captured by the skeletal mechanism, particularly under conditions with high ambient temperatures. Simulations also captured the transient flame development phenomenon fairly well. The results further show that ignition delay may not be the only factor controlling the stabilisation of the present flames since a good match in ignition delay does not necessarily result in improved flame lift-off length prediction. The work of Zhaoyu Luo, Sibendu Som, Max Plomer, William J. Pitz, Douglas E. Longman and Tianfeng Lu was authored as part of their official duties as Employees of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 USC. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under US Law. S. Mani Sarathy hereby waives his right to

  5. Development of axial asymmetry in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H., E-mail: hiroshi@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Odahara, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-machi 1-1, Osaka 560-0043 Toyonaka (Japan); Sumikama, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Nishimura, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Li, Z. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miyashita, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Sato, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Prochniak, L. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Baba, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Berryman, J.S. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blasi, N. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bracco, A.; Camera, F. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Doornenbal, P. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Go, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-10-19

    The neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo has been investigated by means of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following the {beta}-decay of {sup 110}Nb, produced using in-flight fission of a {sup 238}U beam at 345 MeV/nucleon at the RIBF facility. In addition to the ground-band members reported previously, spectroscopic information on the low-lying levels of the quasi-{gamma} band built on the second 2{sup +} state at 494 keV has been obtained for the first time. The experimental finding of the second 2{sup +} state being lower than the yrast 4{sup +} level suggests that axially-asymmetric {gamma} softness is substantially enhanced in this nucleus. The experimental results are compared with model calculations based on the general Bohr Hamiltonian method. The systematics of the low-lying levels in even-even A{approx}110 nuclei is discussed in comparison with that in the neutron-rich A{approx}190 region, by introducing the quantity E{sub S}/E(2{sub 1}{sup +}), E{sub S}=E(2{sub 2}{sup +})-E(4{sub 1}{sup +}), as a global signature of the structural evolution involving axial asymmetry.

  6. Smyd3 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Fujii

    Full Text Available Modifications of histone tails are involved in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes including cell cycle, cell survival, cell division, and cell differentiation. Among the modifications, histone methylation plays a critical role in cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation. In our earlier studies, we found that SMYD3 has methyltransferase activity to histone H3 lysine 4, and that its up-regulation is involved in the tumorigenesis of human colon, liver, and breast. To clarify the role of Smyd3 in development, we have studied its expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using Smyd3-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. We here show that transcripts of smyd3 were expressed in zebrafish embryos at all developmental stages examined and that knockdown of smyd3 in embryos resulted in pericardial edema and defects in the trunk structure. In addition, these phenotypes were associated with abnormal expression of three heart-chamber markers including cmlc2, amhc and vmhc, and abnormal expression of myogenic regulatory factors including myod and myog. These data suggest that Smyd3 plays an important role in the development of heart and skeletal muscle.

  7. Reactive oxygen species are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Xiang; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hua; Wei, Wei

    2006-12-01

    Maternal infection is a cause of adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, intrauterine fetal death, and preterm labor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced developmental toxicity at early gestational stages has been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure at late gestational stages on intrauterine fetal growth and skeletal development and to assess the potential role of reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation. The timed pregnant CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (25 to 75 microg/kg per day) on gestational day 15 to 17. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species on lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation, the pregnant mice were injected with alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide (75 microg/kg per day, intraperitoneally), followed by an additional dose of alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 3 hours after lipopolysaccharide. The number of live fetuses, dead fetuses, and resorption sites was counted on gestational day 18. Live fetuses in each litter were weighed. Crown-rump and tail lengths were examined and skeletal development was evaluated. Maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure significantly increased fetal mortality, reduced fetal weight and crown-rump and tail lengths of live fetuses, and retarded skeletal ossification in caudal vertebrae, anterior and posterior phalanges, and supraoccipital bone in a dose-dependent manner. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, almost completely blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal death (63.2% in lipopolysaccharide group versus 6.5% in alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone + lipopolysaccharide group, P intrauterine growth restriction

  8. Development of a skeletal multi-component fuel reaction mechanism based on decoupling methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Chua, Kian Jon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A compact multi-component skeletal reaction mechanism was developed. • Combined bio-diesel and PRF mechanism was proposed. • The mechanism consists of 68 species and 183 reactions. • Well validated against ignition delay times, flame speed and engine results. - Abstract: A new coupled bio-diesel surrogate and primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation skeletal mechanism has been developed. The bio-diesel surrogate sub-mechanism consists of oxidation sub-mechanisms of Methyl decanoate (MD), Methyl 9-decenoate (MD9D) and n-Heptane fuel components. The MD and MD9D are chosen to represent the saturated and unsaturated methyl esters respectively in bio-diesel fuels. Then, a reduced iso-Octane oxidation sub-mechanism is added to the bio-diesel surrogate sub-mechanism. Then, all the sub-mechanisms are integrated to a reduced C_2–C_3 mechanism, detailed H_2/CO/C_1 mechanism and reduced NO_x mechanism based on decoupling methodology. The final mechanism consisted of 68 species and 183 reactions. The mechanism was well validated with shock-tube ignition delay times, laminar flame speed and 3D engine simulations.

  9. Loss of ATRX in chondrocytes has minimal effects on skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Solomon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the human ATRX gene cause developmental defects, including skeletal deformities and dwarfism. ATRX encodes a chromatin remodeling protein, however the role of ATRX in skeletal development is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced Atrx deletion in mouse cartilage using the Cre-loxP system, with Cre expression driven by the collagen II (Col2a1 promoter. Growth rate, body size and weight, and long bone length did not differ in Atrx(Col2cre mice compared to control littermates. Histological analyses of the growth plate did not reveal any differences between control and mutant mice. Expression patterns of Sox9, a transcription factor required for cartilage morphogenesis, and p57, a marker of cell cycle arrest and hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation, was unaffected. However, loss of ATRX in cartilage led to a delay in the ossification of the hips in some mice. We also observed hindlimb polydactily in one out of 61 mutants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that ATRX is not directly required for development or growth of cartilage in the mouse, suggesting that the short stature in ATR-X patients is caused by defects in cartilage-extrinsic mechanisms.

  10. Epigenetic Control of Skeletal Development by the Histone Methyltransferase Ezh2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakovic, Amel; Camilleri, Emily T.; Xu, Fuhua; Riester, Scott M.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Paradise, Christopher R.; Lewallen, Eric A.; Thaler, Roman; Deyle, David R.; Larson, A. Noelle; Lewallen, David G.; Dietz, Allan B.; Stein, Gary S.; Montecino, Martin A.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic control of gene expression is critical for normal fetal development. However, chromatin-related mechanisms that activate bone-specific programs during osteogenesis have remained underexplored. Therefore, we investigated the expression profiles of a large cohort of epigenetic regulators (>300) during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal cells derived from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue (AMSCs). Molecular analyses establish that the polycomb group protein EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) is down-regulated during osteoblastic differentiation of AMSCs. Chemical inhibitor and siRNA knockdown studies show that EZH2, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), suppresses osteogenic differentiation. Blocking EZH2 activity promotes osteoblast differentiation and suppresses adipogenic differentiation of AMSCs. High throughput RNA sequence (mRNASeq) analysis reveals that EZH2 inhibition stimulates cell cycle inhibitory proteins and enhances the production of extracellular matrix proteins. Conditional genetic loss of Ezh2 in uncommitted mesenchymal cells (Prrx1-Cre) results in multiple defects in skeletal patterning and bone formation, including shortened forelimbs, craniosynostosis, and clinodactyly. Histological analysis and mRNASeq profiling suggest that these effects are attributable to growth plate abnormalities and premature cranial suture closure because of precocious maturation of osteoblasts. We conclude that the epigenetic activity of EZH2 is required for skeletal patterning and development, but EZH2 expression declines during terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix production. PMID:26424790

  11. A theory of post-stall transients in axial compression systems. I - Development of equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F. K.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate theory is presented for post-stall transients in multistage axial compression systems. The theory leads to a set of three simultaneous nonlinear third-order partial differential equations for pressure rise, and average and disturbed values of flow coefficient, as functions of time and angle around the compressor. By a Galerkin procedure, angular dependence is averaged, and the equations become first order in time. These final equations are capable of describing the growth and possible decay of a rotating-stall cell during a compressor mass-flow transient. It is shown how rotating-stall-like and surgelike motions are coupled through these equations, and also how the instantaneous compressor pumping characteristic changes during the transient stall process.

  12. General overview of the AxialT project: A partnership for low head turbine developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschenes, C; Ciocan, G D; Henau, V De; Flemming, F; Qian, R; Huang, J; Koller, M; Vu, T; Naime, F A; Page, M

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the AxialT project is presented. Initiated in 2007 by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines, the aim of this four years project is to contribute to the study of time-dependent hydraulic phenomena in a propeller turbine. The geometry of the entire turbine is generously shared by all partners. Numerical simulations carried out by all partners are confronted with experimental measurements carried out at the LAMH laboratory in Laval University. A mix of 2D LDA, 3D PIV and unsteady pressure measurements are adapted to yield precise measurements at eight strategic locations within the turbine and for nine operating points. Phase resolved analysis is performed wherever applicable. An illustration of potential analysis accessible with the database is shown for the identification of a vortex in the runner at part load.

  13. An experimental and numerical study of developed single phase axial turbulent flow in a smooth rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical model of a turbulent single phase coolant, flowing axially along the fuel pins of a nuclear reactor, was developed. The experimental rig represented two interconnected subchannels of a square array at a pitch/diameter ratio of 1.193. Air was the working fluid, and measurements were made of the mean radial velocity profiles, wall shear stress variation, turbulence velocity spectra and intensities. The numerically predicted wall shear distribution and mean velocity profiles, obtained using an empirical two-dimensional mixing length and eddy diffusivity concept to represent fluid turbulence, showed good agreement with the experimental results. (Author)

  14. Spop promotes skeletal development and homeostasis by positively regulating Ihh signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongchen; Liu, Aimin

    2016-12-20

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) regulates chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation through the Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) transcription factors. Previous in vitro studies suggested that Speckle-type POZ protein (Spop), part of the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase complex, targets Gli2 and Gli3 for degradation and negatively regulates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. In this study, we found defects in chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation in Spop-null mutant mice. Strikingly, both the full-length and repressor forms of Gli3, but not Gli2, were up-regulated in Spop mutants, and Ihh target genes Patched 1 (Ptch1) and parathyroid hormone-like peptide (Pthlh) were down-regulated, indicating compromised Hh signaling. Consistent with this finding, reducing Gli3 dosage greatly rescued the Spop mutant skeletal defects. We further show that Spop directly targets the Gli3 repressor for ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we demonstrate in a conditional mutant that loss of Spop results in brachydactyly and osteopenia, which can be rescued by reducing the dosage of Gli3. In summary, Spop is an important positive regulator of Ihh signaling and skeletal development.

  15. Development and test of an axial flux type PM synchronous motor with liquid nitrogen cooled HTS armature windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H; Morishita, T; Tsuda, T; Takeda, T; Togawa, H; Oota, T; Ohmatsu, K; Yoshida, S

    2008-01-01

    We developed an axial gap permanent magnet type superconducting synchronous motor cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). The motor includes 8 poles and 6 armature windings. The armature windings are made from BSCCO wire operated at the temperature level between 66K∼70K. The design of the rated output is 400kW at 250rpm. Because HTS wires produce AC loss, there are few motors developed with a superconducting armature winding. In a large capacity motor, HTS windings need to be connected in parallel way. However, the parallel connection causes different current flowing to each HTS winding. To solve this problem, we connected a current distributor to the motor. As a result, not only the current difference can be suppressed, but also the current of each winding can be adjusted freely. The low frequency and less flux penetrating HTS wire because of current distributor contribute to low AC loss. This motor is an axial gap rotating-field one, the cooling parts are fixed. This directly leads to simple cooling system. The motor is also brushless. This paper presents the structure, the analysis of the motor and the tests

  16. Development of a method of lifetime assessment of power plant components under complex multi-axial vibration loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesich, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    In general, technical components are loaded and stressed by forces and moments both constant and variable over time. Multi-axial stress conditions can arise as a function of the load on, and/or the geometry of, a component. Assessing the impact on stability of multi-axial stress conditions is a problem for which no generally valid solution has as yet been found, especially when loads and stresses vary over time. This is also due to the fact that the development over time of stresses can give rise to very complex stress conditions. Assessing the lifetime of power plant components subjected to complex vibration loads and stresses often is not reliable if performed by means of conventional codes and approaches, or is associated with high degrees of conservatism. The MPA AIM-Life concept developed at the Stuttgart MPA/IMWF, which is an advanced and verified strength hypothesis based on energy considerations, allows such assessments to be made more reliably, numerically efficient, and avoiding excessive conservatism. (orig.)

  17. Development of Ar-BINMOL-Derived Atropisomeric Ligands with Matched Axial and sp(3) Central Chirality for Catalytic Asymmetric Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Xu, Li-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in the development of 1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol (BINOL)-derived chiral ligands. Six years ago, a working hypothesis, that the chirality matching of hybrid chirality on a ligand could probably lead to high levels of stereoselective induction, prompted us to use the axial chirality of BINOL derivatives to generate new stereogenic centers within the same molecule with high stereoselectivity, obtaining as a result sterically favorable ligands for applications in asymmetric catalysis. This Personal Account describes our laboratory's efforts toward the development of a novel class of BINOL-derived atropisomers bearing both axial and sp(3) central chirality, the so-called Ar-BINMOLs, for asymmetric synthesis. Furthermore, on the basis of the successful application of Ar-BINMOLs and their derivatives in asymmetric catalysis, the search for highly efficient and enantioselective processes also compelled us to give special attention to the BINOL-derived multifunctional ligands with multiple stereogenic centers for use in catalytic asymmetric reactions. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. NPPB and ACAN, two novel SHOX2 transcription targets implicated in skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Aza-Carmona

    Full Text Available SHOX and SHOX2 transcription factors are highly homologous, with even identical homeodomains. Genetic alterations in SHOX result in two skeletal dysplasias; Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD, while no human genetic disease has been linked to date with SHOX2. SHOX2 is, though, involved in skeletal development, as shown by different knockout mice models. Due to the high homology between SHOX and SHOX2, and their functional redundancy during heart development, we postulated that SHOX2 might have the same transcriptional targets and cofactors as SHOX in limb development. We selected two SHOX transcription targets regulated by different mechanisms: 1 the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB involved in the endochondral ossification signalling and directly activated by SHOX; and 2 Aggrecan (ACAN, a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix, regulated by the cooperation of SHOX with the SOX trio (SOX5, SOX6 and SOX9 via the protein interaction between SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX. Using the luciferase assay we have demonstrated that SHOX2, like SHOX, regulates NPPB directly whilst activates ACAN via its cooperation with the SOX trio. Subsequently, we have identified and characterized the protein domains implicated in the SHOX2 dimerization and also its protein interaction with SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX using the yeast-two hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Immunohistochemistry of human fetal growth plates from different time points demonstrated that SHOX2 is coexpressed with SHOX and the members of the SOX trio. Despite these findings, no mutation was identified in SHOX2 in a cohort of 83 LWD patients with no known molecular defect, suggesting that SHOX2 alterations do not cause LWD. In conclusion, our work has identified the first cofactors and two new transcription targets of SHOX2 in limb development, and we hypothesize a time- and tissue-specific functional redundancy between SHOX and SHOX2.

  19. NPPB and ACAN, two novel SHOX2 transcription targets implicated in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Barca-Tierno, Veronica; Hisado-Oliva, Alfonso; Belinchón, Alberta; Gorbenko-del Blanco, Darya; Rodriguez, Jose Ignacio; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2014-01-01

    SHOX and SHOX2 transcription factors are highly homologous, with even identical homeodomains. Genetic alterations in SHOX result in two skeletal dysplasias; Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), while no human genetic disease has been linked to date with SHOX2. SHOX2 is, though, involved in skeletal development, as shown by different knockout mice models. Due to the high homology between SHOX and SHOX2, and their functional redundancy during heart development, we postulated that SHOX2 might have the same transcriptional targets and cofactors as SHOX in limb development. We selected two SHOX transcription targets regulated by different mechanisms: 1) the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB) involved in the endochondral ossification signalling and directly activated by SHOX; and 2) Aggrecan (ACAN), a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix, regulated by the cooperation of SHOX with the SOX trio (SOX5, SOX6 and SOX9) via the protein interaction between SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX. Using the luciferase assay we have demonstrated that SHOX2, like SHOX, regulates NPPB directly whilst activates ACAN via its cooperation with the SOX trio. Subsequently, we have identified and characterized the protein domains implicated in the SHOX2 dimerization and also its protein interaction with SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX using the yeast-two hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Immunohistochemistry of human fetal growth plates from different time points demonstrated that SHOX2 is coexpressed with SHOX and the members of the SOX trio. Despite these findings, no mutation was identified in SHOX2 in a cohort of 83 LWD patients with no known molecular defect, suggesting that SHOX2 alterations do not cause LWD. In conclusion, our work has identified the first cofactors and two new transcription targets of SHOX2 in limb development, and we hypothesize a time- and tissue-specific functional redundancy between SHOX and SHOX2.

  20. Development of a High Precision Axial 3-D PET for Brain Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N; Cochran, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, L; Honscheid, K; Huh, S; Johnson, I; Joram, C; Kagan, H; Lacasta, C; Lustermann, W; Meddi, F; Nappi, E; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Oliver, J F; Pauss, F; Rafecas, M; Renker, D; Rudge, A; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Séguinot, J; Smith, S; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Vilardi, I; Weilhammer, P

    2009-01-01

    We describe a PET device based on a novel method to extract the coordinates of the interaction point of the 511 keV γ rays from 100 mm long and thin LYSO (Lutetium Yttrium OxyorthoSilicate) scintillator bars, positioned axially in the tomograph. The coordinate along the hit crystal is measured by using a hodoscope of Wave Length Shifting (WLS) plastic strips mounted perpendicularly to each plane of scintillators. As photodetectors, new Geiger mode Avalanche PhotoDetectors (G-APDs) with integrated electronics are being used to detect both the hit crystal in a block (x and y coordinates) and the interaction point in the crystal (z coordinate) through the light escaping from the crystal and transmitted to the WLS strips. In this way, the γ interaction point can be determined with a spatial resolution of few cubic millimeters down to a minimum deposited energy of about 50 keV, resulting in a volumetric precision very close to the limits imposed by the physics of the positron annihilation. The method allows to i...

  1. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahjahan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages and post-hatch (five ages development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21 and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21 muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7 increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1, both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle development of chicken skeletal muscle.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons disrupt axial development in sea urchin embryos through a β-catenin dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Murali C.; Vines, Carol A.; Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Cherr, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Sea urchin (Lytechinus anemesis) embryos were used as an experimental system to investigate the mechanisms of the developmental toxicity of creosote, one of the most widely used wood preserving chemicals, as well as some of its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene and quinoline). Data suggest that creosote and PAHs affect axial development and patterning in sea urchin embryos by disrupting the regulation of β-catenin, a crucial transcriptional co-activator of specific target genes in the Wnt/wg signaling pathway. When ciliated blastula stage embryos were exposed to these compounds, they developed into exogastrulae with completely evaginated archentera, demonstrating that these chemicals disrupt axial development and patterning. This response occurred in a dose-dependent fashion, with the EC 50 of creosote for complete exogastrulation being 1.57 ppm, while the EC 50 s of the PAHs ranged from 0.41 ppm (2.0 μM) to 4.33 ppm (33.5 μM). Morphologically, the exogastrulae that developed from embryos exposed to creosote and PAHs appeared to be identical to those that resulted from exposure to lithium chloride, a classical agent known to induce vegetalization and exogastrulation in sea urchin embryos. Immunological studies using antibodies against β-catenin, a multi-functional protein known to be involved in cell-cell adhesion and cell fate specification during embryonic development, revealed high levels of nuclear accumulation of β-catenin by cells of creosote- and PAH-exposed embryos, irrespective of their positions in the developing embryo. Dissociated embryonic cells cultured in the presence of these agents rapidly responded in a similar fashion. Since β-catenin accumulation occurs in nuclei of several types of cancer cells, it is possible this may be a general mechanism by which PAHs affect a variety of different cell types

  3. Methods for the determination of skeletal muscle blood flow: development, strengths and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2018-01-01

    Since the first measurements of limb blood flow at rest and during nerve stimulation were conducted in the late 1800s, a number of methods have been developed for the determination of limb and skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. The methods, which have been applied in the study of aspects...... such as blood flow regulation, oxygen uptake and metabolism, differ in terms of strengths and degree of limitations but most have advantages for specific settings. The purpose of this review is to describe the origin and the basic principles of the methods, important aspects and requirements of the procedures....... One of the earliest methods, venous occlusion plethysmography, is a noninvasive method which still is extensively used and which provides similar values as other more direct blood flow methods such as ultrasound Doppler. The constant infusion thermodilution method remains the most appropriate...

  4. Evaluation of solitary rib lesions in CA. breast patients for development of skeletal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of nature of single or double rib lesion on a bone scan is important but very difficult. In case of breast carcinoma rib lesion have particular importance, as they are one of the most common sites of metastasis. On the contrary surgical trauma and radiotherapy can induce metabolic changes, which can lead to rib lesions of benign etiology. As it is known that breast carcinoma patients having skeletal metastasis have worse prognosis so it is particularly important to differentiate between malignant and benign rib lesions. In this study etiology of rib lesions detected on bone scan was analyzed retrospectively patients. Study population consisted of breast cancer patients having solitary rib lesions on baseline or follow-up bone scan were included in the study. The etiology of solitary rib involvement was established using all the clinical, radiological and biochemical data available. The clinical and serial scintigraphic data were collected and analyzed for correlation in forty-two patients. Patients were followed up for at least two subsequent bone scans. Out of total study population nine patients (21.42%) developed skeletal metastasis on follow-up. Rest of the study population is disease free till last follow-up. All these patients developed metastasis within two years of appearance of the rib lesions. Correlation between sites of initial rib lesion, uptake pattern, size of tumor, mode of primary therapy, age of involvement, interval from initial therapy, biochemical and radiological findings was done. Correlation was seen between sites of uptake, uptake pattern, mode of primary therapy and biochemical findings with subsequent outcome of the patient. It is concluded from our study that solitary rib lesion have low incidence of malignancy if other risk factors are absent. (authors)

  5. Growth hormone mediates pubertal skeletal development independent of hepatic IGF-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Sun, Hui; Beth-On, Mordechay; Wu, Yingjie; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2011-04-01

    Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for

  6. SoxB2 in sea urchin development: implications in neurogenesis, ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Evgeniya; Arnone, Maria Ina; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1 , SoxC and Elav . Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  7. Development of a miniaturized mass-flow meter for an axial flow blood pump based on computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In order to monitor the condition of patients with implantable left ventricular assist systems (LVAS), it is important to measure pump flow rate continuously and noninvasively. However, it is difficult to measure the pump flow rate, especially in an implantable axial flow blood pump, because the power consumption has neither linearity nor uniqueness with regard to the pump flow rate. In this study, a miniaturized mass-flow meter for discharged patients with an implantable axial blood pump was developed on the basis of computational analysis, and was evaluated in in-vitro tests. The mass-flow meter makes use of centrifugal force produced by the mass-flow rate around a curved cannula. An optimized design was investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. On the basis of the computational analysis, a miniaturized mass-flow meter made of titanium alloy was developed. A strain gauge was adopted as a sensor element. The first strain gauge, attached to the curved area, measured both static pressure and centrifugal force. The second strain gauge, attached to the straight area, measured static pressure. By subtracting the output of the second strain gauge from the output of the first strain gauge, the mass-flow rate was determined. In in-vitro tests using a model circulation loop, the mass-flow meter was compared with a conventional flow meter. Measurement error was less than ±0.5 L/min and average time delay was 0.14 s. We confirmed that the miniaturized mass-flow meter could accurately measure the mass-flow rate continuously and noninvasively.

  8. Identification and profiling of microRNAs and their target genes from developing caprine skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    Full Text Available Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC and the six month old goat library (SMC, respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets, which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle

  9. Axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, K.A.; Lewis, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to axial tomography, sometimes referred to as cross-sectional x-ray. The apparatus described may utilize the conventional x-ray or ultrasonic source and detector and scanning mechanism for producing the plurality of sets of radiation detector output signals. It has the means for storing the detector output signals in analog form with the signals of one set overlying the signals of another set so that signals resulting from radiation through a zone of the object being examined are summed at a corresponding zone in the storage device, typically an electronic storage tube. The summed signals are read from the storage device with a radially inversely proportional reader producing a second signal for storage, again typically in an electronic storage tube. These signals stored in the second storage device are read with Laplacian relation, with the resultant sigal being a video signal that may be connected to a TV monitor for display of the sectional image. In alternative embodiments, optical film systems and electrostatic systems are utilized. (JTA)

  10. Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Hou, Chiun-Ho; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; Yang, Meng-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Prospective study. Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children's daily lifestyles, family members' myopia and parents' socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.

  11. Androgen effects on skeletal muscle: implications for the development and management of frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew DL O'Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have potent anabolic effects on skeletal muscle and decline with age in parallel to losses in muscle mass and strength. This loss of muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is the central event in development of frailty, the vulnerable health status that presages adverse outcomes and rapid functional decline in older adults. The potential role of falling androgen levels in the development of frailty and their utility as function promoting therapies in older men has therefore attracted considerable attention. This review summarizes current concepts and definitions in muscle ageing, sarcopenia and frailty, and evaluates recent developments in the study of androgens and frailty. Current evidence from observational and interventional studies strongly supports an effect of androgens on muscle mass in ageing men, but effects on muscle strength and particularly physical function have been less clear. Androgen treatment has been generally well-tolerated in studies of older men, but concerns remain over higher dose treatments and use in populations with high cardiovascular risk. The first trials of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs suggest similar effects on muscle mass and function to traditional androgen therapies in older adults. Important future directions include the use of these agents in combination with exercise training to promote functional ability across different populations of older adults, as well as more focus on the relationships between concurrent changes in hormone levels, body composition and physical function in observational studies.

  12. Effect of young maternal age and skeletal growth on placental growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C E; Greenwood, S L; Sibley, C P; Baker, P N; Jones, R L

    2011-12-01

    Teenagers are susceptible to delivering small-for-gestational-age infants. Previous studies implicate continued skeletal growth as a contributory factor, and impaired placental development was the primary cause of fetal growth restriction in growing adolescent sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of young maternal age and growth on placental development. Placentas were collected from 31 teenagers, of which 12 were growing and 17 non-growing based on knee height measurements. An adult control group (n = 12) was included. Placental weight and morphometric measurements of villous, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and vessel areas, as well as indices of proliferation and apoptosis, were analysed in relation to maternal growth and age. Growing teenagers had a higher birthweight:placental weight ratio than non-growing teenagers (p adult and teenage pregnancies. Maternal smoking, a potential confounding factor, did not exert a major influence on the placental parameters examined, except for a stimulatory effect on placental proliferation (p development, and is consistent with our recent observations that maternal growth was not detrimental to fetal growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial distribution of "tissue-specific" antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle. I. An immunohistochemical analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme expression patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Virágh, S.; Kálmán, F.; Morris, G. E.; Man, N. T.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies against the M and B subunit isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) we have investigated their distribution in developing human skeletal and cardiac muscle immunohistochemically. It is demonstrated that in skeletal muscle, a switch from CK-B to CK-M takes place around the week 8

  14. Development of Axial Compressor Heat-Extraction Capability for Thermal Management Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes a small business innovation research (SBIR) program for a novel compressor heat-extraction development program in response to...

  15. Development of a J-estimation scheme for internal circumferential and axial surface cracks in elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.; Brust, F.W.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes efforts to develop elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analyses for internal surface cracks in elbows. The analyses involved development of a GE/EPRI type J-estimation scheme which requires an elastic and fully plastic contribution to crack-driving force in terms of the J-integral parameter. The elastic analyses require the development of F-function values to relate the J e term to applied loads. Similarly, the fully plastic analyses require the development of h-functions to relate the J p term to the applied loads. The F- and h-functions were determined from a matrix of finite element analyses. To minimize the cost of the analyses, three-dimensional ABAQUS finite element analyses were compared to a simpler finite element technique called the line-spring method. The line-spring method provides a significant computational savings over the full three-dimensional analysis. The comparison showed excellent agreement between the line-spring and three-dimensional analysis. This experience was consistent with comparisons with circumferential surface-crack analyses in straight pipes during the NRC's Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds program

  16. Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used for various new scientific applications in addition to laser material ... prototyping and surface hardening, these lasers are still preferred to Nd:YAG, fibre ... Laser head: The high-power RF-excited FAF CO2 laser system developed by us.

  17. Endurance exercise differentially stimulates heart and axial muscle development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, T. van der; Schipper, H.; Boogaart, J.G. van den; Huising, M.O.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, J.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical load is an important factor in the differentiation of cells and tissues. To investigate the effects of increased mechanical load on development of muscle and bone, zebrafish were subjected to endurance swim training for 6 h/day for 10 wk starting at 14 days after fertilization. During the

  18. [Treatment of pelvic Ewing's sarcoma in children and the effect on the skeletal growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang-dong; Li, Jing; Chen, Guo-jing; Wu, Zhi-gang

    2012-12-01

    To explore the effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and computer-assisted surgery on children and adolescents with primary pelvic Ewing's sarcoma, and assess the therapeutic effect on the pelvic skeletal growth and development. This is a retrospective analysis of 10 children with primary pelvic Ewing's sarcoma treated between Jan 2001 and Oct 2010 at the Department of Oncologic Orthopaedics at Xijing Hospital. There were 3 girls and 7 boys in the age of 7 to 16 years (average 12.7 years). All patients were pathologically diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. There were two cases in the sacroiliac joint, one in the ilium, one in the pubic bone, and 6 cases in peri-acetabular area including 5 below the triradiate cartilage and one above the triradiate cartilage, without cartilage invasion. All patients underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, resection and reconstruction surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. CDP, ADM and IFO regimen chemotherapy were given as the main treatment. Five cases were treated by traditional resection and reconstruction, and after 2008, five cases were treated by computer-assisted surgery. During the reconstruction, the hip rotation center was put at a depressed location. All of the 10 cases underwent postoperative radiotherapy in a dose of 45-55 Gy. All patients were followed-up for 12-72 months (mean: 37.8 months). One child had tumor recurrence and lung metastasis and 9 patients had no evidence of disease (NED). After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, the oncologic statuses (RECIST) were: 1 CR, 8 PR and 1 SD. The functional recoveries after surgery (Enneking's) were: 4 cases excellent, 4 good, 1 fair and 1 poor. Five cases who underwent computer-assisted surgery achieved a good reconstruction without local recurrence. There were no effects on skeletal growth in 8 cases. An unbalanced hip rotational center occurred in one case, and a compemsatory scoliosis was found in another case. There were no serious complications in all patients. The comprehensive

  19. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region of an axially rotating pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Barea, A; Fabrellas-García, C; Parras, L; Pino, C del, E-mail: cpino@uma.es [Universidad de Málaga, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial, Ampliación Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga, España (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We conduct experiments in a rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow (RHPF) through flow visualizations when the flow becomes convectively and absolutely unstable at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, Re. We characterize periodic patterns at a very high swirl parameter, L, when the flow overcomes the absolutely unstable region. These non-steady helical filaments wrapped around the axis appear in the developing region of the pipe. Experimentally, we compute the onset of these oscillations in the (L, Re)-plane finding that the rotation rate decreases as the Reynolds number increases in the process of achieving the time-dependent state. Additionally, we report information regarding frequencies and wavelengths that appear downstream of the rotating pipe for convectively and absolutely unstable flows, even for very high swirl parameters at which the flow becomes time-dependent in the developing region. We do not observe variations in the trends of these parameters, so these hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region do not affect the unstable travelling waves downstream of the pipe. (paper)

  20. Expression of Wnt signaling skeletal development genes in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Damian G; Rana, Kesha; Milley, Kristi M; MacLean, Helen E; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Bell, Justin; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Richardson, Samantha J; Danks, Janine A

    2013-11-01

    Jawed vertebrates (Gnasthostomes) are broadly separated into cartilaginous fishes (Chondricthyes) and bony vertebrates (Osteichthyes). Cartilaginous fishes are divided into chimaeras (e.g. ratfish, rabbit fish and elephant shark) and elasmobranchs (e.g. sharks, rays and skates). Both cartilaginous fish and bony vertebrates are believed to have a common armoured bony ancestor (Class Placodermi), however cartilaginous fish are believed to have lost bone. This study has identified and investigated genes involved in skeletal development in vertebrates, in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Ctnnb1 (β-catenin), Sfrp (secreted frizzled protein) and a single Sost or Sostdc1 gene (sclerostin or sclerostin domain-containing protein 1) were identified in the elephant shark genome and found to be expressed in a number of tissues, including cartilage. β-catenin was also localized in several elephant shark tissues. The expression of these genes, which belong to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is required for normal bone formation in mammals. These findings in the cartilaginous skeleton of elephant shark support the hypothesis that the common ancestor of cartilaginous fishes and bony vertebrates had the potential for making bone. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  2. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-12-20

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction, method used to quantify RFD, devices used for force/torque recording and ambient temperature. Another important aspect is our limited understanding of the mechanisms underpinning rapid muscle force production. Therefore, this review is primarily focused on (i) describing the main mechanical characteristics of RFD; (ii) analysing various physiological factors that influence RFD; and (iii) presenting and discussing central biomechanical and methodological factors affecting the measurement of RFD. The intention of this review is to provide more methodological and analytical coherency on the RFD concept, which may aid to clarify the thinking of coaches and sports scientists in this area. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The UCOR pilot plant and the development of axial flow compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, W.

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses some of the mechanical aspects of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd. (UCOR) pilot plant. The most important mechanical components in a typical stage in the pilot plant, consists of a compressor which is used to compress the process gas mixture. After air cooling to almost room temperature, the mixture is fed through the separation elements. Other components are two pressure vessels connected to the compressor. The development and characteristics of the pilot plant is described in the article

  4. A new take on an old story: chick limb organ culture for skeletal niche development and regenerative medicine evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Smith

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research and progress, particularly in the drug discovery and regenerative medicine fields, is typically dependent on suitable animal models to develop new and improved clinical therapies for injuries and diseases. In vivo model systems are frequently utilised, but these models are expensive, highly complex and pose a number of ethical considerations leading to the development and use of a number of alternative ex vivo model systems. The ex vivo embryonic chick long bone and limb bud models have been utilised in the scientific research field as a model to understand skeletal development for over eighty years. The rapid development of avian skeletal tissues, coupled with the ease of experimental manipulation, availability of genome sequence and the presence of multiple cell and tissue types has seen such model systems gain significant research interest in the last few years in the tissue engineering field. The models have been explored both as systems for understanding the developmental bone niche and as potential testing tools for tissue engineering strategies for bone repair and regeneration. This review details the evolution of the chick limb organ culture system and presents recent innovative developments and emerging techniques and technologies applied to these models that are aiding our understanding of skeletal developmental and regenerative medicine research and application.

  5. Dentofacial transverse development in Koreans according to skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soonshin; Noh, Yoonjeong; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the normative data of dentofacial transverse dimensions according to the skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion, assess gender differences and determine correlations between transverse variables. A total of 577 Korean subjects between ages 7 to 19 years and exhibiting skeletal Class I occlusion were categorized by skeletal maturation index (SMI) of Fishman using hand-wrist radiographs. Dentofacial transverse dimensions were assessed using posteroanterior cephalograms. Independent two-sample t -tests were used to analyze differences between genders. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between transverse measurements. Dentofacial transverse norms relevant to skeletal maturation stages were established. The average maxillomandibular width difference and ratio at growth completion was 22.16 mm and 77.01% for males; 23.70 mm and 74.06% for females, respectively. Males had greater facial, maxillary and mandibular widths compared to females at every SMI stage. The maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed the strongest correlation for both sexes (r = 0.826 for males, r = 0.725 for females). Dentofacial transverse norms of Korean adolescents were established according to developmental stage. All dentofacial widths were greater in males at growth completion. Maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were strongly correlated. This study may serve as a guideline for the assessment of dentofacial transverse growth according to skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion.

  6. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chengyong; Zuo Zhenghong; Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin; Wang Chonggang

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  7. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Chengyong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Zuo Zhenghong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: cgwang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-01-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  8. FA composition of heart and skeletal muscle during embryonic development of the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrock, Frederic; Groscolas, Rene; Speake, Brian K

    2002-04-01

    Since the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) naturally contain the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA yet reported for the eggs of any avian species, the effects of this (n-3)-rich yolk on the FA profiles of the embryonic heart and skeletal muscle were investigated. The concentrations (mg/g wet tissue) of phospholipid (PL) in the developing heart and leg muscle of the penguin doubled between days 27 and 55 from the beginning of egg incubation (i.e., from the halfway stage of embryonic development to 2 d posthatch), whereas no net increase occurred in pectoral muscle. During this period, the concentration of TAG in heart decreased by half but increased two- and sixfold in leg and pectoral muscle, respectively. The most notable change in cholesteryl ester concentration occurred in pectoral muscle, increasing ninefold between days 27 and 55. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was the major polyunsaturate in PL of the penguin's heart, where it formed about 20% (w/w) of FA at day 55. At the equivalent developmental stage, the heart PL of the chicken contained a 1.3-fold greater proportion of ARA, contained a fifth less DHA, and was almost devoid of EPA, whereas the latter FA was a significant component (7% of FA) of penguin heart PL. Similarly, in PL of leg and pectoral muscle, the chicken displayed about 1.4-fold more ARA, up to 50% less DHA, and far less EPA in comparison with the penguin. Thus, although ARA-rich PL profiles are achieved in the heart and muscle of the penguin embryo, these profiles are significantly affected by the high n-3 content of the yolk.

  9. Impact of electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAEED H Alchalabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the teratogenic effect of mobile phone radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development at the common used mobile phone frequency in our environment. Methods: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three experiment groups; control and two exposed groups (1 h/day, 2 h/day exposure groups (n=20/ each group and exposed to whole body radiation during gestation period from day 1- day 20. Electromagnetic radiofrequency signal generator was used to generate 1 800 MHz GSM-like signals at specific absorption rate value 0.974 W/kg. Animals were exposed during experiment in an especial designed Plexiglas box (60 cm × 40 cm × 30 cm. At the end of exposure duration at day 20 of pregnancy animals were sacrificed and foetuses were removed, washed with normal saline and processed to Alizarin red and Alcian blue stain. Skeleton specimens were examined under a stereo microscope and skeleton's snaps were being carefully captured by built in camera fixed on the stereo microscope. Results: Intrauterine exposure to electromagnetic radiation lead to variation in degree of ossification, mineralization, formation of certain parts of the skeleton majorly in head and lesser in other parts. Deformity and absence of formation of certain bones in the head, ribs, and coccygeal vertebrae were recorded in skeleton of foetuses from exposed dams compare to control group. Conclusions: The electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy alter the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes, and thus impact embryonic skeleton formation and development directly.

  10. X-ray detectors in axial computed tomography development; Sensori di radiazioni X negli sviluppi della tomografia assiale computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislon, R.; Imperiali, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    The increase of potentially of axial computed tomography as a non destructive investigation method in industrial field is particularly tied to the development of the X-rays detectors. The transition from the first gas ionization detectors to the last semiconductor detectors has indeed dramatically increased the performances of tomographic systems. In this report, after a quick analysis of fundamental principles of tomography, the most significant parameters for a detector to be used in a tomographic system are reviewed. The examination of the principal kinds of detectors that have been up to now used, with their working schemes, allows to delineate their characteristics and so to compare them with the ideal detector sketched above. The necessity of using high definition arrays brings to put into evidence the inadequacy of both gas and liquid ionization detectors and also of those types of light conversion devices which utilize for signal amplification a photomultiplier tube. Systems based on charge coupled devices or on a light conversion obtained with semiconductor photodiode arrays are definitely to be preferred. The progress of the last years in microelectronic technologies has brought great improvements in this field.

  11. Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Ahn, Jiyeon; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Jee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2018-02-05

    Skeletal muscle mass was negatively associated with metabolic syndrome prevalence in previous cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of baseline skeletal muscle mass and changes in skeletal muscle mass over time on the development of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based 7-year cohort study. A total of 14,830 and 11,639 individuals who underwent health examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were included in the analyses of baseline skeletal muscle mass and those changes from baseline over 1 year, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was presented as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass value. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio for developing metabolic syndrome associated with SMI values at baseline or changes of SMI over a year was analyzed. During 7 years of follow-up, 20.1% of subjects developed metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest sex-specific SMI tertile at baseline, the highest sex-specific SMI tertile showed a significant inverse association with metabolic syndrome risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68). Furthermore, compared with SMI changes metabolic syndrome development were 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.97) for 0-1% changes and 0.67 (0.56-0.79) for > 1% changes in SMI over 1 year after additionally adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic parameters. An increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time has a potential preventive effect on developing metabolic syndrome, independently of baseline skeletal muscle mass and glycometabolic parameters.

  12. Development of a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray: analysis of differential transcript expression in phenotypically distinct muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stear Michael

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. This information is not only important for understanding basic muscle biology but also provides underpinning knowledge for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production. Results We report on the de novo development of a composite skeletal muscle cDNA microarray, comprising 5500 clones from two developmentally distinct cDNA libraries (longissimus dorsi of a 50-day porcine foetus and the gastrocnemius of a 3-day-old pig. Clones selected for the microarray assembly were of low to moderate abundance, as indicated by colony hybridisation. We profiled the differential expression of genes between the psoas (red muscle and the longissimus dorsi (white muscle, by co-hybridisation of Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA derived from these two muscles. Results from seven microarray slides (replicates correctly identified genes that were expected to be differentially expressed, as well as a number of novel candidate regulatory genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR on selected genes was used to confirm the results from the microarray. Conclusion We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway.

  13. Development of Guidelines for Skeletal Survey in Young Children With Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Scribano, Philip V; Localio, Russell; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-04-01

    As evidenced by the variation and disparities in evaluation, there is uncertainty in determining which young children with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) should undergo evaluation with skeletal survey (SS) for additional injuries concerning for abuse. We aimed to develop guidelines for performing initial SS in children <24 months old presenting with ICH by combining available evidence from the literature with expert opinion. Using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, a multispecialty panel of 12 experts used the literature and their own clinical expertise to rate the appropriateness of performing SS for 216 scenarios characterizing children <24 months old with ICH. After a moderated discussion of initial ratings, the scenarios were revised. Panelists re-rated SS appropriateness for 74 revised scenarios. For the 63 scenarios in which SS was deemed appropriate, the panel rated the necessity of SS. Panelists concluded that SS is appropriate for 85% (63), uncertain for 15% (11), and inappropriate for 0% of scenarios. Panelists determined that SS is necessary in all scenarios deemed appropriate. SS was deemed necessary for infants <6 months old and for children <24 months old with subdural hemorrhage that is not tiny and under a skull fracture. For children 6 to 23 months old with epidural hemorrhage, necessity of SS depended on the child's age, history of trauma, signs/symptoms, and ICH characteristics. The resulting clinical guidelines call for near-universal evaluation in children <24 months old presenting with ICH. Detailed, validated guidelines that are successfully implemented may decrease variation and disparities in care. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities induced by α/β arteether on developing chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishram Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malaria continues to be one of the India's leading public health problem.α/β artether is one of the most common antimalarial drug used worldwide to treat chloroquine resistant malaria and malaria falciparum. The present study was designed to assess the teratogenic effects of α/β artether on developing chick embryo. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 300 fertilized eggs of white leg horn chicken.The eggs were divided in to five experimental groups A, B, C, D, E having 30 eggs each and five control groups a,b,c,d,e one each for every experimental group respectively having 30 eggs each. On 5th day of incubation eggs from experimental groups A, B, C, D and E were exposed to α/β artether with dose of 0.00039 mg, 0.000585 mg, 0.00078 mg, 0.00097 mg and 0.00117 mg whereas the control groups were treated with same amount of normal saline. Results: The results showed growth retardation and some significant morphological abnormalities like scanty feathers, subcutaneous hemorrhage and skeletal abnormalities like poor ossification of the bones, kyphosis and lordosis. Discussion: The drug is toxic specially when used in higher dose and for a long period. At present there is no alternative drug available for the treatment of chloroquine resistant malaria and malaria falciparum except α/β artether. Therefore α/β artether and other artemisinins should be used only after establishment of proper diagnosis in recommended dose only not in higher dose and not for a long duration.

  15. Development of skeletal system for mesh-type ICRP reference adult phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Wang, Zhao Jun; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Beom Sun; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-10-01

    The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations. In order to address the limitations of the ICRP-110 phantoms, an ICRP Task Group has been recently formulated and the voxel phantoms are now being converted to a high-quality mesh format. As a part of the conversion project, in the present study, the skeleton models, one of the most important and complex organs of the body, were constructed. The constructed skeleton models were then tested by calculating red bone marrow (RBM) and endosteum dose coefficients (DCs) for broad parallel beams of photons and electrons and comparing the calculated values with those of the original ICRP-110 phantoms. The results show that for the photon exposures, there is a generally good agreement in the DCs between the mesh-type phantoms and the original voxel-type ICRP-110 phantoms; that is, the dose discrepancies were less than 7% in all cases except for the 0.03 MeV cases, for which the maximum difference was 14%. On the other hand, for the electron exposures (⩽4 MeV), the DCs of the mesh-type phantoms deviate from those of the ICRP-110 phantoms by up to ~1600 times at 0.03 MeV, which is indeed due to the improvement of the skeletal anatomy of the developed skeleton mesh models.

  16. Presentation : Development of an age-specific genome-scale model of skeletal muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabbia, A.; van Riel, N.A.W.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal myocytes are among the most metabolically active cell types, implicated in nutrient balance, contributing to the insulin-stimulated clearance of glucose from the blood, and secreting myokines that contribute in regulating inflammation and the ageing process. The loss of muscle mass and

  17. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  18. The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Landewé, R

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate and refine two sets of candidate criteria for the classification/diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: All Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) members were invited to include consecutively new patients with chronic (> or =3 months) back...... pain of unknown origin that began before 45 years of age. The candidate criteria were first tested in the entire cohort of 649 patients from 25 centres, and then refined in a random selection of 40% of cases and thereafter validated in the remaining 60%. RESULTS: Upon diagnostic work-up, axial Sp...

  19. The role of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J; Prasannarong, Mujalin

    2013-09-25

    The canonical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involves the initial action of renin to cleave angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (ANG I), which is then converted to ANG II by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ANG II plays a critical role in numerous physiological functions, and RAS overactivity underlies many conditions of cardiovascular dysregulation. In addition, ANG II, by acting on both endothelial and myocellular AT1 receptors, can induce insulin resistance by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity. This insulin resistance associated with RAS overactivity, when coupled with progressive ß-cell dysfunction, eventually leads to the development of type 2 diabetes. Interventions that target RAS overactivity, including ACE inhibitors, ANG II receptor blockers, and, most recently, renin inhibitors, are effective both in reducing hypertension and in improving whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin action, due at least in part to enhanced Akt-dependent insulin signaling and insulin-dependent glucose transport activity. ANG-(1-7), which is produced from ANG II by the action of ACE2 and acts via Mas receptors, can counterbalance the deleterious actions of the ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor axis on the insulin-dependent glucose transport system in skeletal muscle. This beneficial effect of the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis appears to depend on the activation of Akt. Collectively, these findings underscore the importance of RAS overactivity in the multifactorial etiology of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and provide support for interventions that target the RAS to ameliorate both cardiovascular dysfunctions and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Notchless is required for axial skeleton formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Beck-Cormier

    Full Text Available Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila (Nle1 is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2(tm1(creSor mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2(Cre transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.

  1. Notchless is required for axial skeleton formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Escande, Marie; Souilhol, Céline; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila) (Nle1) is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2(tm1(cre)Sor) mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2(Cre) transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.

  2. Role of Active Contraction and Tropomodulins in Regulating Actin Filament Length and Sarcomere Structure in Developing Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelet, Lise; Parker, Matthew O; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Ashworth, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Whilst it is recognized that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1 (ts25) ) which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors) in the muscle and pharmacological immobilization of embryos with a reversible anesthetic (Tricaine), allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anesthetized fish) and recovery of movement (reversal of anesthetic treatment). The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17 and 24 hours post-fertilization, hpf) on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localization of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 & 4 (Tmod) in fish aged from 17 hpf until 42 hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post-fertilization (dpf). Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf) resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralyzed fish by 42 hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organization is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localization of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  3. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  4. STIM1 as a key regulator for Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal-muscle development and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiviluoto Santeri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stromal interaction molecules (STIM were identified as the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER Ca2+ sensor controlling store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE and Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels in non-excitable cells. STIM proteins target Orai1-3, tetrameric Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane. Structure-function analysis revealed the molecular determinants and the key steps in the activation process of Orai by STIM. Recently, STIM1 was found to be expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle controlling muscle function and properties. Novel STIM targets besides Orai channels are emerging. Here, we will focus on the role of STIM1 in skeletal-muscle structure, development and function. The molecular mechanism underpinning skeletal-muscle physiology points toward an essential role for STIM1-controlled SOCE to drive Ca2+/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT-dependent morphogenetic remodeling programs and to support adequate sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR Ca2+-store filling. Also in our hands, STIM1 is transiently up-regulated during the initial phase of in vitro myogenesis of C2C12 cells. The molecular targets of STIM1 in these cells likely involve Orai channels and canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels TRPC1 and TRPC3. The fast kinetics of SOCE activation in skeletal muscle seem to depend on the triad-junction formation, favoring a pre-localization and/or pre-formation of STIM1-protein complexes with the plasma-membrane Ca2+-influx channels. Moreover, Orai1-mediated Ca2+ influx seems to be essential for controlling the resting Ca2+ concentration and for proper SR Ca2+ filling. Hence, Ca2+ influx through STIM1-dependent activation of SOCE from the T-tubule system may recycle extracellular Ca2+ losses during muscle stimulation, thereby maintaining proper filling of the SR Ca2+ stores and muscle function. Importantly, mouse models for dystrophic pathologies, like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, point towards an

  5. The role of mitochondrial DNA damage at skeletal muscle oxidative stress on the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Julia Matzenbacher; de Oliveira, Denise Silva; Moreli, Marcos Lazaro; Benite-Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida

    2018-04-20

    Reduced cellular response to insulin in skeletal muscle is one of the major components of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mitochondrial dysfunction involves in the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the involvement of mitochondrial DNA damage at ROS generation in skeletal muscle during development of T2D. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 60% fat over 8 weeks and at day 14 a single injection of STZ (25 mg/kg) was administered (T2D-induced). Control rats received standard food and an injection of citrate buffer. Blood and soleus muscle were collected. Abdominal fat was quantified as well as glucose, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in plasma and mtDNA copy number, cytochrome b (cytb) mRNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-isoprostane (a marker of ROS) in soleus muscle. T2D-induced animal presented similar characteristics to humans that develop T2D such as changes in blood glucose, abdominal fat, LDL, HDL and cholesterol total. In soleus muscle 8-isoprostane, mtDNA copy number and 8-hydroxyguanosine were increased, while cytb mRNA was decreased in T2D. Our results suggest that in the development of T2D, when risks factors of T2D are present, intracellular oxidative stress increases in skeletal muscle and is associated with a decrease in cytb transcription. To overcome this process mtDNA increased but due to the proximity of ROS generation, mtDNA remains damaged by oxidation leading to an increase in ROS in a vicious cycle accounting to the development of insulin resistance and further T2D.

  6. Role and Mechanisms of Actions of Thyroid Hormone on the Skeletal Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ha-Young; Mohan, Subburaman

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone axis in the regulation of skeletal growth and maintenance has been well established from clinical studies involving patients with mutations in proteins that regulate synthesis and/or actions of thyroid hormone. Data from genetic mouse models involving disruption and overexpression of components of the thyroid hormone axis also provide direct support for a key role for thyroid hormone in the regulation of bone metabolism. Thyroid hormone regulates prolifer...

  7. Constitutive activation of IKK2/NF-κB impairs osteogenesis and skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Swarnkar

    Indian hedgehog and alkaline phosphatase, and the early markers Aggrecan and type-II collagen were reduced in Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f mice. Altogether, the in-vitro, in vivo and ex-vivo evidence suggest that IKK2ca perturbs osteoblast and chondrocyte maturation and impairs skeletal development.

  8. Development of an in vitro potency assay for human skeletal muscle derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Marco; Asim, Faheem; Garczarczyk-Asim, Dorota; Janke, Katrin; Deutsch, Martin; Margreiter, Eva; Troppmair, Jakob; Marksteiner, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Potency is a quantitative measure of the desired biological function of an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) and is a prerequisite for market approval application (MAA). To assess the potency of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (SMDCs), which are currently investigated in clinical trials for the regeneration of skeletal muscle defects, we evaluated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is expressed in skeletal muscle and nervous tissue of all mammals. CD56+ SMDCs were separated from CD56- SMDCs by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and both differentiated in skeletal muscle differentiation medium. AChE activity of in vitro differentiated SMDCs was correlated with CD56 expression, fusion index, cell number, cell doubling numbers, differentiation markers and compared to the clinical efficacy in patients treated with SMDCs against fecal incontinence. CD56- SMDCs did not form multinucleated myotubes and remained low in AChE activity during differentiation. CD56+ SMDCs generated myotubes and increased in AChE activity during differentiation. AChE activity was found to accurately reflect the number of CD56+ SMDCs in culture, their fusion competence, and cell doubling number. In patients with fecal incontinence responding to SMDCs treatment, the improvement of clinical symptoms was positively linked with the AChE activity of the SMDCs injected. AChE activity was found to truly reflect the in vitro differentiation status of SMDCs and to be superior to the mere use of surface markers as it reflects not only the number of myogenic SMDCs in culture but also their fusion competence and population doubling number, thus combining cell quality and quantification of the expected mode of action (MoA) of SMDCs. Moreover, the successful in vitro validation of the assay proves its suitability for routine use. Most convincingly, our results demonstrate a link between clinical efficacy and the AChE activity of the SMDCs preparations used for the treatment of fecal

  9. Development of micro-scale axial and radial turbines for low-temperature heat source driven organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jubori, Ayad; Daabo, Ahmed; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Ennil, Ali Bahr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One and three-dimensional analysis with real gas properties are integrated. • Micro axial and radial-inflow turbines configurations are investigated. • Five organic working fluids are considered. • The maximum total isentropic efficiency of radial-inflow turbine 83.85%. • The maximum ORC thermal efficiency based on radial-inflow turbine is 10.60%. - Abstract: Most studies on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) focused on parametric studies and selection working fluids to maximize the performance of organic Rankine cycle but without attention for turbine design features which are crucial to achieving them. The rotational speed, expansion ratio, mass flow rate and turbine size have markedly effect on turbine performance. For this purpose organic Rankine cycle modeling, mean-line design and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis were integrated for both micro axial and radial-inflow turbines with five organic fluids (R141b, R1234yf, R245fa, n-butane and n-pentane) for realistic low-temperature heat source <100 °C like solar and geothermal energy. Three-dimensional simulation is performed using ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX where three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model. Both configurations of turbines are designed at wide range of mass flow rate (0.1–0.5) kg/s for each working fluid. The results showed that n-pentane has the highest performance at all design conditions where the maximum total-to-total efficiency and power output of radial-inflow turbine are 83.85% and 8.893 kW respectively. The performance of the axial turbine was 83.48% total-to-total efficiency and 8.507 kW power output. The maximum overall size of axial turbine was 64.685 mm compared with 70.97 mm for radial-inflow turbine. R245fa has the lowest overall size for all cases. The organic Rankine cycle thermal efficiency was about 10.60% with radial-inflow turbine and 10.14% with axial turbine

  10. Improvement of maternal vitamin D status with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol positively impacts porcine fetal skeletal muscle development and myoblast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, E A; Coffey, J D; Starkey, C W; Chung, T K; Starkey, J D

    2013-09-01

    There is little information available regarding the influence of maternal vitamin D status on fetal skeletal muscle development. Therefore, we investigated the effect of improved vitamin D status resulting from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation of dams on fetal skeletal muscle developmental characteristics and myoblast activity using Camborough 22 gilts (n = 40) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 corn-soybean meal-based diets. The control diet (CTL) contained 2,500 IU cholecalciferol (D3)/kg diet, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 IU D3/kg diet plus 50 µg 25OHD3/kg diet. Gilts were fed 2.7 kg of their assigned diet once daily beginning 43 d before breeding through d 90 of gestation. On gestational d 90 (± 1), fetal LM and semitendinosus muscle samples were collected for analysis of developmental characteristics and myoblast activity, respectively. No treatment difference was observed in fetal LM cross-sectional area (P = 0.25). Fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts had more LM fibers (P = 0.04) that tended to be smaller in cross-sectional area compared with CTL fetuses (P = 0.11). A numerical increase in the total number of Pax7+ myoblasts was also observed in fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts (P = 0.12). Myoblasts derived from the muscles of fetuses from 25OHD3-fed dams displayed an extended proliferative phase in culture compared with those from fetuses of dams fed only D3 (P importance of maternal vitamin D status on the development of fetal skeletal muscle.

  11. Identification of mechanosensitive genes during skeletal development: alteration of genes associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Rebecca A; Nowlan, Niamh C; Kenny, Elaine M; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Prendergast, Patrick J; Kelly, Daniel; Murphy, Paula

    2014-01-20

    Mechanical stimulation is necessary for regulating correct formation of the skeleton. Here we test the hypothesis that mechanical stimulation of the embryonic skeletal system impacts expression levels of genes implicated in developmentally important signalling pathways in a genome wide approach. We use a mutant mouse model with altered mechanical stimulation due to the absence of limb skeletal muscle (Splotch-delayed) where muscle-less embryos show specific defects in skeletal elements including delayed ossification, changes in the size and shape of cartilage rudiments and joint fusion. We used Microarray and RNA sequencing analysis tools to identify differentially expressed genes between muscle-less and control embryonic (TS23) humerus tissue. We found that 680 independent genes were down-regulated and 452 genes up-regulated in humeri from muscle-less Spd embryos compared to littermate controls (at least 2-fold; corrected p-value ≤0.05). We analysed the resulting differentially expressed gene sets using Gene Ontology annotations to identify significant enrichment of genes associated with particular biological processes, showing that removal of mechanical stimuli from muscle contractions affected genes associated with development and differentiation, cytoskeletal architecture and cell signalling. Among cell signalling pathways, the most strongly disturbed was Wnt signalling, with 34 genes including 19 pathway target genes affected. Spatial gene expression analysis showed that both a Wnt ligand encoding gene (Wnt4) and a pathway antagonist (Sfrp2) are up-regulated specifically in the developing joint line, while the expression of a Wnt target gene, Cd44, is no longer detectable in muscle-less embryos. The identification of 84 genes associated with the cytoskeleton that are down-regulated in the absence of muscle indicates a number of candidate genes that are both mechanoresponsive and potentially involved in mechanotransduction, converting a mechanical stimulus

  12. A multiplexed chip-based assay system for investigating the functional development of human skeletal myotubes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A S T; Long, C J; Pirozzi, K; Najjar, S; McAleer, C; Vandenburgh, H H; Hickman, J J

    2014-09-20

    This report details the development of a non-invasive in vitro assay system for investigating the functional maturation and performance of human skeletal myotubes. Data is presented demonstrating the survival and differentiation of human myotubes on microscale silicon cantilevers in a defined, serum-free system. These cultures can be stimulated electrically and the resulting contraction quantified using modified atomic force microscopy technology. This system provides a higher degree of sensitivity for investigating contractile waveforms than video-based analysis, and represents the first system capable of measuring the contractile activity of individual human muscle myotubes in a reliable, high-throughput and non-invasive manner. The development of such a technique is critical for the advancement of body-on-a-chip platforms toward application in pre-clinical drug development screens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a Stereo Vision Measurement System for a 3D Three-Axial Pneumatic Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lun Hou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

  14. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here - soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  15. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, I. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, B.F. [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital (Denmark); Keeling, J.W. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Electric machines with axial magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuca, I.; Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Turcanu, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper contains information on the performance of axial machines compared to cylindrical ones. At the same time, various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets and asynchronous with short-circuited rotor are presented. In the developed constructions, the aim is to maximize the usage of the material of the stator windings. The design elements of the axial machine magnetic system are presented. The FEMM application depicted the array of the magnetic field of an axial machine.

  17. Dual role of delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) in skeletal muscle development and adult muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Laborda, Jorge; Baladron, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    skeletal muscle regeneration by substantial enhancement of the myogenic program and muscle function, possibly by means of an increased number of available myogenic precursor cells. By contrast, Dlk1 fails to alter the adipogenic commitment of muscle-derived progenitors in vitro, as well as intramuscular......Muscle development and regeneration is tightly orchestrated by a specific set of myogenic transcription factors. However, factors that regulate these essential myogenic inducers remain poorly described. Here, we show that delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1), an imprinted gene best known for its ability...... fat deposition during in vivo regeneration. Collectively, our results suggest a novel and surprising dual biological function of DLK1 as an enhancer of muscle development, but as an inhibitor of adult muscle regeneration....

  18. Influence of nasoalveolar molding on skeletal development in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate at 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Arisan, Arda; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) on skeletal development in patients with operated unilateral cleft lip and palate at 5 years of age. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 26 unilateral cleft lip and palate patients who had undergone presurgical NAM (NAM group) and 20 unilateral cleft lip and palate patients who did not have any presurgical NAM (non-NAM group) were analyzed. The radiographs were digitally traced using Quick Ceph Studio software (version 3.5.1.r (1151); Quick Ceph Systems, San Diego, Calif). Independent samples t tests were performed for statistical analysis. No significant differences were observed in sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements between the NAM and non-NAM groups. NAM resulted in no significant difference in skeletal development in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients compared with those without NAM in early childhood. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development of a low-cost double rotor axial flux motor with soft magnetic composite and ferrite permanent magnet materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Youhua; Guo, Youguang; Lei, Gang; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a low-cost double rotor axial flux motor (DRAFM) with low cost soft magnetic composite (SMC) core and ferrite permanent magnets (PMs). The topology and operating principle of DRAFM and design considerations for best use of magnetic materials are presented. A 905 W 4800 rpm DRAFM is designed for replacing the high cost NdFeB permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in a refrigerator compressor. By using the finite element method, the electromagnetic parameters and performance of the DRAFM operated under the field oriented control scheme are calculated. Through the analysis, it is shown that that the SMC and ferrite PM materials can be good candidates for low-cost electric motor applications.

  20. Development of high-performance and low-noise axial-flow fan units in their local operating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Seung; Ha, Min Ho; Cheong, Cheol Ung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of an axial-flow fan unit are improved by modifying its housing structure without changing the fan blade. The target axial-flow fan system is used to lower temperature of a compressor and a condenser in the machine room of a household refrigerator which has relatively high system resistance due to complex layout of structures inside it. First, the performance of the fan system is experimentally characterized by measuring its volume flow rate versus static pressure using a fan performance tester satisfying the AMCA (Air Movement and Control Association) regulation, AMCA 210-07. The detailed structure of flow driven by the fan is numerically investigated using a virtual fan performance tester based on computational fluid dynamics techniques. The prediction result reveals possible loss due to radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow downstream of the fan. The length of the fan housing is chosen as a design parameter for improving the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the fan unit by reducing the identified radial and tangential velocity components. Three fan units with different housing lengths longer than the original are analyzed using the virtual fan performance tester. The results confirm the improved aerodynamic performance of the proposed three designs. The flow field driven by the proposed fan unit is closely examined to find the causes for the observed performance improvements, which ensures that the radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow are reduced. Finally, the improved performance of the proposed fan systems is validated by comparing the P-Q and efficiency curves measured using the fan performance tester. The noise emission from the household refrigerator is also found to be lessened when the new fan units are installed.

  1. Developmental ossification sequences of the appendicular and axial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pre-hatch developmental study on ossification sequences of axial and appendicular skeletal system in Kuttanad duck embryos was undertaken using 78 viable embryos. From day 3 to day 7 of incubation no ossification densities were seen both by alizarin red staining and computerized radiography. The first indication of ...

  2. Development of Row of Vibration Insulators and its Mathematical Models on a Base of Common Multi-parameter Scheme of Element Axial Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Yury K.

    2018-01-01

    The mathematical model of deformation of a cable (rope) vibration insulator consisting of two identical clips connected by means of elastic elements of a complex axial line is developed in detail. The axial line of the element is symmetric relatively to the horizontal axis of the shape and is made up of five rectilinear sections of arbitrary length a, b, c, conjugated to four radius sections with parameters R1 and R2 with angular extent 90°. On the basis of linear representations of the theory of bending and torsion of mechanics of materials, applied mechanics and linear algebra, a mathematical model of loading of an element and a vibration insulator as a whole in the direction of the vertical Y axis has been developed. Generalized characteristics of the friction and elastic forces for an elastic element with a complete set of the listed sections are obtained. Further, with the help of nullification in the generalized model of the characteristics of certain parameters, special cases of friction and elastic forces are obtained without taking into account the nullified parameters. Simultaneously, on the basis of the 3D computer-aided design system, volumetric models of simplified structures were created, given in the work. It is shown that, with the help of a variation of the five parameters of the axial scheme of the element, in combination with the variation of the moment of inertia of the rope section and the number of elements entering the ensemble, the load characteristics and stiffness of the vibration insulators can be changed tens and hundreds of times. This opens up unlimited possibilities for the optimal design of vibration protection systems in terms of weight characteristics, in cost, in terms of vibration intensity, in overall dimensions in different directions, which is very important for aerospace and transport engineering.

  3. Metabolic reprogramming as a novel regulator of skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, James G

    2013-09-01

    Adult skeletal muscle contains a resident population of stem cells, termed satellite cells, that exist in a quiescent state. In response to an activating signal (such as physical trauma), satellite cells enter the cell cycle and undergo multiple rounds of proliferation, followed by differentiation, fusion, and maturation. Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of this stem cell population has greatly expanded, but there remains a dearth of knowledge with regard to the initiating signal leading to these changes in transcription. The recent renewed interest in the metabolic regulation of both cancer and stem cells, combined with previous findings indicating that satellite cells preferentially colocalize with blood vessels, suggests that satellite cell function may be regulated by changes in cellular metabolism. This review aims to describe what is currently known about satellite cell metabolism during changes in cell fate, as well as to describe some of the exciting findings in other cell types and how these might relate to satellite cells. © 2013 The Author Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  4. A study on the development of normal mandible in children by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yiming; Qiu Weiliu; Shen Guofang; Tang Yousheng; Tian Weijia; Wang Hui; Feng Guowei; Pu Mingfang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the developmental characters of the normal mandible in growing children. Methods: Twenty growing children undergoing skeletal scintigraphic study for isolated bone disease other than bones of the head and neck at hospital and turned out with normal results finally were studied. The 99 Tc m -MDP uptakes in the mandibular condyle, ramus, body and the fourth lumbar vertebra in these cases were quantitated and a ratio of the uptake in the three mandibular regions to that in the fourth lumbar vertebra was obtained. Results: The analysis results showed that the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratios of the three mandibular regions decreased in linear fashion with age increasing and leveled off after age of 20. The regression equations are: the mandibular condyle, Y-circumflex = -0.052 2X + 1.792 8; the mandibular ramus, Y-circumflex = -0.015 1X + 0.766 7; the mandibular body, Y-circumflex = -0.014 2X + 0.741 0. There was no significant difference of the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratio between the two sides of the mandible and between the male and female. Conclusion: The results suggest that the ideal time to undergo orthognathic surgery should be at the age of 20 or so if the circumstance of the deformity is not quite clear

  5. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marco; Muthalib, Makii; Quaresima, Valentina

    2011-11-28

    This article provides a snapshot of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at the end of 2010 summarizing the recent literature, offering the present status and perspectives of the NIRS instrumentation and methods, describing the main NIRS studies on skeletal muscle physiology, posing open questions and outlining future directions. So far, different NIRS techniques (e.g. continuous-wave (CW) and spatially, time- and frequency-resolved spectroscopy) have been used for measuring muscle oxygenation during exercise. In the last four years, approximately 160 muscle NIRS articles have been published on different physiological aspects (primarily muscle oxygenation and haemodynamics) of several upper- and lower-limb muscle groups investigated by using mainly two-channel CW and spatially resolved spectroscopy commercial instruments. Unfortunately, in only 15 of these studies were the advantages of using multi-channel instruments exploited. There are still several open questions in the application of NIRS in muscle studies: (i) whether NIRS can be used in subjects with a large fat layer; (ii) the contribution of myoglobin desaturation to the NIRS signal during exercise; (iii) the effect of scattering changes during exercise; and (iv) the effect of changes in skin perfusion, particularly during prolonged exercise. Recommendations for instrumentation advancements and future muscle NIRS studies are provided.

  6. Improvement of livestock breeding strategies using physiologic and functional genomic information of the muscle regulatory factors gene family for skeletal muscle development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Soumillon, A.

    2001-01-01

    A defined number of skeletal muscle fibers are formed in two separate waves during prenatal development, while postnatal growth is restricted to hypertrophic muscle fiber growth. The genes of the MRF (muscle regulatory factors) gene family, consisting of 4 structurally related transcription factors

  7. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  8. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Shifley, Emily T.; Levorse, John M.; Mani, Shyamala; Ostmann, Kristin; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Walker, Dawn M.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Cole, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Tight regulation of Notch pathway signaling is important in many aspects of embryonic development. Notch signaling can be modulated by expression of fringe genes, encoding glycosyltransferases that modify EGF repeats in the Notch receptor. Although Lunatic fringe (Lfng) has been shown to play important roles in vertebrate segmentation, comparatively little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development. Further, we find that despite significant overlap in expression patterns, we detect no obvious synergistic defects in mice in the absence of two, or all three, fringe genes during development of the axial skeleton, limbs, hindbrain and cranial nerves. PMID:19479951

  9. Biphasic regulation of development of the high-affinity saxitoxin receptor by innervation in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.J.; Catterall, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Specific binding of 3 H-saxitoxin (STX) was used to quantitate the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. In adult triceps surae, a single class of sites with a KD . 2.9 nM and a density of 21 fmol/mg wet wt was detected. The density of these high-affinity sites increased from 2.0 fmol/mg wet wt to the adult value in linear fashion during days 2-25 after birth. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 11 or 17 reduced final saxitoxin receptor site density to 10.4 or 9.2 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively, without changing KD. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 5 did not alter the subsequent development of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 5-9 and accelerated the increase of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 9-13. After day 13, saxitoxin receptor development abruptly ceased and the density of saxitoxin receptor sites declined to 11 fmol/wg wet wt. These results show that the regulation of high-affinity saxitoxin receptor site density by innervation is biphasic. During the first phase, which is independent of continuing innervation, the saxitoxin receptor density increases to 47-57% of the adult level. After day 11, the second phase of development, which is dependent on continuing innervation, gives rise to the adult density of saxitoxin receptors

  10. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  11. Signatures for axial chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    Within the context of basic left-right symmetry and the hypothesis of unification of weak, electromagnetic and strong forces at a mass level approximately equal to 10 4 -10 6 GeV, relatively light ''mass'' axial gluons, confined or liberated, must be postulated. The authors remark that the existence of such ''light'' axial gluons supplementing the familiar vector octet preserves the successes of QCD, both for deep inelastic processes and charmonium physics. Through the characteristic spin-spin force, generated by their exchange, they may even help resolve some of the discrepancies between vector QCD predictions and charmonium physics. The main remark of this note is that if colour is liberated, not only vector but also axial-vector gluons are produced in high-energy e - e + experiments, e.g. at PETRA and PEP, with fairly large cross-section. Distinctive decay modes of such liberated axial gluons are noted

  12. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, C M; Oliver, W T; Wheeler, T L; Chishti, A H; Koohmaraie, M

    2013-07-01

    Myofibrillar protein turnover is a key component of muscle growth and degeneration, requiring proteolytic enzymes to degrade the skeletal muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the calpain proteolytic system in muscle growth development using μ-calpain knockout (KO) mice in comparison with control wild-type (WT) mice, and evaluate the subsequent effects of silencing this gene on other proteolytic systems. No differences in muscle development between genotypes were observed during the early stages of growth due to the up regulation of other proteolytic systems. The KO mice showed significantly greater m-calpain protein abundance (P proteolytic systems to ensure muscle protein homeostasis in vivo. Furthermore, these data contribute to the existing evidence of the importance of the calpain system's involvement in muscle growth, development, and atrophy. Collectively, these data suggest that there are opportunities to target the calpain system to promote the growth and/or restoration of skeletal muscle mass.

  13. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  14. Accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt in comparison to skeletal development: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, MarcosAlan Vieira; Cericato, GrazielaOro; Franco, Ademir; Girão, RafaelaSilva; Lima, Anderson Paulo Barbosa; Paranhos, LuizRenato

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to search for scientific evidence concerning the accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt. It was conducted according to the statements of PRISMA. An electronic search was performed in six databases, including the grey literature. The PICOS strategy was used to define the eligibility criteria and only observational studies were selected. Out of 1,416 identified citations, 10 articles fulfilled the criteria and were included in this systematic review. The association between dental development and skeletal maturity was considered strong in seven studies, and moderate in two, although the association with the pubertal growth spurt had been verified in only four articles. According to half of the studies, the tooth that provided the greater association with the ossification centres was the lower canine. The meta-analysis performed also indicated a positive association, being stronger in females [0.725 (0.649-0.808)]. However, when the method used for dental evaluation was considered, it was possible to verify greater correlation coefficients for Nolla [0.736 (0.666-0.814)] than for Demirjian [0.631 (0.450-0.884)], at the boys sample. The heterogeneity test reached high values (Q = 51.00), suggesting a potential bias within the studies. Most of individual studies suggested a strong correlation between dental development and skeletal maturation, although the association with the peakof pubertal growth spurtwas clearly cited only in some of them. However, due to the high heterogeneity found among the studies included in this meta-analysis, a pragmatic recommendation about the use of dental stages is not possible.

  15. Numerical simulation and analysis of axial instabilities occurrence and development in turbomachines. Application to a break transient in a helium nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauveron, N.

    2006-02-01

    The subject of the present work was to develop models able to simulate axial instabilities occurrence and development in multistage turbomachines. The construction of a 1D unsteady axisymmetric model of internal flow in a turbomachine (at the scale of the row) has followed different steps: generation of steady correlations, adapted to different regimes (off-design conditions, low mass flowrate, negative mass flow rate); building of a model able to describe transient behaviour; use of implicit time schemes adapted to long transients; validation of the model in comparison of experimental investigations, measurements and numerical results from the bibliography. This model is integrated in a numerical tool, which has the capacity to describe the gas dynamics in a complete circuit containing different elements (ducts, valves, plenums). Thus, the complete model can represent the coupling between local and global phenomena, which is a very important mechanism in axial instability occurrence and development. An elementary theory has also been developed, based on a generalisation of Greitzer's model. These models, which were validated on various configurations, have provided complementary elements for the validation of the complete model. They have also allowed a more comprehensive description of physical phenomena at stake in instability occurrence and development by quantifying various effects (inertia, compressibility, performance levels) and underlying the main phenomena (in particular the collapse and recovery kinetics of the plenum), which were the only retained in the final elementary theory. The models were first applied to academic configurations (compression system), and then to an innovative industrial project: a helium cooled fast nuclear reactor with a Brayton cycle. The use of the models have brought comprehensive elements to surge occurrence due to a break event. It has been shown that surge occurrence is highly dependent of break location and that surge

  16. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ''end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified

  17. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of miR-92a-/- mice reveals an important function of miR-92a in skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Penzkofer

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs emerged as key regulators of gene expression. Germline hemizygous deletion of the gene that encodes the miR-17∼92 miRNA cluster was associated with microcephaly, short stature and digital abnormalities in humans. Mice deficient for the miR-17∼92 cluster phenocopy several features such as growth and skeletal development defects and exhibit impaired B cell development. However, the individual contribution of miR-17∼92 cluster members to this phenotype is unknown. Here we show that germline deletion of miR-92a in mice is not affecting heart development and does not reduce circulating or bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, but induces skeletal defects. MiR-92a-/- mice are born at a reduced Mendelian ratio, but surviving mice are viable and fertile. However, body weight of miR-92a-/- mice was reduced during embryonic and postnatal development and adulthood. A significantly reduced body and skull length was observed in miR-92a-/- mice compared to wild type littermates. µCT analysis revealed that the length of the 5th mesophalanx to 5th metacarpal bone of the forelimbs was significantly reduced, but bones of the hindlimbs were not altered. Bone density was not affected. These findings demonstrate that deletion of miR-92a is sufficient to induce a developmental skeletal defect.

  19. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports re......, which may aid to clarify the thinking of coaches and sports scientists in this area....

  20. Modernity: A new axial (era culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schluchter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposition of an axial age, lasting roughly from 800 to 200 B.C. and occurring in major civilizations (China, India, Near East independent of each other, first introduced by Alfred Weber and Karl Jaspers, then further developed by Robert Bellah and S. N. Eisenstadt among others, implied from the outset the question whether there has been a second axial age, leading to modernity, and if so, whether this second axial age consists in a secularization of the achievements of the first axial age. In this article it is argued that the notion of a second axial age is meaningful, but that the emergence of modernity can›t be accounted for in terms of secularization of the achievements of the first axial age. Rather, a new axial principle was institutionalized which separates the modern from the premodern world. This new principle is spelled out with reference to Hans Blumenberg, Charles Taylor and especially Max Weber. The emphasis is on the dialectics of disenchantment and the place of religion in a secular age

  1. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Ignacio [Musculoskeletal Research Fellow at NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Centro de Diagnostico Dr. Enrique Rossi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenberg, Zehava [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zember, Jonathan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  2. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Ignacio; Rosenberg, Zehava; Zember, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  3. Axial forces in centrifugal compressor couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanov, N. M.; Yun, V. K.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of the theoretical and experimental investigation of axial forces arising in the toothed and plate couplings of centrifugal compressor shaft lines. Additional loads on the thrust bearing are considered that can develop in the toothed couplings as a result of coupled rotors misalignment. Design relationships to evaluate the level of axial forces and recommendations for their reduction in the operating conditions are given.

  4. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  5. The significance of measuring serum IGF1, IGFBP3 and OST for the judgement of abnormal skeletal development and therapeutic monitoring in precocious children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhiying; Zhao Ruifang; Lv Xiaomei; Gu Fanlei; Cai Depei

    2004-01-01

    monitoring on delaying skeletal maturity and ameliorating skeletal development that to re-examine the change of serum IGF 1 and OST at regular intervals during treatment course

  6. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  7. Disruption of Msx-1 and Msx-2 reveals roles for these genes in craniofacial, eye, and axial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst-Potts, L; Sadler, T W

    1997-05-01

    In mouse embryos, the muscle segment homeobox genes, Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed during critical stages of neural tube, neural crest, and craniofacial development, suggesting that these genes play important roles in organogenesis and cell differentiation. Although the patterns of expression are intriguing, little is known about the function of these genes in vertebrate embryonic development. Therefore, the expression of both genes, separately and together, was disrupted using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and whole embryo culture techniques. Antisense attenuation of Msx-1 during early stages of neurulation produced hypoplasia of the maxillary, mandibular, and frontonasal prominences, eye anomalies, and somite and neural tube abnormalities. Eye defects consisted of enlarged optic vesicles, which may ultimately result in micropthalmia similar to that observed in Small eye mice homozygous for mutations in the Pax-6 gene. Histological sections and SEM analysis revealed a thinning of the neuroepithelium in the diencephalon and optic vesicle and mesenchymal deficiencies in the craniofacial region. Injections of Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides produced similar malformations as those targeting Msx-1, with the exception that there was an increase in number and severity of neural tube and somite defects. Embryos injected with the combination of Msx-1 + Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides showed no novel abnormalities, suggesting that the genes do not operate in a redundant manner.

  8. Development of a hysteresis model for R/C columns subjected to bi-axial lateral loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Sekhar Chandra; Chowdhury, Rajib; Roy, Raghupati; Reddy, G. Rami

    2003-01-01

    Recent investigations on dynamic response of reinforced concrete (R/C) structures have confirmed that the R/C structural members undergo much more inelastic deformation in each of the two mutually perpendicular directions under bi-directional seismic loading, than that observed only under unidirectional ground motion. To predict the seismic response of R/C structure with fair accuracy demands, a faithful model that can incorporate the effect of biaxial bending interaction in column. This model should not have high computational demand but should adequately reflect the stiffness degrading and strength deterioration characteristics of R/C structural members. Present study is an effort to develop such a bi-directional hysteresis model accounting the effect of interaction between lateral loadings in two orthogonal directions. The development of the present model is based on the yield surface approach and it can incorporate both strength and stiffness degradation characteristics, which is unavoidable in R/C structures during cyclic loading. The performance of the proposed model/ is demonstrated through the prediction of available experimental results of a reinforced concrete column, subjected to biaxial loading. (author)

  9. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Spieker

    Full Text Available Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS. Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37. AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA, respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB and Alizarin red (AR stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein.

  10. Expression and Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 beta in Developing and Mature Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperman, Yael; Issler, Orna; Vaughan, Joan; Bilezikjian, Louise; Vale, Wylie; Chen, Alon

    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (SM) tissue where it is suggested to inhibit interactions between insulin signaling pathway components affecting whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about factors regulating SM CRFR2

  11. Development of electrical excited CO2-laser with transversal gas flow as well an axial flowed CO2-laser for material treatment, in particular for cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollermann-Windgasse, R.; Ackermann, F.

    1987-04-01

    The project describes the development of a new generation of CO 2 -lasers using high frequency discharge (13.56 MHz) for laser excitation by capacitive dielectrical input. HF-excitation has a lot of advantages compared with direct current technology, these are higher electrical input power into the plasma, better homogeneity and stability of discharges. In addition to this, HF-excitation shows excellent possibilities for pulsing and modulation. As a result of this, there are compact powerful laser systems with the possibility of scaling up to the multi-kW-range. The examination included fast transversal flowed as well as fast axial flowed systems. In the end of this project development prototypes with laser output power of 1000 W, 1500 W and 3000 W were available. Detailed attempts of application show that these lasers on grounds of excellent laser output quality and controlability of laser power specifically to each process make possible new ways for material treatment by laser. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Skeletal coccidioidomycosis: imaging findings in 19 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeppa, M.A.; Greenspan, A.; McGahan, J.P.; Laorr, A.; Steinbach, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and radiologic appearance of skeletal coccidioidomycosis in 19 documented cases. Medical records of 19 patients with clinically confirmed skeletal occidioidomycosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were studied with plain radiography, skeletal scintigraphy and MRI. Multiple lesions were seen in 11 of 19 patients (58%). Of a total of 46 lesions, 27 (59%) were described as punched-out lytic, 10 (22%) as permeative/destructive, and 9 (17%) as involving a joint and/or disk space. Lesions were identified in almost every bone (with the exception of the facial bones, ulna, carpus, and fibula) and were most commonly found in the axial skeleton (20 of 46; 43%). Plain radiographs are effective in the initial evaluation of bones and joints, scintigraphic studies can identify disseminated disease, and CT and MRI are effective in determining soft tissue involvement and spinal abnormalities. (orig./MG)

  13. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  14. Ethnic Differences in Peripheral Skeletal Development Among Urban South African Adolescents: A Ten-Year Longitudinal pQCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbuchner, Simon M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2017-12-01

    There are no longitudinal pQCT data of bone growth and development from sub-Saharan Africa, where rapid environmental, societal, and economic transitions are occurring, and where fracture rates are predicted to rise. The aim of this study was to compare skeletal development in black and white South African adolescents using longitudinal data from the Birth to Twenty study. The Birth to Twenty Bone Health subcohort consisted of 543 adolescents (261 [178 black] girls, 282 [201 black] boys). Annual pQCT measurements of the radial and tibial metaphysis and diaphysis were obtained between ages 12 and 22 years (distal metaphysis: cross-sectional area [CSA] and trabecular bone mineral density [BMD]; diaphysis: total and cortical CSA, cortical BMD, and polar stress-strain index [SSIp]). Age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated to account for differences in maturational timing between ethnic groups and sexes. Mixed-effects models were used to describe trajectories for each pQCT outcome. Likelihood-ratio tests were used to summarize the overall difference in trajectories between black and white participants within each sex. APHV (mean ± SD years) was similar in black (11.8 ± 0.8) and white (12.2 ± 1.0) girls, but delayed in black (14.2 ± 1.0) relative to white boys (13.3 ± 0.8). By 4 years post-APHV, white adolescents had significantly greater cortical CSA and SSIp than black adolescents at the radius. There were no significant differences at the radial metaphysis but there was some divergence, such that black adolescents had greater radial trabecular BMD by the end of follow-up. At the tibia, white adolescents had lower diaphyseal CSA and SSIp, and greater metaphyseal CSA. There was no ethnic difference in tibial trabecular BMD. There are ethnic differences in bone growth and development, independent of maturation, in South African adolescents. This work gives new insights into the possible etiology of childhood fractures, which occur most

  15. On renormalization of axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that multiplicative renormalization of the axial singlet current results in renormalization of the axial anomaly in all orders of perturbation theory. It is a necessary condition for the Adler - Bardeen theorem being valid. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Axial tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An axial tomographic system is described comprising axial tomographic means for collecting sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption of a number of beams of penetrating radiation through a planar slice of an object. It includes means to locate an object to be analyzed, a source and detector for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector, and means to rotate (and optionally translate) the source as well as means to process the collected sets of data. Data collection, data processing, and data display can each be conducted independently of each other. An additional advantage of the system described is that the raw data (i.e., the originally collected data) are not destroyed by the data processing but instead are retained intact for further reference or use, if needed

  17. Inverse axial mounting stiffness design for lithographic projection lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-quan, Yuan; Hong-bo, Shang; Wei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In order to balance axial mounting stiffness of lithographic projection lenses and the image quality under dynamic working conditions, an easy inverse axial mounting stiffness design method is developed in this article. Imaging quality deterioration at the wafer under different axial vibration levels is analyzed. The desired image quality can be determined according to practical requirements, and axial vibrational tolerance of each lens is solved with the damped least-squares method. Based on adaptive interval adjustment, a binary search algorithm, and the finite element method, the axial mounting stiffness of each lens can be traveled in a large interval, and converges to a moderate numerical solution which makes the axial vibrational amplitude of the lens converge to its axial vibrational tolerance. Model simulation is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Phase II CRADA ORNL99-0568 Report : Developing Transmission-Less Inverter Drive Systems for Axial-Gap Permanent magnet Accessory and Traction Motors and Generators; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) Power Electronics and Electric Machine Research Center (PEEMRC) collaborated with Visual Computing Systems (VCS) to develop an electric axial-gap permanent magnet (PM) motor controlled by a self-sensing inverter for driving vehicle accessories such as power steering, air conditioning, and brakes. VCS designed an 8 kW motor based on their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) technology. ORNL designed a 10 kW inverter to fit within the volume of a housing, which had been integrated with the motor. This modular design was pursued so that multiple modules could be used for higher power applications. ORNL built the first inverter under the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) ORNL 98-0514 and drove a refurbished Delta motor with no load during the Merit Review at ORNL on Monday, May 17, 1999. Inverter circuitry and instructions for assembling the inverters were sent to VCS. A report was prepared and delivered during the Future Car Congress in April 2000, at Arlington, Virginia. Collaboration continued under CRADA ORNL 99-0568 as VCS designed and built a SEMA motor with a dual coil platter to be the traction motor for an electric truck. VCS and ORNL assembled two 45 kW inverters. Each inverter drove one coil, which was designed to deliver 15 kW continuous power and 45 kW peak power for 90 s. The vehicle was road tested as part of the Future Truck Competition. A report was prepared and delivered during the PCIM in October 2000, at Boston, Massachusetts

  19. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  20. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B andW 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001)

  1. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  2. The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II): validation and final selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudwaleit, M.; van der Heijde, D.; Landewé, R.; Listing, J.; Akkoc, N.; Brandt, J.; Braun, J.; Chou, C. T.; Collantes-Estevez, E.; Dougados, M.; Huang, F.; Gu, J.; Khan, M. A.; Kirazli, Y.; Maksymowych, W. P.; Mielants, H.; Sørensen, I. J.; Ozgocmen, S.; Roussou, E.; Valle-Oñate, R.; Weber, U.; Wei, J.; Sieper, J.

    2009-01-01

    To validate and refine two sets of candidate criteria for the classification/diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). All Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) members were invited to include consecutively new patients with chronic (> or =3 months) back pain of unknown

  3. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  4. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

  5. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

  6. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  7. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haushofer, R.

    1982-01-01

    330 patients were examined by skeletal scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate and sup(99m)methylene diphosphonate in the years between 1977 and 1979. Course control examinations were carried out in 12 patients. The collective of patients presented with primary skeletal tumours, metastases, inflammatory and degenerative skeletal diseases. Bone scintiscanning combined with the ''region of interest'' technique was found to be an objective and reproducible technique for quantitative measurement of skeletal radioactivity concentrations. The validity of nuclear skeletal examinations can thus be enhanced as far as diagnosis, course control, and differential diagnosis are concerned. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning by means of the ''region of interest'' technique has opened up a new era in skeletal diagnosis by nuclear methods. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Development and refinement of computer-assisted planning and execution system for use in face-jaw-teeth transplantation to improve skeletal and dento-occlusal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Sepehr; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R

    2016-10-01

    To describe the development and refinement of the computer-assisted planning and execution (CAPE) system for use in face-jaw-teeth transplants (FJTTs). Although successful, some maxillofacial transplants result in suboptimal hybrid occlusion and may require subsequent surgical orthognathic revisions. Unfortunately, the use of traditional dental casts and splints pose several compromising shortcomings in the context of FJTT and hybrid occlusion. Computer-assisted surgery may overcome these challenges. Therefore, the use of computer-assisted orthognathic techniques and functional planning may prevent the need for such revisions and improve facial-skeletal outcomes. A comprehensive CAPE system for use in FJTT was developed through a multicenter collaboration and refined using plastic models, live miniature swine surgery, and human cadaver models. The system marries preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative execution by allowing on-table navigation of the donor fragment relative to recipient cranium, and real-time reporting of patient's cephalometric measurements relative to a desired dental-skeletal outcome. FJTTs using live-animal and cadaveric models demonstrate the CAPE system to be accurate in navigation and beneficial in improving hybrid occlusion and other craniofacial outcomes. Future refinement of the CAPE system includes integration of more commonly performed orthognathic/maxillofacial procedures.

  9. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: methods to form skeletal myotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined.

  10. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

  11. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaban, L.B.; Cisneros, G.J.; Heyman, S.; Treves, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  12. Skeletal and reticuloendothelial imaging in osteopetrosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Lambertus, J.

    1977-01-01

    Skeletal and reticuloendothelial images, using Tc-99m HEDP and Tc-99m sulfur colloid, respectively, were obtained from two adult patients with osteopetrosis. Skeletal images demonstrated increased activity in multiple fracture sites, in mandibular osteomyelitis, in ends of splayed long bones adjacent to joints, and in the epiphyseal ends of short tubular bones. The remainder of the skeleton involved with osteopetrosis showed no generalized increased uptake of Tc-99m HEDP. These findings indicate that metabolic activity in this disease is abnormally increased in the usual areas of bone growth but appears normal elsewhere. Reticuloendothelial imaging showed an almost total lack of activity in the axial and peripheral skeletal marrow space. Anemia, however, was only moderate in these patients. Skeletal scintigraphy may be useful to evaluate the presence and extent of the frequent complications of osteopetrosis, namely fractures and osteomyelitis

  13. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  14. Prenatal programming of skeletal development in the offspring: effects of maternal treatment with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on femur properties in pigs at slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Sliwa, Ewa; Krupski, Witold

    2007-06-01

    Alteration in fetal growth and development in response to prenatal environmental conditions such as nutrition has long-term or permanent effects during postnatal life. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) treatment of sows during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy on programming of skeletal development in the offspring. The study was performed on 141 pigs born by 12 sows of Polish Landrace breed. Two weeks before delivery, pregnant sows were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of control sows (N=6) that were treated with placebo. Sows that were orally treated with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (N=6) at the dosage of 0.05 g/kg of body weight per day belonged to the second group. Newborn piglets were weighed and subjected to blood collection for determination of serum levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, leptin, glucose and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity and lipid profile. At the age of 6 months, the piglets were slaughtered, their femur was isolated for analysis and assessment of lean meat content of carcasses was performed. The effects of maternal administration with HMB on skeletal properties in the offspring were evaluated in relation to bone mineral density and geometrical and mechanical properties. Maternal treatment with HMB increased serum levels of GH, IGF-1 and BAP activity in the newborns by 38.0%, 20.0% and 26.0%, respectively (PHMB administration significantly increased volumetric bone mineral density of the trabecular and cortical bone of femur in the offspring at the age of 6 months (PHMB treatment (PHMB induced higher values of maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength of femur (PHMB-treated sows (PHMB has positive long-term effects on bone tissue and improves volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and mechanical properties of femur in the offspring. These effects were connected with increased level of GH and IGF-1 in the

  15. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  16. Characterisation of plasmas produced by the "Torche a Injection Axiale"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, J.; Selen, L.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Regt, de J.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.; Schram, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Torche a Injection Axiale (TIA), i.e. torch with axial gas injection, was developed by the group of Moisan in 1993. We report on the investigations on two different kind of plasmas created by the TIA: one with helium and the other with argon as main gas. Using absolute

  17. Analysis of thin-walled cylindrical composite shell structures subject to axial and bending loads: Concept development, analytical modeling and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadev, Sthanu

    Continued research and development efforts devoted in recent years have generated novel avenues towards the advancement of efficient and effective, slender laminated fiber-reinforced composite members. Numerous studies have focused on the modeling and response characterization of composite structures with particular relevance to thin-walled cylindrical composite shells. This class of shell configurations is being actively explored to fully determine their mechanical efficacy as primary aerospace structural members. The proposed research is targeted towards formulating a composite shell theory based prognosis methodology that entails an elaborate analysis and investigation of thin-walled cylindrical shell type laminated composite configurations that are highly desirable in increasing number of mechanical and aerospace applications. The prime motivation to adopt this theory arises from its superior ability to generate simple yet viable closed-form analytical solution procedure to numerous geometrically intense, inherent curvature possessing composite structures. This analytical evaluative routine offers to acquire a first-hand insight on the primary mechanical characteristics that essentially govern the behavior of slender composite shells under typical static loading conditions. Current work exposes the robustness of this mathematical framework via demonstrating its potential towards the prediction of structural properties such as axial stiffness and bending stiffness respectively. Longitudinal ply-stress computations are investigated upon deriving the global stiffness matrix model for composite cylindrical tubes with circular cross-sections. Additionally, this work employs a finite element based numerical technique to substantiate the analytical results reported for cylindrically shaped circular composite tubes. Furthermore, this concept development is extended to the study of thin-walled, open cross-sectioned, curved laminated shells that are geometrically

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine for cogeneration); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saisei ichijikushiki jikuryu turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    With an objective to research and develop a 300-kW class regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine having inlet temperature of 1,350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher, activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) heat resistant ceramic members, 2) elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, a mass production technology was discussed on stator blades and heat transfer pipes for a heat exchanger as the component manufacturing technology, and injection molding conditions were studied and mechanical strength measurement was performed on rotor blades of a separate type axial-flow turbine. In addition, a molding condition producing no cracks was discovered in an integrated type axial-flow turbine whose embedded section has a tapered shape, and the mass production technology was discussed. With regard to the bonding technology, preliminary discussions were given on bonding agents under a prerequisite that a bonding agent shall be used. In Item 2, detailed discussions were launched on the turbine, combustor, heat exchanger, and compressor, including shape decision on the turbine, for example, by using aerodynamic analysis, In Item 3, the basic design was performed following the conceptual design, and a metallic turbine was designed. (NEDO)

  19. Lyophilized skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    This invention encompasses a process for producing a dry-powder skeletal imaging kit. An aqueous solution of a diphosphonate, a stannous reductant, and, optionally, a stabilizer is prepared. The solution is adjusted to a pH within the range 4.2 to 4.8 and the pH-adjusted solution is then lyophilized. The adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This improved performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent

  20. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio

    2016-12-22

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  1. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Multiflux Axial Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel; Kyung Kyu-Hyung; Rivarola, Martin; Gonzalez Jose; Florido, Pablo; Orellano, Pablo; Bergallo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the results of analytical models of performance are compared with experimental data acquired in the multi flux axial compressor test facility, built in The Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex for the SIGMA project.We describe the experimental circuit and the data of the dispersion inside the axial compressor obtained using a tracer gas through one of the annular inlets.The attained results can be used to validate the design code for the multi flux axial compressors and SIGMA industrial plant

  3. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  4. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  5. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-08-10

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276-310.

  6. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  7. Skeletal changes in growing spine following radiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spissak, L.; Horniakova, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is given of a group of 20 children after nephrectomy and radiotherapy of Wilms' tumor and of one child following ovariectomy and radiotherapy of a dysgermanoma more than 5 years after the termination of the therapy. Morphological and structural changes were evaluated in the vertebrae as well as axial alterations of the spine. Interrelationships were found between the radiation dose, the patient's age and the degree of the skeletal changes in the spine. The most pronounced morphological, structural and axial changes occurred in children below 4 years treated with radiation doses above 20.0 Gy. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

  8. Investigation on a procedure for optimal axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of a previously developed procedure for control of axial depth of cut in high accuracy micromilling operations, this paper presents an investigation on the estimation of the uncertainty of the set axial depth of cut.......On the basis of a previously developed procedure for control of axial depth of cut in high accuracy micromilling operations, this paper presents an investigation on the estimation of the uncertainty of the set axial depth of cut....

  9. Dissipative axial inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notari, Alessio [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es, E-mail: konrad.tywoniuk@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term φ/ f {sub γ} F ∼ F , such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρ{sub R}, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff f {sub γ}, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if f {sub γ} is smaller than the field excursion φ{sub 0} by about a factor of at least O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4–5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with f {sub γ}. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρ{sub R} rather than φ-dot {sup 2}/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/ f {sub γ} to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/ f {sub G} to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed φ{sub 0∼} f {sub G}.

  10. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance

  11. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  12. Generation of parasitic axial flow by drift wave turbulence with broken symmetry: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, R.; Li, J. C.; Hajjar, R.; Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of intrinsic axial flow generation parallel to the magnetic field in the controlled shear decorrelation experiment linear plasma device with no axial momentum input are presented and compared to theory. The results show a causal link from the density gradient to drift-wave turbulence with broken spectral symmetry and development of the axial mean parallel flow. As the density gradient steepens, the axial and azimuthal Reynolds stresses increase and radially sheared azimuthal and axial mean flows develop. A turbulent axial momentum balance analysis shows that the axial Reynolds stress drives the radially sheared axial mean flow. The turbulent drive (Reynolds power) for the azimuthal flow is an order of magnitude greater than that for axial flow, suggesting that the turbulence fluctuation levels are set by azimuthal flow shear regulation. The direct energy exchange between axial and azimuthal mean flows is shown to be insignificant. Therefore, the axial flow is parasitic to the turbulence-zonal flow system and is driven primarily by the axial turbulent stress generated by that system. The non-diffusive, residual part of the axial Reynolds stress is found to be proportional to the density gradient and is formed due to dynamical asymmetry in the drift-wave turbulence.

  13. Numerical simulation and analysis of axial instabilities occurrence and development in turbomachines. Application to a break transient in a helium nuclear reactor; Simulation numerique et analyse du declenchement et du developpement des instabilites axiales dans les turbomachines: application a un transitoire de breche dans un reacteur nucleaire a helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauveron, N

    2006-02-15

    The subject of the present work was to develop models able to simulate axial instabilities occurrence and development in multistage turbomachines. The construction of a 1D unsteady axisymmetric model of internal flow in a turbomachine (at the scale of the row) has followed different steps: generation of steady correlations, adapted to different regimes (off-design conditions, low mass flowrate, negative mass flow rate); building of a model able to describe transient behaviour; use of implicit time schemes adapted to long transients; validation of the model in comparison of experimental investigations, measurements and numerical results from the bibliography. This model is integrated in a numerical tool, which has the capacity to describe the gas dynamics in a complete circuit containing different elements (ducts, valves, plenums). Thus, the complete model can represent the coupling between local and global phenomena, which is a very important mechanism in axial instability occurrence and development. An elementary theory has also been developed, based on a generalisation of Greitzer's model. These models, which were validated on various configurations, have provided complementary elements for the validation of the complete model. They have also allowed a more comprehensive description of physical phenomena at stake in instability occurrence and development by quantifying various effects (inertia, compressibility, performance levels) and underlying the main phenomena (in particular the collapse and recovery kinetics of the plenum), which were the only retained in the final elementary theory. The models were first applied to academic configurations (compression system), and then to an innovative industrial project: a helium cooled fast nuclear reactor with a Brayton cycle. The use of the models have brought comprehensive elements to surge occurrence due to a break event. It has been shown that surge occurrence is highly dependent of break location and that surge

  14. Numerical simulation and analysis of axial instabilities occurrence and development in turbomachines. Application to a break transient in a helium nuclear reactor; Simulation numerique et analyse du declenchement et du developpement des instabilites axiales dans les turbomachines: application a un transitoire de breche dans un reacteur nucleaire a helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauveron, N

    2006-02-15

    The subject of the present work was to develop models able to simulate axial instabilities occurrence and development in multistage turbomachines. The construction of a 1D unsteady axisymmetric model of internal flow in a turbomachine (at the scale of the row) has followed different steps: generation of steady correlations, adapted to different regimes (off-design conditions, low mass flowrate, negative mass flow rate); building of a model able to describe transient behaviour; use of implicit time schemes adapted to long transients; validation of the model in comparison of experimental investigations, measurements and numerical results from the bibliography. This model is integrated in a numerical tool, which has the capacity to describe the gas dynamics in a complete circuit containing different elements (ducts, valves, plenums). Thus, the complete model can represent the coupling between local and global phenomena, which is a very important mechanism in axial instability occurrence and development. An elementary theory has also been developed, based on a generalisation of Greitzer's model. These models, which were validated on various configurations, have provided complementary elements for the validation of the complete model. They have also allowed a more comprehensive description of physical phenomena at stake in instability occurrence and development by quantifying various effects (inertia, compressibility, performance levels) and underlying the main phenomena (in particular the collapse and recovery kinetics of the plenum), which were the only retained in the final elementary theory. The models were first applied to academic configurations (compression system), and then to an innovative industrial project: a helium cooled fast nuclear reactor with a Brayton cycle. The use of the models have brought comprehensive elements to surge occurrence due to a break event. It has been shown that surge occurrence is highly dependent of break location and that surge

  15. Skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.; Degenhardt, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention is based on the discovery that the adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate-containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This increased performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent. The process for producing a dry-powder imaging kit comprises the steps of: preparing a solution of a diphosphonate carrier, stannous reductant, and a stabilizer in water; adjusting the pH to between 5.5 and 6.5; and lyophilizing the solution

  16. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  17. The skeletal consequences of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jonathan J; Brassill, Mary Jane; Williams, Graham R; Bassett, J H Duncan

    2012-06-01

    Euthyroid status is essential for normal skeletal development and the maintenance of adult bone structure and strength. Established thyrotoxicosis has long been recognised as a cause of high bone turnover osteoporosis and fracture but more recent studies have suggested that subclinical hyperthyroidism and long-term suppressive doses of thyroxine (T4) may also result in decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fracture, particularly in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, large population studies of euthyroid individuals have demonstrated that a hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis set point at the upper end of the normal reference range is associated with reduced BMD and increased fracture susceptibility. Despite these findings, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in bone remain controversial and incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss the role of thyroid hormones in bone and the skeletal consequences of hyperthyroidism.

  18. Axial velocity profiles and secondary flows of developing laminar flows in a straight connected exit region of a 180 .deg. square curved duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hyun Chull; Lee, Heang Nam; Park, Gil Moon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-01

    In the present study, characteristics of steady state laminar flows of a straight duct connected to a 180 .deg. curved duct were examined in the entrance region through experimental and numerical analyses. For the analysis, the governing equations of laminar flows in the Cartesian coordinate system were applied. Flow characteristics such as velocity profiles and secondary flows were investigated numerically and experimentally in a square cross-sectional straight duct by the PIV system and a CFD code (STARCD). For the PIV measurement, smoke particles produced from mosquito coils. The experimental data were obtained at 9 points dividing the test sections by 400 mm. Experimental and numerical results can be summarized as follows. 1) Reynolds number, Re was increased, dimensionless velocity profiles at the outer wall were increased due to the effect of the centrifugal force and secondary flows. 2) The intensity of a secondary flow became stronger at the inner wall rather than the outer wall regardless of Reynolds number. Especially, fluid dynamic phenomenon called conner impact were observed at dimensionless axial position, x/D{sub h}=50.

  19. The four step axial flow compressor of the Technical University of Dresden - development concept and results of flow measurements. Der vierstufige Axialverdichter der TU Dresden - Entwicklungskonzeption und Ergebnisse von Stroemungsmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, P.; Moeeckel, H.; Mueller, R.; Sauer, H.; Wolf, E. (Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany))

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the results obtained from flow-technical investigations at low velocity compressor in Dresden were presented. They were supposed to give little insight on the focus of current research works in the field of axial flow compressors. A detailed solution of the flow structure applying the conventional pneumatic measuring technology as well as the hot-wire, microphone, culite, laser and light-section measuring technology enables to understand flow parameter better and to find approaches for improving power density, efficiency, environmental friendliness and operational stability. The large-scale research plant was constructed in approximately Two and a half years. The low velocity compressor in Dresden constitutes a tool in Germany and Europe that enables the manufacturers of stationary gas turbine plants and steel jet engines to improve various parameters of their products. The MTU in Munich already pointed out this fact in its contribution to the final report on the construction phase. It noted that this plant is going to extend the possibilities of research and development in Europe in the field of aerodynamics of axial flow compressors in an excellent way. (orig.)

  20. Primary sacrococcygeal chordoma with unusual skeletal muscle metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vu, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare neoplasms that do not often metastasize. Of the small percent that do metastasize, they very infrequently involve skeletal muscle. Only a few cases of skeletal muscle metastases have been reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of a patient with a primary sacrococcygeal chordoma who experienced a long period of remission but who subsequently developed recurrence and multiple metastatic lesions to skeletal muscles including the deltoid, triceps, and pectineus.

  1. Development of Correlations for Windage Power Losses Modeling in an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Geometrical Features of the Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rasekh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a set of correlations for the windage power losses in a 4 kW axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (AFPMSM is presented. In order to have an efficient machine, it is necessary to optimize the total electromagnetic and mechanical losses. Therefore, fast equations are needed to estimate the windage power losses of the machine. The geometry consists of an open rotor–stator with sixteen magnets at the periphery of the rotor with an annular opening in the entire disk. Air can flow in a channel being formed between the magnets and in a small gap region between the magnets and the stator surface. To construct the correlations, computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations through the frozen rotor (FR method are performed at the practical ranges of the geometrical parameters, namely the gap size distance, the rotational speed of the rotor, the magnet thickness and the magnet angle. Thereafter, two categories of formulations are defined to make the windage losses dimensionless based on whether the losses are mainly due to the viscous forces or the pressure forces. At the end, the correlations can be achieved via curve fittings from the numerical data. The results reveal that the pressure forces are responsible for the windage losses for the side surfaces in the air-channel, whereas for the surfaces facing the stator surface in the gap, the viscous forces mainly contribute to the windage losses. Additionally, the results of the parametric study demonstrate that the overall windage losses in the machine escalate with an increase in either the rotational Reynolds number or the magnet thickness ratio. By contrast, the windage losses decrease once the magnet angle ratio enlarges. Moreover, it can be concluded that the proposed correlations are very useful tools in the design and optimizations of this type of electrical machine.

  2. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  3. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  4. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  5. A note on axial symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

  6. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

    2002-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  7. Regulation of an antisense RNA with the transition of neonatal to IIb myosin heavy chain during postnatal development and hypothyroidism in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandorf, Clay E; Jiang, Weihua; Qin, Anqi X; Bodell, Paul W; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Haddad, Fadia

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal development of fast skeletal muscle is characterized by a transition in expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, from primarily neonatal MHC at birth to primarily IIb MHC in adults, in a tightly coordinated manner. These isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, which are separated by ∼17 kb on rat chromosome 10. The neonatal-to-IIb MHC transition is inhibited by a hypothyroid state. We examined RNA products [mRNA, pre-mRNA, and natural antisense transcript (NAT)] of developmental and adult-expressed MHC genes (embryonic, neonatal, I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) at 2, 10, 20, and 40 days after birth in normal and thyroid-deficient rat neonates treated with propylthiouracil. We found that a long noncoding antisense-oriented RNA transcript, termed bII NAT, is transcribed from a site within the IIb-Neo intergenic region and across most of the IIb MHC gene. NATs have previously been shown to mediate transcriptional repression of sense-oriented counterparts. The bII NAT is transcriptionally regulated during postnatal development and in response to hypothyroidism. Evidence for a regulatory mechanism is suggested by an inverse relationship between IIb MHC and bII NAT in normal and hypothyroid-treated muscle. Neonatal MHC transcription is coordinately expressed with bII NAT. A comparative phylogenetic analysis also suggests that bII NAT-mediated regulation has been a conserved trait of placental mammals for most of the eutherian evolutionary history. The evidence in support of the regulatory model implicates long noncoding antisense RNA as a mechanism to coordinate the transition between neonatal and IIb MHC during postnatal development.

  8. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (pdetermining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of current stature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Benign notochordal lesions of the axial skeleton: a review and current appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 1996 meeting of the International Skeletal Society, an idea was put forth that there existed symptomatic lesions of the axial skeleton, morphologically different from chordoma, that were consistent with benign notochordal remnants (rests). A review of the embryological basis for this concept is made, along with an analysis of these lesions, termed giant notochordal rests or benign notochordal cell tumors, that have been reported in the intervening 15 years, with a commentary on their relationship, if any, to chordoma. (orig.)

  10. The ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release steps control the time course of force development in rabbit skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, John; Irving, Malcolm; Burton, Kevin

    2005-03-15

    The time course of isometric force development following photolytic release of ATP in the presence of Ca(2+) was characterized in single skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle. Pre-photolysis force was minimized using apyrase to remove contaminating ATP and ADP. After the initial force rise induced by ATP release, a rapid shortening ramp terminated by a step stretch to the original length was imposed, and the time course of the subsequent force redevelopment was again characterized. Force development after ATP release was accurately described by a lag phase followed by one or two exponential components. At 20 degrees C, the lag was 5.6 +/- 0.4 ms (s.e.m., n = 11), and the force rise was well fitted by a single exponential with rate constant 71 +/- 4 s(-1). Force redevelopment after shortening-restretch began from about half the plateau force level, and its single-exponential rate constant was 68 +/- 3 s(-1), very similar to that following ATP release. When fibres were activated by the addition of Ca(2+) in ATP-containing solution, force developed more slowly, and the rate constant for force redevelopment following shortening-restretch reached a maximum value of 38 +/- 4 s(-1) (n = 6) after about 6 s of activation. This lower value may be associated with progressive sarcomere disorder at elevated temperature. Force development following ATP release was much slower at 5 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. The rate constant of a single-exponential fit to the force rise was 4.3 +/- 0.4 s(-1) (n = 22), and this was again similar to that after shortening-restretch in the same activation at this temperature, 3.8 +/- 0.2 s(-1). We conclude that force development after ATP release and shortening-restretch are controlled by the same steps in the actin-myosin ATPase cycle. The present results and much previous work on mechanical-chemical coupling in muscle can be explained by a kinetic scheme in which force is generated by a rapid conformational change bracketed by two

  11. Cladding axial elongation models for FRAP-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Carlson, E.R.; Berna, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the cladding axial elongation models developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for use by the FRAP-T6 computer code in analyzing the response of fuel rods during reactor transients in light water reactors (LWR). The FRAP-T6 code contains models (FRACAS-II subcode) that analyze the structural response of a fuel rod including pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). Recently, four models were incorporated into FRACAS-II to calculate cladding axial deformation: (a) axial PCMI, (b) trapped fuel stack, (c) fuel relocation, and (d) effective fuel thermal expansion. Comparisons of cladding axial elongation measurements from two experiments with the corresponding FRAP-T6 calculations are presented

  12. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  13. Longfin yellowtail (SEriola rivoliana) larval rearing: skeletal development and effects of increasing dietary DHA levels at weaning phase

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Acuicultura: producción controlada de animales acuáticos [EN] Seriola rivoliana is considered as relevant species for aquaculture diversification and the information available is limited. The main objective of the present Thesis was to improve longfin yellowtail (S. rivoliana) larval production. In this sense, three specific objectives were established, in order to evaluate the most appropriate larval rearing technique, the obtention of bone development information a...

  14. Normal axial skeleton structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) and malformations due to radiation contamination in the area of the Mayak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia) nuclear plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogutskaya, N G; Zuykov, M A; Naseka, A M; Anderson, E B

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to describe normal axial skeletal structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus from putative unaffected environmental conditions, and the occurrence of skeletal malformations in the fish from an area under radiation contamination. Specimens were collected from water bodies of the Techa Cascade Reservoirs located near the Mayak atomic industry plant in the River Ob' drainage, Chelyabinsk Province, Russia. One sample was collected from Lake Irtyash, a reservoir of drinkable water, supplying the town of Ozersk, and the other one from a technical reservoir which is a storage of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak and characterized by high radioactive contamination (mostly (90)Sr and (137)Cs). A comparison was made with historical material collected from the River Ob' before the middle of the 20th century, i.e. before the environment became affected by radioactive contamination. A high number of abnormalities of the axial skeleton were detected in both Mayak samples, in 94 and 97% of examined specimens, in contrast to about 20% in the historical specimens. The abnormalities were in both the unpaired fins and the vertebral column, including the caudal complex and included supernumerary elements, fusions, deformities and displacement of the elements. Most axial skeleton abnormalities, however, were minor, such as splitting, shortening or deformation of spines. Severe defects, such as extensive scolioses, lordoses and kyphoses, were not found. The causes of the abnormalities were not identified in this study, but the high incidence of malformations may be attributed to genetically determined imbalance during development. The almost equal distribution of abnormalities among the fish from non-contaminated and radioactive contaminated reservoirs may be explained by either recent gene flow within the population of R. rutilus in the River Techa system or the effect of unknown unfavourable environmental factors such as chemical pollution. © 2011 The Authors

  15. Comparison of femoropopliteal artery stents under axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsion deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleckis, Kaspars; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Sievers, Cole; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason; Kamenskiy, Alexey

    2017-11-01

    High failure rates of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) stenting appear to be associated with the inability of certain stent designs to accommodate severe biomechanical environment of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) that bends, twists, and axially compresses during limb flexion. Twelve Nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Supera, Lifestent, Innova, Zilver, Smart Control, Smart Flex, EverFlex, Viabahn, Tigris, Misago, and Complete SE) were quasi-statically tested under bench-top axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsional deformations. Stents were compared in terms of force-strain behavior, stiffness, and geometrical shape under each deformation mode. Tigris was the least stiff stent under axial compression (6.6N/m axial stiffness) and bending (0.1N/m) deformations, while Smart Control was the stiffest (575.3N/m and 105.4N/m, respectively). Under radial compression Complete SE was the stiffest (892.8N/m), while Smart Control had the lowest radial stiffness (211.0N/m). Viabahn and Supera had the lowest and highest torsional stiffness (2.2μNm/° and 959.2μNm/°), respectively. None of the 12 PAD stents demonstrated superior characteristics under all deformation modes and many experienced global buckling and diameter pinching. Though it is yet to be determined which of these deformation modes might have greater clinical impact, results of the current analysis may help guide development of new stents with improved mechanical characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Traumatic skeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Schofer, O.

    1985-01-01

    Skeleton scintiscanning is indicated in the following cases: (1) Suspected bone injury after clinical examination, the radiograph of the skeletal region in question contributing findings that either do not confirm suspision, or make not clear whether the changes observed are traumatic. (2) Polytrauma. (3) When the accident scenario reported by the persons taking care of the child does not sufficiently explain the skeletal changes observed, or when these persons expressly deny the possibility of a trauma being the cause of findings observed. (4) Suspected or proven battered-child syndrome. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  18. Skeletal MR imaging: Correlation with skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Ford, P.V.; Benson, R.C.; Kerr, R.M.; Boswell, W.D.; Siegel, M.E.; Ralls, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal MR images bone marrow while skeletal scintigraphy uses bone metabolism to demonstrate abnormalities. The purpose of this paper is to correlate these MR and scintigraphic findings. T1 and T2 MR images at 0.5 T were correlated with planar bone scintigraphy (RN) using Tc-99m MDP in 56 patients. Of 23 cases with suspected spinal metastases, 19 were positive by MR imaging, 16 by RN. Individual lesions were shown better by MR imaging in five and by RN in two. These two cases had scoliosis, a potential difficulty with MR imaging. In 14 cases of suspected avascular necrosis (AVN), MR imaging was positive in 13 while RN was positive in ten. One negative case by RN had bilateral AVN by MR imaging. Four skull lesions shown easily by RN were seen only in retrospect on MR images. MR imaging is advantageous in evaluating bones with predominant marrow such as vertebrae or the femoral head, while RN is superior in areas primarily composed of cortical bone such as the skull

  19. Axial magnetic field produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.L.; McMurry, S.M.; Coey, J.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Axial magnetic fields produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent magnet rings were studied. First, the axial magnetic field produced by a current loop is introduced, from which the axial field generated by an infinitely thin solenoid and by an infinitely thin current disk can be derived. Then the axial fields produced by axially and by radially magnetized permanent magnet rings can be obtained. An analytic formula for the axial fields produced by two axially magnetized rings is given. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field is fabricated, the measured results agree with the theoretical calculation very well. As an example, the axial periodic field produced by an arrangement of alternating axially and radially magnetized rings has been discussed

  20. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  1. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S.; Widhalm, P.; Donner, R.; Birngruber, E.; Thodberg, H.H.; Kainberger, F.; Langs, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  2. The developing role of knee MRI in musculo-skeletal radiology: the progression to 3-D imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, following a comprehensive and systematic review of the available literature, is to provide both a historical record of the development of knee MRI and outline its progression to new 'state of the art' three dimensional reconstruction techniques. while preliminary work has been done to qualitatively- explore the application of 3D knee MR in controlled research settings the true clinical value of such applications has not yet been clearly established. lt was found that in the absence of valid research findings, much of the reported work in this area relied heavily on both anecdotal evidence and hypothetical expressions of likelihood. Much work must still be done to validate the reliability and clinical usefulness of this new diagnostic tool. In following with the reports of previous authors, the likely benefits of a 3-D computer reconstructed model of the knee include improved display of complex anatomical relationships, clarification of anatomical structures, clear demonstration of anatomy/pathology for those unfamiliar with tomographic or sectional images,and reduced examination time. Work has also suggested that 3-D MR may allow accurate pre-surgical classification of lesions while facilitating operative planning and real time intra-operative navigation. Other areas of cutting edge research also include applications toward surgical robotics, simulated surgical procedures, tele surgery, bone and prosthesis modeling, and virtual endoscopy/arthroscopy One of the more practical potential benefits of 3-D image displays may lie in assisting the radiologist to communicate the appearance of normal anatomy or pathological processes to other medical staff likely to be less familiar with the interpretation of routine two dimensional images. Such a method may also prove useful in aiding clinicians to convey their diagnoses and means of treatment to patients. It is hoped that this review will provide a base point from which future work can be

  3. Weighted Mean of Signal Intensity for Unbiased Fiber Tracking of Skeletal Muscles: Development of a New Method and Comparison With Other Correction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Chiara; Motyka, Stanislav; Weber, Michael; Resinger, Christoph; Thorsten, Feiweier; Traxler, Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the origin of random image artifacts in stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion tensor imaging (STEAM-DTI), assess the role of averaging, develop an automated artifact postprocessing correction method using weighted mean of signal intensities (WMSIs), and compare it with other correction techniques. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. The right calf and thigh of 10 volunteers were scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using a STEAM-DTI sequence.Artifacts (ie, signal loss) in STEAM-based DTI, presumably caused by involuntary muscle contractions, were investigated in volunteers and ex vivo (ie, human cadaver calf and turkey leg using the same DTI parameters as for the volunteers). An automated postprocessing artifact correction method based on the WMSI was developed and compared with previous approaches (ie, iteratively reweighted linear least squares and informed robust estimation of tensors by outlier rejection [iRESTORE]). Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking metrics, using different averages and artifact corrections, were compared for region of interest- and mask-based analyses. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Greenhouse-Geisser correction and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to evaluate differences among all tested conditions. Qualitative assessment (ie, images quality) for native and corrected images was performed using the paired t test. Randomly localized and shaped artifacts affected all volunteer data sets. Artifact burden during voluntary muscle contractions increased on average from 23.1% to 77.5% but were absent ex vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging metrics (mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity) had a heterogeneous behavior, but in the range reported by literature. Fiber track metrics (number, length, and volume) significantly improved in both calves and thighs after artifact

  4. Brief Communication: Skeletal and dental development in a sub-adult western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joganic, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primate growth trajectories are often used to estimate the age and life history traits of fossil taxa. The exclusive use of chimpanzee growth patterns to estimate developmental stages for the earliest hominins is problematic because incomplete lineage sorting in the hominoid clade has produced a mosaic human genome that contains different regions shared with any one of the great apes. The accidental death of a sub-adult male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) provides not only an opportunity to compare the degree of dentoskeletal maturation in this individual with published data from conspecifics, but also insight into gorilla growth and development as it applies to modeling that of early hominins. Dental stage was assessed for a sub-adult male western lowland gorilla by comparing dental eruption and calcification to established relative age categories. Ectocranial suture fusion, epiphyseal union, and long bone dimensions were compared to growth standards for wild male gorillas of a similar dental stage to determine developmental timing variability. Results suggest that greater variability exists in developmental rates and patterns and in morphological parameters than is often acknowledged. These results have implications for selecting appropriate models for studying extinct taxa. Ecological and physical characteristics shared between humans and gorillas may make gorilla life history equally valid in a comparative framework and encourage non-exclusive use of chimpanzee life history for paleoanthropological models. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Assembly . .. . .... ..... 33 5 Tie Bolt...... .. .. .. .. . *.. .. .. .. .. .. ... 34 6 Axial Compressor Rotor Assembly Runouts . . .. . 34 7 CCV Blow...1.796 Impeller Slip Factor ’Ce2/U 2 ) .91 Impeller Wheel Speed ft/sec 1992.2 Impellet ’.ip Radius in. 3.780 Blade Tip Metal Angle- deg 0 Numbec of Blades...test item to the next Phase V component test. The test vehicle final balance levels and rotor runouts were normal at teardown, and no rubsI were

  6. Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity are elevated at higher muscle temperatures during maximal power output development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; De Vito, Giuseppe; Nimmo, Myra A; Farina, Dario; Ferguson, Richard A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of temperature on skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) was studied during maximal power output development in humans. Eight male subjects performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer under conditions of normal (N) and elevated muscle temperature (ET). Muscle temperature was passively elevated through the combination of hot water immersion and electric blankets. Anaerobic ATP turnover was calculated from analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and immediately after exercise. MFCV was measured during exercise using surface electromyography. Preexercise muscle temperature was 34.2 degrees C (SD 0.6) in N and 37.5 degrees C (SD 0.6) in ET. During ET, the rate of ATP turnover for phosphocreatine utilization [temperature coefficient (Q10) = 3.8], glycolysis (Q10 = 1.7), and total anaerobic ATP turnover [Q10 = 2.7; 10.8 (SD 1.9) vs. 14.6 mmol x kg(-1) (dry mass) x s(-1) (SD 2.3)] were greater than during N (P < 0.05). MFCV was also greater in ET than in N [3.79 (SD 0.47) to 5.55 m/s (SD 0.72)]. Maximal power output (Q10 = 2.2) and pedal rate (Q10 = 1.6) were greater in ET compared with N (P < 0.05). The Q10 of maximal and mean power were correlated (P < 0.05; R = 0.82 and 0.85, respectively) with the percentage of myosin heavy chain type IIA. The greater power output obtained with passive heating was achieved through an elevated rate of anaerobic ATP turnover and MFCV, possibly due to a greater effect of temperature on power production of fibers, with a predominance of myosin heavy chain IIA at the contraction frequencies reached.

  7. Effect of tibial bone resection on the development of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in foetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J M; Williams, N A; Luff, A R; Walker, D W

    2000-04-01

    To determine if longitudinal bone growth affects the differentiation of fast- and slow-twitch muscles, the tibial bone was sectioned at 90 days gestation in foetal sheep so that the lower leg was permanently without structural support. At 140 days (term is approximately 147 days) the contractile properties of whole muscles, activation profiles of single fibres and ultrastructure of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from the hindlimbs were studied. The contractile and activation profiles of the slow-twitch soleus muscles were significantly affected by tibial bone resection (TIBX). The soleus muscles from the TIBX hindlimbs showed: (1) a decrease in the time to peak of the twitch responses from 106.2 +/- 10.7 ms (control, n = 4) to 65.1 +/- 2.48 ms (TIBX, n = 5); (2) fatigue profiles more characteristic of those observed in the fast-twitch muscles: and (3) Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres similar to those from intact hindlimbs at earlier stages of gestation. In the FDL, TIBX did not significantly change whole muscle twitch contraction time, the fatigue profile or the Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres. Electron microscopy showed an increased deposition of glycogen in both soleus and FDL muscles. This study shows that the development of the slow-twitch phenotype is impeded in the absence of the physical support normally provided by the tibial bone. We suggest that longitudinal stretch is an important factor in allowing full expression of the slow-twitch phenotype.

  8. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  9. Injury risk curves for the skeletal knee-thigh-hip complex for knee-impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Jonathan D; Flannagan, Carol A C; Kuppa, Shashi M

    2010-01-01

    Injury risk curves for the skeletal knee-thigh-hip (KTH) relate peak force applied to the anterior aspect of the flexed knee, the primary source of KTH injury in frontal motor-vehicle crashes, to the probability of skeletal KTH injury. Previous KTH injury risk curves have been developed from analyses of peak knee-impact force data from studies where knees of whole cadavers were impacted. However, these risk curves either neglect the effects of occupant gender, stature, and mass on KTH fracture force, or account for them using scaling factors derived from dimensional analysis without empirical support. A large amount of experimental data on the knee-impact forces associated with KTH fracture are now available, making it possible to estimate the effects of subject characteristics on skeletal KTH injury risk by statistically analyzing empirical data. Eleven studies were identified in the biomechanical literature in which the flexed knees of whole cadavers were impacted. From these, peak knee-impact force data and the associated subject characteristics were reanalyzed using survival analysis with a lognormal distribution. Results of this analysis indicate that the relationship between peak knee-impact force and the probability of KTH fracture is a function of age, total body mass, and whether the surface that loads the knee is rigid. Comparisons between injury risk curves for the midsize adult male and small adult female crash test dummies defined in previous studies and new risk curves for these sizes of occupants developed in this study suggest that previous injury risk curves generally overestimate the likelihood of KTH fracture at a given peak knee-impact force. Future work should focus on defining the relationships between impact force at the human knee and peak axial compressive forces measured by load cells in the crash test dummy KTH complex so that these new risk curves can be used with ATDs.

  10. Complex orthopaedic management of patients with skeletal dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Baindurashvili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias are challenging for diagnostics and treatment. We present a series of fifteen patients with different forms of skeletal dysplasias with age ranged from 6 to 17 years with variable clinical presentations managed as a part of the project of scientific cooperation between Turner Paediatric Orthopaedic Institute and Orthopaedic Hospital Vienna-Speising. The spectrum of diagnoses included multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, diastrophic dysplasia, metaphyseal dysplasia, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Stickler syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, and anauxetic dysplasia. Complex treatment, which included axial correction and juxta-articular realignment, was performed as a single-stage, or consecutive surgery. Surgical techniques included corrective osteotomies with internal fixation, guided growth technique and external fixation devices. Best results (full axial correction, normal alignment of the joint were achieved in 8 patients, including 2 patients with metaphyseal dysplasia, 2 patients with multiple epyphyseal dysplasia, 2 patients with spondyloepyphyseal dysplasia, patient with Stickler syndrome and patient with spondylometaphyseal dysplasia. Good results (partial correction at the present time were seen in 4 patients (2 patients with Kniest dysplasia, 1 - with multiple epyphyseal dysplasia and 1 - with anauxetic dysplasia. Satisfactory results (non-progressive condition in previous progression were obtained in 2 patients with diastrophic dysplasia, and poor results (progression of the deformity - in 1 patient with diastrophic dysplasia. Positive results in most of the cases of our series make promising future for usage of complex approach for orthopedic management of children with skeletal dysplasias; advanced international cooperation is productive and helpful for diagnostics and management of rare diseases.

  11. Clinical Features and Outcomes Differ between Skeletal and Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Thampi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma. We investigated patient characteristics, overall survival, and prognostic factors in ESOS. Methods. We identified cases of high-grade osteosarcoma with known tissue of origin in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1973 to 2009. Demographics were compared using univariate tests. Overall survival was compared with log-rank tests and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards methods. Results. 256/4,173 (6% patients with high-grade osteosarcoma had ESOS. Patients with ESOS were older, were more likely to have an axial tumor and regional lymph node involvement, and were female. Multivariate analysis showed ESOS to be favorable after controlling for stage, age, tumor site, gender, and year of diagnosis [hazard ratio 0.75 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.90; p=0.002]. There was an interaction between age and tissue of origin such that older patients with ESOS had superior outcomes compared to older patients with skeletal osteosarcoma. Adverse prognostic factors in ESOS included metastatic disease, larger tumor size, older age, and axial tumor site. Conclusion. Patients with ESOS have distinct clinical features but similar prognostic factors compared to skeletal osteosarcoma. Older patients with ESOS have superior outcomes compared to older patients with skeletal osteosarcoma.

  12. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  14. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  15. Radiology of skeletal and soft tissue changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.C. Jr.; Coleman, C.C.; Hunter, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skeletal complications are very common in renal transplant patients. Loss of bone mass in the posttransplant period places the skeletal system in jeopardy. Osteonecrosis, while not life threatening, often prevents rehabilitation. Spontaneous fractures are frequent but are usually not a major problem except in the diabetic transplant recipient. Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis are usually successfully managed by conservative measures, except when accompanied by severe occlusive vascular disease. Juvenile onset diabetic patients still may develop disabling neuropathic joint disease or occlusive vascular disease after renal transplantation. The authors hope that successful pancreas transplantation will avert these problems in the future

  16. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  17. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  18. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  19. Conserved and divergent expression patterns of markers of axial development in reptilian embryos: Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michio; Kajikawa, Eriko; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Noro, Miyuki; Iwai, Tatsuhiro; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kobayashi, Kensaku; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    The processes of development leading up to gastrulation have been markedly altered during the evolution of amniotes, and it is uncertain how the mechanisms of axis formation are conserved and diverged between mouse and chick embryos. To assess the conservation and divergence of these mechanisms, this study examined gene expression patterns during the axis formation process in Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko preovipositional embryos. The data suggest that NODAL signaling, similarly to avian embryos but in contrast to eutherian embryos, does not have a role in epiblast and hypoblast development in reptilian embryos. The posterior marginal epiblast (PME) is the initial molecular landmark of axis formation in reptilian embryos prior to primitive plate development. Ontogenetically, PME may be the precursor of the primitive plate, and phylogenetically, Koller's sickle and posterior marginal zone in avian development may have been derived from the PME. Most of the genes expressed in the mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE genes), especially signaling antagonist genes, are not expressed in the hypoblast of turtle and gecko embryos, though they are expressed in the avian hypoblast. This study proposes that AVE gene expression in the hypoblast and the visceral endoderm could have been independently established in avian and eutherian lineages, similar to the primitive streak that has been independently acquired in these lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium model for mammalian skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.; Heijink, R.J.; van der Vliet, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    A model is presented describing quantitatively the events between excitation and force development in skeletal muscle. It consists of a calcium mediated activation model (c.m.a.m.) in series with a force generator model (f.g.m.). The c.m.a.m. was based on intracellular processes such as cisternal

  1. Electron angular distribution axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one

  2. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sugiyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of

  3. Diagnostic performance of a computer-assisted diagnosis system for bone scintigraphy of newly developed skeletal metastasis in prostate cancer patients: search for low-sensitivity subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Motegi, Kazuki; Koyama, Masamichi; Terauchi, Takashi; Yuasa, Takeshi; Yonese, Junji

    2017-08-01

    The computer-assisted diagnostic system for bone scintigraphy (BS) BONENAVI is used to evaluate skeletal metastasis. We investigated its diagnostic performance in prostate cancer patients with and without skeletal metastasis and searched for the problems. An artificial neural network (ANN) value was calculated in 226 prostate cancer patients (124 with skeletal metastasis and 101 without) using BS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed and the sensitivity and specificity determined (cutoff ANN = 0.5). Patient's situation at the time of diagnosis of skeletal metastasis, computed tomography (CT) type, extent of disease (EOD), and BS uptake grade were analyzed. False-negative and false-positive results were recorded. BONENAVI showed 82% (102/124) of sensitivity and 83% (84/101) specificity for metastasis detection. There were no significant differences among CT types, although low EOD and faint BS uptake were associated with low ANN values and low sensitivity. Patients showed lower sensitivity during the follow-up period than staging work-up. False-negative lesions were often located in the pelvis or adjacent to it. They comprised not only solitary, faint BS lesions but also overlaying to urinary excretion. BONENAVI with BS has good sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer's osseous metastasis. Low EOD and faint BS uptake are associated with low sensitivity but not the CT type. Prostate cancer patients likely to have false-negative results during the follow-up period had a solitary lesion in the pelvis with faint BS uptake or lesions overlaying to urinary excretion.

  4. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  5. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  6. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  7. Rotating stall simulation for axial and centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Taher; Gadala, Mohamed S.

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a numerical simulation of the rotating stall phenomenon in axial and centrifugal compressors with detailed descriptions of stall precursors and its development with time. Results showed that the vaneless region of the centrifugal compressor is the most critical location affected by stall. It was found that the tip leakage flow and the back flow impingement are the main cause of the stall development at the impeller exit area for centrifugal compressors. The results of the axial compressor simulations indicated that the early separated flow combined with the tip leakage flow can block the impeller passages during stall.

  8. The effects of initial rise and axial loads on MEMS arches

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle

    2017-04-07

    Arch microbeams have been utilized and proposed for many uses over the past few years due to their large tunability and bistability. However, recent experimental data have shown different mechanical behavior of arches when subjected to axial loads. This paper aims to investigate in depth the influence of the competing effects of initial rise and axial loads on the mechanical behavior of micromachined arches; mainly their static deflection and resonant frequencies. Based on analytical solutions, the static response and eigenvalue problems are analyzed for various values of initial rises and axial loads. Universal curves showing the variation of the first three resonance frequencies of the arch are generated for various values of initial rise under both tensile and compressive axial loads. This study shows that increasing the tensile or compressive axial loads for different values of initial rise may lead to either increase in the stiffness of the beam or initial decrease in the stiffness, which later increases as the axial load is increased depending on the dominant effect of the initial rise of the arch and the axial load. The obtained universal curves represent useful design tools to predict the tunability of arches under axial loads for various values of initial rises. The use of the universal curves is demonstrated with an experimental case study. Analytical formulation is developed to predict the point of minimum where the trend of the resonance frequency versus axial loads changes qualitatively due to the competing effects of axial loads and initial curvature.

  9. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  10. The four step axial flow compressor of the Technical University of Dresden - development concept and results of flow measurements; Der vierstufige Axialverdichter der TU Dresden - Entwicklungskonzeption und Ergebnisse von Stroemungsmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, P.; Moeeckel, H.; Mueller, R.; Sauer, H.; Wolf, E. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    In this paper the results obtained from flow-technical investigations at low velocity compressor in Dresden were presented. They were supposed to give little insight on the focus of current research works in the field of axial flow compressors. A detailed solution of the flow structure applying the conventional pneumatic measuring technology as well as the hot-wire, microphone, culite, laser and light-section measuring technology enables to understand flow parameter better and to find approaches for improving power density, efficiency, environmental friendliness and operational stability. The large-scale research plant was constructed in approximately Two and a half years. The low velocity compressor in Dresden constitutes a tool in Germany and Europe that enables the manufacturers of stationary gas turbine plants and steel jet engines to improve various parameters of their products. The MTU in Munich already pointed out this fact in its contribution to the final report on the construction phase. It noted that this plant is going to extend the possibilities of research and development in Europe in the field of aerodynamics of axial flow compressors in an excellent way. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Vortrag wurden beispielhaft erreichte Ergebnisse stroemungstechnischer Untersuchungen am Niedergeschwindigkeitsverdichter in Dresden dargestellt. Sie sollten einen kleinen Einblick in die Moeglichkeiten der Bearbeitung von Forschungsschwerpunkten geben, die gegenwaertig fuer Axialverdichter bedeutungsvoll sind. Eine detaillierte messtechnische Aufloesung der Stroemungsstrukturen unter Anwendung der konventionellen pneumatischen Messtechnik sowie der Hitzdraht-, Mikrofon-, Kulite-, Laser- und Lichtschnittmesstechnik schafft die Voraussetzung, die Stroemungsphaenomene besser zu verstehen und Ansatzpunkte fuer Verbesserungen der Leistungsdichte, des Wirkungsgrades, der Umweltvertraeglichkeit und der Betriebsstabilitaet zu finden. In ca. 2 1/2 Jahren konnte die Grossforschungsanlage

  11. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebes, J.I.; Niell, H.B.; Palmieri, G.M.A.; Reidy, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  12. Radiographically visualized skeletal changes associated with mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konde, L.J.; Thrall, M.A.; Gasper, P.; Dial, S.M.; McBiles, K.; Colgan, S.; Haskins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic skeletal form and structure of all cats with mucopolysaccharidosis VI is described. Common manifestations included epiphyseal dysplasia, generalized osteoporosis, abnormal nasal turbinate development, his subluxation, impaired development of skeletal growth, pectus excavatum, hyoid hypoplasia, aplasia, hypoplasia and fragmentation or abnormal ossification of the dens, and aplasia or hypoplasia of frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The skeletal measurements of two affected cats were compared with those of normal, sex-matched littermates, and the measurements of two affected female cats were compared with those of a normal male littermate

  13. Effects of hypodynamic simulations on the skeletal system of monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Tremor, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A research and development program was undertaken to evaluate the skeletal losses of subhuman primates in hypodynamic environments. The goals of the program are: (1) to uncover the mechanisms by which weightlessness affects the skeletal system; (2) to determine the consequences and reversibility of bone mineral losses; and (3) to acquire a body of data needed to formulate an appropriate countermeasure program for the prevention of skeletal deconditioning. Space flight experiment simulation facilities are under development and will be tested for their capability in supporting certain of the requirements for these investigations.

  14. Image reconstruction. Application to transverse axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, Florent.

    1977-09-01

    A method of computerized tridimensional image reconstruction from their projection, especially in the computerized transverse axial tomography is suggested. First, the different techniques actually developped and presented in the literature are analyzed. Then, the equipment used is briefly described. The reconstruction algorithm developped is presented. This algorithm is based on the convolution method, well adapted to the real conditions of exploitation. It is an extension of SHEPP and LOGAN's algorithm. A correction of the self absorption and of the detector's response is proposed. Finally, the first results obtained which are satisfactory are given. The simplicity of the method which does not need a too long computation time makes possible the implementation of the algorithm on a mini-computer [fr

  15. The skeletal ontogeny of Astatotilapia burtoni - a direct-developing model system for the evolution and development of the teleost body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, Joost M; Holzem, Michaela; Schneider, Ralf F; Nanos, Vasilios; Meyer, Axel

    2018-04-03

    The experimental approach to the evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton has to a large extent relied on "direct-developing" amniote model organisms, such as the mouse and the chicken. These organisms can however only be partially informative where it concerns secondarily lost features or anatomical novelties not present in their lineages. The widely used anamniotes Xenopus and zebrafish are "indirect-developing" organisms that proceed through an extended time as free-living larvae, before adopting many aspects of their adult morphology, complicating experiments at these stages, and increasing the risk for lethal pleiotropic effects using genetic strategies. Here, we provide a detailed description of the development of the osteology of the African mouthbrooding cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, primarily focusing on the trunk (spinal column, ribs and epicentrals) and the appendicular skeleton (pectoral, pelvic, dorsal, anal, caudal fins and scales), and to a lesser extent on the cranium. We show that this species has an extremely "direct" mode of development, attains an adult body plan within 2 weeks after fertilization while living off its yolk supply only, and does not pass through a prolonged larval period. As husbandry of this species is easy, generation time is short, and the species is amenable to genetic targeting strategies through microinjection, we suggest that the use of this direct-developing cichlid will provide a valuable model system for the study of the vertebrate body plan, particularly where it concerns the evolution and development of fish or teleost specific traits. Based on our results we comment on the development of the homocercal caudal fin, on shared ontogenetic patterns between pectoral and pelvic girdles, and on the evolution of fin spines as novelty in acanthomorph fishes. We discuss the differences between "direct" and "indirect" developing actinopterygians using a comparison between zebrafish and A. burtoni development.

  16. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  17. Axial vector mass spectrum and mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarelli, R.V.; Kang, K.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral sum rules of the axial-vector current and axial-vector current-pseudoscalar field are used to study the axial-vector mass spectrum and mixing angles, as well as the decay constants and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons. In general, the result is quite persuasive for the existence of the Jsup(PC) = 1 ++ multiplet in which one has a canonical D-E mixing. (Auth.)

  18. Centrifugal and axial compressor control

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Gregory K

    2009-01-01

    Control engineers, mechanical engineers and mechanical technicians will learn how to select the proper control systems for axial and centrifugal compressors for proper throughput and surge control, with a particular emphasis on surge control. Readers will learn to understand the importance of transmitter speed, digital controller sample time, and control valve stroking time in helping to prevent surge. Engineers and technicians will find this book to be a highly valuable guide on compressor control schemes and the importance of mitigating costly and sometimes catastrophic surge problems. It can be used as a self-tutorial guide or in the classroom with the book's helpful end-of-chapter questions and exercises and sections for keeping notes.

  19. Axial channeling in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, A.; Lehmpfuhl, G.

    1978-01-01

    Kossel patterns from Silicon and Niobium were obtained with a convergent electron beam. An intensity maximum in the direction of the zone axes [001] and [111] of Nb was interpreted as axial channeling. The intensity distribution in Kossel patterns was calculated by means of the Bloch wave picture of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Particularly zone axis patterns were calculated for different substance-energy combinations and they were compared with experimental observations. The intensity distribution in the calculated Kossel patterns was very sensitive to the model of absorption and it was found that a treatment of the absorption close to the model of Humphreys and Hirsch [Phil. Mag. 18, 115 (1968)] gave the best agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore it is shown which Bloch waves are important for the intensity distribution in the Kossel patterns, how they are absorbed and how they change with energy. (orig.) [de

  20. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  1. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  2. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

  3. Origin of axial current in scyllac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, K.

    1975-12-01

    The origin of the axial current observed in Scyllac (a high beta stellarator experiment) is discussed. A shaped coil and/or helical winding produce rotational transform which links magnetic lines of force to the plasma column and the axial current is induced electromagnetically. This phenomenon is inherent in a pulsed high-beta stellarator. The rotational transform produced by the induced axial current is much smaller than that associated with the l = 1, 0 equilibrium fields. The effect of the axial current on the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column is thus small. It is also shown that the magnetic field shear near a plasma surface is very strong

  4. Radial and axial compression of pure electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Mihara, Y.; Takeda, M.; Kamada, K.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies are carried out on compression of the density distribution of a pure electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning Trap in Kanazawa University. More than six times increase of the on-axis density is observed under application of an external rotating electric field that couples to low-order Trivelpiece-Gould modes. Axial compression of the density distribution with the axial length of a factor of two is achieved by controlling the confining potential at both ends of the plasma. Substantial increase of the axial kinetic energy is observed during the axial compression. (author)

  5. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  6. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  7. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutch, Manish; Philip, Rajeev; Philip, Renjit; Toms, Ajit; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, K K

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  8. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band.

  9. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band

  10. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations......-Raphson method, andsolutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs.The model has been validated against published measurementson various fan configurations,comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotatingfan unit and a stator-rotor-stator stage.Comparisons of local...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...

  11. Research on a novel axial-flux magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with low axial force and high efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengde Tong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The axial-flux magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM is a possible alternative as a power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, the existence of large axial force may lead to assembly problems and rich inner air-gap harmonics could result in high PM loss and low efficiency. This paper proposes a novel axial-flux MFM-BDRM with improved PM rotor structure. 2-D analytical method to predict the magnetic-field distribution of the proposed MFM-BDRM is developed and the design procedure of the proposed machine is illustrated. The impact of key geometrical parameters on axial force and torque is investigated. To evaluate the advantage of the proposed machine, a comparison is made with a conventional one with respect to electromagnetic performances. Results show that the proposed machine is effective in reducing PM eddy loss and axial force by 60% and 35%, respectively.

  12. Axial tomography in 3D live cell microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Verena; Bruns, Sarah; Bruns, Thomas; Piper, Mathis; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Cremer, Christoph; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2017-07-01

    A miniaturized setup for sample rotation on a microscope stage has been developed, combined with light sheet, confocal or structured illumination microscopy and applied to living cells as well as to small organisms. This setup permits axial tomography with improved visualization of single cells or small cell clusters as well as an enhanced effective 3D resolution upon sample rotation.

  13. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-01-01

    We present the calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2 n/2 (n:number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (author) [pt

  14. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    We present a calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2sup(π/2) (n: number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (orig.)

  15. High Sugar Intake and Development of Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Mice: A Protective Role for PPAR-δ Agonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-δ agonists may serve for treating metabolic diseases. However, the effects of PPAR-δ agonism within the skeletal muscle, which plays a key role in whole-body glucose metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the signaling pathways activated in the gastrocnemius muscle by chronic administration of the selective PPAR-δ agonist, GW0742 (1 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks, in male C57Bl6/J mice treated for 30 weeks with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS, the major sweetener in foods and soft-drinks (15% wt/vol in drinking water. Mice fed with the HFCS diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia. In the gastrocnemius muscle, HFCS impaired insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and reduced GLUT-4 and GLUT-5 expression and membrane translocation. GW0742 administration induced PPAR-δ upregulation and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Diet-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and expression of inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase and intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 were attenuated by drug treatment. These effects were accompanied by reduction in the serum concentration of interleukin-6 and increase in muscular expression of fibroblast growth factor-21. Overall, here we show that PPAR-δ activation protects the skeletal muscle against the metabolic abnormalities caused by chronic HFCS exposure by affecting multiple levels of the insulin and inflammatory cascades.

  16. High sugar intake and development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation in mice: a protective role for PPAR- δ agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Elisa; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Rogazzo, Mara; Chiazza, Fausto; Aragno, Manuela; Fantozzi, Roberto; Collino, Massimo; Minetto, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR)- δ agonists may serve for treating metabolic diseases. However, the effects of PPAR- δ agonism within the skeletal muscle, which plays a key role in whole-body glucose metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the signaling pathways activated in the gastrocnemius muscle by chronic administration of the selective PPAR- δ agonist, GW0742 (1 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks), in male C57Bl6/J mice treated for 30 weeks with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the major sweetener in foods and soft-drinks (15% wt/vol in drinking water). Mice fed with the HFCS diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia. In the gastrocnemius muscle, HFCS impaired insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and reduced GLUT-4 and GLUT-5 expression and membrane translocation. GW0742 administration induced PPAR- δ upregulation and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Diet-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and expression of inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase and intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 were attenuated by drug treatment. These effects were accompanied by reduction in the serum concentration of interleukin-6 and increase in muscular expression of fibroblast growth factor-21. Overall, here we show that PPAR- δ activation protects the skeletal muscle against the metabolic abnormalities caused by chronic HFCS exposure by affecting multiple levels of the insulin and inflammatory cascades.

  17. Stochastic quantization for the axial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, C.; Montani, H.; Albuquerque, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    We use bosonization ideas to solve the axial model in the stochastic quantization framework. We obtain the fermion propagator of the theory decoupling directly the Langevin equation, instead of the Fokker-Planck equation. In the Appendix we calculate explicitly the anomalous divergence of the axial-vector current by using a regularization that does not break the Markovian character of the stochastic process

  18. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

  19. Multi-axial mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered cartilage: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Waldman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tissue engineered cartilage is a promising new approach for the repair of damaged or diseased tissue. Since it has proven difficult to generate cartilaginous tissue with properties similar to that of native articular cartilage, several studies have used mechanical stimuli as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the developed tissue. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multi-axial loading applied during in vitro tissue formation to better reflect the physiological forces that chondrocytes are subjected to in vivo. Dynamic combined compression-shear stimulation (5% compression and 5% shear strain amplitudes increased both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis (76 ± 8% and 73 ± 5%, respectively over the static (unstimulated controls. When this multi-axial loading condition was applied to the chondrocyte cultures over a four week period, there were significant improvements in both extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation and the mechanical properties of the in vitro-formed tissue (3-fold increase in compressive modulus and 1.75-fold increase in shear modulus. Stimulated tissues were also significantly thinner than the static controls (19% reduction suggesting that there was a degree of ECM consolidation as a result of long-term multi-axial loading. This study demonstrated that stimulation by multi-axial forces can improve the quality of the in vitro-formed tissue, but additional studies are required to further optimize the conditions to favour improved biochemical and mechanical properties of the developed tissue.

  20. Guided wave propagation as a measure of axial loads in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Guided wave propagation has been proposed as a means to monitor the axial loads in continuously welded railway rails although no practical system has been developed. In this paper, the influence of axial load on the guided wave propagation...

  1. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  2. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

    1998-01-01

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  3. Growth and development of skeletal anomalies in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed phosphorus-rich diets with fish meal and hydrolyzed fish protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Riesen, Guido; Seim, Rudi Ripman; Hagen, Ørjan; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Jobling, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar were fed high-protein, phosphorus-rich diets (56–60% protein; ca 18g phosphorus kg-1 diet) whilst being reared at low temperature from start-feeding until parr-smolt transformation. Performances of salmon fed diets based on fish meal (STD) or a mix of fishmeal and hydrolysed fish proteins (HFM) as the major protein sources were compared in terms of mortality, diet digestibility, growth and skeletal deformities. Separate groups of diploids and triploids were reared in triplicate tanks (initially 3000 fish per tank; tank biomass ca. 620 g) from 0–2745 degree-days post-start feeding (ddPSF). Growth metrics (weight, length, condition factor) were recorded at ca. 4 week intervals, external signs of deformities to the operculum, jaws and spinal column were examined in parr sampled at 1390 ddPSF, and external signs of deformity and vertebral anomalies (by radiography) were examined in fish sampled at the end of the trial (2745 ddPSF). The triploid salmon generally had a lower mass per unit length, i.e. lower condition factor, throughout the trial, but this did not seem to reflect any consistent dietary or ploidy effects on either dietary digestibility or the growth of the fish. By the end of the trial fish in all treatment groups had achieved a weight of 50+ g, and had completed the parr-smolt transformation. The triploids had slightly, but significantly, fewer vertebrae (Triploids STD 58.74 ± 0.10; HFM 58.68 ± 0.05) than the diploids (Diploids STD 58.97 ± 0.14; HFM 58.89 ± 0.01), and the incidence of skeletal (vertebral) abnormalities was higher in triploids (Triploids STD 31 ± 0.90%; HFM 15 ± 1.44%) than in diploids (Diploids STD 4 ± 0.80%; HFM 4 ± 0.83%). The HFM diet gave a significant reduction in the numbers of triploid salmon with vertebral anomalies in comparison with the triploids fed the STD diet possibly as a result of differences in phosphorus bioavailability between the two diets. Overall, the

  4. The Klinger hot gas double axial valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruschik, J.; Hiltgen, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Klinger hot gas valve is a medium controlled double axial valve with advanced design features and safety function. It was first proposed by Klinger early in 1976 for the PNP-Project as a containment shut-off for hot helium (918 deg. C and 42 bar), because a market research has shown that such a valve is not state of present techniques. In the first stage of development a feasibility study had to be made by detailed design, calculation and by basic experiments for key components in close collaboration with Interatom/GHT. This was the basis for further design, calculation, construction and experimental work for such a valve prototype within the new development contract. The stage of knowledge to that time revealed the following key priority development areas: Finite element stress analysis for the highly stressed high temperature main components; development of an insulation layout; Detailed experimental tests of functionally important structural components or units of the valve, partly at Klingers (gasstatic bearings, flexible metallic sealing element, aerodynamic and thermohydraulic tests), partly at Interatom (actuator unit and also gasstatic bearings), partly at HRB in Juelich (flexible metallic sealing system, aerodynamic and thermohydraulic tests); Design of a test valve for experimental work in the KVK (test circuit at Interatom) for evaluation of temperature distribution and reliability of operation; Design of a prototype and extensive testing in the KVK

  5. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, J.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  6. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  7. Suspected fetal skeletal malformations or bone diseases: how to explore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassart, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Although US has proved reliable for the prenatal detection of skeletal abnormalities, the precise diagnosis of a dysplasia is often difficult to make before birth (especially in the absence of a familial history) due to their various phenotypic presentations, the variability in the time at which they manifest and often, the lack of precise molecular diagnosis. In addition to the accuracy of the antenatal diagnosis, it is very important to establish a prognosis. This is a clinically relevant issue as skeletal dysplasias may be associated with severe disability and may even be lethal. We will therefore describe the respective role of two-dimensional (2-D) US, three-dimensional (3-D) US and CT in the antenatal assessment of skeletal malformations. (orig.)

  8. Is skeletal anchorage changing the limit of orthodontics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    The limits for orthodontic treatment are often set by the lack of suitable anchorage. The mini-implant is used where conventional anchorage cannot be applied; not as a replacement for conventional anchorage. In patients with lack of teeth and reduced periodontium, skeletal anchorage allows...... and can be loaded immediately. The course will be addressed the following topics: Are the mini-implants replacing conventional anchorage? Why are orthodontic mini-implants necessary? The development of the skeletal anchorage systems The biological basis for the skeletal anchorage systems...... The characteristics of the different skeletal anchorage systems The insertion procedure The indications for the use of orthodontic mini-implants Treatment planning in relation to the use of mini-implants Case presentations...

  9. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  10. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1992-06-01

    The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.

  11. Evaluation of thoracic abnormalities on 64-row multi-detector row CT: Comparison between axial images versus coronal reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)]. E-mail: mnishino@bidmc.harvard.edu; Kubo, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kataoka, Milliam L. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gautam, Shiva [Department of General Clinical Research Center and Biometrics, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Raptopoulos, Vassilios [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the capability of coronal reformations of chest on 64-row MDCT in demonstrating thoracic abnormalities in comparison with axial images. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary CTA on 64-row MDCT were retrospectively studied with institutional review board (IRB) approval. Contiguous 2 mm axial and coronal images were reviewed independently with a 1-week interval, by consensus reading of two board-certified radiologists. Overall image quality was graded using a five-point scale. Abnormalities in mediastinum, hilum, pulmonary vessels, aorta, heart, esophagus, pleura, chest wall, and lung parenchyma were scored: 1 = definitely absent, 2 = probably absent, 3 = equivocal, 4 probably present, 5 = definitely present. Scores on axial and coronal images were compared using weighted {kappa} analysis. Results: Overall image quality was not different with statistical relevance between axial and coronal images (mean/median scores; 3.7/4; 3.6/4, respectively, P = 0.286, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Significant agreement was observed between axial and coronal scores (mean weighted {kappa}, 0.661; range, 0.362-1). Agreement was almost perfect for pneumothorax, lung and pleural mass, effusion and consolidation (weighted {kappa} = 0.833-1); substantial for pulmonary embolism, trachea, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and non-skeletal chest wall lesion, heart, esophagus, and emphysema (weighted {kappa}, 0.618-0.799); moderate for atelectasis, mediastinum, hilar nodes, aorta, other lung lesions, skeletal chest wall lesions, linear scarring, nodules >1 cm, pulmonary artery abnormalities and pleural thickening (weighted {kappa}, 0.405-0.592); and fair for nodules <1 cm (weighted {kappa} = 0.362). Conclusion: Coronal reformations on 64-row MDCT had substantial agreement with axial images for evaluation of the majority of thoracic abnormalities.

  12. Evaluation of thoracic abnormalities on 64-row multi-detector row CT: Comparison between axial images versus coronal reformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Kubo, Takeshi; Kataoka, Milliam L.; Gautam, Shiva; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the capability of coronal reformations of chest on 64-row MDCT in demonstrating thoracic abnormalities in comparison with axial images. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary CTA on 64-row MDCT were retrospectively studied with institutional review board (IRB) approval. Contiguous 2 mm axial and coronal images were reviewed independently with a 1-week interval, by consensus reading of two board-certified radiologists. Overall image quality was graded using a five-point scale. Abnormalities in mediastinum, hilum, pulmonary vessels, aorta, heart, esophagus, pleura, chest wall, and lung parenchyma were scored: 1 = definitely absent, 2 = probably absent, 3 = equivocal, 4 probably present, 5 = definitely present. Scores on axial and coronal images were compared using weighted κ analysis. Results: Overall image quality was not different with statistical relevance between axial and coronal images (mean/median scores; 3.7/4; 3.6/4, respectively, P = 0.286, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Significant agreement was observed between axial and coronal scores (mean weighted κ, 0.661; range, 0.362-1). Agreement was almost perfect for pneumothorax, lung and pleural mass, effusion and consolidation (weighted κ = 0.833-1); substantial for pulmonary embolism, trachea, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and non-skeletal chest wall lesion, heart, esophagus, and emphysema (weighted κ, 0.618-0.799); moderate for atelectasis, mediastinum, hilar nodes, aorta, other lung lesions, skeletal chest wall lesions, linear scarring, nodules >1 cm, pulmonary artery abnormalities and pleural thickening (weighted κ, 0.405-0.592); and fair for nodules <1 cm (weighted κ = 0.362). Conclusion: Coronal reformations on 64-row MDCT had substantial agreement with axial images for evaluation of the majority of thoracic abnormalities

  13. Meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Mininder S; Tepolt, Frances A; Vavken, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Meniscal pathology in skeletally immature patients includes meniscal tears and discoid lateral meniscus. Total or subtotal meniscectomy may occur in patients with discoid lateral meniscus or severe meniscal tears. Meniscal transplantation may be an option in skeletally immature patients status after total or subtotal meniscectomy with knee symptoms or dysfunction. This study focuses on the surgical technique and short-term outcomes of meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients. We reviewed our clinical database for skeletally immature patients who had undergone meniscus transplantation with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Patients were contacted, invited for a physical exam, and asked to complete a Pedi-IKDC, Lysholm, and Tegner outcomes questionnaire. The study protocol was approved by the responsible institutional review board. Three patients (two females/one male) were eligible for the study, each of whom responded to our invitation indicating availability for physical exam and questionnaire. Two patients had undergone subtotal discoid meniscus resection, leading to early lateral compartment degeneration. One patient developed advanced degeneration after a delay in treatment for a medial bucket-handle tear associated with anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 12.6±2.3 years. At a mean follow-up of 31±20 months, the mean Pedi-IKDC score was 68.3±4, the mean Lysholm was 55.7±22.3, and the median Tegner was 7 points. There were no indications of growth deformity during the regular postoperative radiological assessments. One patient required subsequent lysis of adhesions along the lateral mini arthrotomy and mobilization under anesthesia. The other two patients were able to return to sports at the same level as before meniscus transplantation and were able to do so within 9 months postoperatively. Over-resection of discoid menisci as well as untreated meniscus injury, the latter typically in

  14. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  15. Mechanisms of internal emitter skeletal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, W.S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to determine the mechanisms for the induction of skeletal cancers in dogs and man by α-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle. The role of microdistribution of radium-226 and plutonium-239, bone metabolism, bone cell turnover, and localized bone cell dosimetry in bone can induction will be determined. The osteogenic cell dose will be measured in dogs to develop better quantitative dose response information. Skeletal carcinogenesis models will be developed by correlating the local dosimetry, tumor site and incidence, age-dependent skeletal biology (bone morphometry, bone cell at risk, bone cell turnover, residence time and fate, remodeling rate, growth pattern and rate, hormonal influences, manipulation of bone cell populations of the bone modeling and remodeling systems, etc.). The authors will test the hypothesis that the frequency of osteosarcomas is proportional to the average dose delivered to cells at risk. They will also attempt to explain experimentally found toxicity ratios between volume- and bone surface-seeking radionuclides on the basis of radiation dose ratios

  16. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  17. Precision axial translator with high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, M A

    1979-08-01

    We describe a new type of translator which is inherently stable against torsion and twisting. This concentric translator is also ideally suited for precise axial motion with clearance of the center line.

  18. Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

    1977-01-24

    A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.

  19. Development and implementation of an on-line monitoring system for the detection of the surge limit of multi stage axial compressors. Final report; Ueberwachungssystem zur Pumpgrenzdetektion in vielstufigen Axialverdichtern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, H.; Niehuis, R.

    2003-07-01

    A monitoring system for the prediction of the stability limit of a multi-stage axial compressor has been developed. Based on the pressure fluctuations in the casing above a first compressor rotor the approach to the search limit can be detected. By means of a computer system equipped with a digital signal processor board the dynamic pressure signals are picked up and analyzed. Based on FFT-Spectra suitable parameters for the estimation of the stability limit can be calculated. Measurement data from various test runs at different gas turbine compressors demonstrated the reliability of the system. Mean issue of the system is the a ability of real time detection which allows an application in industrial environment. In order to guarantee the long term stability and security the soft ware has been programmed so that a permanent self control as well as a control by a connected host computer is possible. By means of these control mechanism the proper function of the measurement transducers the data acquisition and the communication with the host computer is assured. This guarantees a high operational reliability which also allows a safe integration in a gas turbine control system. The soft ware is based on the programming environment DASYLAB in order to provide a maximum of user friendliness The up to date test with the system on the gas turbine tests field of Siemens have been performed successfully. A long term test in a power plant has not jet been carried out. (orig.) [German] Es wurde ein Ueberwachungssystem entwickelt, das die Voraussage der Stabilitaetsgrenze eines mehrstufigen Axialverdichters ermoeglicht. Basierend auf den Druckfluktuationen ueber dem ersten Verdichterlaufrad koennen Aussagen ueber die Annaeherung an die Pumpgrenze getroffen werden. Mit Hilfe eines Rechnersystems mit integrierter Signalprozessorkarte werden die dynamischen Drucksignale aufgenommen und verarbeitet. Basierend auf einer FFT-Analyse werden geeignete Parameter bestimmt, die die

  20. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...application and claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent Application No. 14/280,889; filed on May 19, 2014; and entitled “Twin-Axial

  1. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.

  2. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  3. Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru

  4. Singlet axial constant from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitskij, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the singlet axial form factor of the proton for small momentum transferred in the framework of QCD sum rules using the interpolating nucleon current which explicitly accounts for the gluonic degrees of freedom. As the result we come to the quantitative prediction of the singlet axial constant. It is shown that the bilocal power corrections play the most important role in the analysis. 21 refs., 3 figs

  5. Tunable axial gauge fields in engineered Weyl semimetals: semiclassical analysis and optical lattice implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sthitadhi; Kolodrubetz, Michael; Goldman, Nathan; Grushin, Adolfo G.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we describe a toolbox to realize and probe synthetic axial gauge fields in engineered Weyl semimetals. These synthetic electromagnetic fields, which are sensitive to the chirality associated with Weyl nodes, emerge due to spatially and temporally dependent shifts of the corresponding Weyl momenta. First, we introduce two realistic models, inspired by recent cold-atom developments, which are particularly suitable for the exploration of these synthetic axial gauge fields. Second, we describe how to realize and measure the effects of such axial fields through center-of-mass observables, based on semiclassical equations of motion and exact numerical simulations. In particular, we suggest realistic protocols to reveal an axial Hall response due to the axial electric field \

  6. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  7. Topologically Micropatterned Collagen and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Struts Fabricated Using the Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibrillation/Leaching Process To Develop Efficiently Engineered Skeletal Muscle Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, WonJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-12-20

    Optimally designed three-dimensional (3D) biomedical scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration pose significant research challenges. Currently, most studies on scaffolds focus on the two-dimensional (2D) surface structures that are patterned in the micro-/nanoscales with various repeating sizes and shapes to induce the alignment of myoblasts and myotube formation. The 2D patterned surface clearly provides effective analytical results of pattern size and shape of the myoblast alignment and differentiation. However, it is inconvenient in terms of the direct application for clinical usage due to the limited thickness and 3D shapeability. Hence, the present study suggests an innovative hydrogel or synthetic structure that consists of uniaxially surface-patterned cylindrical struts for skeleton muscle regeneration. The alignment of the pattern on the hydrogel (collagen) and poly(ε-caprolactone) struts was attained with the fibrillation of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the leaching process. Various cell culture results indicate that the C2C12 cells on the micropatterned collagen structure were fully aligned, and that a significantly high level of myotube formation was achieved when compared to the collagen structures that were not treated with the micropatterning process.

  8. [Skeletal anchorage in the past, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Birte; Dalstra, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal anchorage was not introduced as an alternative to conventional anchorage modalities. The first skeletal anchorage was a ligature through a hole in the infrazygomatic crest. This was replaced by surgical screws and finally the TADs, which were optimized with respect to the material and morphology, were developed. A bracket-like head allows for the use of the mini-implant as indirect anchorage, but should not be a tool for lost control resulting from badly planned biomechanics or failing compliance. Skeletal anchorage should serve as an adjunct to correct biomechanics, to enable treatments that could not be performed prior to the introduction of skeletal anchorage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that temporary anchorage mini-screws help maintain bone density, height and width of alveolar processes in the extraction sites, and thus prevent the thinning of the alveolar ridge usually observed. In adult patients with degenerated dentitions the application of skeletal anchorage can allow for the displacement of teeth where no anchorage units are present, but also for the redevelopment and maintenance of atrophic alveolar bone. The basis for the optimal use of skeletal anchorage is that the correct line of action for the desired tooth displacement is defined and the necessary force system constructed either with the skeletal anchorage as direct or as indirect anchorage. After a period, during which osseointegrated implants were used as anchorage for tooth movement and bone maintenance, it was accepted that the mini-implants could serve also as anchorage for skeletal displacements avoiding loading of teeth. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  9. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  10. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  11. Upon the triple phase skeletal scintigraphy in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, W.

    1988-01-01

    A broadly established indication catalogue for skeletal scintigraphy in traumatology is resulting from about 1500 skeletal scans. Aside from the exclusion of any osseous lesion, from the differentiation of uncertain X-ray findings, from the determination of the extent of osseous lesions in polytraumatic conditions and from the assessment of the relative fracture age, the follow-up after trauma and therapeutical intervention, the demonstration of battered child syndromes and of soft tissue lesions are of special importance with regard to these topics. For all that, the high sensitivity of the 3-phase skeletal scintigraphy for every enhancement of osseous turnover represents the elementary prerequisite for the employment of this non-invasive technique as an ideal screening method in traumatological diagnostics. The experiences from the past years have resulted in an increased frequency of skeletal scintigraphic studies to a similarly high level, as it is already established in the majority of institutions with respect to oncological problems, In the development of efficient and cost favourable diagnostic strategies with only little burden to the patient, skeletal scintigraphy will in future play an important role within the palette of modern skeletal diagnostics in traumatology. (orig.) [de

  12. Skeletal metastases from hepatoma: frequency, distribution, and radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Leichner, P.K.; Magid, D.; Order, S.E.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, the authors evaluated 300 patients with hepatoma as part of phase 1 and 2 treatment protocol trials. Analysis of the available clinical data and radiographic studies revealed 22 patients (7.3%) with skeletal metastases demonstrated by radiography, computed tomography (CT), and/or nuclear scintigraphy. The plain film appearance of skeletal metastases from hepatoma was osteolytic in all cases. CT scanning best demonstrated the expansile, destructive nature of these metastases, which were often associated with large, bulky soft-tissue masses. Skeletal metastases from hepatomas demonstrated increased radiotracer uptake on standard bone scans and were gallium avid, similar to the hepatoma itself. In addition, they could be targeted therapeutically with I-131 antiferritin immunoglobulin. The most frequent sites of skeletal metastases were the ribs, spine, femur, pelvis, and humerus. An initial symptom in ten patients was skeletal pain corresponding to the osseous metastases. In five patients, pathologic fractures of the proximal femur or humerus developed and required total hip replacement or open-reduction internal fixation. Patients with long-standing cirrhosis or known hepatocellular carcinoma who also have skeletal symptoms should be evaluated for possible osseous metastases

  13. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperquenched hyaloclastites from Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, D.; Helo, C.; Richard, D.; Clague, D. A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Stix, J.

    2009-12-01

    We determined apparent cooling rates for basaltic hyaloclastites from Axial caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Samples originate from different stratigraphic layers within the unconsolidated volcaniclastic sequences, on flanks of the volcanic edifice. Water depth is ~1400 m below sea level. The hyaloclastite glass fragments comprise two principal morphologies: (1) angular fragments, and (2) thin glassy melt films interpreted as bubble walls, called deep-sea limu o Pele. A natural cooling rate was estimated for each sample of ~50 carefully selected glass shards. The heat capacity was first measured with a differential scanning calorimeter in two heating scans with heating rates of 20 K/min, and a matching cooling rate between those scans. The fictive temperatures Tf were then determined from both heating cycles, and the natural cooling rate derived by the non-Arrhenian relationship between Tf and cooling rate. All samples display hyperquenched states, manifested in a strong exothermic energy release during the initial heating cycle before reaching the glass transition. Cooling rates range from 10 6.73 K/s to 10 3.94 K/s for the limu, and 10 4.92 K/s to 10 2.34 K/s for the angular fragments. Almost all samples of limu shards show elevated cooling rates compared to their angular counterparts of comparable grain mass. In addition, the exothermic part of the enthalpy curves reveal two superimposed relaxation domains, the main broad exothermal peak, ranging from ~350 K to the onset of the glass transition, and a small subordinate peak/shoulder occurring between 550 K and 700 K. The magnitude of the latter varies from clearly identifiable to nearly absent, and tends to be more pronounced in curves obtained from angular fragments. The main exothermal peak is related to the frozen-in structure of the glass and consequently to its thermal history when passing through the glass transition. The subordinate peak may represent strain rate-induced and tensile stress accumulation

  15. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  16. A mini axial and a permanent maglev radial heart pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun-Xi; Ru, Wei-Min; Wang, Hao; Jing, Teng

    2007-05-31

    The implantability and durability have been for decades the focus of artificial heart R&D. A mini axial and a maglev radial pump have been developed to meet with such requirements.The mini axial pump weighing 27g (incl.5g rotor) has an outer diameter of 21mm and a length of 10mm in its largest point, but can produce a maximal blood flow of 6l/min with 50mmHg pressure increase. Therefore, it is suitable for the patients of 40-60kg body weight. For other patients of 60-80kg or 80-100kg body weight, the mini axial pumps of 23mm and 25mm outer diameter had been developed before, these devices were acknowledged to be the world smallest LVADs by Guinness World Record Center in 2004.The permanent maglev radial pump weighing 150g is a shaft-less centrifugal pump with permanent magnetic bearings developed by the author. It needs no second coil for suspension of the rotor except the motor coil, different from all other maglev pumps developed in USA, Japan, European, etc. Thus no detecting and controlling systems as well as no additional power supply for maglev are necessary. The pump can produce a blood flow up to as large as 10l/min against 100mmHg pressure.An implantable and durable blood pump will be a viable alternative to natural donor heart for transplantation.

  17. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Balke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (=6 or sacrum (=13 have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4% patients with sacral and 4 (66.7% with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors.

  18. Effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W J; Van Der Weijden Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1980-10-01

    Since experimental hyperthyroidism reduces skeletal muscle mass while simultaneously increasing cardiac muscle mass, the effect of hyperthyroidism on muscle protein degradation was compared in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Pulse-labeling studies using (3H) leucine and (14C) carboxyl labeled aspartate and glutamate were carried out. Hyperthyroidism caused a 25%-29% increase in protein breakdown in both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of skeletal muscle. Increased muscle protein degradation may be a major factor in the development of skeletal muscle wasting and weakness in hyperthyroidism. In contrast, protein breakdown appeared to be reduced 22% in the sarcoplasmic fraction of hyperthyroid heart muscle and was unchanged in the myofibrillar fraction. Possible reasons for the contrasting effects of hyperthyroidism on skeletal and cardiac muscle include increased sensitivity of the hyperthyroid heart to catecholamines, increased cardiac work caused by the hemodynamic effects of hyperthyroidism, and a different direct effect of thyroid hormone at the nuclear level in cardiac as opposed to skeletal muscle.

  19. Skeletal scintigraphic changes in osteoporosis treated with sodium fluoride: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, E.E.; Libanati, C.R.; Farley, S.M.; Kirk, G.A.; Baylink, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An appendicular skeletal response to sodium fluoride (NaF) was detected by total skeletal scintigrams. Twelve postmenopausal osteoporotic women were treated with NaF (88 mg/day) and calcium (1500 mg/day). Total skeletal scintigrams were obtained before and during treatment. Within 4 to 21 mo (mean: 8.3), all 12 patients showed new areas of increased uptake corresponding to metaphyseal regions and short bones of the appendicular skeleton. Nine patients showed an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity, which was attributed to an increase in the skeletal isoenzyme. Seven of 12 patients developed bone pain in one or more of the regions of increased uptake. This study establishes that the skeletal scintigram is a sensitive index of the peripheral skeletal response to NaF

  20. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  1. Vector and axial constants of the baryon decuplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.M.; Blok, B.Y.; Kogan, Y.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the QCD sum rules for the polarization operator in external axial and vector fields we determine the vector and axial transition constants in the 3/2 + baryon decuplet. We show that the renormalization of the axial constant is due to the interaction of the external axial field with the quark condensate

  2. Δ(1232) Axial Charge and Form Factors from Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Gregory, Eric B.; Korzec, Tomasz; Koutsou, Giannis; Negele, John W.; Sato, Toru; Tsapalis, Antonios

    2011-01-01

    We present the first calculation on the Δ axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors using lattice QCD. Two Goldberger-Treiman relations are derived and examined. A combined chiral fit is performed to the nucleon axial charge, N to Δ axial transition coupling constant and Δ axial charge.

  3. Hybrid simulations of current-carrying instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir I.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel; Fiala, Vladimir; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel

    2002-01-01

    The development of instabilities in z-pinch plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional (3D) hybrid simulations. Plasma equilibria without and with sheared axial flow have been considered. Results from the linear phase of the hybrid simulations compare well with linear Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations for sausage modes. The hybrid simulations show that sheared axial flow has a stabilizing effect on the development of both sausage and kink modes

  4. Using axial magnetized permanent rings to build axial gradient magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Quanling

    2003-01-01

    Axial field produced by an axially magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent magnet rings, if they are magnetized in the same direction, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced; if they are magnetized in opposite direction, an axial gradient field can be produced in the region between the two permanent rings, with the field strength changing from -B 0 to B 0 . A high gradient axial magnetic field has been built by using two axially magnetized permanent rings, the measured field results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. It is desirable that the field gradient can be varied to match various requirements. A method to produce the variable gradient field is presented. Axial gradient field can also be used as a beam focusing facility for linear accelerator if axial periodic field can be produced. Its magnetic field is similar to that of a solenoid, in which, large stray field will leak to the outside environment. A method for shielding the outside stray field is discussed

  5. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-01-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies

  6. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  7. Skeletal deformities of acardius anceps: the gross and imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chihping [Dept. of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Shih Shinlin [Dept. of Radiology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Liu Fenfen [Dept. of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Jan Sheauwen [Dept. of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Lin Yunnan [Dept. of Pathology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Lan Chungchi [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-03-01

    A morphology based imaging review is presented of the characteristic skeletal deformities associated with acardius anceps in three acardiac twins. These fetuses demonstrated poorly developed skulls, limb reduction defects, and phocomelia of the upper limbs, as well as narrow thoracic cages with or without the complete development of ribs, clavicles, scapulae, and cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae. However, their lower limbs and pelvic girdles were almost normal. The authors conclude that skeletal development is likely to be jeopardized in the area adjacent to the heart and in the cephalic portion of the body in fetuses with acardius anceps, and suggest vascular deficiency and hypoperfusion as pathogenetic mechanisms in this type of skeletal deformity. (orig.)

  8. Skeletal deformities of acardius anceps: the gross and imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chihping; Shih Shinlin; Liu Fenfen; Jan Sheauwen; Lin Yunnan; Lan Chungchi

    1997-01-01

    A morphology based imaging review is presented of the characteristic skeletal deformities associated with acardius anceps in three acardiac twins. These fetuses demonstrated poorly developed skulls, limb reduction defects, and phocomelia of the upper limbs, as well as narrow thoracic cages with or without the complete development of ribs, clavicles, scapulae, and cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae. However, their lower limbs and pelvic girdles were almost normal. The authors conclude that skeletal development is likely to be jeopardized in the area adjacent to the heart and in the cephalic portion of the body in fetuses with acardius anceps, and suggest vascular deficiency and hypoperfusion as pathogenetic mechanisms in this type of skeletal deformity. (orig.)

  9. Plasticity around an Axial Surface Crack in a Cylindrical Shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    of the yield zone. The model is used to analyse published test data on surface cracked pressurised pipes. The analysis consists in COD evaluation and estimate of failure as a consequence of plastic instability. A method is proposed which deals with the problem by simultaneous analysis of a number of cracks......This paper presents a plasticity model for deep axial surface cracks in pressurised pipes. The model is used in an investigation of the relative merits of fracture criteria based on COD and plastic instability. Recent investigations have shown that the inconsistency of the singular bending stress...... on the bending stresses is considerable. In the case of surface cracks moments are induced due to the eccentricity of the crack and transverse shear effects should therefore be included. A plasticity model for a rectangular axial surface crack is developed. Like a previous surface crack model by Erdogen...

  10. An Axial Sliding Test for machine elements surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    are necessary: a press to provide the normal pressure and a tensile machine to perform the axial movements. The test is calibrated so that the correspondence between the normal pressure and the container advancement is found. Finally, preliminary tests are carried out involving a multifunctional and a fine......Throughout the years, it has become more and more important to find new methods for reducing friction and wear occurrence in machine elements. A possible solution is found in texturing the surfaces under tribological contact, hence the development and spread of plateau-honed surface for cylinder...... liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed Axial Sliding Test. It presents four major components: a rod, a sleeve...

  11. Impaired bed mobility: quantitative torque analysis with axial inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Thanawattano, Chusak

    2017-08-01

    Difficulty in turning in bed is rated as the most troublesome night-time symptom among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. To develop a practical objective method for home assessment of a patient's ability to turn in bed. Nocturnal parameters and torque of self-turning in bed from 17 PD couples were assessed and compared using a wearable axial sensor for two nights in their homes. The torque of axial rotation which indicates the ability of PD patients to turn in bed was significantly less than their spouses (p turning in bed and total unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.71; p = 0.001), and total Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp score (r = 0.634; p = 0.006). Our study confirms a decreased ability in turning in PD.

  12. One-loop calculations in QED in axial gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.E.; Kurannoy, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper pursued the aim to test at the simple example of the calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment in quantum electrodynamics the methods of calculating one-loop integrals in the axial gauge, using the dimensional regularization, and to investigate the independence of the results on the choice of the recipe of how to treat the poles in the denominators (k eta) -1 . It is shown that the techniques developed in another paper, as well as in the present paper, can be successfully applied in such calculations, in spite of the peculiarities of the axial gauge that have been discussed previously. The results of the two different ways of treating singularities (k eta) -1 (the principal value and 't Hooft's prescription) turn out to be equal. At the same time it was verified that the Green functions obtained by these calculations near the mass shell in the one-loop approximation satisfy the ward identity

  13. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  14. Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum......, but where subsequently the load starts to increase again, it is found that near the local load minimum, the buckling pattern switches back to a periodic type of pattern. The inelastic material behavior of the panel is described in terms of J(2) corner theory, which avoids the sometimes unrealistically high...

  15. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, R.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Zanotti, J.M.

    2015-11-01

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  16. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal. (author)

  17. Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pebble beds of ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future fusion power plants. A thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds is mandatory for understanding the behaviour of pebble beds, and thus the overall blanket, under fusion environment conditions. The mechanical behaviour of pebble beds is typically explored with uni-axial, bi-axial and tri-axial compression experiments. The latter two types of experiment are particularly revealing since they contain explicitly, beyond a compression behaviour of the bed, information on the conditions for pebble flow, i.e. macroscopic relocation, in the pebble bed. (orig.)

  18. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, P.

    2010-12-01

    Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval

  19. Design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel for BWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia V, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis, the modifications made to the axial optimization system based on Tabu Search (BT) for the axial design of BWR fuel type are presented, developed previously in the Nuclear Engineering Group of the UNAM Engineering Faculty. With the modifications what is mainly looked is to consider the particular characteristics of the mechanical design of the GE12 fuel type, used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV) and that it considers the fuel bars of partial longitude. The information obtained in this thesis will allow to plan nuclear fuel reloads with the best conditions to operate in a certain cycle guaranteeing a better yield and use in the fuel burnt, additionally people in charge in the reload planning will be favored with the changes carried out to the system for the design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel, which facilitate their handling and it reduces their execution time. This thesis this developed in five chapters that are understood in the following way in general: Chapter 1: It approaches the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, it describes the physical and chemical composition of the atoms as well as that of the uranium isotopes, the handling of the uranium isotope by means of the nuclear fission until arriving to the operation of the nuclear reactors. Chapter 2: The nuclear fuel cycle is described, the methods for its extraction, its conversion and its enrichment to arrive to the stages of the nuclear fuel management used in the reactors are described. Beginning by the radial design, the axial design and the core design of the nuclear reactor related with the fuel assemblies design. Chapter 3: the optimization methods of nuclear fuel previously used are exposed among those that are: the genetic algorithms method, the search methods based on heuristic rules and the application of the tabu search method, which was used for the development of this thesis. Chapter 4: In this part the used methodology to the

  20. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  1. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  2. Axial nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  3. The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy

    2009-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.

  4. «FLARES» IN AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.

  5. Dentoskeletal Overjet Measurements of Iraqi Adult Sample with Different Skeletal Jaw Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaa A Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many attempts were done to develop a method that actually reflects the sagittal jaw discrepancies without depending on cranial landmarks or dental occlusion. This study aimed to use one of these methods (dentoskeletal overjet for assessing the sagittal jaw relationships of Iraqi adult sample with different skeletal jaw relationship. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 90 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi individuals with no previous orthodontic treatment. Cephalometric analysis of skeletal sagittal jaw relationship -ANB angle, beta angle and Wits appraisal- will perform for everyone to divide the sample into three groups (skeletal class I, II, III for which the dentoskeletal overjet will be measured. All cephalometric measurements will be done using AutoCAD. Results: Descriptive statistics of all variables with different skeletal jaw relationship showed that mean values of dentoskeletal overjet were (1.15, 3.91 and –2.01 mm for skeletal class I, class II and class III jaw relationship respectively. Accurate reproducibility of dentoskeletal overjet in assessment of jaw skeletal relationship showed that the lowest value was for assessment of skeletal class III jaw relationship (73% and the value for assessment of both skeletal class I and class II was higher (93%. Conclusions: Dentoskeletal overjet could be utilized in accurate representation of skeletal jaw relationship.

  6. Deep bite malocclusion: exploration of the skeletal and dental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, N.K.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Correction of deep bite is crucial for maintenance of dental hard and soft tissue structures and for prevention of temporomandibular joint disorders. Exploration of underlying skeletal and dental factors is essential for efficient and individualized treatment planning. To date etiological factors of dental and skeletal deep bite have not been explored in Pakistani orthodontic patients. The objectives of this study were to explore frequencies of dental and skeletal etiological factors in deep bite patients and to determine correlations amongst dental and skeletal etiological factors of deep bite. Methods: The study included a total of 113 subjects (males=35; females=78) with no craniofacial syndromes or prior orthodontic treatment. Pre-treatment orthodontic records were used to evaluate various dental and skeletal parameters. Descriptive statistics of each parameter were calculated. The various study parameters were correlated using Pearson's Correlation. Results: Deep curve of Spee was most frequently seen factor of dental deep bite (72.6%), followed by increased coronal length of upper incisors (28.3%), retroclined upper incisors (17.7%), retroclined lower incisors (8%) and increased coronal length of lower incisors (5.3%). Decreased gonial angle was most commonly found factor of skeletal deep bite (43.4%), followed by decreased mandibular plane angle (27.4%) and maxillary plane's clockwise rotation (26.5%). Frankfort mandibular plane angle and gonial angle showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.66, p=0.000). Conclusions: Reduced gonial angle is most frequently seen skeletal factor, signifying the importance of angulation and growth of ramus in development of deep bite. Deep curve of Spee is most frequently seen dental etiological component in deep bite subjects, hence signifying the importance of intruding the lower anterior teeth. (author)

  7. Glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2000-01-01

    , but its expression is markedly reduced around birth and is further reduced to undetectable levels within the first year of life; 2) GLUT-3 protein expression appears at 18 wk of gestation and disappears after birth; and 3) GLUT-4 protein is diffusely expressed in muscle cells throughout gestation, whereas...... after birth, the characteristic subcellular localization is as seen in adult muscle fibers. Our results show that GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 seem to be of importance during muscle fiber growth and development. GLUT-5 protein was undetectable in fetal and adult skeletal muscle fibers. In adult muscle...... amplification (TSA) technique to detect the localization of glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. We found expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 in developing human muscle fibers showing a distinct expression pattern. 1) GLUT-1 is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells during gestation...

  8. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Petersson, Stine J; Sellathurai, Jeeva

    2009-01-01

    indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis...

  9. Comprehensive Validation of Skeletal Mechanism for Turbulent Premixed Methane–Air Flame Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Luca, Stefano; Al-Khateeb, Ashraf N.; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A new skeletal mechanism, consisting of 16 species and 72 reactions, has been developed for lean methane–air premixed combustion from the GRI-Mech 3.0. The skeletal mechanism is validated for elevated unburnt temperatures (800 K) and pressures up

  10. Bio-impedance analysis for appendicular skeletal muscle mass assessment in (pre-) frail elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, van H.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims Screening populations for skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is important for early detection of sarcopenia. Our aim was to develop an age specific bio-impedance (BI) prediction equation for the assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) in (pre-) frail elderly people aged

  11. Skeletal muscle lymphoma: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Winalski, C.S.; McGowen, A.; Lan, H.; Dorfman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present the MR appearances of three patients with biopsy-proven primary lymphoma of skeletal muscle. In each case lymphoma resulted in bulky expansion of the involved muscle, homogeneously isointense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images and diffusely enhancing following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  12. Skeletal manifestations of granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.; Abdelwahab, I.F. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Feldman, F. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)); Klein, M.J. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pathology)

    1991-10-01

    Skeletal manifestations of chloroma were reviewed in five patients. In four cases, a chloroma was the initial manifestation of a systemic disease. In the fifth, an elderly patient developed a bone lesion during a blastic crisis while under treatment for chronic myelogeneous leukemia. Two patients presented with lytic lesions of the ribs, two with lytic lesions of the femur, and one with a predominantly sclerotic lesion of the scapula. The laboratory findings in two patients were within normal limits. All lesions were confirmed by bone biopsy. (orig.).

  13. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the held of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The Fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations ( <2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete held of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-cr...

  14. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joram, Christian

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the field of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations (PET concept making use of the novel digital SiPM detectors by Philips. After reproducing comparable energy and spatial resolution on a small digital AX-PET set-up with 100 mm long crystals, we demonstrated a coincidence resolving time of about 210 ps FWHM.

  15. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  16. Reconstruction of core axial power shapes using the alternating conditional expectation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ki; Kim, Yong Hee; Cha, Kune Ho; Park, Moon Ghu

    1999-01-01

    We have introduced the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm in reconstructing 20-node axial core power shapes from five-level in-core detector powers. The core design code, Reactor Operation and Control Simulation (ROCS), calculates 3-dimensional power distributions for various core states, and the reference core-averaged axial power shapes and corresponding simulated detector powers are utilized to synthesize the axial power shape. By using the ACE algorithm, the optimal relationship between a dependent variable, the plane power, and independent variables, five detector powers, is determined without any preprocessing. A total of ∼3490 data sets per each cycle of YongGwang Nuclear (YGN) power plant units 3 and 4 is used for the regression. Continuous analytic function corresponding to each optimal transformation is calculated by simple regression model. The reconstructed axial power shapes of ∼21,200 cases are compared to the original ROCS axial power shapes. Also, to test the validity and accuracy of the new method, its performance is compared with that of the Fourier fitting method (FFM), a typical method of the deterministic approach. For a total of 21,204 data cases, the averages of root mean square (rms) error, axial peak error (ΔF z ), and axial shape index error (ΔASI) of new method are calculated as 0.81%, 0.51% and 0.00204, while those of FFM are 2.29%, 2.37% and 0.00264, respectively. We also evaluated the wide range of axial power profiles from the xenon-oscillation. The results show that the newly developed method is far superior to FFM; average rms and axial peak error are just ∼35 and ∼20% of those of FFM, respectively

  17. BPHZL-subtraction scheme and axial gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Rebhan, A.; Schweda, M.; Piguet, O.

    1986-03-27

    The application of the BPHZL subtraction scheme to Yang-Mills theories in axial gauges is presented. In the auxillary mass formulation we show the validity of the convergence theorems for subtracted momentum space integrals, and we give the integral formulae necessary for one-loop calculations. (orig.).

  18. Aryabha~ and Axial Rotation of Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Aryabhata and Axial Rotation of Earth - Naksatra Dina (the Sidereal Day). Amartya Kumar Dutta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 56-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Aryabhala and Axial Rotation of Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 3. Aryabhata and Axial Rotation of Earth - Khagola (The Celestial Sphere). Amartya Kumar Dutta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 3 March 2006 pp 51-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  1. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  2. The axial polarizability of nucleons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.; Figureau, A.

    1981-02-01

    The part of the static nuclear axial polarizability arising from the nucleonic excitations is derived from the low energy expansion of the πN amplitude. It is shown that the contribution of the Δ intermediate state, though dominant, does not saturate the nucleonic response. A similar effect, though more pronounced, is known to occur for the magnetic susceptibility

  3. Axial crystals macroscopic symmetry and tensor properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovec, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : axial * polar * pseudopolar * chiral * enantiomorphism * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  4. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values are extensively used to define aromaticity quantitatively.3 In a recent study on ... studies were directed to unravel the subtle ways in which the stability, reactivity, and ..... The singlet–triplet gaps of all the skeletally substituted benzenes ...

  5. Selection, processing and clinical application of muscle-skeletal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M.L.; Lavalley E, C.; Castaneda J, G.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increase in the average of the world population's life, people die each time to more age, this makes that the tissues of support of the human body, as those muscle-skeletal tissues, when increasing the individual's age go weakening, this in turn leads to the increment of the illnesses like the osteoporosis and the arthritis, that undoubtedly gives as a result more injure of the muscle-skeletal tissues joined a greater number of traffic accidents where particularly these tissues are affected, for that the demand of tissues muscle-skeletal for transplant every day will be bigger. The production of these tissues in the Bank of Radio sterilized Tissues, besides helping people to improve its quality of life saved foreign currencies because most of the muscle-skeletal tissues transplanted in Mexico are of import. The use of the irradiation to sterilize tissues for transplant has shown to be one of the best techniques with that purpose for what the International Atomic Energy Agency believes a Technical cooperation program to establish banks of tissues using the nuclear energy, helping mainly to countries in development. In this work the stages that follows the bank of radio sterilized tissues of the National Institute of Nuclear Research for the cadaverous donor's of muscle-skeletal tissue selection are described, as well as the processing and the clinical application of these tissues. (Author)

  6. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  7. Cardiac troponin T and fast skeletal muscle denervation in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zherong; Feng, Xin; Dong, Juan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Lee, Jingyun; Furdui, Cristina; Files, Daniel Clark; Beavers, Kristen M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Milligan, Carolanne; Jin, Jian-Ping; Delbono, Osvaldo; Zhang, Tan

    2017-10-01

    Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow-twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre-type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), the heart muscle-specific isoform of TnT, is a key component of the mechanisms of muscle contraction. It is expressed in skeletal muscle during early development, after acute sciatic nerve denervation, in various neuromuscular diseases and possibly in ageing muscle. Yet the subcellular localization and function of cTnT in skeletal muscle is largely unknown. Studies were carried out on isolated skeletal muscles from mice, vervet monkeys, and humans. Immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry were used to analyse protein expression, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression, immunofluorescence staining was performed for subcellular distribution assay of proteins, and electromyographic recording was used to analyse neurotransmission at the NMJ. Levels of cTnT expression in skeletal muscle increased with ageing in mice. In addition, cTnT was highly enriched at the NMJ region-but mainly in the fast-twitch, not the slow-twitch, muscle of old mice. We further found that the protein kinase A (PKA) RIα subunit was largely removed from, while PKA RIIα and RIIβ are enriched at, the NMJ-again, preferentially in fast-twitch but not slow-twitch muscle in old mice. Knocking down cTnT in fast skeletal muscle of old mice: (i) increased PKA RIα and reduced PKA RIIα at the NMJ; (ii

  8. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... and insulin signalling transduction remain elusive. We believe that one of the reasons is that the role of intracellular compartmentalization as a regulator of metabolic pathways and signalling transduction has been rather ignored. This paper briefly reviews the literature to discuss the role of intracellular...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...

  9. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  10. PLASTICITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE STUDIED BY STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  11. Stem Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, Molly N; Larkin, Lisa M

    2018-04-19

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating condition wherein muscle loss overwhelms the body's normal physiological repair mechanism. VML is particularly common among military service members who have sustained war injuries. Because of the high social and medical cost associated with VML and suboptimal current surgical treatments, there is great interest in developing better VML therapies. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) is a promising alternative to traditional VML surgical treatments that use autogenic tissue grafts, and rather uses isolated stem cells with myogenic potential to generate de novo skeletal muscle tissues to treat VML. Satellite cells are the native precursors to skeletal muscle tissue, and are thus the most commonly studied starting source for SMTE. However, satellite cells are difficult to isolate and purify, and it is presently unknown whether they would be a practical source in clinical SMTE applications. Alternative myogenic stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, each have myogenic potential and have been identified as possible starting sources for SMTE, although they have yet to be studied in detail for this purpose. These alternative stem cell varieties offer unique advantages and disadvantages that are worth exploring further to advance the SMTE field toward highly functional, safe, and practical VML treatments. The following review summarizes the current state of satellite cell-based SMTE, details the properties and practical advantages of alternative myogenic stem cells, and offers guidance to tissue engineers on how alternative myogenic stem cells can be incorporated into SMTE research.

  12. A modern documented Italian identified skeletal collection of 2127 skeletons: the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cappella, Annalisa; Castoldi, Elisa; Mattia, Mirko; Poppa, Pasquale; De Angelis, Danilo; Vitello, Antonio; Biehler-Gomez, Lucie

    2018-06-01

    The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection is a modern and continuously growing identified osteological collection of 2127 skeletons under study in the Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense (LABANOF) in the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health of the University of Milan (Italy), and part of the Collezione Antropologica LABANOF (CAL). The collection presents individuals of both sexes and of all age groups with a high representation of the elderly and an interesting sample of infants. Each individual is associated with a documentation that includes sex, age-at-death, dates of birth and death, and a death certificate that specifies the exact cause of death and the chain of events that led to it (related pathological conditions or traumatic events). It was also possible to recover for several individuals the autopsy reports and antemortem photographs. This documented osteological collection is of crucial interest in physical and forensic anthropology: it provides unique teaching opportunities and more importantly considerable research possibilities to test and develop sex and age estimation methods, investigate key subjects of forensic relevance and discuss pathological markers, among others. The aim of this paper is to introduce the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection as a new identified skeletal collection and present its research and teaching potential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metastatic skeletal leiomyomatosis (leiomyomatosis ossea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Jose Raimundo; De Almeida, Ana Luzia Brito; Aymore, Ierece Lins; Pinto, Edna Pottes; Osthoff, Laura; Smith, Julius

    2002-01-01

    We present a unique case of metastatic leiomyomatosis to the skeleton. The very extensive involvement of the axial and peripheral skeleton with ''ring'' lesions and associated cyclical premenstrual pain eventually led to the correct diagnosis and total relief with hormonal therapy. (orig.)

  14. Metastatic skeletal leiomyomatosis (leiomyomatosis ossea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Jose Raimundo [Radiologic Clinic Felippe Mattoso, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Almeida, Ana Luzia Brito; Aymore, Ierece Lins [Claudio Lemos Surgical Pathology Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pinto, Edna Pottes [Edna Pottes Pinto Clinic, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osthoff, Laura [Basilio Clinic, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Smith, Julius [National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    We present a unique case of metastatic leiomyomatosis to the skeleton. The very extensive involvement of the axial and peripheral skeleton with ''ring'' lesions and associated cyclical premenstrual pain eventually led to the correct diagnosis and total relief with hormonal therapy. (orig.)

  15. Developmental expression of the alpha-skeletal actin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonk Freek J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is a cytoskeletal protein which exerts a broad range of functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. In higher vertebrates, six primary actin isoforms can be distinguished: alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth muscle, gamma-smooth muscle, beta-cytoplasmic and gamma-cytoplasmic isoactin. Expression of these actin isoforms during vertebrate development is highly regulated in a temporal and tissue-specific manner, but the mechanisms and the specific differences are currently not well understood. All members of the actin multigene family are highly conserved, suggesting that there is a high selective pressure on these proteins. Results We present here a model for the evolution of the genomic organization of alpha-skeletal actin and by molecular modeling, illustrate the structural differences of actin proteins of different phyla. We further describe and compare alpha-skeletal actin expression in two developmental stages of five vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, snake, salamander and fish. Our findings confirm that alpha-skeletal actin is expressed in skeletal muscle and in the heart of all five species. In addition, we identify many novel non-muscular expression domains including several in the central nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that the high sequence homology of alpha-skeletal actins is reflected by similarities of their 3 dimensional protein structures, as well as by conserved gene expression patterns during vertebrate development. Nonetheless, we find here important differences in 3D structures, in gene architectures and identify novel expression domains for this structural and functional important gene.

  16. Anisotropic Material Behavior of Uni-axially Compacted Graphite Matrix for HTGR Fuel Compact Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Cho, Moon Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In developing the fuel compact fabrication technology, and fuel graphite material to meet the required material properties, it is essential to investigate the relationship among the process parameters of the matrix graphite powder preparation, the fabrication parameters of fuel element green compact and the heat treatments conditions and the material properties of fuel element. It was observed, during this development, that the pressing technique employed for the compaction fabrication prior to the two successive heat treatments (carbonization and final high temperature heat treatment) was of extreme importance in determining the material properties of the final compact product. In this work, the material behavior of the uni-axially pressed graphite matrix during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated and summarized along the different directions, viz., perpendicular and parallel directions to pressing direction. In this work, the dimensional variations and variations in thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and Vickers hardness of the graphite matrix compact samples in the axial and radial directions prepared by uni-axial pressing are evaluated, and compared with those of samples prepared by cold isostatic pressing with the available data. From this work, the followings are observed. 1) Dimensional changes of matrix graphite green compacts during carbonization show that the difference in radial and axial variations shows a large anisotropic behavior in shrinkage. The radial variation is very small while the axial variation is large. During carbonization, the stresses caused by the force would be released in to the axial direction together with the phenolic resin vapor. 2) Dimensional variation of compact samples in perpendicular and parallel directions during carbonization shows a large difference in behavior when compact sample is prepared by uni-axial pressing. However, when compact sample is prepared by cold isostatic pressing, there is

  17. Anisotropic Material Behavior of Uni-axially Compacted Graphite Matrix for HTGR Fuel Compact Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Cho, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    In developing the fuel compact fabrication technology, and fuel graphite material to meet the required material properties, it is essential to investigate the relationship among the process parameters of the matrix graphite powder preparation, the fabrication parameters of fuel element green compact and the heat treatments conditions and the material properties of fuel element. It was observed, during this development, that the pressing technique employed for the compaction fabrication prior to the two successive heat treatments (carbonization and final high temperature heat treatment) was of extreme importance in determining the material properties of the final compact product. In this work, the material behavior of the uni-axially pressed graphite matrix during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated and summarized along the different directions, viz., perpendicular and parallel directions to pressing direction. In this work, the dimensional variations and variations in thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and Vickers hardness of the graphite matrix compact samples in the axial and radial directions prepared by uni-axial pressing are evaluated, and compared with those of samples prepared by cold isostatic pressing with the available data. From this work, the followings are observed. 1) Dimensional changes of matrix graphite green compacts during carbonization show that the difference in radial and axial variations shows a large anisotropic behavior in shrinkage. The radial variation is very small while the axial variation is large. During carbonization, the stresses caused by the force would be released in to the axial direction together with the phenolic resin vapor. 2) Dimensional variation of compact samples in perpendicular and parallel directions during carbonization shows a large difference in behavior when compact sample is prepared by uni-axial pressing. However, when compact sample is prepared by cold isostatic pressing, there is

  18. High-fat diet decreases energy expenditure and expression of genes controlling lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and skeletal system development in the adipose tissue, along with increased expression of extracellular matrix remodelling- and inflammation-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Young-Je; Kwon, Eun-Young; Ryoo, Jae Young; Kim, Sang Ryong; Jung, Un Ju

    2015-03-28

    The aim of the present study was to identify the genes differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue in a well-characterised mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice (n 20) were fed either HFD (189 % of energy from fat) or low-fat diet (LFD, 42 % of energy from fat) for 16 weeks. HFD-fed mice exhibited obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and adipose collagen accumulation, along with higher levels of plasma leptin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, although there were no significant differences in plasma cytokine levels. Energy intake was similar in the two diet groups owing to lower food intake in the HFD group; however, energy expenditure was also lower in the HFD group than in the LFD group. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to lipolysis, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial energy transduction, oxidation-reduction, insulin sensitivity and skeletal system development were down-regulated in HFD-fed mice, and genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, ECM remodelling and inflammation were up-regulated. The top ten up- or down-regulated genes include Acsm3, mt-Nd6, Fam13a, Cyp2e1, Rgs1 and Gpnmb, whose roles in the deterioration of obesity-associated adipose tissue are poorly understood. In conclusion, the genes identified here provide new therapeutic opportunities for prevention and treatment of diet-induced obesity.

  19. Multiple congenital skeletal malformations in a lamb associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other malformations included patella absence, resulting in bowing of both fore and hind limbs with poorly developed muscles associated with these skeletal structure. Dystocia was believed to be a result of fetal monstrosity resulting in abnormal posture. The cause of the congenital malformations was not obvious ...

  20. Factors regulating fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Alsted, Thomas Junker; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In modern societies, oversupply of calories leads to obesity and chronic metabolic stress, which may lead to development of disease. Oversupply of calories is often associated with elevated plasma lipid concentrations and accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle leading to decreased insulin...

  1. On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.I.

    1984-01-01

    The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory

  2. Cross-flow filtration and axial filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two relatively novel alternative solid-liquid-separation techniques of filtration are discussed. In cross-flow filtration, the feed is pumped past the filtering surface. While in axial filtration the filter, mounted on a rotor, is moved with respect to the feed. While large-scale application of the axial filter is still in doubt, it permits with little expenditure of time and money, duplication of many hydrodynamic aspects of cross-flow filtration for fine-particle handling problems. The technique has been applied to municipal wastes, low-level radioactive waste treatment plant, lead removal from industrial wastes, removal of pulp-mill contaminants, textile-mill wastes, and pretreatment of saline waters by lime-soda process in preparation for hyperfiltration. Economics and energy requirements are also discussed

  3. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1982-01-01

    Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

  4. Ventajas de los motores de flujo axial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M Basanta Otero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer sobre una familia de motores que a diferencia de los convencionales o tradicionales no presentanun flujo rotatorio radial, denominados motores de flujo axial. Dichos motores presentan altos valores de par motriz abajas velocidades, una alta eficiencia y alta densidad de potencia. Este trabajo constituye un breve análisis dealgunos motores de la referencia bibliográfica.  Is important to know about a family of motors that at difference whit the traditional, don't have a rotator radial flux,called, axial flux motors. These motors have high torque for low speed, high efficiency and high power density. Thiswork is a brief analysis of several motors of the bibliographic references.

  5. Internal and external axial corner flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  6. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  7. Deletion of skeletal muscle SOCS3 prevents insulin resistance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M; Sylow, Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin...... of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy...... expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance....

  8. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). KEK Theory Center; INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Prester, P.D. [Rijeka Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-08-15

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  9. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T.; Prester, P.D.; Pereira, A.D.; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  10. Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2017-01-01

    Anti-TNF drugs have represented an epochal revolution in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. In the field of axial spondyloarthritis, golimumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-TNFα administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, has shown significant efficacy and good safety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. More recently, it was also indicated as an effective treatment for patients suffering from non-radiographic axial spondyloarthitits. Areas covered: A systematic literature search was completed, using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), with the aim to review all data concerning the administration of golimumab in patients suffering from axial spondyloartritis. Expert opinion: In the 16-week GO-AHEAD study, golimumab was effective in patients with non-radiographic spondyloarthritis with high levels of CRP and/or positive MRI findings, but not in subjects with both negative CRP and MRI. This finding allows for the addressing the of anti-TNF treatment more specifically. Preliminary data concerning an open-label extension of the GO-AHEAD study outlined the high retention-rate of the drug at 52 weeks. The production of antibodies against golimumab is rare and it seems to exert scarce influence on the drug performances. In conclusion, golimumab appears as a very useful and well tolerated anti-TNF agent.

  11. Computational analysis of a multistage axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidoju, Chaithanya

    Turbomachines are used extensively in Aerospace, Power Generation, and Oil & Gas Industries. Efficiency of these machines is often an important factor and has led to the continuous effort to improve the design to achieve better efficiency. The axial flow compressor is a major component in a gas turbine with the turbine's overall performance depending strongly on compressor performance. Traditional analysis of axial compressors involves throughflow calculations, isolated blade passage analysis, Quasi-3D blade-to-blade analysis, single-stage (rotor-stator) analysis, and multi-stage analysis involving larger design cycles. In the current study, the detailed flow through a 15 stage axial compressor is analyzed using a 3-D Navier Stokes CFD solver in a parallel computing environment. Methodology is described for steady state (frozen rotor stator) analysis of one blade passage per component. Various effects such as mesh type and density, boundary conditions, tip clearance and numerical issues such as turbulence model choice, advection model choice, and parallel processing performance are analyzed. A high sensitivity of the predictions to the above was found. Physical explanation to the flow features observed in the computational study are given. The total pressure rise verses mass flow rate was computed.

  12. Bessel beam CARS of axially structured samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    We report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.

  13. Dynamic control of knee axial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Malyshev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have evaluated the clinical examination of the patients with axial malalignments in the knee by the original method and device which was named varovalgometer. The measurements were conducted by tension of the cord through the spina iliaca anterior superior and the middle of the lower pole of patella. The deviation of the center of the ankle estimated by metal ruler which was positioned perpendicular to the lower leg axis on the level of the ankle joint line. The results of comparison of our method and computer navigation in 53 patients during the TKA show no statistically significant varieties but they differ by average 5° of valgus in clinical examination in comparison with mechanical axis which was identified by computer navigation. The dynamic control of axial malalignment can be used in clinical practice for estimation of the results of treatment of pathology with axial deformities in the knee; for the control of reduction and secondary displacement of the fractures around the knee; for assessment of instability; in planning of correctional osteotomies and intraoperative control of deformity correction; for estimation of Q angle in subluxation and recurrent dislocation of patella; in planning of TKA; during the growth of child it allows to assess the progression of deformity.

  14. A skeletal mechanism for biodiesel blend surrogates combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Maghbouli, A.; Li, J.; Chua, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A skeletal biodiesel reaction mechanism with 112 species was constructed. • The developed mechanism contains the CO, NO x and soot formation kinetics. • It was well validated against detailed reaction mechanism and experimental results. • The mechanism is suitable to simulate biodiesel, diesel and their blend fuels. - Abstract: A tri-component skeletal reaction mechanism consisting of methyl decanoate, methyl-9-decenoate, and n-heptane was developed for biodiesel combustion in diesel engine. It comprises 112 species participating in 498 reactions with the CO, NO x and soot formation mechanisms embedded. In this study, a detailed tri-component biodiesel mechanism was used as the start of mechanism reduction and the reduced mechanism was combined with a previously developed skeletal reaction mechanism for n-heptane to integrate the soot formation kinetics. A combined mechanism reduction strategy including the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), peak concentration analysis, isomer lumping, unimportant reactions elimination and reaction rate adjustment methods was employed. The reduction process for biodiesel was performed over a range of initial conditions covering the pressures from 1 to 100 atm, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and temperatures from 700 to 1800 K, whereas for n-heptane, ignition delay predictions were compared against 17 shock tube experimental conditions. Extensive validations were performed for the developed skeletal reaction mechanism with 0-D ignition delay testing and 3-D engine simulations. The results indicated that the developed mechanism was able to accurately predict the ignition delay timings of n-heptane and biodiesel, and it could be integrated into 3-D engine simulations to predict the combustion characteristics of biodiesel. As such, the developed 112-species skeletal mechanism can accurately mimic the significant reaction pathways of the detailed reaction

  15. Axially symmetric reconstruction of plasma emission and absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixin; Jia Hui; Yang Jiankun; Li Xiujian; Chen Shaorong; Liu Xishun

    2013-01-01

    A layered structure imaging model is developed in order to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients simultaneously, in laser fusion core plasma diagnostics. A novel axially symmetric reconstruction method that utilizes the LM (Levenberg-Marquardt) nonlinear least squares minimization algorithm is proposed based on the layered structure. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients, and when the standard deviation of noise is 0.01, the errors of emission coefficients and absorption coefficients are 0.17, 0.22, respectively. Furthermore, this method could perform much better on reconstruction effect compared with traditional inverse Abel transform algorithms. (authors)

  16. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

  17. Axial anomaly at finite temperature and finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zhixin; Su Rukeng; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U(1) axial anomaly in a hot fermion medium is investigated by using the real time Green's function method. After calculating the lowest order triangle diagrams, we find that finite temperature as well as finite fermion density does not affect the axial anomaly. The higher order corrections for the axial anomaly are discussed. (orig.)

  18. The development of the learning video for the flipped classroom model on student of open university on human skeletal system and muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrini, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of the research are to develop the learning video for the flipped classroom model for Open University’s student and to know the effectiveness of the video. The development of the video used Research and Development ADDIE design (Analyses, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation). The sampling used purposive sampling was 28 students in Open University of Nganjuk. The techniques of data collection were the observation data to know the problems of the students, and learning facilities, the test (pre-test and post-test) to know a knowledge aspect, a questionnaire to know advisability of video learning, a structured interview to confirm their answer. The result of the expert of matter and media showed that the average product score was 3.75 of 4 or very good, the small-scale test showed that the average score was 3.60 of 4 and the large-scale test showed that the average score was 3.80 of 4, it had a very good category. The t-test with paired sample test showed that sig. (2-tailed) video for flipped classroom was effective to be implemented.

  19. The deep structure of Axial Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  20. A Comparison of Hand Wrist Bone Analysis with Two Different Cervical Vertebral Analysis in Measuring Skeletal Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. M...

  1. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

  2. Growth of limb muscle is dependent on skeletal-derived Indian hedgehog

    OpenAIRE

    Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Hausburg, Melissa; Olwin, Bradley B.

    2011-01-01

    During embryogenesis, muscle and bone develop in close temporal and spatial proximity. We show that Indian Hedgehog, a bone-derived signaling molecule, participates in growth of skeletal muscle. In Ihh−/− embryos, skeletal muscle development appears abnormal at embryonic day 14.5 and at later ages through embryonic day 20.5, dramatic losses of hindlimb muscle occur. To further examine the role of Ihh in myogenesis, we manipulated Ihh expression in the developing chick hindlimb. Reduction of I...

  3. Intrinsic carpal ligaments on MR and multidetector CT arthrography: comparison of axial and axial oblique planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex W.H.; Law, Eric K.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Tse, W.L.; Wong, Clara W.Y.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    To compare axial and oblique axial planes on MR arthrography (MRA) and multidetector CT arthrography (CTA) to evaluate dorsal and volar parts of scapholunate (SLIL) and lunotriquetral interosseous (LTIL) ligaments. Nine cadaveric wrists of five male subjects were studied. The visibility of dorsal and volar parts of the SLIL and LTIL was graded semi-quantitatively (good, intermediate, poor) on MRA and CTA. The presence of a ligament tear was determined on arthrosocopy and sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of tear detection were calculated. Oblique axial imaging was particularly useful for delineating dorsal and volar parts of the LTIL on MRA with overall 'good' visibility increased from 11 % to 78 %. The accuracy of MRA and CTA in revealing SLIL and LTIL tear was higher using the oblique axial plane. The overall accuracy for detecting SLIL tear on CTA improved from 94 % to 100 % and from 89 % to 94 % on MRA; the overall accuracy of detecting LTIL tear on CTA improved from 89 % to 100 % and from 72 % to 89 % on MRA Oblique axial imaging during CT and MR arthrography improves detection of tears in the dorsal and volar parts of both SLIL and LTIL. (orig.)

  4. Development of an axially staged annular combustor with low residence times in the main stage. Final report; Entwicklung eines gestuften Brenners in Ringanordnung mit kleiner Aufenthaltszeit in der Hauptzone. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.J. [BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany). Abt. Brennkammerentwicklung; Theisen, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Flugantriebe

    1998-05-28

    Within the project presented an axially staged annular combustor has been investigated. Staged combustion significantly reduces emissions of nitrogen oxide without sacrifying combustion efficiency and stability during low power conditions. The cold flow in the combustion module was analysed in water analogy tests. Stability of the main fuel injectors was investigated in a low pressure sector rig, high pressure tests were focused on nitric oxides and smoke emissions and on the detection of the temperature pattern at the combustor exit. Based on these results a second configuration was derived. Improved mixing of the pilot stage exhaust gases into the primary zone of the main stage was achieved. This configuration revealed a considerable reduction of nitric oxide emissions as well as a more even exit temperature pattern. The aerothermal design and optimisation of the staged combustor and the interpretation of the experimental results were supported by means of CFD calculations. The accuracy of the prediction of pollutant emissions could be enhanced by the incorporation of an advanced laminar-flamelet combustion model. Fuel/air mixing as well as the combustion process were investigated in a planar model of the staged combustor at LFA, University of Munich, by means of laser-spectroscopic methods. Under atmospheric conditions 2D concentrations of OH, O{sub 2}, and NO were measured. Characteristic differences of the combustion process for the staged and unstaged mode, respectively, were detected. The general applicability of planar temperature measurement by means of `2 lines thermometry` could be demonstrated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Vorhabens wurde eine axial gestufte Ringbrennkammer untersucht, die eine deutliche Senkung der Stickoxidemissionen bewirkt, ohne den Ausbrand und die Stabilitaet im unteren Lastbereich zu verschlechtern. In Wasseranalogieversuchen wurde die kalte Stroemung analysiert und optimiert. Die Stabilitaet der

  5. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  6. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Fentz, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying...... highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation......, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives...

  7. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  8. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Bouleftour

    Full Text Available Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/- display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice

  9. Resolution of extra-axial collections after decompressive craniectomy for ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropper, Alexander E; Nalbach, Stephen V; Lin, Ning; Dunn, Ian F; Gormley, William B

    2012-02-01

    Extra-axial fluid collections are known consequences of decompressive hemicraniectomy. Studies have examined these collections and their management. We retrospectively reviewed 12 consecutive patients who underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy for the treatment of malignant cerebral edema after infarction and evaluated the evolution, resolution and treatment of post-operative extra-axial fluid collections. All patients underwent standard-sized frontotemporoparietal hemicraniectomy with duraplasty as treatment for medically intractable malignant cerebral edema at an average of 3 days after the stroke (median 2 days). Their 30-day mortality was 25%. Three patients developed some extra-axial fluid collections after craniectomy: two patients developed the collections early in their post-operative course, 3 days and 5 days after the craniectomy. Both experienced spontaneous resolution of the collections without corrective cranioplasty or shunt placement at 34 days and 58 days after surgery. The third patient developed a collection 55 days after the operation related to a subgaleal bacterial infection. In the final analysis, 18% of patients developed extra-axial collections and all resolved spontaneously. The incidence of extra-axial collections after decompressive hemicraniectomy following ischemic stroke was lower in our retrospective series than has been reported by others. The collections resolved spontaneously, suggesting that early anticipatory, corrective treatment with cerebrospinal fluid diversion or cranioplasty may not be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid development of systemic insulin resistance with overeating is not accompanied by robust changes in skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Hinko, Alexander; Nelson, Rachael K; Barkan, Ariel L; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2013-05-01

    Prolonged overeating and the resultant weight gain are clearly linked with the development of insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic abnormalities, but adaptations that occur after relatively short periods of overeating are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic adaptations that may accompany the development of insulin resistance after 2 weeks of overeating. Healthy, nonobese subjects (n = 9) were admitted to the hospital for 2 weeks, during which time they ate ∼4000 kcals·day(-1) (70 kcal·kg(-1) fat free mass·day(-1)). Insulin sensitivity was estimated during a meal tolerance test, and a muscle biopsy was obtained to assess muscle lipid accumulation and protein markers associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and the regulation of lipid metabolism. Whole-body insulin sensitivity declined markedly after 2 weeks of overeating (Matsuda composite index: 8.3 ± 1.3 vs. 4.6 ± 0.7, p overeating. Intramyocellular lipids tended to increase after 2 weeks of overeating (triacylglyceride: 7.6 ± 1.6 vs. 10.0 ± 1.8 nmol·mg(-1) wet weight; diacylglyceride: 104 ± 10 vs. 142 ± 23 pmol·mg(-1) wet weight) but these changes did not reach statistical significance. Overeating induced a 2-fold increase in 24-h insulin response (area under the curve (AUC); p overeating.

  11. The diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias: a multidisciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortier, Geert R.

    2001-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are heritable connective tissue disorders affecting skeletal morphogenesis and development. They represent a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders with more than 200 different entities being delineated to date. Because of this diversity, the diagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia is usually based on a combination of clinical, radiographic, morphologic, and, in some instances, biochemical and molecular studies. Tremendous advances have been made in the elucidation of the genetic defect of several of these conditions over the past 10 years. This progress has provided us with more insights into the genes controlling normal skeletal development. It also has opened new diagnostic perspectives. For several disorders, identification of the causal gene allows us now to confirm with a molecular test the diagnosis postulated on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or morphologic studies. It also enables us to establish the diagnosis early in pregnancy. An accurate diagnosis is not only important for proper management of the affected individual but also the cornerstone for adequate genetic counseling

  12. The diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias: a multidisciplinary approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortier, Geert R. E-mail: geert.mortier@rug.ac.be

    2001-12-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are heritable connective tissue disorders affecting skeletal morphogenesis and development. They represent a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders with more than 200 different entities being delineated to date. Because of this diversity, the diagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia is usually based on a combination of clinical, radiographic, morphologic, and, in some instances, biochemical and molecular studies. Tremendous advances have been made in the elucidation of the genetic defect of several of these conditions over the past 10 years. This progress has provided us with more insights into the genes controlling normal skeletal development. It also has opened new diagnostic perspectives. For several disorders, identification of the causal gene allows us now to confirm with a molecular test the diagnosis postulated on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or morphologic studies. It also enables us to establish the diagnosis early in pregnancy. An accurate diagnosis is not only important for proper management of the affected individual but also the cornerstone for adequate genetic counseling.

  13. Roentgenographic indicators of skeletal maturity in marine mammals (Cetacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.; Rhodin, A.G.J.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    A new roentgenographic classification (grading) scheme is presented for utilization in studies of skeletal development and maturation in marine mammals, particularly cetaceans. This is based on adequate description of the extent of development and maturation of the various secondary ossification centers, their eventual patterns of fusion, and subsequent remodeling with the metaphysis. The six stages are illustrated schematically and roentgenographically. This scheme may be applied to any cetacean longitudinal bone developing proximal and distal epiphyseal ossification centers. (orig.)

  14. Distribution of skeletal malignancies in beagles injected with 239Pu citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of skeletal malignancies among our beagles injected with 239 Pu as young adults roughly seems to follow the distribution of skeletal mass and skeletal 239 Pu. These findings are similar to those we reported previously for a group of dogs given 226 Ra. Although there were differences in tumor distribution between the animals given 239 Ra and those given 239 Pu, most of them were not statistically significant; however, the radium dogs seemed to show a greater sensitivity to bone tumor origin in the tibia, while there may have been a tendency among the plutonium dogs toward increased relative sensitivity in the scapula, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and ribs. In contrast, the most common site for the formation of naturally-occurring bone malignancy in the dog is the distal radius. Perhaps there were too few tumors and too few dogs to establish statistical significance. A correlation between tumor location and at least two anatomical-physiological factors in the skeleton indicated that these two factors (site-specific bone turnover rate and percent of red marrow at the site, which is correlated with vascularity) may influence the appearance of malignancies both individually and in combination. Except for the femur, there appeared to be no difference between the relative distribution of skeletal malignancies of low-level (30 Bq-2 Bq kg -1 injected) and high-level (3-122 kBq kg -1 ) dogs. Distribution of bone tumors between the axial and appendicular skeleton was 50% vs. 50% for 239 Pu (42 and 42), but it was 39% axial vs. 61% appendicular (22 and 35, respectively) for dogs given 226 Ra. This difference was not significant (p > 0.2). 15 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Hideo; Morimoto, Takehiko; Sano, Nozomi; Takahashi, Mitsugi; Nagai, Hironao; Tawa, Ritsuko; Yoshimatsu, Makoto; Woo Young-Jong; Matsuda, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in thirteen patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy was performed to estimate pathological changes. Serial axial and sagittal sections of the right lower extremity were recorded. In the early stage, the T 1 values of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were slightly lower than the control values, and in the late stage, the values were much lower in all muscles examined. In sagittal sections, the gastrocnemius muscle in the early stage showed a high density area at the distal region adjacent to soleus muscle, and the soleus muscle showed a high density area adjacent to the gestrocnemius muscle. In serial axial sections, high density areas of the anterior and posterior tibialis muscles appeared first at their proximal and peripheral regions. It was concluded that the sequence of appearance of pathological changes was different not only among individual muscles but also among various regions of each muscle; the high density changes appeared first at myotendon junctions. (author)

  16. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  17. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  18. Redesigning axial-axial (biaxial) cruciform specimens for very high cycle fatigue ultrasonic testing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão, Diogo; Wren, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The necessity to increase performances in terms of lifetime and security in mechanical components or structures is the motivation for intense research in fatigue. Applications range from aeronautics to medical devices. With the development of new materials, there is no longer a fatigue limit in the classical sense, where it was accepted that the fatigue limit is the stress level such that there is no fracture up to 1E7 cycles. The recent development of ultrasonic testing machines where frequencies can go as high as 20 kHz or over enabled tests to be extended to ranges larger than 1E9 in just a few days. This area of studies is now known as Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF). On the other hand, most of the existing test equipment in the market for both classical and VHCF are uniaxial test machines. However, critical components used in Engineering applications are usually subjected to complex multi-axial loading conditions. In this paper, it is presented the methodology to redesigning existing cruciform test specimens that can be used to create an in-plane biaxial state of stress when used in 'uniaxial' VHCF ultrasonic testing machines (in this case, the term 'uniaxial' is used not because of the state of stress created at the centre of the specimen, but because of the direction at which the load is applied). The methodology is explained in such a way that it can be expanded to other existing designs, namely cruciform designs, that are not yet used in VHCF. Also, although the approach is presented in simple and logical terms, it may not be that obvious for those who have a more focused approach on fatigue rather than on modal analysis. It is expected that by contributing to bridging the gap between the sciences of modal analysis and fatigue, this research will help and encourage others exploiting new capabilities in VHCF.

  19. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment....... This review discusses targeting SSC to enhance bone formation and to abolish age-related bone fragility in the context of using stem cells for treatment of age-related disorders. Recent studies are presented that have demonstrated that SSC exhibit impaired functions during aging due to intrinsic senescence...

  20. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on survival, growth and skeletal development in the early benthic juvenile sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Co-occurring ocean warming, acidification and reduced carbonate mineral saturation have significant impacts on marine biota, especially calcifying organisms. The effects of these stressors on development and calcification in newly metamorphosed juveniles (ca. 0.5 mm test diameter) of the intertidal sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, an ecologically important species in temperate Australia, were investigated in context with present and projected future conditions. Habitat temperature and pH/pCO2 were documented to place experiments in a biologically and ecologically relevant context. These parameters fluctuated diurnally up to 10 °C and 0.45 pH units. The juveniles were exposed to three temperature (21, 23 and 25 °C) and four pH (8.1, 7.8, 7.6 and 7.4) treatments in all combinations, representing ambient sea surface conditions (21 °C, pH 8.1; pCO2 397; ΩCa 4.7; ΩAr 3.1), near-future projected change (+2-4 °C, -0.3-0.5 pH units; pCO2 400-1820; ΩCa 5.0-1.6; ΩAr 3.3-1.1), and extreme conditions experienced at low tide (+4 °C, -0.3-0.7 pH units; pCO2 2850-2967; ΩCa 1.1-1.0; ΩAr 0.7-0.6). The lowest pH treatment (pH 7.4) was used to assess tolerance levels. Juvenile survival and test growth were resilient to current and near-future warming and acidification. Spine development, however, was negatively affected by near-future increased temperature (+2-4 °C) and extreme acidification (pH 7.4), with a complex interaction between stressors. Near-future warming was the more significant stressor. Spine tips were dissolved in the pH 7.4 treatments. Adaptation to fluctuating temperature-pH conditions in the intertidal may convey resilience to juvenile H. erythrogramma to changing ocean conditions, however, ocean warming and acidification may shift baseline intertidal temperature and pH/pCO2 to levels that exceed tolerance limits. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Axial sesamoiditis in the horse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Le Roux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL, also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion. Radiographic technique warrants careful attention to make a diagnosis, and exposure factors may need to be adjusted. Perineural, intra-articular and intra-thecal anaesthesia does not seem to provide consistent improvement of lameness in these cases, with literature reporting inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic findings include digital flexor sheath effusion, loss of the normal fibre structure of the PL at its attachment to the PSBs, abnormal echogenicity or change in thickness of the PL, and irregular hyperechoic cortical margins of the axial margins of the PSBs. Scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, although not necessary to make a diagnosis, may add valuable information regarding the location and extent of lesions. The prognosis remains guarded to poor for return to athletic function. The focus of this paper is a comprehensive review of the proposed aetiopathogenesis of the condition, the prognosis, and a summary of the literature findings with focus on the notable diagnostic imaging features, including radiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Grandpaternal-induced transgenerational dietary reprogramming of the unfolded protein response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter S. Alm

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Grandpaternal HFD-induced obesity transgenerationally affected the skeletal muscle transcriptome. This finding further highlights the impact of parental exposure to environmental factors on offspring's development and health.

  3. Deformation and collapse of zircaloy fuel rod cladding into plenum axial gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfennigwerth, P.L.; Gorscak, D.A.; Selsley, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    To minimize support structure, blanket and reflector fuel rods of the thoria urania-fueled Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) were designed with non-freestanding Zircaloy-4 cladding. An analytical model was developed to predict deformation of unirradiated cladding into axial gaps of fuel rod plenum regions where it is unsupported. This model uses the ACCEPT finite element computer program to calculate elastic-plastic deformation of cladding due to external pressure. The finite element is 20-node, triquadratic, isoparametric, and 3-dimensional. Its curved surface permits accurate modeling of the tube geometry, including geometric nonuniformities such as circumferential wall thickness variation and initial tube out-of-roundness. Progressive increases in axial gap length due to cladding elongation and fuel stack shrinkage are modeled, as are deformations of fuel pellets and stainless steel support sleeves which bound plenum axial gaps in LWBR type blanket fuel rods. Zircaloy-4 primary and secondary thermal creep representations were developed from uniaxial creep testing of fuel rod tubing. Creep response to multi-axial loading is modeled with a variation of Hill's formulation for anisotropic materials. Coefficients accounting for anisotropic thermal creep in Zircaloy-4 tubes were developed from creep testing of externally pressurized tubes having fixed axial gaps in the range 2.5 cm to 5.7 cm and radial clearances over simulated fuel pellets ranging from zero to 0.089 mm. (orig./RW)

  4. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  5. Disordered axial movement in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, M J; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

    1996-01-01

    Axial motor impairments are a common cause of disability in patients with Parkinson's disease, become more prominent with longer disease duration, and have been said to be less responsive to levodopa replacement therapy. The ability to turn in bed while lying supine before and after dopaminergic stimulation was studied in a group of 36 patients with Parkinson's disease; 23 were in Hoehn and Yahr stages 3-5 when "off", and 13 were in stages 1-2. Turning was also compared with postural stabilit...

  6. Digital enhancement of computerized axial tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of certain digital image enhancement techniques performed in image space. Three types of images have been used, computer generated phantoms, tomograms of a synthetic phantom, and axial tomograms of human anatomy containing images of lesions, artificially introduced into the tomograms. Several types of smoothing, sharpening, and histogram modification have been explored. It has been concluded that the most useful enhancement techniques are a selective smoothing of singular picture elements, combined with contrast manipulation. The most useful tool in applying these techniques is the gray-scale histogram.

  7. Advances in research on the prenatal development of skeletal muscle in animals in relation to the quality of muscle-based food. II -Genetic factors related to animal performance and advances in methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehfeldt, C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Wimmers, K.; Brameld, J.M.; Nissen, P.M.; Berri, C.; Valente, L.M.P.; Power, D.M.; Picard, B.; Stickland, N.C.; Oksbjerg, N.

    2011-01-01

    Selective breeding is an effective tool to improve livestock. Several selection experiments have been conducted to study direct selection responses as well as correlated responses in traits of skeletal muscle growth and function. Moreover, comparisons of domestic with wild-type species and of

  8. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  9. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  10. Structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle. (topical review)

  11. Numerical simulation of the tip clearance flow in axial turbomachinery; Numerische Simulation der Stroemung im radialen Schaufelspalt axialer Turbomaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melake, A [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    A computer program has been developed to calculate the three-dimensional tip leakage flow in axial turbomachinery based on the Navier-Stokes equation. This program has been applied to investigate the leakage flow within the gap between the blade fip and casing in an annular compressor cascade. A block structured computational mesh has been used in order to resolve the flow details within the gap and the passage flow. Flow characteristics like boundary layer separation, vortex genesis and interaction of the leakage flow with the secondary flow have been investigated and compared with existing experimental data. By varying the incidence angle and the tip gap the above mentioned flow phenomena have been analysed in an annular compressor cascade and a shrouded propfan rotor respectively. Furthermore, the relationship between the total pressure loss, the axial velocity deficit and the divergence of the tip leakage vortex has been investigated. Streamlines, limited streamlines and the critical point theory have been used extensively to analyse the boundary layer separation on the casing and its roll up to form the tip clearance vortex. (orig.). 59 figs., 3 tabs., 110 refs. [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Rechenprogramm zur Berechnung der dreidimensionalen Spaltstroemung im radialen Schaufelspalt axialer Turbomaschinen auf der Basis der Navier-Stokes`schen Gleichungen entwickelt und angewendet. Um die Stroemung innerhalb des Spaltes und der Schaufelpassage besser aufloesen zu koennen, wurde eine blockstrukturierte Netztopologie verwendet. Stroemungseigenschaften wie Grenzschichtabloesung, Entstehung des Spaltwirbels, Interaktion der Spaltstroemung mit der Sekundaerstroemung werden untersucht und mit vorhandenen experimentellen Daten verglichen. Im weiteren werden durch Variation der Inzidenz und der Spaltweite die oben genannten Stroemungsphaenomene an einem axialen Verdichterringgitter und an einem ummantelten Propfan analysiert. Ferner werden die Korrelation zwischen

  12. Axial sidelobe reduction in single-photon 4Pi microscopy by Toraldo filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinex-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Caballero, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscope is a recently developed 3D imaging technique in which two opposing high-NA objectives are used for coherently illuminating and/or detecting the same point of the fluorescent sample. The interference process yields an intensity point spread function (PSF) with an extremely narrow axial core, but with very large axial sidelobes, which compromise the actual improvement in axial resolution. To overcome this problem we propose the use, in the illumination arm of the 4Pi-confocal microscope, of multiple-zones phase filters whose design is based on the Toraldo-design principle. Note that the Toraldo procedure allows to select at will the positions of the zeros of the PSF of an optical system. Then, what we propose here if to design a phase pupil filter such that the position of the first zero of the illumination axial PSF is close to the position of the maximum of the first axial sidelobe of the detection PSF. In the design procedure it is taken into account that: 1. The value of the parameter ε = λ exc /λ det which, in a single-photon fluorescent process, is the responsible for the different scales of the illumination and detection PSFs. 2. The Toraldo procedure was originally designed to control the position of zeros of the transverse PSF. In this case the procedure is adapted to the aim of controlling the position of zeros of the axial PSF. 3. Since 4Pi-confocal microscopes are only useful when built with high-NA objectives, the Toraldo principle is reformulated in terms of the nonparaxial diffraction theory. We show that by using Toraldo filters in the illumination part of a 4Pi-confocal microscope it is possible to obtain up to a 60% reduction of height of the axial sidelobe of the whole-system axial PSF. This fact permits to fully benefit the axial resolution from the strong narrowness of the central peak of the axial PSF, inherent to the 4Pi principle. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy

  13. Radiation injury to skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, C.C.M.; Wondergem, J.; Leer, J.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiotherapy of neoplasia has increased the mean life expectancy of cancer patients. On the other hand, more reports are published on morbidity of the treatment with regard to normal tissue. Studies on skeletal muscle injury specifically are scarce, but many clinical long term follow-up studies make note of side effects as muscle atrophy, fibrosis and limited function. Furthermore it is suggested that skeletal muscles of children are more prone to radiation injury than those of adult subjects. Effects of radiation on skeletal muscle were studied in rats. On hind limb of young (100 g) and adult (350 g) rats was irradiated with single doses (15-30 Gy), while the other served as control. Follow-up was up to 12 months post treatment. Muscular function in young rats was decreased significantly at 6 months post irradiation, but did not further decrease in the following 6 months. The amount of collagen, on the other hand, was not increased at 6 months, but became highly elevated at 12 months past treatment. This suggests that at 6 months, impaired muscular function may not be explained by increased fibrotic tissues. This is an agreement with results obtained in adult rats, where function was also impaired, without concomitant increase in collagen. In an earlier study, mitochondrial oxygen consumption was dose dependently decreased after irradiation, at 12 months, but not at 6 months post treatment. Furthermore, myosin-actin interaction was measured in skinned fibers. The first results of this study indicate changes in the interaction of contraction proteins, as early as 6 months post treatment. (authors)

  14. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, V.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with skeletal metastases puts new demands on imaging. The radiological imaging in screening for skeletal metastases entails detection, metastatic site description and radiologically guided biopsy for morphological typing and diagnosis. Regarding sensitivity and the ease in performing surveys of the whole skeleton, radionuclide bone scintigraphy still is the first choice in routine follow-up of asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease of the skeleton. A negative scan has to be re-evaluated with other findings, with emphasis on the possibility of a false-negative result. Screening for metastases in patients with local symptoms or pain is best accomplished by a combination of radiography and MRI. Water-weighted sequences are superior in sensitivity and in detection of metastases. Standard spin-echo sequences on the other hand are superior in metastatic site description and in detection of intraspinal metastases. MRI is helpful in differentiating between malignant disease, infection, benign vertebral collapse, insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy, degenerative vertebral disease and benign skeletal lesions. About 30% of patients with known cancer have benign causes of radiographic abnormalities. Most of these are related to degenerative diseases and are often easily diagnosed. However, due to overlap in MRI characteristics, bone biopsy sometimes is essential for differentiating between malignant and nonmalignant lesions. Performing bone biopsy and aspiration cytology by radiologist and cytologist in co-operation has proven highly accurate in diagnosing bone lesions. The procedure involves low risk to the patient and provides a morphological diagnosis. Once a suspected metastatic lesion is detected, irrespective of modality, the morphological diagnosis determines the appropriate work-up imaging with respect to the therapy alternatives. (orig./VHE)

  15. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....

  16. In utero undernutrition programs skeletal and cardiac muscle metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany eBeauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease.

  17. Chiral Orientation of Skeletal Muscle Cells Requires Rigid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghao Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of tissue morphology with inherent left–right (LR asymmetry is essential for tissue/organ functions. For skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in mammalian organisms, successful myogenesis requires the regulation of the LR asymmetry to form the appropriate muscle alignment. However, the key factor for reproducing the LR asymmetry of skeletal tissues in a controllable, engineering context remains largely unknown. Recent reports indicate that cell chirality may underlie the LR development in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we report that a rigid substrate is required for the chirality of skeletal muscle cells. By using alternating micropatterned cell-adherent and cell-repellent stripes on a rigid substrate, we found that C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts exhibited a unidirectional tilted orientation with respect to the stripe boundary. Importantly, such chiral orientation was reduced when soft substrates were used instead. In addition, we demonstrated the key role of actin stress fibers in the formation of the chiral orientation. This study reveals that a rigid substrate is required for the chiral pattern of myoblasts, paving the way for reconstructing damaged muscle tissue with inherent LR asymmetry in the future.

  18. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.

  19. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P. N.; Addonisio, G.; Righi, R.; Giganti, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to present an algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases, which may be applied differently in symptomatic and asymptomatic cancer patients. February to March 1999 it was randomly selected and retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 100 cancer patients (70 women and 30 men; mean age: 63 years, range: 55-87). All the patients had been staged according to TNM criteria and had undergone conventional radiography and bone scan; when findings were equivocal, CT and MRI had been performed too. The primary lesions responsible for bone metastases were sited in the: breast (51 cases), colon (30 cases: 17 men and 13 women), lung (7 cases: 6 men and 1 woman), stomach (4 cases: 2 men and 2 women), skin (4 cases: 3 men and 1 woman), kidney (2 men), pleura (1 woman), and finally liver (1 man). The most frequent radiographic pattern was the lytic type (52%), followed by osteosclerotic, mixed, lytic vs mixed and osteosclerotic vs lytic patterns. The patients were divided into two groups: group A patients were asymptomatic and group B patients had local symptoms and/or pain. Skeletal metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors: the spine and the pelvis are the most frequent sites of metastasis, because of the presence of high amounts of red (hematopoietic active) bone marrow. Pain is the main symptom, even though many bone metastases are asymptomatic. Pathological fractures are the most severe consequences. With the algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases two different diagnostic courses are available for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy remains the technique of choice in asymptomatic patients in whom skeletal metastases are suspected. However this technique, though very sensitive, is poorly specific, and thus a negative bone scan finding is double-checked with another physical examination: if the findings remain negative, the diagnostic workup is over. On the contrary, in

  20. Space medicine considerations: Skeletal and calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Victor B.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the information obtained from space missions, particularly Skylab and the longer Salyut missions, it is clear that bone and mineral metabolism is substantially altered during space flight. Calcium balance becomes increasingly more negative throughout the flight, and the bone mineral content of the os calcis declines. The major health hazards associated with skeletal changes include the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia with rapid bone turnover, the risk of kidney stones because of hypercalciuria, the lengthy recovery of lost bone mass after flight, the possibility of irreversible bone loss (particularly the trabecular bone), the possible effects of metastated calcification in the soft tissues, and the possible increase in fracture potential. For these reasons, major efforts need to be directed toward elucidating the fundamental mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures to prevent both short-term and long-term complications.

  1. Guidelines for genetic skeletal dysplasias for pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yoon Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasia (SD is a kind of heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by abnormal growth, development, differentiation, and maintenance of the bone and cartilage. The patients with SD most likely to be seen by a pediatrician or orthopedic surgeon are those who present with short stature in childhood. Because each category has so many diseases, classification is important to understand SD better. In order to diagnose a SD accurately, clinical and radiographic findings should be evaluated in detail. In addition, genetic diagnosis of SD is important because there are so various SDs with complex phenotypes. To reach an exact diagnosis of SDs, cooperative approach by a clinician, a radiologist and a geneticist is important. This review aims to provide an outline of the diagnostic approach for children with disproportional short stature.

  2. Animal Cancer Models of Skeletal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hibberd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony skeleton is one of the most common sites of metastatic spread of cancer and is a significant source of morbidity in cancer patients, causing pain and pathologic fracture, impaired ambulatory ability, and poorer quality of life. Animal cancer models of skeletal metastases are essential for better understanding of the molecular pathways behind metastatic spread and local growth and invasion of bone, to enable analysis of host-tumor cell interactions, identify barriers to the metastatic process, and to provide platforms to develop and test novel therapies prior to clinical application in human patients. Thus, the ideal model should be clinically relevant, reproducible and representative of the human condition. This review summarizes the current in vivo animal models used in the study of cancer metastases of the skeleton.

  3. Skeletal muscle regeneration is modulated by inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process orchestrated by multiple steps. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory responses could play central roles in bridging initial muscle injury responses and timely muscle injury reparation. The various types of immune cells and cytokines have crucial roles in muscle regeneration process. In this review, we briefly summarise the functions of acute inflammation in muscle regeneration. The translational potential of this article: Immune system is closely relevant to the muscle regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in muscle regeneration is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in muscular disorders. This review provides information for muscle regeneration research regarding the effects of inflammation on muscle regeneration. Keywords: Chronic muscle disorders, Cytokines, Immune cells, Inflammation, Muscle regeneration, Muscle stem cells

  4. Axial tomography in live cell laser microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Verena; Bruns, Sarah; Bruns, Thomas; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Cremer, Christoph; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2017-09-01

    Single cell microscopy in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment is reported. Cells are grown in an agarose culture gel, located within microcapillaries and observed from different sides after adaptation of an innovative device for sample rotation. Thus, z-stacks can be recorded by confocal microscopy in different directions and used for illustration in 3-D. This gives additional information, since cells or organelles that appear superimposed in one direction, may be well resolved in another one. The method is tested and validated with single cells expressing a membrane or a mitochondrially associated green fluorescent protein, or cells accumulating fluorescent quantum dots. In addition, axial tomography supports measurements of cellular uptake and distribution of the anticancer drug doxorubicin in the nucleus (2 to 6 h after incubation) or the cytoplasm (24 h). This paper discusses that upon cell rotation an enhanced optical resolution in lateral direction compared to axial direction can be utilized to obtain an improved effective 3-D resolution, which represents an important step toward super-resolution microscopy of living cells.

  5. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

  6. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

    2017-09-04

    The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

  8. Canonical quantization of the generalized axial gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, K.

    1990-01-01

    The incompatibility of the constraint A 3 =0 with canonical commutation rules is discussed. A canonical formulation is given of QED and QCD in the axial gauge with n 1 =n 2 =0, n 3 =α and n 0 =β, where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. A Hilbert space is established for the perturbative theory, and a propagator is derived by obtaining an expression for the interaction picture gauge fields, and evaluating the vacuum expectation value of its time-ordered products in the perturbative vacuum. The propagator is expressed in terms of the parameter γ=α/β and is shown to reproduce the light cone gauge propagator when γ=1, and the temporal gauge propagator when γ=0, accommodating various prescriptions for the spurious propagator pole, including the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt and principal value prescriptions. When γ→∞, the generalized axial gauge propagator leads to an expression for the propagator in the A 3 =0 gauge, though in that case the order in which the integration over k 0 is performed, and the limit γ→∞ is taken, affects the resulting expression. Another Hilbert space is established, in which the constraints that include all interactions are implemented in a time independent fashion. It is pointed out that this Hilbert space, and the Hilbert space of the perturbative theory are unitarily equivalent in QED, but that they cannot be unitarily equivalent in QCD. Implications of this fact for the nonperturbative states of QCD are discussed. (orig.)

  9. The Modelling of Axially Translating Flexible Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, R. J.; Arakeri, J. H.; Ghosal, A.

    1996-04-01

    The axially translating flexible beam with a prismatic joint can be modelled by using the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation together with the convective terms. In general, the method of separation of variables cannot be applied to solve this partial differential equation. In this paper, a non-dimensional form of the Euler Bernoulli beam equation is presented, obtained by using the concept of group velocity, and also the conditions under which separation of variables and assumed modes method can be used. The use of clamped-mass boundary conditions leads to a time-dependent frequency equation for the translating flexible beam. A novel method is presented for solving this time dependent frequency equation by using a differential form of the frequency equation. The assume mode/Lagrangian formulation of dynamics is employed to derive closed form equations of motion. It is shown by using Lyapunov's first method that the dynamic responses of flexural modal variables become unstable during retraction of the flexible beam, which the dynamic response during extension of the beam is stable. Numerical simulation results are presented for the uniform axial motion induced transverse vibration for a typical flexible beam.

  10. Multi-axial response of idealized cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, E.G.; Bele, E.; Deshpande, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The yield response of two idealized cermets comprising mono and bi-disperse steel spheres in a Sn/Pb solder matrix has been investigated for a range of axisymmetric stress states. Proportional stress path experiments are reported, from which are extracted the initial yield surfaces and their evolution with increasing plastic strain. The initial yield strength is nearly independent of the hydrostatic pressure but the strain hardening rate increases with stress triaxiality up to a critical value. For higher triaxialities, the responses are independent of hydrostatic pressure. Multi-axial measurements along with X-ray tomography were used to demonstrate that the deformation of these idealized cermets occurs by two competing mechanisms: (i) a granular flow mechanism that operates at low levels of triaxiality, where volumetric dilation occurs under compressive stress states, and (ii) a plastically incompressible mechanism that operates at high stress triaxialities. A phenomenological viscoplastic constitutive model that incorporates both deformation mechanisms is presented. While such multi-axial measurements are difficult for commercial cermets with yield strengths on the order of a few GPa, the form of their constitutive relation is expected to be similar to that of the idealized cermets presented here.

  11. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  12. Influence of Axial Load on Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) of Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers in Steel Fiber Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijie; Chen, Dongdong; Zheng, Liqiong; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2018-06-01

    With the advantages of high tensile, bending, and shear strength, steel fiber concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering. The health monitoring of concrete structures, including steel fiber concrete structures, receives increasing attention, and the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI)-based method is commonly used. Structures are often subject to changing axial load and ignoring the effect of axial forces may introduce error to Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), including the EMI-based method. However, many of the concrete structure monitoring algorithms do not consider the effects of axial loading. To investigate the influence of axial load on the EMI of a steel fiber concrete structure, concrete specimens with different steel fiber content (0, 30, 60, 90, 120) (kg/m³) were casted and the Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)-based Smart Aggregate (SA) was used as the EMI sensor. During tests, the step-by-step loading procedure was applied on different steel fiber content specimens, and the electromechanical impedance values were measured. The Normalized root-mean-square deviation Index (NI) was developed to analyze the EMI information and evaluate the test results. The results show that the normalized root-mean-square deviation index increases with the increase of the axial load, which clearly demonstrates the influence of axial load on the EMI values for steel fiber concrete and this influence should be considered during a monitoring or damage detection procedure if the axial load changes. In addition, testing results clearly reveal that the steel fiber content, often at low mass and volume percentage, has no obvious influence on the PZT's EMI values. Furthermore, experiments to test the repeatability of the proposed method were conducted. The repeating test results show that the EMI-based indices are repeatable and there is a great linearity between the NI and the applied loading.

  13. Influence of Axial Load on Electromechanical Impedance (EMI of Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers in Steel Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advantages of high tensile, bending, and shear strength, steel fiber concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering. The health monitoring of concrete structures, including steel fiber concrete structures, receives increasing attention, and the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI-based method is commonly used. Structures are often subject to changing axial load and ignoring the effect of axial forces may introduce error to Structural Health Monitoring (SHM, including the EMI-based method. However, many of the concrete structure monitoring algorithms do not consider the effects of axial loading. To investigate the influence of axial load on the EMI of a steel fiber concrete structure, concrete specimens with different steel fiber content (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 (kg/m3 were casted and the Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-based Smart Aggregate (SA was used as the EMI sensor. During tests, the step-by-step loading procedure was applied on different steel fiber content specimens, and the electromechanical impedance values were measured. The Normalized root-mean-square deviation Index (NI was developed to analyze the EMI information and evaluate the test results. The results show that the normalized root-mean-square deviation index increases with the increase of the axial load, which clearly demonstrates the influence of axial load on the EMI values for steel fiber concrete and this influence should be considered during a monitoring or damage detection procedure if the axial load changes. In addition, testing results clearly reveal that the steel fiber content, often at low mass and volume percentage, has no obvious influence on the PZT’s EMI values. Furthermore, experiments to test the repeatability of the proposed method were conducted. The repeating test results show that the EMI-based indices are repeatable and there is a great linearity between the NI and the applied loading.

  14. Thermal characterization of phacoemulsification probes operated in axial and torsional modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    To analyze temperature increases and identify potential sources of heat generated when sleeved and sleeveless phacoemulsification probes were operated in axial and torsional modes using the Infiniti Vision System with the Ozil torsional handpiece. Phacodynamics Laboratory, Pasteur Ophthalmic Clinic, Santiago, Chile. Experimental study. Two computer-controlled thermal transfer systems were developed to evaluate the contribution of internal metal stress and tip-to-sleeve friction on heat generation during phacoemulsification using axial and torsional ultrasound modalities. Both systems incorporated infrared thermal imaging and used a black-body film to accurately capture temperature measurements. Axial mode was consistently associated with greater temperature increases than torsional mode whether tips were operated with or without sleeves. In tests involving bare tips, axial mode and torsional mode peaked at 51.7°C and 34.2°C, respectively. In an example using sleeved tips in which a 30.0 g load was applied for 1 second, temperatures for axial mode reached 45°C and for torsional mode, 38°C. Friction between the sleeved probe and the incisional wall contributed more significantly to the temperature increase than internal metal stress regardless of the mode used. In all experiments, the temperature increase observed with axial mode was greater than that observed with torsional mode, even when conditions such as power or amplitude and flow rate were varied. Tip-to-sleeve friction was a more dominant source of phaco probe heating than internal metal stress. The temperature increase due to internal metal stress was greater with axial mode than with torsional mode. Dr. Zacharias received research funding from Alcon Laboratories, Inc., to conduct this study. He has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TRANPZ - A computer code for the simulation of reactors with axial dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, L.C.M.

    1980-12-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate a PWR reactor in steady state and during transients. The solution of one speed diffusion equation in the axial direction is obtained numerically dividing the core in various axial segments and the axial power distribution is obtained there from. A method was developed to determine the transient solution. The external reactivity effects are caused by the motion of the control rods, starting from the steady condition with the control rods in any position. The heat conduction equation in the fuel is numerically solved in the radial direction. Various tests were performed in steady state and transient conditions and the validity of the present model was verified. Results were compared in steady state condition with the code CITATION and a reasonable agreement was found. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  17. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  18. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D 3 or its metabolite 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D 3 steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased 3 H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP

  19. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  20. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martina Maffioletti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. : Maffioletti et al. generate human 3D artificial skeletal muscles from healthy donors and patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. These human artificial muscles accurately model severe genetic muscle diseases. They can be engineered to include other cell types present in skeletal muscle, such as vascular cells and motor neurons. Keywords: skeletal muscle, pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, myogenic differentiation, tissue engineering, disease modeling, muscular dystrophy, organoids