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Sample records for axial ratio

  1. Limit of axial force ratio and requirement for stirrups of RC columns with special shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yiqun; XU Yidong; ZHAO Yanjing; CHEN Yunxia

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of columns with special shape are analyzed by nonlinear numerical methods. The ductility is calculated to investigate the limit of the axial force ratio and circumstantial requirement for stirrups of an reinforced concrete (RC) column with special shape, in the point of view of the characteristic value for providing stirrup. The limit of the axial force ratio of columns with special shape in relation to the characteristic value of the stirrup is obtained. Then, the effect of stirrup arrangement on the ductility of the RC column is discussed in case of buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement and constraint concrete columns. The complete requirement for stirrups of RC column with special shape is given.

  2. The axial ratio of hcp iron at the conditions of the Earth's inner core

    CERN Document Server

    Gannarelli, C M S; Gillian, M J

    2004-01-01

    We present ab initio calculations of the high-temperature axial c/a ratio of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) iron at Earth's core pressures, in order to help interpret the observed seismic anisotropy of the inner core. The calculations are based on density functional theory, which is known to predict the properties of high-pressure iron with good accuracy. The temperature dependence of c/a is determined by minimising the Helmholtz free energy at fixed volume and temperature, with thermal contributions due to lattice vibrations calculated using harmonic theory. Anharmonic corrections to the harmonic predictions are estimated from calculations of the thermal average stress obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of hcp iron at the conditions of the inner core. We find a very gradual increase of axial ratio with temperature. This increase is much smaller than found in earlier calculations, but is in reasonable agreement with recent high-pressure, high-temperature diffraction measurements. This result...

  3. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H. [Physics Department, University of Richmond 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Kogut, A., E-mail: jsingal@richmond.edu [Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  4. Optimal damping ratios of multi-axial perfectly matched layers for elastic-wave modeling in general anisotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The conventional Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) is unstable for certain kinds of anisotropic media. This instability is intrinsic and independent of PML formulation or implementation. The Multi-axial PML (MPML) removes such instability using a nonzero damping coefficient in the direction parallel with the interface between a PML and the investigated domain. The damping ratio of MPML is the ratio between the damping coefficients along the directions parallel with and perpendicular to the interface between a PML and the investigated domain. No quantitative approach is available for obtaining these damping ratios for general anisotropic media. We develop a quantitative approach to determining optimal damping ratios to not only stabilize PMLs, but also minimize the artificial reflections from MPMLs. Numerical tests based on finite-difference method show that our new method can effectively provide a set of optimal MPML damping ratios for elastic-wave propagation in 2D and 3D general anisotropic media.

  5. Performance of High-pressure-ratio Axial-flow Compressor Using Highly Cambered NACA 65-series Blower Blades at High Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Charles H; Guentert, Donald C; Dugan, James F

    1950-01-01

    A complete stage of an axial-flow compressor was designed and built to investigate the possibility of obtaining a high pressure ratio with an acceptable efficiency through the use of the optimum combination of high blade loading and high relative inlet Mach number. Over-all stage performance was investigated over a range of flows at equivalent tip speeds of 418 to 836 feet per second. At design speed (836 ft/sec), a peak total-pressure ration of 1.445 was obtained with an adiabatic efficiency of 0.89. For design angle of attack at the mean radius, a total-pressure ratio of 1.392 was obtained.

  6. Quantitative estimation of a ratio of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume to brain volume based on segmentation of CT images in patients with extra-axial hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Kurpad, Shekar; Mueller, Wade

    2017-02-01

    Background Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. Objective The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma. Patients and methods In our retrospective study, we reviewed 113 patients with surgical extra-axial hematomas. We included 28 patients (age 61.7 +/- 17.7 years; 19 males, nine females) with an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) ( n = 5) and subacute/chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) ( n = 23). We excluded 85 patients, in order, due to acute SDH ( n = 76), concurrent intraparenchymal pathology ( n = 6), and bilateral pathology ( n = 3). Noncontrast CT images of the head were obtained using a CT scanner (2004 GE LightSpeed VCT CT system, tube voltage 140 kVp, tube current 310 mA, 5 mm section thickness) preoperatively, postoperatively (3.8 ± 5.8 hours from surgery), and at follow-up clinic visit (48.2 ± 27.7 days after surgery). Each CT scan was loaded into an OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) workstation to segment pixels based on radiodensity properties measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Based on HU values from -30 to 100, brain, CSF spaces, vascular structures, hematoma, and/or postsurgical fluid were segregated from bony structures, and subsequently hematoma and/or postsurgical fluid were manually selected and removed from the images. The remaining images represented overall brain volume-containing only CSF spaces, vascular structures, and brain parenchyma. Thereafter, the ratio between the total number of voxels representing CSF volume (based on values between 0 and 15 HU) to the total number of voxels

  7. Effect of Partial Shrouds on the Performance and Flow Field of a Low-Aspect-Ratio Axial-Flow Fan Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sitaram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow field at the rotor exit of a low aspect ratio axial flow fan for different tip geometries and for different flow coefficients is measured in the present study. The following configurations are tested: (1 rotor without partial shroud, designated as rotor (wos, (2 rotor with partial shroud, designated as rotor (ws, and (3 rotor with perforated (perforations in the shape of discrete circular holes partial shroud, designated as rotor (wps. From steady state measurements, the performance of rotor (wps is found to be the best. Both the rotors with partial shrouds have stalled at a higher flow coefficient compared to that of rotor (wos. From periodic flow measurements, it is concluded that the low velocity region near the tip section is considerably reduced with the use of partial shrouds with perforations. The extent of this low velocity region for both rotor (wos and rotor (wps increases with decreasing flow coefficient due to increased stage loading. This core of low momentum fluid has moved inwards of the annulus and towards the pressure side as the flow coefficient decreases. The extent of the low momentum fluid is smaller for rotor (wps than that of rotor (wos at all flow coefficients.

  8. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  9. Axial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    musculature involvement in the majority of myopathies in which paraspinal musculature was examined. Even in diseases named after a certain pattern of non-axial muscle affection, such as facioscapulohumeral and limb girdle muscular dystrophies, affection of the axial musculature was often severe and early...

  10. 轴压比对Y型偏心支撑RC框架抗震性能的影响%The effect of axial compression ratio on seismic property of Y-type eccentrically braced RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军良; 赵宝成

    2012-01-01

    针对Y型支撑加固多高层混凝土框架工程中框架轴压比的不同,对不同轴压比的Y型偏心支撑砼框架的滞回性能进行了非线性有限元分析。结果表明,随着轴压比的增大,结构的承载力呈先上升后下降的趋势;轴压比的增大能提高结构初始刚度,同时使结构后期刚度下降加快。最后,对Y型支撑加固混凝土框架工程中关于轴压比提出设计建议。%As to the different axis pressures of column in high-level RC frames retrofitted with Y-steel bracings, this paper presents the nonlinear finite element analysis on the hysteresis behavior of the Y-eccentrically braced RC frames under the different axial compression ratio. The analysis indicates that the bearing capacity of the structure tends to fall after rising along with the increase of the axial compressive ratio; the increase of the axial compressive ratio can improve the initial stiffness of structures but also make the later stiffness drop speed up. Finally, this paper suggests the axial compression ratio in the design of the Y-eccentrically braced RC frames.

  11. Design of a polarized microstrip antenna with reconfigurable axial ratio and rotation%一种旋向与轴比均可重构极化微带天线的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高顺; 王安国; 裴静; 赵国煌

    2011-01-01

    A polarized microstrip antenna with reconfigurable axial ratio and rotation is proposed in this paper. The circular and elliptical polarization can be realized, and the rotations of both polarizations can also be switched. The antenna is fed by a Wilkinson power divider. By controlling the switches' states, two feeding modes, I. E. Orthogonal double-feed and single-feed with perturbation, are provided respectively, and the circularly polarized wave, elliptically polarized wave and rotation switching of both polarizations are obtained correspondingly. The effects of the key structure parameters on the antenna performances were analyzed. The prototype of the antenna was fabricated and measured. The measured results of axial ratio and return loss coincide with the simulated results basically. These kinds of the polarized antenna, which can achieve reconfigurable axial ratio and rotation,can reduce the polarization mismatch to some extent in the depolarized environment and improve the performance of the communication system.%提出了1种轴比与旋向均可重构的极化微带天线,可在同一副天线上实现圆极化和椭圆极化,且进行旋向切换.该天线采用Wilkinson功分器馈电,通过控制开关状态,天线馈电可实现正交双馈与带微扰单馈2种工作方式,分别产生圆极化与椭圆极化波,并对每一种极化波,可进行左、右旋向的切换.给出了天线的结构及参数,分析了主要参数对天线性能的影响.根据计算、仿真优化的尺寸,对天线原型进行了制作与测试.轴比与回波损耗参数的仿真与测试结果基本吻合.此类轴比与旋向均可重构的极化天线的有效使用,可在一定程度上减小去极化环境造成的极化失配,有效提高通信系统性能.

  12. 轴压比对带施工缝框架延性影响的试验研究∗%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF AXIAL COMPRESSION RATIO ON THE DUCTILITY OF FRAME WITH CONSTRUCTION JOINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎西康; 陈育苏; 常璐平; 陈培

    2016-01-01

    Ductility is one of a most important parameters to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure, in order to study the impact of axial compression ratio on the ductility of frame with construction joints, skeleton curve, displacement ductility factor and the hysteresis curves of the frames with construction joint were got by a low-cycle loading experiment,whose results were compared to the results of the experiments of the four frame columns under the same conditions. The results showed that with the increase of axial compression ratio,frame ductility decreased,and so did the impact of construction joints on the frame ductility.%延性是评价结构抗震性能的最主要的参数之一,为了研究轴压比对带有施工缝框架结构的延性的影响,通过对带有施工缝框架进行低周反复荷载试验,得到骨架曲线,位移延性系数和滞回曲线,并与相同条件下4根框架柱的试验得到的结果进行对比分析,得到随着轴压比的提高,框架延性有所降低,且施工缝的存在对框架延性降低的影响减小。

  13. Non-Axial Characteristics of Strehl Ratio of Cubic Phase Mask in Wavefront Coding System%三次相位掩模板波前编码系统非轴向斯特雷尔比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志刚; 陈守谦; 常虹; 许志高

    2011-01-01

    传统成像光学系统的点扩展函数(PSF)峰值位置在其光轴上,斯特雷尔比(SR)定义为有无像差轴向PSF强度之比,而波前编码系统在光瞳处相位变化为非旋转对称式,其PSF在像面上将产生偏移,利用PSF的轴向强度计算光学系统斯特雷尔比将不再适用.分析了三次相位掩模板PSF的位置偏移量,其是以焦面为对称轴的抛物线族.并在此基础上提出了适用于评价波前编码系统的非轴向斯特雷尔比(SRwc),分析了非轴向斯特雷尔比的变化特性,其幅值与相位板参量成反比.并利用非轴向斯特雷尔比研究了PSF的一致性及可恢复性问题,阐述了影响PSF一致性和可恢复性的因素.最后,提出了基于非轴向斯特雷尔比相位板参量的优化方法,该方法给出了相位板参量与系统一致性和可恢复性之间的定量关系.%For general imaging optical system, the peak position of point spread function (PSF) is located in the optical axis. Strehl ratio (SR) is defined as the ratio of on-axis values of PSF with and without aberrations, but PSF of wavefront coding system whose phase change in pupil plane is asymmetric has a shift in the image plane, so evaluation of wavefront coding system using traditional Strehl ratio is not appropriate. Shift value of PSF for cubic phase mask is carried out, which is a family of parabolas, whose focal plane is symmetrical axis. Based on this, nonaxial Strehl ratio of wavefront coding system is defined, whose different parameters are analyzed, and the magnitude of Strehl ratio is inversely proportional to parameter of phase mask. Non-axial Strehl ratio is used to evaluate consistency and recoverability of PSF. Finally, an evaluation method in order to optimize phase mask parameter is given, which can determine the relation between consistency and recoverability of PSF and phase mask parameter.

  14. L-band Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna with Wide Axial Ratio Bandwidth%一种宽轴比带宽L频段圆极化贴片天线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 冯采丹

    2011-01-01

    圆极化全向天线由于其自身的性能特点,在现代无线应用中越来越受到广泛的关注.提出一种宽轴比带宽的L频段圆极化微波贴片天线,该天线有上下两个介质层,下层徽带馈线耦合馈电,接地面蚀刺十字交叉缝隙以帮助实现圆极化和改善上层贴片的耦合度.设计结果显示,该天线3 dB轴比带宽可以达到3.5%(1.023~1.060 GHz),在有效带宽内天线.增益高于5.68 dBi,在中心频率点(1.04 GHz)天线的前后辩比高于20 dB.%The circularly polarized omni-directional antennas are paid more and more attention in the modern wireless applications because of its specific performance characteristics. A L-band circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna working in wide axial ratio bandwidth is presented. This antenna has two substrates and is fed by a feed line on the top of the lower substrate. A cross slot is etched on the bottom of the lower substrate, which helps to realize circular polarization and couple more energy to the patch on the top of the upper substrate. The simulated results show that the antenna has a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3. 5% from 1. 023 GHz to 1. 06 GHz and a gain greater than 5. 68 dBi over all of its usable bandwidth. The back lobe of the antenna is at least 20 dB down with respect to the front lobe at the center frequency of 1.04 GHz.

  15. Light axial vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial vector states, we study whether the observed axial vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial vector meson family. In this paper we carry out analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial vector mesons, which are valuable to further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial vector mesons.

  16. Numerical simulation of axial flow compressors.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesuino Takachi Tomita

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the numerical simulation of axial flow compressors, from design to performance prediction. The stage performance prediction uses the meanline flow properties. Stage-stacking is used to analyse a multi-stage compressor. A computer program, written in FORTRAN, was developed and is able to design an axial flow compressor given air mass flow, total pressure ratio, overall efficiency and design speed. All geometrical data relevant to the compressor performance prediction is ca...

  17. 高轴压比CFRP约束钢筋混凝土圆柱抗震性能试验与有限元分析%Experiment and finite element analysis of the seismic behavior of CFRP-confined RC circular columns with high axial compression ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震宇; 王代玉; 吕大刚

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the seismic behavior of FRP-confined circular RC columns with high axial compression ratio, six columns confined with Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) at plastic hinge region and two control columns were tested under constant axial load and cyclic lateral force. Test results demonstrated marked improvement in the ductility and energy dissipation of the columns due to CFRP wrapping in the plastic hinge region and the contribution of hoops to the confining effect should not be ignored under the condition of high axial compression ratio. A nonlinear analytical procedure was developed using fiber model method based on OpenSees (Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation). The simulation results agree well with the experimental results for axial compression ratios less than O. 45. Inclusion of the confining effects of both the hoop~ and CFRP results in better simulation of the test results if the .axial compression ratio exceeds 0.45. Finally, influences of axial compression ratio and length of CFRP in the plastic hinge region on the seismic performance of FRP-confined columns were analyzed. The results indicate that the lateral loading capacity of columns begins to decrease when axial compression in the plastic hinge region exceeds 1.2 times the column diameter, the wrapped columns. ratio exceeds 0.6. If the length of wrapped CFRP performance could be equivalent to that with fully%为研究高轴压比下FRP约束钢筋混凝土圆柱的抗震性能,对6根碳纤维约束钢筋混凝土圆柱及2根对比柱进行伪静力试验。结果表明:塑性铰区包裹碳纤维可显著改善高轴压比柱的抗震性能,轴压比较高时不应忽略箍筋对核心混凝土的约束贡献。基于OpenSees中的纤维模型,对柱水平力.位移滞回曲线进行有限元模拟。轴压比小于0.45时,数值模拟与试验结果吻合较好;轴压比大于0.45时,考虑核心混凝土受箍筋及FRP双重约束的计

  18. Study on the performance of pressure drop ratio about a new type of down-hole axial oil-water separation cyclone%轴流式井下旋流油水分离器压降比性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓峰; 史仕荧

    2015-01-01

    在室内试验装置上对轴流式井下旋流油水分离器的压降比性能开展了相关试验研究。试验结果表明,压降比仅与分流比相关,与入口流量、入口含油率(<20%)、导流片结构无关;压降比与分流比的关系呈指数关系而非线性的。研究结果对新型油水分离器的工程设计和实际井下应用的自动控制具有重要意义。%An experimental investigation about the pressure drop ratio of down‐hole axial oil‐water separation cyclone was made .The result shows that the pressure drop ratio relied only on the split ratio instead of the inlet flow ,oil content or the guide vane’ structure .Besides ,the relation between the pressure drop ratio and split ratio is exponential relationship rather than linear .The research results have an important significance to the design and automatic control when using in down‐hole .

  19. Altered Axial Skeletal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The axial skeleton is routinely examined in standard developmental toxicity bioassays and has proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of chemical agents. Dysmorphogenesis in the skull, vertebral column and ribs has been described in both human populations and in laboratory anima...

  20. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  1. Effects of Axial Non-uniform Tip Clearances on Aerodynamic Performance of a Transonic Axial Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei MA; Baihe LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of effects of axial non-uniform tip clearances on the aerodynamic performance of a transonic axial compressor rotor (NASA Rotor 37). The three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated with the datum tip clearance of 0.356 mm at the design wheel speed of 17188.7 rpm. The simulation results are well consistent with the measurement results, which verified the numeri-cal method. Then the three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated respectively with different axial non-uniform tip clearances. The calculation results showed that optimal axial non-uniform tip clearances could improve the compressor performance, while the efficiency and the pressure ratio of the com-pressor were increased. The flow mechanism is that the axial non-uniform tip clearance can weaken the tip leak-age vortex, blow down low-energy fluids in boundary layers and reduce both flow blockage and tip loss.

  2. The anomalous transport of axial charge: topological vs non-topological fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Yin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Axial charge imbalance is an essential ingredient in novel effects associated with chiral anomaly such as chiral magnetic effects (CME). In a non-Abelian plasma with chiral fermions, local axial charge can be generated a) by topological fluctuations which would create domains with non-zero winding number b) by conventional non-topological thermal fluctuations. We provide a holographic evaluations of medium's response to dynamically generated axial charge density in hydrodynamic limit and examine if medium's response depends on the microscopic origins of axial charge imbalance. We show a local domain with non-zero winding number would induce a non-dissipative axial current due to chiral anomaly. We illustrate holographically that a local axial charge imbalance would be damped out with the damping rate related to Chern-Simon diffusive constant. By computing chiral magnetic current in the presence of dynamically generated axial charge density, we found that the ratio of CME current over the axial charge density ...

  3. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alfonse T

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated

  4. Build Axial Gradient Field by Using Axial Magnetized Permanent Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Axial magnetic field produced by an axial magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent rings, if they are magnetized in the same directions, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced. If they are magnetized in opposite direction,an axial gradient magnetic field can be generated, with the field range changing from -B0 to B0. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field was fabricated, the measured results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. For wider usage,it is desirable for the field gradient to be changed. Some methods to produce the variable gradient field are presented. These kinds of axial gradient magnetic field can also be used as a beam focusing for linear accelerator if the periodic field can be produced along the beam trajectory. The axial magnetic field is something like a solenoid, large stray field will leak to the outside environment if no method is taken to control them. In this paper, one method is illustrated to shield off the outside leakage field.

  5. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  6. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  7. Single Band Helical Antenna in Axial Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helical antennas have been widely used in a various useful applications, due to their low weight and low profile conformability, easy and cheap realization.Radiation properties of this antenna are examined both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate new helical antenna structure for Applications. CST MWS Software is used for the simulation and design calculations of the helical antennas. The axial ratio, return loss, VSWR, Directivity, gain, radiation pattern is evaluated. Using CST MWS simulation software proposed antenna is designed/simulated and optimized. The antenna exhibits a single band from 0 GHz to 3 GHz for GPS and several satellite applications

  8. Dissipative axial inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Alessio; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term phi/fγ F ~F, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρR, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff fγ, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if fγ is smaller than the field excursion phi0 by about a factor of at least Script O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4-5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with fγ. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρR rather than dot phi2/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/fγ to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/fG to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed phi0~ fG.

  9. An electrostatic lower stator axial-gap polysilicon wobble motor part I: design and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Erwin; Baar, van John; Elwenspoek, Miko

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents design issues and a theoretical model of electrostatically driven axial-gap polysilicon wobble motors. The motor design benefits from large axial rotor-to-stator overlap and large gear ratios, and motor designs with rotor radii of 50 and 100 ¿m are capable of generating torques i

  10. Axial Current and Noether Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Prasanta

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, a Lagrangian density has been proposed by the author where only the local symmetries of the Lorentz subgroup of (A)ds group is retained. This formalism has been found to produce some results encompassing that of standard Einstein-Hilbert formalism. In the present article, the conserved axial vector matter currents, constructed in some earlier paper, have been found to be a result of Noether's theorem. PACS: 04.20.Fy, 04.20.Cv, 11.40.-q Keywords: Torsion, Axial Current, Noether's Theorem

  11. Relativistic RPA in axial symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, D Pena; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034317

    2009-01-01

    Covariant density functional theory, in the framework of self-consistent Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) and Relativistic Random Phase approximation (RPA), is for the first time applied to axially deformed nuclei. The fully self-consistent RMF+RRPA equations are posed for the case of axial symmetry and non-linear energy functionals, and solved with the help of a new parallel code. Formal properties of RPA theory are studied and special care is taken in order to validate the proper decoupling of spurious modes and their influence on the physical response. Sample applications to the magnetic and electric dipole transitions in $^{20}$Ne are presented and analyzed.

  12. Dynamic Behaviors of Axially Moving Viscoelastic Plate with Varying Thicknessn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yinfeng; WANG Zhongmin

    2009-01-01

    Structural components of varying thickness draw increasing attention these days due to economy and light-weight considerations. In view of the absence of research in vibration analysis of viscoelastic plate with varying thickness, this study devotes to investigate the dynamic behaviors of axially moving viscoelastic plate with varying thickness. Based on the thin plate theory and the two-dimensional viscoelastic differential constitutive relation, the differential equation of motion of the axially moving viscoelastic rectangular plate is derived, the plate constituted by Kelvin-Voigt model has linearly varying thickness in the y-direction. The dimensionless complex frequencies of axially moving viscoelastic plate with four edges simply supported are calculated by the differential quadrature method, curves of real parts and imaginary parts of the first three-order dimensionless complex frequencies versus dimensionless moving speed are obtained, the effects of the aspect ratio, thickness ratio, the dimensionless moving speed and delay time on the dynamic behaviors of the axially moving viscoelastic rectangular plate with varying thickness are analyzed. When other parameters keep constant, with the decrease of thickness ratio, the real parts of the first three-order natural frequencies decrease, and the critical divergence speeds of various modes decrease too, moreover, whether the delay time is large or small, the frequencies are all complex numbers.

  13. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

    2002-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  14. Thermophoresis of Axially Symmetric Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Sweden Abstract. Thermophoresis of axially symmetric bodies is investigated to first order in the Knudsen-mimber, Kn. The study is made in the limit...derived. Asymptotic solutions are studied. INTRODUCTION Thermophoresis as a phenomenon has been known for a long time, and several authors have approached

  15. Optimization of axial blowers. Optimierung von Axial-Ventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, W.

    1992-08-01

    For the optimum possible design of axial blowers, trials are evaluated in the article, which are based on the grid profile examined by N. Scholz. The computation for the pressure number and the primary degree of efficiency are shown as well as the evaluation of the effect of the Reynolds and mach number on the degree of efficiency and determination of the secondary losses. In a final example, the dimensions of a blower are computed from the data determined during the trials. (orig.).

  16. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  17. Axial Spondyloarthritis: An Evolving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ziadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA is the prototype of a family of inter-related yet heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical and genetic manifestations: the spondyloarthritides (SpAs. The condition mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton, and has a clear classification scheme, wider epidemiological data, and distinct therapeutic guidelines when compared with other SpAs. However, the concept of AxSpA has not been immutable over time and has evolved tremendously on many levels over the past decades. This review identifies the evolution of the AxSpA concept at two levels. First, at the level of classification, the old classifications and rationales leading to the current Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification are reviewed, and the advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Second, at the therapeutic level, current and future treatments are described and treatment strategies are discussed.

  18. [Axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Dan; Kauppi, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Current classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis do not allow diagnosis before radiographic changes are visible in sacroiliacal joints. The the new axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) criteria include axial SpA without radiographic changes as well as established ankylosing spondylitis, recognizing them as a continuum of the same disease. This is of major importance as the burden of early SpA is comparable to that of later stage disease. Diagnosis relies on inflammatory MRI findings which is the most significant change compared to earlier criteria. Emerging data on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blocking therapies already in early but also in established disease have given new promising alternatives for treatment of this often very cumbersome disease, that rarely responds to classic DMARDs.

  19. Golimumab for treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis comprises two forms: nonradiographic (nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) and radiographic (better known as ankylosing spondylitis), which are often considered as two stages of one disease. Historically, all currently available TNF-α inhibitors were first investigated in ankylosing spondylitis and later on in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This year, EMA has granted golimumab approval for the treatment of active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis based on the recently published data from the GO-AHEAD study. This article summarizes recent data on efficacy and safety of golimumab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

  20. Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  1. Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Lens Thickness to Axial Length Factor in Primary Closure Angle Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonic biometry was done in 232 normal eyes and 138 eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma (ACG), using Ultrascan Digital B System IV (10 MHz). The ratio between the lens thickness and the axial length (lens thickness to axial length factor, LAF) was evaluated as a biometric index for assessing the eye with primary ACG in Chinese. LAF of 2.00 was found to be ideal point of demarcation between ACG and normal eyes (i.e., lens thickness equals to 1/5 of axial length). It appears that LAF is helpful i...

  2. Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...

  3. Torsional and axial damping properties of the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, V.; Lage, Y. E.; Vieira, M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Freitas, M.; Reis, L.

    2016-10-01

    Damping properties for the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy were evaluated for pure axial and pure shear loading conditions at room temperature. Hysteretic damping results were measured through stress-strain controlled tests. Moreover, the magnesium alloy viscous damping was measured with frequency response functions and free vibration decay, both results were obtained by experiments. The axial and shear damping ratio (ASDR) has been identified and described, specifically for free vibration conditions.

  4. System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

  5. The Emergence of Axial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Svenonius

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many languages have specialized locative words or morphemes translating roughly into words like ‘front,’ ‘back,’ ‘top,’ ‘bottom,’ ‘side,’ and so on. Often, these words are used instead of more specialized adpositions to express spatial meanings corresponding to ‘behind,’ ‘above,’ and so on. I argue, on the basis of a cross-linguistic survey of such expressions, that in many cases they motivate a syntactic category which is distinct from both N and P, which I call AxPart for ‘Axial Part’; I show how the category relates to the words which instantiate it, and how the meaning of the construction is derived from the combination of P[lace] elements, AxParts, and the lexical material which expresses them.

  6. Unsteady Flows in Axial Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, F. E.; Rannie, W. D.

    1957-01-01

    Of the various unsteady flows that occur in axial turbomachines certain asymmetric disturbances, of wave length large in comparison with blade spacing, have become understood to a certain extent. These disturbances divide themselves into two categories: self-induced oscillations and force disturbances. A special type of propagating stall appears as a self-induced disturbance; an asymmetric velocity profile introduced at the compressor inlet constitutes a forced disturbance. Both phenomena have been treated from a unified theoretical point of view in which the asymmetric disturbances are linearized and the blade characteristics are assumed quasi-steady. Experimental results are in essential agreement with this theory wherever the limitations of the theory are satisfied. For the self-induced disturbances and the more interesting examples of the forced disturbances, the dominant blade characteristic is the dependence of total pressure loss, rather than the turning angle, upon the local blade inlet angle.

  7. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  8. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

  9. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flemming H Gravesen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  10. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-14

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  11. Transverse Vibration of Axially Moving Functionally Graded Materials Based on Timoshenko Beam Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suihan Sui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse free vibration of an axially moving beam made of functionally graded materials (FGM is investigated using a Timoshenko beam theory. Natural frequencies, vibration modes, and critical speeds of such axially moving systems are determined and discussed in detail. The material properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the beam according to a power law distribution. Hamilton’s principle is employed to derive the governing equation and a complex mode approach is utilized to obtain the transverse dynamical behaviors including the vibration modes and natural frequencies. Effects of the axially moving speed and the power-law exponent on the dynamic responses are examined. Some numerical examples are presented to reveal the differences of natural frequencies for Timoshenko beam model and Euler beam model. Moreover, the critical speed is determined numerically to indicate its variation with respect to the power-law exponent, axial initial stress, and length to thickness ratio.

  12. New Anomaly of the Axial-Vector Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Han-Xin

    2001-01-01

    By computing the axial-vector current operator equation, we find the anomalous axial-vector curl equation besides the well-known anomalous axial-vector divergence equation (the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly) and discuss its implication.``

  13. An electrostatic lower stator axial-gap polysilicon wobble motor part I: design and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Erwin; Baar, van, J.J.; Elwenspoek, Miko

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents design issues and a theoretical model of electrostatically driven axial-gap polysilicon wobble motors. The motor design benefits from large axial rotor-to-stator overlap and large gear ratios, and motor designs with rotor radii of 50 and 100 ¿m are capable of generating torques in the nanoNewtonmeter range at high electrostatic fields. Because of the large gear ratio, smaller angular steps and lower rotational speed are obtained, compared to radial-gap motor designs. Aspec...

  14. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  15. The new performance calculation method of fouled axial flow compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huadong; Xu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  16. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  17. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  18. Axial thermal rotation of slender rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2011-05-06

    Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain's axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.

  19. How to diagnose axial spondyloarthritis early

    OpenAIRE

    Rudwaleit, M.; van der Heijde, D.; Khan, M.; Braun, J.; Sieper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP), the leading symptom of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), precedes the development of radiographic sacroiliitis, sometimes by many years.

  20. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  1. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.

  2. Numerical study on the influence mechanism of inlet distortion on the stall margin in a transonic axial rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Lin, Feng; Chen, Jingyi; Morris, Scott C.; Nie, Chaoqun

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the influence of inlet flow condition on tip leakage flow (TLF) and stall margin in a transonic axial rotor. A commercial software package FLUENT, is used in the simulation. The rotor investigated in this paper is ND_TAC rotor, which is the rotor of one-stage transonic compressor in the University of Notre Dame. Three varied inlet flow conditions are simulated. The inlet boundary condition with hub distortion provides higher axial velocity for the incoming flow near tip region than that for the clean inflow, while the incoming main flow possesses lower axial velocity near the tip region at tip distortion inlet boundary condition. Among the total pressure ratio curves for the three inlet flow conditions, it is found that the hub distorted inlet boundary condition improves the stall margin, while the tip distorted inlet boundary condition deteriorates compressor stability. The axial location of interface between tip leakage flow (TLF) and incoming main flow (MF) in the tip gap and the axial momentum ratio of TLF to MF are further examined. It is demonstrated that the axial momentum balance is the mechanism for interface movement. The hub distorted inflow could decrease the axial momentum ratio, suppress the movement of the interface between TLF and MF towards blade leading edge plane and thus enhance compressor stability.

  3. Analysis and Calculation of Axial Stiffness of Tubular X-joints under Compression on Braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Guo-zhi; ZHAO Jin-cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the influence factors of axial stiffness of tubular X-joints. The analysis model of tubular joints using plate and shell finite element method is also made. Systematic single-parameter analysis of tubular X-joints is performed using Ansys program. The influences of those factors, including ratio of brace diameter to chord diameter (β), ratio of chord diameter to twice chord thickness (γ), ratio of brace wall thickness to that of chord (τ), brace-to-chord intersection angle (θ), and chord stress ratio, ratio of another brace diameter to chord diameter, in-plane and out-of-plane moment of braces, etc., on stiffness of tubular X-joints are analyzed.Two non-dimensional parameters-joint axial stiffness factor ηN and axial force capacity factor ωN are proposed,and the relationship curve of the two factors is determined. Computational formulas of tubular X-joint axial stiffness are obtained by multi-element regression technology. The formulas can be used in design and analysis of steel tubular structures.

  4. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drives for diesel engines by capturing both their spatial periodicity and axial motion. The Method of Varying Amplitudes is employed in the analysis. It is shown that the compound wave traveling in the axially moving periodic string comprises many components with different frequencies and wavenumbers. This is in contrast to non-moving periodic structures, for which all components of the corresponding compound wave feature the same frequency. Due to this "multi-frequency" character of the wave motion, the conventional notion of frequency band-gaps appears to be not applicable for the moving periodic strings. Thus, for such structures, by frequency band-gaps it is proposed to understand frequency ranges in which the primary component of the compound wave attenuates. Such frequency band-gaps can be present for a moving periodic string, but only if its axial velocity is lower than the transverse wave speed, and, the higher the axial velocity, the narrower the frequency band-gaps. The revealed effects could be of potential importance for applications, e.g. they indicate that due to spatial inhomogeneity, oscillations of axially moving periodic chains always involve a multitude of frequencies.

  5. An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2015-01-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...

  6. Comparing the diagnostic utility of sacroiliac spectral CT and MRI in axial spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Yu, Kai Hu; Guo, Rui Min; Ran, Jun; Liu, Yao; Morelli, John; Runge, Val A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical value of sacroiliac spectral CT and MRI in diagnosing axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods: 137 patients with low back pain and suspected axial SpA were recruited. 76 patients were diagnosed with axial SpA, and 49 patients were diagnosed with non-specific low back pain (nLBP). Each patient underwent spectral CT and MRI examinations of the sacroiliac joints. Water- and calcium-based material decomposition images were reconstructed for quantitative analysis. The marrow-to-muscle ratios of water and calcium concentrations and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal intensity, as well as Hounsfield units in the ilium and sacrum were compared between nLBP and patients with axial SpA. Results: Spectral CT is comparable with MRI for the detection of bone marrow oedema, and it is superior to MRI for detection of osseous sclerosis and erosions. MRI is superior to spectral CT in detecting enthesitis and synovitis. There were statistically significant differences in STIR signal intensity, water concentration and calcium concentration ratios as well as CT values between nLBP and patients with axial SpA (p < 0.05) in the ilium. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between ratios of water concentration and STIR signal intensity in both the ilium and sacrum (p < 0.05). Overall, the iliac water concentration was most sensitive for detection of patients with SpA. The positive likelihood ratio of the STIR signal intensity ratio was the highest. The diagnostic odds ratio of the calcium concentration ratio was the highest, and its negative likelihood ratio was the lowest. Conclusion: Spectral CT not only depicts findings of chronic sacroiliitis (i.e. bone erosion and sclerosis), but also can detect and quantify the extent of marrow oedema in patients with SpA with activity sacroiliitis. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of early synovitis and enthesitis remains superior. The combination of spectral CT and MRI may

  7. An Axial Dispersion Model for Evaporating Bubble Column Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 李希

    2004-01-01

    Evaporating bubble column reactor (EBCR) is a kind of aerated reactor in which the reaction heat is removed by the evaporation of volatile reaction mixture. In this paper, a mathematical model that accounts for the gas-liquid exothermic reaction and axial dispersions of both gas and liquid phase is employed to study the performance of EBCR for the process of p-xylene(PX) oxidation. The computational results show that there are remarkable concentration and temperature gradients in EBCR for high ratio of height to diameter (H/DT). The temperature is lower at the bottom of column and higher at the top, due to rapid evaporation induced by the feed gas near the bottom. The concentration profiles in the gas phase are more nonuniform than those (except PX) in the liquid phase, which causes more solvent burning consumption at high H/DT ratio. For p-xylene oxidation, theo ptimal H/DT is around 5.

  8. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 12 on through Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    450), for Lakshminarayena,Came and Bauermeister. The slope for the first one is very high. elt Conclusions on the respective value of the formulae...S Tesroil S- Ict o The profile loss component, 0,; currently is basically a function of D-fctor bu has corrections for axial-velocity ratio and

  9. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  10. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  11. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  12. Reducing axial mixing in flotation columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Taweel, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Moharam, M.R.; Hassan, T.A. [Al Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); El Mofty, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The axial mixing characteristics of a pilot-scale flotation column were investigated with the objective of identifying means to mitigate the extent of axial mixing that adversely affects its grade/recovery performance. A wide range of design and operating conditions wa investigated and the experimental results, obtained using the dynamic response method, were analyzed using three axial mixing models. The dynamic response of the column can best be described using the axial dispersion model. The results obtained suggest that the value of the axial dispersion coefficient, E{sub L}, can be significantly reduced by judicial selection of hydrodynamic conditions and/or the use of column inserts that suppress the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to the operation of conventional flotation columns. Up to 40% reduction in the value of E{sub L} was thus obtained by using spargers that produce more uniform bubble sizes, while up to 30% reductions were obtained by controlling the residual frother concentration. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics

    2015-11-15

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  14. Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.

  15. Axial symmetry and conformal Killing vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mars, M; Mars, Marc; Senovilla, Jose M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformal symmetry are studied and it is shown that, if there is no further conformal symmetry, the axial Killing vector and the conformal Killing vector must commute. As a direct consequence, in conformally stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes, no restriction is made by assuming that the axial symmetry and the conformal timelike symmetry commute. Furthermore, we prove that in axisymmetric spacetimes with another symmetry (such as stationary and axisymmetric or cylindrically symmetric spacetimes) and a conformal symmetry, the commutator of the axial Killing vector with the two others mush vanish or else the symmetry is larger than that originally considered. The results are completely general and do not depend on Einstein's equations or any particular matter content.

  16. Atlanto-axial infection after acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A; Lind, C R P; Smith, R J; Kodali, V

    2015-12-11

    A 67-year-old man presented with neck cellulitis following acupuncture for cervical spondylosis. Blood cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Increased neck pain and bacteraemia prompted MRI, which showed atlanto-axial septic arthritis without signs of infection of the tissues between the superficial cellulitic area and the atlanto-axial joint, thus making direct extension of infection unlikely. It is more likely that haematogenous spread of infection resulted in seeding in the atlanto-axial joint, with the proximity of the arthritis and acupuncture site being coincidental. Acupuncture is a treatment option for some indolent pain conditions. As such, acupuncture services are likely to be more frequently utilised. A history of acupuncture is rarely requested by the admitting doctor and seldom offered voluntarily by the patient, especially where the site of infection due to haematogenous spread is distant from the needling location. Awareness of infectious complications following acupuncture can reduce morbidity through early intervention.

  17. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, R; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Zanotti, J M

    2015-01-01

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order $O(a)$ effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  18. Aerodynamics and combustion of axial swirlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqiang

    A multipoint lean direct injection (LDI) concept was introduced recently in non-premixed combustion to obtain both low NOx emissions and good combustion stability. In this concept, a key feature is the injection of finely atomized fuel into the high-swirling airflow at the combustor dome that provides a homogenous, lean fuel-air mixture. In order to achieve the fine atomization and mixing of the fuel and air quickly and uniformly, a good swirler design should be studied. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the aerodynamics and combustion of the swirling flow field in a multipoint Lean Direct Injector combustor. A helical axial-vaned swirler with a short internal convergent-divergent venturi was used. Swirlers with various vane angles and fuel nozzle insertion lengths have been designed. Three non-dimensional parameter effects on non-reacting, swirling flow field were studied: swirler number, confinement ratio and Reynolds number. Spray and combustion characteristics on the single swirler were studied to understand the mechanism of fuel-air mixing in this special configuration. Multi-swirler interactions were studied by measuring the confined flow field of a multipoint swirler array with different configurations. Two different swirler arrangements were investigated experimentally, which include a co-swirling array and a counter-swirling array. In order to increase the range of stability of multipoint LDI combustors, an improved design were also conducted. The results show that the degree of swirl and the level of confinement have a clear impact on the mean and turbulent flow fields. The swirling flow fields may also change significantly with the addition of a variety of simulated fuel nozzle insertion lengths. The swirler with short insertion has the stronger swirling flow as compared with the long insertion swirler. Reynolds numbers, with range of current study, will not alter mean and turbulent properties of generated flows. The reaction of the spray

  19. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  20. Axial Nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Harraud, P A; Guichon, P; Jansen, K; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length $L=2.1$ fm and $L=2.8$ fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely $a=0.089$ fm, $a=0.070$ fm and $a=0.056$ fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  1. Optimization of Axial Intensity Point Spread Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; GAN Fuxi; CHEN Zhongyu

    2001-01-01

    It is known that for the converged laser beam, the axial intensity distribution corresponds to a Gaussian curve, that is, the intensity on the focal plane is the peak intensity. When it defocuses, the intensity would decrease rapidly. In optical data storage, for instance, we expect the intensity within a certain distance to be almost equal. In this paper, we propose to use a pure phase superresolution apodizer to optimize the axial intensity distribution of the converged laser beam and at the same time improve the resolution. The intensity point spread function remains almost identical in a wide range within the focal depth.

  2. «FLARES» IN AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.

  3. Particle classification in Taylor vortex flow with an axial flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, N.; Suemasu, T.; Asamura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Particle classification phenomenon in Taylor vortex flow with an axial flow was investigated experimentally and numerically. The flow-visualization experiment by a laser-induced fluorescence method clearly revealed that there existed two distinct mixing regions at low Reynolds numbers. The tracer near the vortex cell boundary was rapidly transported axially owing to the bypass flow effect. On the other hand, the fluid element was confined to the vortex core region without being exchanged with the outer flow region. In order to observe particle classification phenomenon, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles suspended in the same aqueous solution of glycerol as the working fluid were fed into the top of the apparatus. Particle size was initially ranging from 10 to 80 µm. The ratio of the particle density to the fluid density was 1.04-1.05, which means the density difference between particle and fluid is very small. The suspended solution was withdrawn using a hypodermic needle every a certain time period at 30 mm above the bottom of apparatus. The fluid was sampled both near the outer wall and in vortex core. The particles sampled at 42 min having the size of 20-50 µm were mainly observed in the vortex core region. On the other hand, a large population of particles having the size of about 50-80 µm could be seen in the outer region of vortex. It was found that large particles located near the outer edge of vortices were quickly transported axially owing to the bypass flow effect. Numerical simulation also revealed that the loci of particles depended on the particle size.

  4. Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encke, W.

    1947-01-01

    A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.

  5. Excitation modes in non-axial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.; Ginnochio, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Excitation modes of non-axial quadrupole shapes are investigated in the framework of interacting boson models. Both {gamma}-unstable and {gamma}-rigid nuclear shapes are considered for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 6 refs.

  6. Ankylosing Spondylitis versus Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Sørensen, Inge J; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare baseline disease activity and treatment effectiveness in biologic-naive patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who initiate tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment and to study the role of potential confounders...

  7. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...

  8. Stability of axially restrained steel columns under temperature action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The in-plane elastic buckling of a steel column under thermal loading is investigated. The column is pinned at its ends, with two linear elastic springs that model the restraint provided by adjacent members in a structural assemblage or an elastic foundation. Across a section, the temperature is assumed to be linearly distributed. Based on a nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, the energy method is used to obtain the equilibrium and buckling equations. Then the buckling of columns with three different thermal loading cases is studied. The results show that the analytical formulas can be used to evaluate the critical temperature for elastic buckling. The thermal gradient plays a positive role in improving the stability of columns. Comparing these predictions with uniform temperature distribution over cross section, it can be shown that the buckling load is seriously underestimated. It can also be found that axial restraints can significantly affect the column elastic buckling loads. The critical temperature decreases with an increase of restraint stiffness. Furthermore, the effect of axial stiffness increases when increasing the thermal gradients and decreasing the slenderness ratio of columns.

  9. The Effect of Axial Stress on YBCO Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, W.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.P.; Gupta, R.C.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Evangelou, E.

    2011-03-28

    The large aspect ratio of typical YBCO conductors makes them ideal for constructing solenoids from pancake style coils. An advantage of this method is that each subunit can be tested before assembly into the finished magnet. The fact that conductors are available in relatively short lengths is another reason for using such a fabrication technique. The principal drawback is the large number of joints required to connect the coils together. When very high field solenoids such as those contemplated for the muon collider are built in this way the magnetic forces between pancakes can be very large. Extensive measurements have been made on the effect of stress on short lengths of conductor, but there is little or no data on the effect of intercoil loading. The experiment described in this paper was designed to test the ability of YBCO coils to withstand these forces. A spiral wound 'pancake' coil made from YBCO coated conductor has been stressed to a pressure of 100MPa in the axial direction at 77K. In this case axial refers to the coil so that the force is applied to the edge of the conductor. The effect on the critical current was small and completely reversible. Repeatedly cycling the pressure had no measureable permanent effect on the coil. The small current change observed exhibited a slight hysteretic behaviour during the loading cycle.

  10. Axial mixing and mass transfer characteristics of pulsed extraction column with discs and doughnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The axial mixing is a key factor for design and scaling up of the pulsed extraction column which has strong influence on the mass transfer performances of the pulsed extraction column with discs and doughnuts. A steady-state concentration profile measurement was used to evaluate the mass transfer and axial mixing coefficients for the nitric acid/water/30%TRPO (in kerosene) system in the pulsed extraction column with the diameter of 38 mm on the condition of the TRPO-kerosene solution as the continuous phase and the flow ratio of 1: 1. Experimental results indicate that Ey evaluated by the experiments is in good agreement with that given by Burratti's correlation; the axial mixing is far smaller for the continuous phase than that for the dispersed phase. However the empirical correlation for Hox is only given based on the present data.

  11. COLSS Axial Power Distribution Synthesis using Artificial Neural Network with Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, K. W.; Oh, D. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Park, Y. H. [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The core operating limit supervisory system (COLSS) is an application program implemented into the plant monitoring system (PMS) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). COLSS aids the operator in maintaining plant operation within selected limiting conditions for operation (LCOs), such as the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) margin and the linear heat rate (LHR) margin. In order to calculate above LCOs, the COLSS uses core averaged axial power distribution (APD). 40 nodes of APD is synthesized by using the 5-level in-core neutron flux detector signals based on the Fourier series method in the COLSS. We proposed the artificial neural network (ANN) with simulated annealing (SA) method instead of Fourier series method to synthesize the axial power distribution (APD) of COLSS. The proposed method is more accurate than the current method as the results of the axial shape RMS errors.

  12. Prediction of Axial Capacity of Concrete-Filled Square Steel Tubes Using Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Meichun; Wang Qingxiang; Feng Xiufeng

    2005-01-01

    The application of artificial neural network to predict the ultimate beating capacity of CFST ( concrete-filled square steel tubes)short columns under axial loading is explored. Input parameters consiste of concrete compressive strength, yield strength of steel tube, confinement index, sectional dimension and width-to-thickness ratio. The ultimate bearing capacity is the only output parameter. A multilayer feedforward neural network is used to describe the nonlinear relationships between the input and output variables.Fifty-five experimental data of CFST short columns under axial loading are used to train and test the neural network. A comparison between the neural network model and three parameter models shows that the neural network model possesses good accuracy and could be a practical method for predicting the ultimate strength of axially loaded CFST short columns.

  13. Spiral and Taylor vortex fronts and pulses in axial through flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, A; Lücke, M; Hoffmann, Ch

    2003-02-01

    The influence of an axial through flow on the spatiotemporal growth behavior of different vortex structures in the Taylor-Couette system with radius ratio eta=0.5 is determined. The Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) linearized around the basic Couette-Poiseuille flow are solved numerically with a shooting method in a wide range of through flow strengths Re and different rates of co-rotating and counter-rotating cylinders for toroidally closed vortices with azimuthal wave number m=0 and for spiral vortex flow with m=+/-1. For each of these three different vortex varieties we have investigated (i) axially extended vortex structures, (ii) axially localized vortex pulses, and (iii) vortex fronts. The complex dispersion relations of the linearized NSE for vortex modes with the three different m are evaluated for real axial wave numbers for (i) and over the plane of complex axial wave numbers for (ii) and (iii). We have also determined the Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equation (GLE) approximation in order to analyze its predictions for the vortex structures (ii) and (iii). Critical bifurcation thresholds for extended vortex structures are evaluated. The boundaries between absolute and convective instability of the basic state for vortex pulses are determined with a saddle-point analysis of the dispersion relations. Fit parameters for power-law expansions of the boundaries up to Re4 are listed in two tables. Finally, the linearly selected front behavior of growing vortex structures is investigated using saddle-point analyses of the dispersion relations of NSE and GLE. For the two front intensity profiles (increasing in positive or negative axial direction) we have determined front velocities, axial growth rates, and the wave numbers and frequencies of the unfolding vortex patterns with azimuthal wave numbers m=0,+/-1, respectively.

  14. Spiral and Taylor vortex fronts and pulses in axial through-flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pinter, A; Hoffmann, C; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of an axial through-flow on the spatiotemporal growth behavior of different vortex structures in the Taylor-Couette system with radius ratio eta=0.5 is determined. The Navier Stokes equations (NSE) linearized around the basic Couette-Poiseuille flow are solved numerically with a shooting method in a wide range of through-flow strengths Re and different rates of co- and counterrotating cylinders for toroidally closed vortices with azimuthal wave number m=0 and for spiral vortex flow with m=+1 and m=-1. For each of these three different vortex varieties we have investigated (i) axially extended vortex structures, (ii) axially localized vortex pulses, and (iii) vortex fronts. The complex dispersion relations of the linearized NSE for vortex modes with the three different m are evaluated for real axial wave numbers for (i) and over the plane of complex axial wave numbers for (ii,iii). We have also determined the Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equation (GLE) approximation in order to analyze its predictio...

  15. LDA measurements on the turbulent flow characteristics of a small-sized axial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Kweon [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The operating point of a small-sized axial fan for refrigerator is strongly dependent upon the system resistance. Therefore, the turbulent flow characteristics around a small-sized axial fan may change significantly according to the operating point. This study represents three-dimensional turbulent flow characteristics around a small-sized axial fan measured at the four operating points such as {phi}=0.1, 0.18, 0.25 and 0.32 by using fiber-optic type LDA system. This LDA system is composed of a 5 W Argon-ion laser, two optics in back-scatter mode, three BSA's, a PC, and a three-dimensional automatic traversing system. A kind of paraffin fluid is utilized for supplying particles by means of fog generator. Mean velocity profiles downstream of a small--sized axial fan along the radial distance show that both the streamwise and the tangential components exist predominantly in downstream except {phi}=0.1 and have a maximum value at the radial distance ratio of about 0.8, but the radial component, which its velocity is relatively small, is acting role that only turns flow direction to the outside or the central part of axial fan. Moreover, all of the velocity components downstream at {phi}=0.1 show much smaller than those upstream due to the static pressure rise at the low-flowrate region.

  16. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Alfonse T.

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hype...

  17. Feedback control of inertial microfluidics using axial control forces

    CERN Document Server

    Prohm, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Inertial microfluidics is a promising tool for many lab-on-a-chip applications. Particles in channel flows with Reynolds numbers above one undergo cross-streamline migration to a discrete set of equilibrium positions in square and rectangular channel cross sections. This effect has been used extensively for particle sorting and the analysis of particle properties. Using the lattice Boltzmann method, we determine equilibrium positions in square and rectangular cross sections and classify their types of stability for different Reynolds numbers, particle sizes, and channel aspect ratios. Our findings thereby help to design microfluidic channels for particle sorting. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an axial control force, which slows down the particles, shifts the stable equilibrium position towards the channel center. Ultimately, the particles then stay on the centerline for forces exceeding a threshold value. This effect is sensitive to particle size and channel Reynolds number and therefore suggests an efficie...

  18. Multi-objective optimization of an axial compressor blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samad, Abdus; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Numerical optimization with multiple objectives is carried out for design of an axial compressor blade. Two conflicting objectives, total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency, are optimized with three design variables concerning sweep, lean and skew of blade stacking line. Single objective optimizations have been also performed. At the data points generated by D-optimal design, the objectives are calculated by three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. A second-order polynomial based response surface model is generated, and the optimal point is searched by sequential quadratic programming method for single objective optimization. Elitist non-dominated sorting of genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) with {epsilon}-constraint local search strategy is used for multi-objective optimization. Both objective function values are found to be improved as compared to the reference one by multi-objective optimization. The flow analysis results show the mechanism for the improvement of blade performance

  19. Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.

  20. Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bourg, N; Dupuis, G; Barroca, T; Bon, P; Lécart, S; Fort, E; Lévêque-Fort, S

    2014-01-01

    Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Herein we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called Supercritical Angle Fluorescence (SAF) can be captured using a hig-NA objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometer precision. We introduce a new technique for 3D nanoscopy that combines direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM) imaging with dedicated detection of SAF emission. We demonstrate that our approach of a Direct Optical Nanoscopy with Axially Localized Detection (DONALD) yields a typical isotropic 3D localization precision of 20 nm.

  1. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  2. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural fr...

  3. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  4. Consistent formulation of the spacelike axial gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnel, A.; Van der Rest-Jaspers, M.

    1983-12-15

    The usual formulation of the spacelike axial gauge is afflicted with the difficulty that the metric is indefinite while no ghost is involved. We solve this difficulty by introducing a ghost whose elimination is such that the metric becomes positive for physical states. The technique consists in the replacement of the gauge condition nxA = 0 by the weaker one partial/sub 0/nxAroughly-equal0.

  5. Direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, N.; Mayet, C.; Dupuis, G.; Barroca, T.; Bon, P.; Lécart, S.; Fort, E.; Lévêque-Fort, S.

    2015-09-01

    Evanescent light excitation is widely used in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to confine light and reduce background noise. Here, we propose a method of exploiting evanescent light in the context of emission. When a fluorophore is located in close proximity to a medium with a higher refractive index, its near-field component is converted into light that propagates beyond the critical angle. This so-called supercritical-angle fluorescence can be captured using a high-numerical-aperture objective and used to determine the axial position of the fluorophore with nanometre precision. We introduce a new technique for three-dimensional nanoscopy that combines direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) with dedicated detection of supercritical-angle fluorescence emission. We demonstrate that our approach of direct optical nanoscopy with axially localized detection (DONALD) typically yields an isotropic three-dimensional localization precision of 20 nm within an axial range of ∼150 nm above the coverslip.

  6. Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfer, Gita; Perry, Lisa; Deodhar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton that includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Patients with AS experience chronic pain due to sacroiliac joint and spinal inflammation, and may develop spinal ankylosing with syndesmophyte formation. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) have shown promise in the management of AS and axSpA by targeting the underlying inflammatory process, and providing symptomatic relief. Whether they alter the progression of the disease is uncertain. Golimumab is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets and downregulates the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The use of golimumab has been shown to reduce the signs and symptoms of axSpA as well as improve patient function and quality reported outcomes. This review focuses on the biological rationale and the results of clinical trials with golimumab for the treatment of axSpA.

  7. Tip clearance flow interaction with circumferential groove casing treatment in a transonic axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mark Hamilton

    clearance axial momentum flux through a coefficient of drag that had a log-linear dependence on groove aspect ratio.

  8. Strength and Deformation of Axially Loaded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Sheet Confined Concrete Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 钱稼茹; 蒋剑彪

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of 29 axially loaded fiber-reinforced polymer sheet (FS) confined concrete columns and two reference plain concrete columns are introduced. Twenty four column specimens were confined with carbon fiber sheet (CFS) and five column specimens were hybrid confined with both CFS and glass fiber sheet (GFS). The influence of aspect ratio, FS material, initial axial force ratio, and FS confinement degree on the strength and deformation of columns were studied. Based on the experimental results, the equations of complete stress-strain curve of CFS confined concrete are proposed. These equations are suitable for the nonlinear analysis of square and rectangular section columns. Suggestions of applying FS to confine concrete columns are presented.

  9. Effect of impeller reflux balance holes on pressure and axial force of centrifugal pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wei-dong; DAI Xun; HU Qi-xiang

    2015-01-01

    The size of impeller reflux holes for centrifugal pump has influence on the pressure distribution of front and rear shrouds and rear pump chamber, as well as energy characteristics of whole pump and axial force. Low specific-speed centrifugal pump with Q=12.5 m3/h,H=60 m,n=2950 r/min was selected to be designed with eight axial reflux balance holes with 4.5 mm in diameter. The simulated Q-H curve and net positive suction head (NPSH) were in good agreement with experimental results, which illustrated that centrifugal pump with axial reflux balance holes was superior in the cavitation characteristic; however, it showed to little superiority in head and efficiency. The pressure in rear pump chamber at 0.6 times rate flow is 29.36% of pressure difference between outlet and inlet, which reduces to 29.10% at rate flow and 28.33% at 1.4 times rate flow. As the whole, the pressure distribution on front and rear shrouds from simulation results is not a standard parabola, and axial force decreases as flow rate increases. Radical reflux balance holes chosen to be 5.2 mm and 5.9 mm in diameter were further designed with other hydraulic parts unchanged. With structural grids adopted for total flow field, contrast numerical simulation on internal flow characteristics was conducted based on momentum equations and standard turbulence model (κ-ε). It is found that axial force of pump with radical reflux balance holes of 5.2 mm and 5.9 mm in diameter is significantly less than that with radical reflux balance holes of 4.5 mm in diameter. Better axial force balance is obtained as the ratio of area of reflux balance holes and area of sealing ring exceeds 6.

  10. Design of axial-flux permanent-magnet low-speed machines and performance comparison between radial-flux and axial-flux machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviainen, A.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analytical design of surface-mounted axial-flux permanent-magnet machines. Emphasis has been placed on the design of axial-flux machines with a one-rotor-two-stators configuration. The design model developed in this study incorporates facilities to include both the electromagnetic design and thermal design of the machine as well as to take into consideration the complexity of the permanent-magnet shapes, which is a typical requirement for the design of high-performance permanent-magnet motors. A prototype machine with rated 5 kW output power at 300 min{sup -1} rotation speed has been designed and constructed for the purposes of ascertaining the results obtained from the analytical design model. A comparative study of low-speed axial-flux and low-speed radial-flux permanent-magnet machines is presented. The comparative study concentrates on 55 kW machines with rotation speeds 150 min{sup -1}, 300 min{sup -1} and 600 min{sup -1} and is based on calculated designs. A novel comparison method is introduced. The method takes into account the mechanical constraints of the machine and enables comparison of the designed machines, with respect to the volume, efficiency and cost aspects of each machine. It is shown that an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with one-rotor-two-stators configuration has generally a weaker efficiency than a radial-flux permanent-magnet machine if for all designs the same electric loading, air-gap flux density and current density have been applied. On the other hand, axial-flux machines are usually smaller in volume, especially when compared to radial-flux machines for which the length ratio (axial length of stator stack vs. air-gap diameter) is below 0.5. The comparison results show also that radial-flux machines with a low number of pole pairs, p < 4, outperform the corresponding axial-flux machines. (orig.)

  11. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  12. A new modeling of the initial buildup evolution on a wire in an axial HGMF filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.; Murariu, V.; Rotariu, O.; Rezlescu, N.

    1996-10-01

    The buildup differential equations are solved for a single wire in the axial HGMF configuration. A new equation for the deposit contour surface at different moments for the initial buildup process is obtained. In addition, a limitation is obtained for the deposit surface, considering the balance between the magnetic force and the hydrodynamic erosion force. From this, the saturation accumulation radius is obtained in terms of the Reynolds' number for a particle and the {v m}/{v 0} ratio.

  13. Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Abdelkarim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite element (FE analysis using LS-DYNA software to conduct an extensive parametric study on CFFT. The effects of the FRP confinement ratio, the unconfined concrete compressive strength ( , column size, and column aspect ratio on the behavior of the CFFT under axial compressive loading were investigated during this study. A comparison between the behavior of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP and those with traditional FRP (carbon and glass with a high range of confinement ratios was conducted as well. A new hybrid FRP system combined with traditional and LRS-FRP is proposed. Generally, the CFFTs with LRS-FRP showed remarkable behavior under axial loading in strength and ultimate strain. Equations to estimate the concrete dilation parameter and dilation angle of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP tubes and hybrid FRP tubes are suggested.

  14. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... for velocity, pressure andradial position are derived from the conservationlaws for mass, tangential momentum and energy.The resulting system of equations is non-linear and, dueto mass conservation and pressure equilibrium far downstream of the rotor,strongly coupled.The equations are solved using the Newton...

  15. Tunable axial potentials for atom chip waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Stickney, James A; Imhof, Eric; Kroese, Bethany R; Crow, Jonathon A R; Olson, Spencer E; Squires, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for generating algebraically precise magnetic potentials along the axis of a cold atom waveguide near the surface of an atom chip. With a single chip design consisting of several wire pairs, various axial potentials can be created, including double wells, triple wells, and pure harmonic traps with suppression of higher order terms. We characterize the error along a harmonic trap between the expected algebraic form and magnetic field simulations and find excel- lent agreement, particularly at small displacements from the trap center. Finally, we demonstrate experimental control over the bottom fields of an asymmetric double well potential.

  16. Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ulaş Erdem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.

  17. Aerodynamics of Advanced Axial-Flow Turbomachinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-30

    cementing in place short segments of lb ga. (1.2 mm I.D.) hypodermic tubing in drillud holes carefully aligned normal to the sidewall profile at the...PRESSURE I REFERENCE SCANPREF I I SYSTEM 0YTE NECKED- PRF NEEDLE VALVE PE PRRSSUE TRANSDUCER AMPLIF IER] POSITIONER TEMPERATURES I STO BE READ I...Compressors. U.S. NASA SP-36. 1965. 23. Hearsey, R. M. A Revised Computer Program for Axial Compressor Design Volume 1: Theory , Descriptions and User’s

  18. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method....

  19. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  20. Axial Compressive Strength of Foamcrete with Different Profiles and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight foamcrete is a versatile material; primarily consist of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20% volume of air. High flow ability, lower self-weight, minimal requirement of aggregate, controlled low strength and good thermal insulation properties are a few characteristics of foamcrete. Its dry densities, typically, is below 1600kg/m3 with compressive strengths maximum of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strengths of between 14 and 42MPa to compensate for the reduced strength when the aspect height-to-diameter ratio of specimen is less than 2.0, while the CEB-FIP provision specifically mentions the ratio of 150 x 300mm cylinder strength to 150 mm cube strength. However, both provisions requirements do not specifically clarify the applicability and/or modification of the correction factors for the compressive strength of foamcrete. This proposed laboratory work is intended to study the effect of different dimensions and profiles on the axial compressive strength of concrete. Specimens of various dimensions and profiles are cast with square and circular cross-sections i.e., cubes, prisms and cylinders, and to investigate their behavior in compression strength at 7 and 28 days. Hypothetically, compressive strength will decrease with the increase of concrete specimen dimension and concrete specimen with cube profile would yield comparable compressive strength to cylinder (100 x 100 x 100mm cube to 100dia x 200mm cylinder.

  1. High-speed measurement of axial grain transport in a rotating drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Frank; Khan, Zeina; Schaber, Marc; Seemann, Ralf; Scheel, Mario; Dimichiel, Marco

    2012-02-01

    Over short timescales granular mixtures separate by size when tumbled in a partially filled horizontal drum. The smaller grains move toward the axis of rotation to form a central core; undulations in this core gradually increase in amplitude until they grow into axial bands. Using non-invasive high-speed synchrotron x-ray particle tracking, we investigate the axial transport properties of tracer particles traveling amongst glass spheres. This new technique allows us to gather data on time scales not previously possible. When the tracers are present in larger proportions the mixtures we used should have different tendencies to segregate axially according to size ratio; one of our findings, however, is that when the tracer concentration is low the single-particle dynamics of these mixtures do not depend on the relative particle sizes in any appreciable way. This implies that the potential for a mixture to axially segregate cannot be inferred from the microscopic dynamics of individual small particles. A second finding is that while the slope of the mean-squared displacement is close to that expected from diffusive transport, as determined from the single-particle dynamics, more detailed analyses indicate anomalous transport.

  2. Single Rod Vibration in Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaum, Noah; Wang, Shengfu; Bardet, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Fluid structure interaction of a single rod in axial flow is a coupled dynamical system present in many application including nuclear reactors, steam generators, and towed antenna arrays. Fluid-structure response can be quantified thanks to detailed experimental data where both structure and fluid responses are recorded. Such datum deepen understanding of the physics inherent to the system and provide high-dimensionality quantitative measurements to validate coupled structural and CFD codes with various level of complexity. In this work, single rods fixed on both ends in a concentric pipe, are subjected to an axial flow with Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter of Re =4000. Rods of varying material stiffness and diameter are utilized in the experiment resulting in a range of dimensionless U between 0.5 and 1, where U = (ρA/EI)1/2uL. Experimental measurements of the velocity field around the rod are taken with PIV from time-resolved Nd:YLF laser and a high speed CMOS camera. Three-dimensional and temporal vibration and deflection of the rod is recorded with shadowgraphy utilizing two sets of pulsed high power LED and dedicated CMOS camera. Through integration of these two diagnostics, it is possible to reconstruct the full FSI domain providing unique validation data.

  3. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method of measuring axial residual stresses in boron fibers is presented. With this method, the axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius is determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diam fibers are similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25% of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 MN sq m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data are presented for 203-micron diam B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102-micron diam B/W and boron on carbon (B/C) show that the residual stresses are similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core are observed. Fracture of boron fibers is discussed.

  4. Dynamic Response of RPC-Filled Steel Tubular Columns with High Load Carrying Capacity Under Axial Impact Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; WU Ping'an; JIA Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Experimental investigation into impact-resistant behavior of reactive powder concrete (RPC)-filled steel tubular columns was conducted, and dynamic response of the columns under axial impact loading was studied by means of numerical simulation method.Increase coefficient of load carrying capacity and ratio of load carrying capacity between steel tube and RPC core of columns were obtained.

  5. Study on the Axial Dispersion of Liquid in Column Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鵾; 曾爱武; 高长宝; 余国琮

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study on the axial dispersion of liquid was carried out in a 0.382-m-ID flotation column packed with different structured packings or free of packings. The correlations of axial Peclet numbers with the liquid and gas superficial Reynolds numbers were developed for various packings. Among the packings tested, it is found that in the column packed with 250Y or 350Y packings the axial dispersion is the lowest. The addition of frother can decrease the axial dispersion. By the simulation analysis of the one-dimension dispersion model of packed flotation column, it is found that small axial dispersion, high collection rate constant and low axial liquid velocity can increase the collection zone recovery.

  6. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  7. Design and Test of a Transonic Axial Splittered Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial compressor rotor with splitter blades. Predictive numerical simulations were conducted and...ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial compressor rotor with splitter blades. Predictive numerical simulations were...that uses commercial-off-the-shelf software ( MATLAB , SolidWorks, and ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial

  8. Rotordynamics of Turbine Labyrinth Seals with Rotor Axial Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxiang Xi; Rhode, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Rotors in high-performance steam turbines experience a significant axial shifting during starting and stopping processes due to thermal expansion, for example. This axial shifting could significantly alter the flow pattern and the flow-induced rotordynamic forces in labyrinth seals, which in turn, can considerably affect the rotor-seal system performance. This paper investigates the influence of the rotor axial shifting on leakage rate as well as rotordynamic forces in hi...

  9. AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    with fourth-degree polynomial functions of path distance from the maximum thickness point. Input to the aerodynamic and blading design program includes the annulus profile, the overall compressor mass flow, the pressure ratio, and the rotative speed. A number of input parameters are also used to specify and control the blade row aerodynamics and geometry. The output from the aerodynamic solution has an overall blade row and compressor performance summary followed by blade element parameters for the individual blade rows. If desired, the blade coordinates in the streamwise direction for internal flow analysis codes and the coordinates on plane sections through blades for fabrication drawings may be stored and printed. The aerodynamic and blading design program for multistage axial-flow compressors is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 470K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1981.

  10. Emission characteristics and axial flame temperature distribution of producer gas fired premixed burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoi, P.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, L and T-Sargent and Lundy Limited, L and T Energy Centre, Near Chhani Jakat Naka, Baroda 390 002 (India); Channiwala, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Ichchhanath, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the emission characteristics and axial flame temperature distribution of producer gas fired premixed burner. The producer gas fired premixed burner of 150 kW capacity was tested on open core throat less down draft gasifier system in the present study. A stable and uniform flame was observed with this burner. An instrumented test set up was developed to evaluate the performance of the burner. The conventional bluff body having blockage ratio of 0.65 was used for flame stabilization. With respect to maximum flame temperature, minimum pressure drop and minimum emissions, a swirl angle of 60 seems to be optimal. The experimental results also showed that the NO{sub x} emissions are inversely proportional to swirl angle and CO emissions are independent of swirl angle. The minimum emission levels of CO and NO{sub x} are observed to be 0.167% and 384 ppm respectively at the swirl angle of 45-60 . The experimental results showed that the maximum axial flame temperature distribution was achieved at A/F ratio of 1.0. The adiabatic flame temperature of 1653 C was calculated theoretically at A/F ratio of 1.0. Experimental results are in tune with theoretical results. It was also concluded that the CO and UHC emissions decreases with increasing A/F ratio while NO{sub x} emissions decreases on either side of A/F ratio of 1.0. (author)

  11. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  12. Modular functional organisation of the axial locomotor system in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Vanessa; Mathou, Alexia

    2014-02-01

    Most investigations on tetrapod locomotion have been concerned with limb movements. However, there is compelling evidence that the axial musculoskeletal system contributes to important functions during locomotion. Adult salamanders offer a remarkable opportunity to examine these functions because these amphibians use axial undulations to propel themselves in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this article, we review the currently available biological data on axial functions during various locomotor modes in salamanders. We also present data showing the modular organisation of the neural networks that generate axial synergies during locomotion. The functional implication of this modular organisation is discussed.

  13. Casimir Energy in the Axial Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Kirsten, K; Esposito, Giampiero; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Kirsten, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The zero-point energy of a conducting spherical shell is studied by imposing the axial gauge via path-integral methods, with boundary conditions on the electromagnetic potential and ghost fields. The coupled modes are then found to be the temporal and longitudinal modes for the Maxwell field. The resulting system can be decoupled by studying a fourth-order differential equation with boundary conditions on longitudinal modes and their second derivatives. The exact solution of such equation is found by using a Green-function method, and is obtained from Bessel functions and definite integrals involving Bessel functions. Complete agreement with a previous path-integral analysis in the Lorenz gauge, and with Boyer's value, is proved in detail.

  14. The Axial Part Phrase in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takamine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the categorial status of spatial terms in locative/directional expressions in Japanese. I will show that a certain class of spatial terms have a distinct categorial status from both regular postpositions and nouns. On one hand, syntactic diagnostics such as doubling, coordination by to, and co-occurrence with demonstratives indicate that these spatial terms belong to a nominal category rather than to a postpositional category. On the other hand, the fact that these spatial terms are modified by range modifiers indicates that they are more similar to regular postpositions than to nouns. On the basis of these diagnostics, I will argue that spatial terms in Japanese need to be assigned a new category Axial Part Phrase which is proposed by Svenonius 2006.

  15. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail. 

  16. Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.

  17. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

    1998-01-01

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  18. Investigation of flow in axial turbine stage without shroud-seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with investigation of the influence of the radial gaps on the efficiency of the axial turbine stage. The investigation was carried out for the axial stage of the low-power turbine with the drum-type rotor without the shroud. In this configuration the flow through the radial gap under the hub-end of the stator blades and above the tip-end of the rotor blades leads to generation of the strong secondary flows, which decrease the efficiency of the stage. This problem was studied by experiment as well as by numerical modelling. The experiment was performed on the test rig equipped with the water brake dynamometer, torque meter and rotatable stator together with the linear probe manipulator. Numerical modelling was carried out for both the steady flow using the ”mixing plane” interface and the unsteady flow using the ”sliding mesh” interface between the stator and rotor wheels. The influence of the radial gap was studied in two configuration a positive and b negative overlapping of the tip-ends of the rotor blades. The efficiency of the axial stage in dependence on the expansion ratio, velocity ratio and the configuration as well as the details of the flow fields are presented in this paper.

  19. AXIAL LENGTH, CORNEAL CURVATURE AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH THE REFRACTIVE STATUS OF THE EYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunakar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM To establish a definite correlation between the axial length, radius of cornea curvature and the refractive status of the eye. METHODS All cases of emmetropia, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism between 20-30 years attending the Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology were informed about the purpose for the tests and the following were done. Visual acuity without and with correction, Subjective refraction, Fundus evaluation, Intraocular pressure, Keratometry. Ultrasound biometry to assess anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length and vitreous chamber depth in all subjects in both eyes. RESULTS Correlation between SE (Spherical equivalent and AL/CRC; AL (Axial length, and CRC (Corneal radius of curvature, the highest and lowest AL/CRC values were seen in eyes with high myopia and high hyperopia, respectively. Mean AL/CRC was 3.49 in eyes with myopia greater than -5.0D; this value decreased linearly and reached a minimum of 2.65 in cases with hyperopia more than 2.0D. Linear regression showed a shift of 11.46D in SE refractive error towards myopia with every 1 unit increase in AL/CRC (P<0.001. CONCLUSION Refractive error cannot be determined by a single optical component. It is the result of a combined interactive effect. The ratio of axial length and corneal radius of curvature seem to be a very reliable index of estimating the kind of resultant refractive error one might have. Axial length is the most influential factor in determining refraction radius curvature.

  20. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fouquet

    Full Text Available Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF, a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  1. Size-dependent thermal buckling of heated nanowires with ends axially restrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Qiao; Lv, Jian-Guo

    2014-02-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are being actively explored for applications as nanoscale building blocks of sensors, actuators and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Temperature changes can induce an axial force within NWs due to the thermal expansion and may lead to buckling. The thermal buckling behaviors of ends-axially-restrained nanowires, subjected to a uniform temperature rise, are studied based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory including the surface thermoelastic effects. Besides the surface elastic modulus, the influences of surface thermal expansion coefficient are incorporated into the model presented herein to describe size-dependent thermoelastic behaviors of nanowires. The results show that the critical buckling temperature and postbuckling deflection are significantly affected by surface thermoelastic effects and the influences become more prominent as the thickness of nanowire decreases. The corresponding influences of the slenderness ratio are also discussed. This research is helpful not only in understanding the thermal buckling properties of nanowires but also in designing the nanowire-based sensor and thermal actuator.

  2. Size-dependent thermal buckling of heated nanowires with ends axially restrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhi-Qiao, E-mail: zqwang@cugb.edu.cn [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Lv, Jian-Guo [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are being actively explored for applications as nanoscale building blocks of sensors, actuators and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Temperature changes can induce an axial force within NWs due to the thermal expansion and may lead to buckling. The thermal buckling behaviors of ends-axially-restrained nanowires, subjected to a uniform temperature rise, are studied based on Bernoulli–Euler beam theory including the surface thermoelastic effects. Besides the surface elastic modulus, the influences of surface thermal expansion coefficient are incorporated into the model presented herein to describe size-dependent thermoelastic behaviors of nanowires. The results show that the critical buckling temperature and postbuckling deflection are significantly affected by surface thermoelastic effects and the influences become more prominent as the thickness of nanowire decreases. The corresponding influences of the slenderness ratio are also discussed. This research is helpful not only in understanding the thermal buckling properties of nanowires but also in designing the nanowire-based sensor and thermal actuator.

  3. Eyecciones coronales de masa observadas en cuadratura exhibiendo sus perspectivas axial y lateral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from different viewpoints provided by STEREO and SOHO allow us to simultaneously study the lateral and axial perspectives of a given coronal mass ejection. Following the exhaustive analysis of a case study, this work focuses on the analysis of similar events which exhibit the two perspectives as seen by the different instruments. Angular width estimates for both, the lateral and axial directions obtained in an indirect way, i.e. applying the graduated cylindrical shell model, allowed us to obtain a ratio / in agreement with results previously obtained in a direct way, i.e. when and were measured either separately for different events or when they were estimated for a single event from multi-point observations.

  4. A cylindrical shell with an axial crack under skew-symmetric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuceoglu, U.; Erdogan, F.

    1973-01-01

    The skew-symmetric problem for a cylindrical shell containing an axial crack is considered. It is assumed that the material has a special orthotropy - namely, that the shear modulus may be evaluated from the measured Young's moduli and Poisson ratios and is not an independent material constant. The problem is solved within the confines of an eighth-order linearized shallow shell theory. As numerical examples, the torsion of an isotropic cylinder and that of a specially orthotropic cylinder (titanium) are considered. The membrane and bending components of the stress intensity factor are calculated and are given as functions of a dimensionless shell parameter. In the torsion problem for the axially cracked cylinder the bending effects appear to be much more significant than that found for the circumferentially cracked cylindrical shell. Also, as the shell parameter increases, unlike the results found in the pressurized shell, the bending stresses around crack ends do not change sign.

  5. Vibration analysis of nanomechanical mass sensor using carbon nanotubes under axial tensile loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Matsuyama, Nobuhiro; Shi, Jin-Xing; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with many potential applications due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. In this paper, we proposed that CNTs with clamped boundary condition under axial tensile loads were considered as CNT-based resonators. Moreover, the resonant frequencies and frequency shifts of the CNTs with attached mass were investigated based on two theoretical methods, which are Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Rayleigh's energy method. Using the present methods, we analyzed and discussed the effects of the aspect ratio, the concentrated mass and the axial force on the resonant frequency of the CNTs. The results indicate that the length of CNTs could be easily changed and could provide higher sensitivity as nanomechanical mass sensor. Moreover, the resonant frequency shifts of the CNT resonator increase significantly with increasing tensile load acting on the CNTs.

  6. Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of Ge/Si axial nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the nanowire, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two advances in the area of heterostructure nanowires and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure nanowires with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these nanowires for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices resulted in a current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. These results demonstrate the potential of such asymmetric heterostructures (both in the semiconductor channel and metal-semiconductor barrier heights) for low-power and high performance electronics.

  7. Improved axial position detection in optical tweezers measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial...

  8. Through flow analysis within axial flow turbomachinery blade rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girigoswami, H.

    1986-09-01

    Using Katsanis' Through Flow Code, inviscid flow through an axial flow compressor rotor blade as well as flow through inlet guide vanes are analyzed and the computed parameters such as meridional velocity distribution, axial velocity distribution along radial lines, and velocity distribution over blade surfaces are presented.

  9. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  10. An Unbroken Axial-Vector Current Conservation Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-04-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space in which a neutrino is characterized by left as well as by right space-time coordinates. Therefore, it is not surprising that whatever the main purposes experiments about a quasielastic axial-vector mass say in favor of an axial-vector mirror Minkowski space-time.

  11. A new approach to radial and axial gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Heribert; Heinz, Ulrich

    1992-03-01

    We develop a new path integral formulation of QCD in radial and axial gauges. This formalism yields free propagators which are free of gauge poles. We find that radial gauges are ghost free. In axial gauges ghosts cannot generally be excluded from the formalism due to the need to fix the residual gauge freedom.

  12. Axially connected nanowire core-shell p-n junctions: a composite structure for high-efficiency solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Junshuai; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    A composite nanostructure for high-efficiency solar cells that axially connects nanowire core-shell p-n junctions is proposed. By axially connecting the p-n junctions in one nanowire, the solar spectrum is separated and absorbed in the top and bottom cells with respect to the wavelength. The unique structure of nanowire p-n junctions enables substantial light absorption along the nanowire and efficient radial carrier separation and collection. A coupled three-dimensional optoelectronic simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the structure. With an excellent current matching, a promising efficiency of 19.9% can be achieved at a low filling ratio of 0.283 (the density of the nanowire array), which is much higher than the tandem axial p-n junctions.

  13. On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kirezli, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...

  14. Axial vibration analysis of nanocones based on nonlocal elasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Qi Guo; Shao-Pu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanocones have quite fascinating electronic and structural properties,whose axial vibration is seldom investigated in previous studies.In this paper,based on a nonlocal elasticity theory,a nonuniform rod model is applied to investigate the small-scale effect and the nonuniform effect on axial vibration of nanocones.Using the modified Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WBK) method,an asymptotic solution is obtained for the axial vibration of general nonuniform nanorods.Then,using similar procedure,the axial vibration of nanocones is analyzed for nonuniform parameters,mode number and nonlocal parameters.Explicit expressions are derived for mode frequencies of clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions.It is found that axial vibration frequencies are highly overestimated by the classical rod model because of ignorance of the effect of small length scale.

  15. Axial Vibration Confinement in Nonhomogenous Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choura

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A design methodology for the vibration confinement of axial vibrations in nonhomogenous rods is proposed. This is achieved by a proper selection of a set of spatially dependent functions characterizing the rod material and geometric properties. Conditions for selecting such properties are established by constructing positive Lyapunov functions whose derivative with respect to the space variable is negative. It is shown that varying the shape of the rod alone is sufficient to confine the vibratory motion. In such a case, the vibration confinement requires that the eigenfunctions be exponentially decaying functions of space, where the notion of spatial domain stability is introduced as a concept dual to that of the time domain stability. It is also shown that vibration confinement can be produced if the rod density and/or stiffness are varied with respect to the space variable while the cross-section area is kept constant. Several case studies, supporting the developed conditions imposed on the spatially dependent functions for vibration confinement in vibrating rods, are discussed. Because variation in the geometric and material properties might decrease the critical buckling loads, we also discuss the buckling problem.

  16. Nitinol stent design - understanding axial buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, D J; O'Brien, B; Bruzzi, M; McHugh, P E

    2014-12-01

    Nitinol׳s superelastic properties permit self-expanding stents to be crimped without plastic deformation, but its nonlinear properties can contribute towards stent buckling. This study investigates the axial buckling of a prototype tracheobronchial nitinol stent design during crimping, with the objective of eliminating buckling from the design. To capture the stent buckling mechanism a computational model of a radial force test is simulated, where small geometric defects are introduced to remove symmetry and allow buckling to occur. With the buckling mechanism ascertained, a sensitivity study is carried out to examine the effect that the transitional plateau region of the nitinol loading curve has on stent stability. Results of this analysis are then used to redesign the stent and remove buckling. It is found that the transitional plateau region can have a significant effect on the stability of a stent during crimping, and by reducing the amount of transitional material within the stent hinges during loading the stability of a nitinol stent can be increased.

  17. Axially Symmetric Post-Newtonian Stellar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Akímushkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a method to obtain self-consistent, axially symmetric disklike stellar models in the first post-Newtonian (1PN approximation. By using in the field equations of the 1PN approximation a distribution function (DF corresponding to a Newtonian model, two fundamental equations determining the 1PN corrections are obtained. The rotation curves of the corrected models differs from the classical ones and the corrections are clearly appreciable with values of the mass and radius of a typical galaxy. On the other hand, the relativistic mass correction can be ignored for all models. Resumen. Presentamos un método para obtener modelos estelares discoidales, axialmente simétricos, auto-consistentes en la primera aproximación post-Newtoniana (1PN. Usando en las ecuaciones de campo de la aproximación 1PN una función de distribución conocida (DF que corresponde a un modelo Newtoniano, se obtienen dos ecuaciones fundamentales para determinar las correcciones 1PN. Las curvas de rotación de los modelos corregidos difieren de las clásicas y las correcciones son claramente apreciables con los valores de la masa y el radio de una galaxia típica. Por otro lado, la corrección relativista de la masa se puede ignorar para todos los modelos.

  18. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva F. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.

  19. New treatment targets for axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients can be divided into those with structural damage in the SI joint visible on X-rays, termed radiographic axSpA or AS, and those in an earlier phase of the disease, without structural damage in the SI joint, termed non-radiographic axSpA. TNF-blockers have been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of active axSpA. Interestingly, conventional DMARDs and also non-TNF-blocker biologics targeting IL-1, IL-6 and T cells (abatacept) are not effective. Recent interest has focused on the cytokines IL-23 and IL-17 as potential treatment targets in axSpA. An open-label trial with ustekinumab showed a good efficacy in AS patients. Two placebo-controlled phase 3 trials with a mAb blocking IL-17, secukinumab, showed a good reduction in disease activity, similar to that shown for TNF blockers. Probably triggered by inflammation, new bone formation is another hallmark in AS and a potentially important treatment target. However, a previously reported inhibitory effect of NSAID treatment could not be confirmed in a recent NSAID trial.

  20. Computerized axial tomography in clinical pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, D C; Kufta, C; Axelbaum, S P; Schellinger, D

    1977-02-01

    Computerized axial tomography (CAT), a noninvasive radiologie method, provides a new dimension in screening and diagnosis of intracranial pathology. Evaluation of 725 scans in infants and children demonstrates that CAT may be performed with negligible risk, although sedation and restraint are essential to the successful performance of studies in children under 6 years of age. CAT is the preferred initial diagnostic method in suspected hydrocephalls and is accurate in the detection and precise localization of brain tumors. The management of hydrocephalus and brain tumors has been significantly altered by the availability of CAT. Few invasive neuroradiologic procedures are required and pneumography is especially curtailed. Serial scanning is the best available method of monitoring ventricular alterations in hydrocephalus, tumor size during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and postoperative recurrence of benign neoplasms. Complex intracranial anomalies are detectable with computerized tomography, but complete definition of pathology often requires angiography and air studies. Limited clinical experience in detecting neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage suggests that CAT will be a valuable tool for futlre investigations of that problem.

  1. Análisis de la fuerza axial en un transportador de sinfín // Analysis of axial force in a screw conveyor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el movimiento de un material en un transportador de sinfín surge una fuerza en dirección axial que influye en laselección de uno de los cojinetes de apoyo del equipo. En el artículo aparecen algunas soluciones constructivas que tienen encuentan la fuerza axial. Por otro lado se establece la relación entre la fuerza axial y el empuje axial y se precisa de quiendepende el sentido del empuje axial. Por último se propone un modelo matemático que relaciona la fuerza axial con la potenciarequerida por el equipo.Palabras claves: Transportador de sinf in, fuerza axial , empuje axial ._________________________________________________________________________AbstractDuring the movement of material in a screw conveyor surge a force in axial direction that influence in the selection of one ofthe equipment support bearings. Some constructive solutions appear in the article for considering the axial force. In the otherhand it is established the relation between axial force and axial thurst and it is precised whose direction thurst axial depend of.Finally it is proposed a mathematic model that relates the axial force with the power required by the equipment.Key words: Screw conveyor, axial force, axial thurst .

  2. Active axial spondyloarthritis: potential role of certolizumab pegol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranatunga S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sriya Ranatunga, Anne V Miller Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA Abstract: The axial spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that predominantly affect the axial joints. This group includes ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathy. While the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathies is not clear, immunologically active tissues primarily include the entheses, ie, the areas where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules attach to bone and to the annulus fibrosis at the vertebrae. One of the major mediators of the immune response in this group of diseases is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα. Blockade of TNFα results in reduced vascularity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovial tissues of affected joints. Certolizumab pegol (CZP is an Fc-free, PEGylated anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody. CZP has unique properties that differ from other available TNFα inhibitors by virtue of its lack of an Fc region, which minimizes potential Fc-mediated effects, and its PEGylation, which improves drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. It has been shown in clinical trials that CZP improves patient outcomes and reduces inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in both ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathies. These data support CZP as a treatment option for axial spondyloarthropathies. Keywords: axial spondyloarthropathy, certolizumab pegol, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, therapy

  3. Performance of a highly loaded two stage axial-flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, R. S.; Benser, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage axial-flow fan with a tip speed of 1450 ft/sec (442 m/sec) and an overall pressure ratio of 2.8 was designed, built, and tested. At design speed and pressure ratio, the measured flow matched the design value of 184.2 lbm/sec (83.55kg/sec). The adiabatic efficiency at the design operating point was 85.7 percent. The stall margin at design speed was 10 percent. A first-bending-mode flutter of the second-stage rotor blades was encountered near stall at speeds between 77 and 93 percent of design, and also at high pressure ratios at speeds above 105 percent of design. A 5 deg closed reset of the first-stage stator eliminated second-stage flutter for all but a narrow speed range near 90 percent of design.

  4. Investigation of Flow Inside an Axial-Flow Pump of GV - IMP Type

    CERN Document Server

    Yevtushenko, A A; Fedotova, N A; Schelyaev, A Y; Konshin, V N; Yevtushenko, Anatoliy A.; Kochevsky, Alexey N.; Fedotova, Natalya A.; Schelyaev, Alexander Y.; Konshin, Vladimir N.

    2004-01-01

    The article describes research of fluid flow inside an axial-flow pump that includes guide vanes, impeller and discharge diffuser. Three impellers with different hub ratio were researched. The article presents the performance curves and velocity distributions behind each of the impeller obtained by computational and experimental ways at six different capacities. The velocity distributions behind the detached guide vanes of different hub ratio are also presented. The computational results were obtained using the software tools CFX-BladeGenPlus and CFX-TASCflow. The experimental performance curves were obtained using the standard procedure. The experimental velocity distributions were obtained by probing of the flow. Good correspondence of results, both for performance curves and velocity distributions, was obtained for most of the considered cases. As it was demonstrated, the performance curves of the pump depend essentially on the impeller hub ratio. Velocity distributions behind the impeller depend strongly ...

  5. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  6. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  7. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Axial Magnetic Forces for DVD Spindle Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The axial magnetic force, induced by the complicated flux linkage distribution from rotor magnet and stator slotted, is constructed by different relative heights and calculated by 3D finite element method (FEM) to analyze the dynamic characteristics for a DVD spindle motor. The axial magnetic force is designed to provide an axial stiffness and govern the natural frequency of the dynamic performance. According to the simulation results and experimental measurements, the dynamic behaviors are significantly improved with a variation of relative height of rotor magnet and stator slotted on a DVD spindle motor.

  9. The axial charges of the hidden-charm pentaquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guang-Juan; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    With the chiral quark model, we have calculated the axial charges of the pentaquark states with $(I,I_3)=(\\frac{1}{2},\\frac{1}{2})$ and $J^{P}=\\frac{1}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$. The $P_c$ states with the same $J^P$ quantum numbers but different color-spin-flavor configurations have very different axial charges, which encode important information on their underlying structures. For some of the $J^{P}=\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm}$ or $\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$ pentaquark states, their axial charges are much smaller than that of the proton.

  10. Tensile Property of Bi-axial Warp Knitted Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈为

    2003-01-01

    The tensile property of bi-axial warp knitted fabrics is tested and compared with that of the plain weave fabric. The results show that there are obvious differences between the tensile property of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric and that of a plain weave fabric.The former can give fuller play to the property of a high modulus yarn than the latter. The tensile strength of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric is linear with the number of yarns in the direction of force.

  11. Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined.It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter,the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass.Moreover,the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality.It is shown that the EURO thirdgeneration gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star.

  12. Global design optimization for an axial-flow tandem pump based on surrogate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. H.; Zhao, Y.; Y Wang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Tandem pump, compared with multistage pump, goes without guide vanes between impellers. Better cavitation performance and significant reduction of the axial geometry scale is important for high-speed propulsion. This study presents a global design optimization method based on surrogated method for an axial-flow tandem pump to enhance trade-off performances: energy and cavitation performances. At the same time, interactions between impellers and impacts on the performances are analyzed. Fixed angle of blades in impellers and phase angle are performed as design variables. Efficiency and minimum average pressure coefficient (MAPC) on axial sectional surface in front impeller are the objective function, which can represent energy and cavitation performances well. Different surrogate models are constructed, and Global Sensitivity Analysis and Pareto Front method are used. The results show that, 1) Influence from phase angle on performances can be neglected compared with other two design variables, 2) Impact ratio of fixed angle of blades in two impellers on efficiency are the same as their designed loading distributions, which is 4:6, 3) The optimization results can enhance the trade-off performances well: efficiency is improved by 0.6%, and the MAPC is improved by 4.5%.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Blade Lean and Sweep affecting Secondary Flows in an Axial Expansion Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipp, A.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2016-11-01

    Based on an axial expansion turbine used for energy recovery from working fluids an automated CFD-flow optimization was performed to increase the turbine efficiency without narrowing the operating range. The optimization results showed that even small changes in the optimization target had a significant influence on the lean and sweep of the new blade designs. The resulting blade shapes were extraordinary. The lean and sweep resembled more that of thermal turbomachinery than hydraulic machinery. It became clear that the special blade shapes were a result of the very low aspect ratio of the turbine and the resulting large influence of secondary flows. The blade lean and sweep induce secondary flow structures which are of decisive importance for the turbine performance. The simulation results showed that positive compound lean increases the efficiency and positive compound sweep improves the cavitation behavior of the investigated axial expansion turbine. However the complexity of the occurring secondary flows make an universally valid statement on the effect of blade lean and sweep on the flow behavior of an axial turbine impossible.

  14. Fabrication of polystyrene fibers with tunable co-axial hollow tubing structure for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minxin; Chen, Jiafu; Chen, Bingjing; Cao, Jingjing; Hong, Min; Zhou, Chenxu; Xu, Qun

    2016-03-01

    Hollow tubing polystyrene (PS) fibers (HFs) with porous shell were successfully fabricated through co-axial electrospinning and selectively dissolving and removing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) core of the co-axial PS/PVP fibers using C2H5OH at room temperature. The size of co-axial hollow tubing structure (CHTS) and the thickness of shell can be controlled by varying the feed rate ratio of the core solution to the shell solution. The oil-sorption results show that the oil-sorption capacity increases with the increasing of the size of CHTS in the HFs, and the HFs have higher oil-sorption capacities than the porous PS fibers (PFs) without CHTS. It is noticeable that the diesel sorption capacity (66 g/g) of the HFs is approximately 1.74 times as much as that (38 g/g) of the PFs. The motor oil sorption capacity (147 g/g) of the HFs is approximately 1.55 times as much as that (95 g/g) of the PFs. It is suggested that the HFs have a better oil-sorption performance than the PFs, especially for the low viscosity oil, which is contributed to large CHTS and high porosity.

  15. Specialized ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H

    1983-01-01

    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  16. Revealing atropisomer axial chirality in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Steven R; Edwards, Paul J; Fader, Lee D; Jakalian, Araz; Hucke, Oliver

    2011-03-07

    An often overlooked source of chirality is atropisomerism, which results from slow rotation along a bond axis due to steric hindrance and/or electronic factors. If undetected or not managed properly, this time-dependent chirality has the potential to lead to serious consequences, because atropisomers can be present as distinct enantiomers or diastereoisomers with their attendant different properties. Herein we introduce a strategy to reveal and classify compounds that have atropisomeric chirality. Energy barriers to axial rotation were calculated using quantum mechanics, from which predicted high barriers could be experimentally validated. A calculated rotational energy barrier of 20 kcal mol(-1) was established as a suitable threshold to distinguish between atropisomers and non-atropisomers with a prediction accuracy of 86%. This methodology was applied to subsets of drug databases in the course of which atropisomeric drugs were identified. In addition, some drugs were exposed that were not yet known to have this chiral attribute. The most valuable utility of this tool will be to predict atropisomerism along the drug discovery pathway. When used in concert with our compound classification scheme, decisions can be made during early discovery stages such as "hit-to-lead" and "lead optimization," to foresee and validate the presence of atropisomers and to exercise options of removing, further stabilizing, or rendering the chiral axis of interest more freely rotatable via SAR design, thereby decreasing this potential liability within a compound series. The strategy can also improve drug development plans, such as determining whether a drug or series should be developed as a racemic mixture or as an isolated single compound. Moreover, the work described herein can be extended to other chemical fields that require the assessment of potential chiral axes.

  17. Channeling energy loss and dechanneling of He along axial and planar directions of Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, S.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the energy loss and the dechanneling of He ions in the energy of 1.5 MeV and 2 MeV along the and axial directions as well as the {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} planar directions of Si were studied by the simulation of the channeling Rutherford backscattering spectra. The simulation was done based on the considerations that a fraction of the aligned beam enters the sample as a random component due to the ions scattering from the surface, and the dechanneling starts at the greater penetration depths, xDech. It was presumed that the dechanneling process follows a simple exponential law with a parameter λ which is proportional to the half-thickness. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to set the best parameters of energy loss ratio, xDech and λ. The experimental results are well reproduced by this simulation. Differences between various axial and planar channels in the Si crystal and their influence on the energy loss ratio and dechanneling of He ions are described. Moreover, the energy dependence of energy loss ratio and dechanneling of He ions were investigated. It is shown that the dechanneling behavior of ions depends on the energy and energy loss of the ions along a channel. The channeled to random energy loss increases by decreasing ions energy.

  18. The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.

  19. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    OpenAIRE

    Wurst P.; Trávníček Z.; Cyrus V.; Kordík J.

    2013-01-01

    Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV), rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was des...

  20. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  1. Calculation of multi-layer plate damper under one-axial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yan; Lu, Zhang; Hong-Yuan, Jiang; Alexander, M. Ulanov

    2016-02-01

    A multi-layer damper with waved plates under one-axial load is considered. A method of theoretical calculation of its energy dissipation coefficient is proposed. An experimental research of own frequencies and vibration transfer ratios for different parameters of damper structure, harmonic vibration load and random load is performed. Results of this research are approximated by functions; it is possible to use these functions for the calculation of the damper too. Project supported by the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (Grant No. B07018).

  2. Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao-Wen; Ni, Qing-Qing; Shi, Jin-Xing; Natsuki, Toshiaki

    2011-08-11

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experiment, calculation and simulation. Our results show that the RBM frequency is linearly dependent on the axial pressure and is affected by the wave numbers. We concluded that RBM frequency can be used to characterize the axial pressure acting on both ends of a CNT.

  3. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  4. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  5. ANALYSIS OF PULSATILE BLOOD FLOW IN AXIALLY MOVING ARTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to study motional properties of pulsatile blood flow in axially moving arteries, the authors derived some expressions of the pulsatile blood flow from the basic equations of motion for blood and vascular walls, including an axial blood velocity equation, a flow rate equation and a wall shear stress equation, which described not only the overall axial movement of the arteries but also the elastic properties of the vascular walls, discussed the effects of the arterial wall elasticity on the wall shear stress in coronary arteries in terms of these expressions, and analyzed changes of motional properties of pulsatile blood flow between an elastic arterial tube model and a rigid tube model. The results proved the inference by J.E. Moore Jr. et al. (1994) that the axial movement of arteries be as important in determining coronary artery hemodynamics as the elastic property of the vascular wall.

  6. The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...

  7. Axial Stringy System of the Kerr Spinning Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, A

    2004-01-01

    The structure of classical spinning particle based on the Kerr-Newman black hole (BH) solution is investigated. For large angular momentum, $|a|>>m$, the BH horizons disappear exposing a naked ringlike source which is a circular relativistic string. It was shown recently that electromagnetic excitations of this string lead to the appearance of an extra axial stringy system which consists of two half-infinite strings of opposite chirality. In this paper we consider the relation of this stringy system to the Dirac equation. We also show that the axial strings are the Witten superconducting strings and describe their structure by the Higgs field model where the Higgs condensate is used to regularize axial singularity. We argue that this axial stringy system may play the role of a classical carrier of the wave function.

  8. Open-Axial-Field Magnet at ISR intersection I8

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This axial field spectrometer left the central collision region unobstructed in order to ease analysis of secondary particles emitted at large angle. The ISR circulating beams were passing through a hole in the magnet poles.

  9. Axial mesodermal dysplasia complex: a new case with parental consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, C R; Azevedo, M; Rocha, G; Manuela, F; Coelho, R; Lima, M R

    2000-01-01

    A female is described with axial mesodermal dysplasia complex (AMDC) born to a consanguineous couple. This is thought to be the first description of a patient with AMDC born to consanguineous parents.

  10. Axial Anomaly in Lattice Abelian Gauge Theory in Arbitrary Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, T; Wu, K; Fujiwara, Takanori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Wu, Ke

    1999-01-01

    Axial anomaly of lattice abelian gauge theory in hyper-cubic regular lattice in arbitrary even dimensions is investigated by applying the method of exterior differential calculus. The topological invariance, gauge invariance and locality of the axial anomaly determine the explicit form of the topological part. The anomaly is obtained up to a multiplicative constant for finite lattice spacing and can be interpreted as the Chern character of the abelian lattice gauge theory.

  11. Axially astigmatic surfaces: different types and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacara-Doblado, Daniel; Malacara-Hernandez, Daniel; Garcia-Marquez, Jorge L.

    1996-12-01

    Axially astigmatic surfaces have different curvatures in orthogonal diameters. Toroidal and spherocylindrical optical surfaces are two mathematically different special cases of axially astigmatic surfaces as noted by Menchaca and Malacara (1986), but they are almost identical in the vicinity of the optical axis. The different between these two surfaces increases when the distance to the optical axis increases. We study the general properties of astigmatic surfaces and some special interesting cases.

  12. Testing of Axially Loaded Bucket Foundation with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    This report analyses laboratory testing data performed with a bucket foundation model subjected to axial loading. The examinations were conducted at the Geotechnical laboratory of Aalborg University. The report aims at showing and discussing the results of the static and cyclic axial loading tests...... on the bucket foundation model. Finally, a cyclic loading interaction diagram is given that can be applied for a full-scale bucket foundation design....

  13. Watson's theorem and the $N\\Delta(1232)$ axial transition

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Nieves, J; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We present a new determination of the $N\\Delta$ axial form factors from neutrino induced pion production data. For this purpose, the model of Hernandez et al., Phys. Rev. D76, 033005 (2007) is improved by partially restoring unitarity. This is accomplished by imposing Watson's theorem on the dominant vector and axial multipoles. As a consequence, a larger $C_5^A(0)$, in good agreement with the prediction from the off-diagonal Goldberger-Treiman relation, is now obtained.

  14. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the ...

  15. Axially symmetric volume constrained anisotropic mean curvature flow

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Bennett

    2011-01-01

    We study the long time existence theory for a non local flow associated to a free boundary problem for a trapped non liquid drop. The drop has free boundary components on two horizontal plates and its free energy is anisotropic and axially symmetric. For axially symmetric initial surfaces with sufficiently large volume, we show that the flow exists for all time. Numerical simulations of the curvature flow are presented.

  16. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  17. Comparison of rates of referral and diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis before and after an ankylosing spondylitis public awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew A; Badenhorst, Christoffel; Kirby, Sandra; White, Douglas; Athens, Josie; Stebbings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research is to measure the effect of a national ankylosing spondylitis (AS) public awareness campaign on numbers of referrals for suspected AS and numbers of cases diagnosed with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). A television advertising campaign was conducted by Arthritis New Zealand in 2011 to raise public awareness of AS. A retrospective analysis was made of referrals received by the three rheumatology services 3 months before the campaign started and 3 months after the campaign ended. The age, gender, number of referrals for suspected AS and number of referrals resulting in a diagnosis of axial SpA were recorded. Independent analysis showed that the awareness campaign reached 82 % of the primary target audience. In the 3 months after the awareness campaign, there was a significant increase in referrals for suspected AS compared with the 3 months before the campaign (54 vs. 88, 63 %, p = 0.0056). Referrals for other conditions did not change. The number of referrals resulting in a diagnosis of axial SpA also increased (27 vs. 44, 63 %, p = 0.0576). The mean ages of the patients referred and of those diagnosed with axial SpA did not change. The male/female ratio was 1:1 among the referrals for suspected AS and 2:1 in referrals diagnosed with axial SpA, before and after the campaign. The Arthritis New Zealand AS public awareness campaign was associated with a significant increase in referrals to rheumatology services for suspected AS and an increase in the diagnosis of axial SpA in clinics.

  18. Slow axial drift in three-dimensional granular tumbler flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Zafir; D'Ortona, Umberto; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-07-01

    Models of monodisperse particle flow in partially filled three-dimensional tumblers often assume that flow along the axis of rotation is negligible. We test this assumption, for spherical and double cone tumblers, using experiments and discrete element method simulations. Cross sections through the particle bed of a spherical tumbler show that, after a few rotations, a colored band of particles initially perpendicular to the axis of rotation deforms: particles near the surface drift toward the pole, while particles deeper in the flowing layer drift toward the equator. Tracking of mm-sized surface particles in tumblers with diameters of 8-14 cm shows particle axial displacements of one to two particle diameters, corresponding to axial drift that is 1-3% of the tumbler diameter, per pass through the flowing layer. The surface axial drift in both double cone and spherical tumblers is zero at the equator, increases moving away from the equator, and then decreases near the poles. Comparing results for the two tumbler geometries shows that wall slope causes axial drift, while drift speed increases with equatorial diameter. The dependence of axial drift on axial position for each tumbler geometry is similar when both are normalized by their respective maximum values.

  19. Axial scanning in confocal microscopy employing adaptive lenses (CAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Nektarios; Finkeldey, Markus; Stürmer, Moritz; Leithold, Christoph; Gerhardt, Nils C; Hofmann, Martin R; Wallrabe, Ulrike; Czarske, Jürgen W; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-03-10

    In this paper we analyze the capability of adaptive lenses to replace mechanical axial scanning in confocal microscopy. The adaptive approach promises to achieve high scan rates in a rather simple implementation. This may open up new applications in biomedical imaging or surface analysis in micro- and nanoelectronics, where currently the axial scan rates and the flexibility at the scan process are the limiting factors. The results show that fast and adaptive axial scanning is possible using electrically tunable lenses but the performance degrades during the scan. This is due to defocus and spherical aberrations introduced to the system by tuning of the adaptive lens. These detune the observation plane away from the best focus which strongly deteriorates the axial resolution by a factor of ~2.4. Introducing balancing aberrations allows addressing these influences. The presented approach is based on the employment of a second adaptive lens, located in the detection path. It enables shifting the observation plane back to the best focus position and thus creating axial scans with homogeneous axial resolution. We present simulated and experimental proof-of-principle results.

  20. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  1. Axial blanket for 16NGF Angra 1 fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadde, Luciano Martins; Faria, Eduardo Fernandes [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sadde@inb.gov.br; faria@inb.gov.br; Sang-Keun You [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. (KNFC), Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: skyou@knfc.co.kr

    2007-07-01

    Angra-1, Kori-2 and Krsko are nuclear power plants with the same design. However, the fuel assemblies have some differences in design due to the countries strategies and the differences in the fabrication process. The 16NGF (16x16 Next Generation Fuel) was developed by INB, KNFC and Westinghouse in order to be used in these three nuclear power plants and the 'Axial Blanket' is one of the new features for the 16NGF design. The main purpose of the Axial Blanket Optimization study is to determine which axial blanket enrichment and length would provide the better fuel cycle cost benefit. All of the calculations were performed using Gadolinium as Burnable Absorber and solid pellets type for Axial Blanket. The results indicate 1.8 w/o U235 enrichment and 8 inches length as the best option of Axial Blanket from the fuel cycle cost benefit standpoint. The economy is about 1.8%. The difference in the reload cost in the range between 1.5 and 2.6 w/o U235 enrichment and for the 6 and 8 inches length is not so significant. Due that, from the Fq limit standpoint and also for longer cycle length requirements, a higher axial blanket enrichment (2.6 w/o) and shorter length (6 inches) is recommended. (author)

  2. Axial design of nuclear fuel using path relinking; Diseno axial de combustible nuclear utilizando path relinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, A.; Torres, M.; Ortiz, J. J.; Perusquia, R.; Hernandez, J. L.; Montes, J. L. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In the present work the preliminary results were obtained with the zoctli system whose purpose is the axial design of assembly of nuclear fuel under certain considerations. For the mentioned design well-know cells were already used and that they have been proven in diverse cycles of operation in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The design contemplates fuels assemblies of 10x10 and with 2 water channels. The assembly was distributed in 6 axial zones according to its structure. In order to take to end the optimization is was used the well-known technique like Path relinking and to find the group of previous solutions required by this technique uses the technical Taboo search. In order to work with Path relinking, 5 trajectories was taken in to account from a set of 5 previous solutions generated with theTaboo search, the update of the group of solutions is carried out in dynamic form. In the case of the Taboo search it was used a list of variable size, it was implement an aspiration approach, it was used the vector of frequencies and due to the cost of the evaluation of the objective function, only it was review 5% of the vicinity. For the objective function was considered the limit thermal, the axial profile of power, the effective multiplication factor and the margin of having turned off in cold. In order to prove the design system, it was used a balance cycle with a value of reference of 0.9928 for the effective multiplication factor that is equivalent to a produced energy of 10896 MWd/TU at the end of operation to full power. The designed assemblies were placed both in one of lots different from fresh assemblies on which it counts the referred cycle. At the end one a comparison with the results obtained with other techniques and under similar conditions is made. The results obtained until the moment show an appropriate performance of the system. It is possible to indicate that a small inconvenient is the amount of consumed resources of calculation during

  3. Disturbances in the afflux of aerodynamically highly stressed axial blowers. Stoerungen in der Zustroemung von aerodynamisch hochbelasteten Axialventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosyna, G.; Krasmann, H. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig, Pfleiderer-Inst. fuer Stroemungsmaschinen (Germany))

    1992-08-01

    When installing blowers, it is not always possible to ensure an optimum fluidic afflux, which can thus produce a change in the operating behaviour compared with the design. Using as an example an axial blower blade with small hub ratio and high aerodynamic blade load, under simulated non-rotation symmetrical allflux conditions, it was possible to show that with the examined distrubance configuration no extreme worsening was produced with regard to the achievable pressure increases and efficiencies of the blower stage. (orig.).

  4. Behavior of sandwich panels subjected to bending fatigue, axial compression loading and in-plane bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Haley Aaron

    This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels

  5. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  6. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  7. Proposal of an Axial Gap Magnetic Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Muramatsu, Masari

    Magnetic gears have some benefits such as low noise, low vibration, and they are maintenance free as opposed to mechanical gears. In the view of these advantages, some high-performance magnetic gears have been proposed; however, these gears have a complex structure because they require several magnets. In this paper, we propose a new magnetic gear with a high reduction ratio comprising only two magnets. From the result of 3D-FE analysis, it was found that our model generated large transmitted torque and less cogging torque despite its thin compact size. This result shows the possibility of the application of the proposed gear in various industries.

  8. Twin axial vortices generated by Fibonacci lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Arnau; Ferrando, Vicente; Remón, Laura; Furlan, Walter D; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2013-04-22

    Optical vortex beams, generated by Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs), are capable of creating optical traps and other multi-functional micromanipulators for very specific tasks in the microscopic scale. Using the Fibonacci sequence, we have discovered a new family of DOEs that inherently behave as bifocal vortex lenses, and where the ratio of the two focal distances approaches the golden mean. The disctintive optical properties of these Fibonacci vortex lenses are experimentally demonstrated. We believe that the versatility and potential scalability of these lenses may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  9. Investigation of axial power gradients near a control rod tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loberg, John, E-mail: John.Loberg@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Osterlund, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Osterlund@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan, E-mail: Klaes-Hakan.Bejmer@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Blomgren@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Kierkegaard, Jesper, E-mail: Jesper.Kierkegaar@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Pin power gradients near BWR control rod tips have been investigated. > A control rod tip is modeled in MCNP and compared to simplified 2D/3D geometry. > Small nodes increases pin power gradients; standard nodes underestimates gradients. > The MCNP results are validated against axial gamma scan of a controlled fuel pin. - Abstract: Control rod withdrawal in BWRs induces large power steps in the adjacent fuel assemblies. This paper investigates how well a 2D/3D method, e.g., CASMO5/SIMULATE5 computes axial pin power gradients adjacent to an asymmetrical control-rod tip in a BWR. The ability to predict pin power gradients accurately is important for safety considerations whereas large powers steps induced by control rod withdrawal can cause Pellet Cladding Interaction. The computation of axial pin power gradients axially around a control rod tip is a challenging task for any nodal code. On top of that, asymmetrical control rod handles are present in some BWR designs. The lattice code CASMO requires diagonal symmetry of all control rod parts. This introduces an error in computed pin power gradients that has been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The results show that CASMO5/SIMULATE5, despite the asymmetrical control rod handle, is able to predict the axial pin power gradient within 1%/cm for axial nodal sizes of 15-3.68 cm. However, a nodal size of 3.68 cm still causes underestimations of pin power gradients compared with 1 cm nodes. Furthermore, if conventional node sizes are used, {approx}15 cm, pin power gradients can be underestimated by over 50% compared with 1 cm nodes. The detailed axial pin power profiles from MCNP are corroborated by measured gamma scan data on fuel rods irradiated adjacent to control rods.

  10. Radiation dose in computed tomography of the pelvis: comparison of helical and axial scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, A G; Budd, R S; McKenzie, A F

    1997-11-01

    An anthropomorphic Rando phantom was used to compare radiation doses sustained during helical and conventional axial CT of the pelvis. The values obtained with the Rando phantom were validated against cadaveric phantoms, and show good agreement. For the authors' particular CT unit, helical scanning was found to deliver a lower radiation dose than conventional axial scanning. This was most prominent at 1.0-s tube rotation times (average dose ratio 1.24). For realistic scanning parameters and exposure factors, the ratio of radiation dose to pelvic organs can be expected to lie in the range of 40-100 mGy. The whole-body effective dose (ED) depends on selection of scanning parameters and patients anatomy. In a favourable case scenario, the ED for CT scanning of the pelvis in a male can be expected to be between 10 and 20 mSv if the scrotum is not included in the radiation field, while the ED in a female will be approximately 20 mSv. An examination of scatter radiation fall-off curves from a single slice shows that the spread of scatter radiation is only marginally affected by slice thickness. A total of 10-12 cm of human soft tissue acts as a good barrier against internal scattered radiation. The use of such scatter fall-off curves, together with manufacturers' dosimetry specifications, allows a fast estimate of absorbed dose.

  11. Operating characteristics of heavy loaded cylindrical journal bearing with variable axial profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Strzelecki

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of turbounit its bearings displace as a result of heat elongation of bearings supports. It changes the static deflection line of rotor determined during assembly of the turbounit, causing an increase in the stresses on the bearing edges and a decrease in the dynamic state of the machine. One of possibilities to avoid the edge stresses is to apply the bearings with variable axial profile, e.g. hyperboloidal, convex profile in the axial cross-section of bearing. Application of journal bearings with hyperboloidal profile allows to extend the bearing operation range without the stress concentration on the edges of bush. These bearings successfully carry the extreme load in conditions of misaligned axis of journal and the bush eliminating the necessity of using self-aligning bearings. Operating characteristics of bearing include the resulting force, attitude angle, oil film pressure and temperature distributions, minimum oil film thickness, maximum oil film temperature. In literature there is a lack of data on the operating characteristics of heavy loaded hyperboloidal journal bearings operating at the conditions of adiabatic oil film and static equilibrium position of the journal. For the hyperboloidal bearing the operating characteristics have been obtained. Different values of length to diameter ratio, assumed shape and inclination ratio coefficients have been assumed. Iterative solution of the Reynolds', energy and viscosity equations was applied. Adiabatic oil film, laminar flow in the bearing gap as well as aligned and misaligned orientation of journal in the bush were considered.

  12. Parametric analysis of thermal effect on hydrostatic slipper bearing capacity of axial piston pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤何胜; 訚耀保; 张阳; 李晶

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic slipper was often used in friction bearing design, allowing improvement of the latter’s dynamic behavior. The influence of thermal effect on hydrostatic slipper bearing capacity of axial piston pump was investigated. A set of lumped parameter mathematical models were developed based on energy conservation law of slipper/ swash plate pair. The results show that thermal equilibrium clearance due to solid thermal deformation periodically changes with shaft rotational angle. The slipper bearing capacity increases dramatically with decreasing thermal equilibrium clearance. In order to improve the slipper bearing capacity, length-to-diameter ratio of fixed damper varies from 3.5 to 8.75 and radius ratio of slipper varies from 1.5 to 2.0. In addition, the higher slipper thermal conductivity is useful to improve slipper bearing capability, but the thermal equilibrium clearance is not compromised.

  13. Existence of axisymmetric modes of thin cylindrical shells with axial displacement restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, M.

    1981-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the existence of the axisymmetric mode of cylindrical shells with a radial displacement having one half wave along the axis and axial displacement restrained at both ends. The condition is purely geometric and consists of an upper bound on the mean radius of thickness ratio for a given fixed value of the length to mean radius ratio, above which the mode with one half wave in radial displacement along the axis ceases to exist. The proof is based on enforcing two basic lemmas concerned with the simplicity of the eigenvalues of the shell and the uniform ordering of these eigenvalues with the number of nodes of their corresponding radial displacement eigenfunctions.

  14. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Axial and Diametral Scanning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Blackadder, W.H.; Ronqvist, N.

    1967-02-15

    In the gamma spectrometric determination of burn-up the use of a single fission product as a monitor of the specimen fission rate is subject to errors caused by activity saturation or, in certain cases, fission product migration. Results are presented of experiments in which all the resolvable gamma peaks in the fission product spectrum have been used to calculate the fission rate; these results form a pattern which reflect errors in the literature values of the gamma branching ratios, fission yields etc., and also represent a series of empirical correction factors. Axial and diametral scanning experiments on a long-irradiated low-enrichment fuel element are also described and demonstrate that it is possible to differentiate between fissions in U-235 and in Pu-239 respectively by means of the ratios of the Ru-106 activity to the activities of the other fission products.

  15. Mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaobi; Chen, Jian Yun; Xu, Qiang; Li, Jing [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2015-08-15

    In order to analyze the mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading, a finite element model based on the nuclear power plant containments is demonstrated. This model takes into account the influences of different principal stress directions, the uniaxial or biaxial loading, and biaxial loading ratio. The displacement-controlled load is applied to obtain the stress-strain response. The simulated results indicate that the differences of principal stress axes have great effects on the stress-strain response under uniaxial loading. When the specimens are subjected to biaxial loading, the change trend of stress with the increase of loading ratio is obviously different along different layout directions. In addition, correlation experiments and finite element analyses were conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the analysis in this study.

  16. Axial length as a risk factor to branch retinal vein occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, EA; deLavalette, VWR; vandenBrom, HJB

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether axial length is a factor in branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Axial length measurements in a group of 24 patients with a unilateral branch retinal Vein occlusion were compared with the axial length measurements in a control group. axial length measurements were ta

  17. Calculation of the heavy-hadron axial couplings g1, g2, and g3 using lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will Detmold, David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-06-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1109.2480] we have reported on a lattice QCD calculation of the heavy-hadron axial couplings g{sub 1}, g{sub 2}, and g{sub 3}. These quantities are low-energy constants of heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory (HH{chi}PT) and are related to the B*B{pi}, {Sigma}{sub b}*{Sigma}{sub b}{pi}, and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)}{Lambda}{sub b}{pi} couplings. In the following, we discuss important details of the calculation and give further results. To determine the axial couplings, we explicitly match the matrix elements of the axial current in QCD with the corresponding matrix elements in HH{chi}PT. We construct the ratios of correlation functions used to calculate the matrix elements in lattice QCD, and study the contributions from excited states. We present the complete numerical results and discuss the data analysis in depth. In particular, we demonstrate the convergence of SU(4|2) HH{chi}PT for the axial current matrix elements at pion masses up to about 400 MeV and show the impact of the nonanalytic loop contributions. Finally, we present additional predictions for strong and radiative decay widths of charm and bottom baryons.

  18. Comparison of automated 4-chamber cardiac views versus axial views for measuring right ventricular enlargement in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittenberg, R.; Vliet, J.W. van; Ghaye, B.; Peters, J.F.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.; Coche, E.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Compare the right ventricle to left ventricle (RV/LV) diameter ratio obtained from axial pulmonary CT angiograms (CTPA) with those derived from automatically generated 4-chamber (4-CH) reformats in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: In this institutional review board-

  19. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  20. Gender Ratio in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)

  1. Modulating thermal conduction by the axial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianjun; Zhao, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the symmetry of interparticle potential plays an important role in the one-dimensional thermal conduction problem. Here we demonstrate that, by introducing strain into the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β lattice, the interparticle potential can be converted from symmetric to asymmetric, which leads to a change of the asymptotic decaying behavior of the heat current autocorrelation function. More specifically, such a change in the symmetry of the potential induces a fast decaying stage, in which the heat current autocorrelation function decays faster than power-law manners or in a power-law manner but faster than ~t -1, in the transient stage. The duration of the fast decaying stage increases with increasing strain ratio and decreasing of the temperature. As a result, the thermal conductivity calculated following the Green-Kubo formula may show a truncation-time independent behavior, suggesting a system-size independent thermal conductivity.

  2. Axial power monitor rod issues and resolution for K-14.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, T.C.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Wooten, L.A. [eds.; Andre, S.K.; Apperson, C.E.; Bailey, M.H.; Bell, D.L.; Clare, G.H.; Collins, S.L.; Croft, W.D.; Edwards, T.B.; Geiger, G.T.; Harris, S.P.; Lietzow, J.L.; McCulloch, R.W.; McFarlane, A.F.; Randolph, H.W.; Reed, R.L.; Reeve, C.P.; Revolinski, S.M.; Sessions, H.T.; Shine, E.P.; Smith, T.A.; Sossman, C.L.; Taylor, J.J.; Weber, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    A recent concern arose over the treatment of uncertainty associated with the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs). There are nine axial power monitor rods located at various positions in the K-Reactor core. By comparing the output of one sensor near the top of the rod to the output of another sensor near the bottom of the rod, the relative ratio of the neutron flux from the top to the bottom of the core can be determined. This ratio is called the roof-top-ratio (RTR) and is the output of a top sensor (Sensor 2) divided by the output of a bottom sensor (Sensor 6). The RTR is important to the safety analyses because when the RTR is maintained within certain ranges, the severity of reactivity transients is limited. There are uncertainties associated with the equipment`s ability to measure the true roof top ratio. It was determined recently that sufficient uncertainty was not accounted for either in reactor operation or in the safety analyses. The concern about uncertainty was addressed for three separate issues. One issue dear with the linear response of the sensors for power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. The second issue dear with overall uncertainty in the RTR channel. The third issue dear with apparent large ranges in confidence bands for the RTR at low reactor powers as represented by original vendor data. Plots of sparse vendor data indicated unacceptably large uncertainties in RTR would have to be accounted for at the power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. These concerns were brought to management`s attention through the existing procedures for notification, irrespective of their potential impact on the restart schedule. Analyses have been completed to resolve the APM issues described above, and work is progressing to take the needed steps to change operational procedures.

  3. Development and Testing of an Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic thrust bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help to reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical systems, computer memory systems, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.

  4. Design and Simulation of Axial Flow Maglev Blood Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huachun Wu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The axial flow maglev blood pump (AFMBP has become a global research focus and emphasis for artificial ventricular assist device, which has no mechanical contact, mechanical friction, compact structure and light weight, can effectively solve thrombus and hemolysis. Magnetic suspension and impeller is two of the important parts in the axial flow maglev blood pump, and their structure largely determines the blood pump performance. The research adopts electromagnetic and fluid finite element analysis, and puts forward a method to design the magnetic suspension and impeller of axial flow blood pump, which tacks into account the small volume of axial blood pump. The magnetic bearing’s characteristics are evaluated by electromagnetic finite element analysis. The Blades have been designed by calculating aerofoil bone line, and make simulation analysis for different thicken ways of blade by Fluent software, and make a conclusion that the blade thickened with certain rules has better characteristics in the same conditions. The results will provide some guidance for design of axial flow maglev blood pump, and establish theoretical basis for application of the implantable artificial heart pump.

  5. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Yonatan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevan...

  6. Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.

  7. Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, T.A.

    1987-03-31

    A method is described for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies, each body presenting an annular abutment surface. The respective bodies are arranged so that their respective annular abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another, defining a space therebetween, wherein a deformable gasket is disposed within the space. The method comprises: providing one of the bodies with an annular projection; providing the other body with threads for receiving an annular locknut which can be tightened to bear against the annular projection of the one body; applying an external axial forced to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies; immobilizing the bodies relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies by hand-tightening an annular locknut via the threads of the other body until the locknut abuts the annular projection of the one body, substantially preventing relative axial movement between the bodies when the external axial force is withdrawn; and withdrawing the external axial force applied to the bodies, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal.

  8. An Axial-Vector Photon in a Mirror World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-03-01

    The unity of symmetry laws emphasizes, in the case of a mirror CP-even Dirac Lagrangian, the ideas of the left- and right-handed axial-vector photons referring to long- and short-lived bosons of true neutrality, respectively. Such a difference in lifetimes expresses the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of axial-vector photons of the different components. They define the unified field theory equation of C-odd particles with an integral spin. Together with a new equation of a theory of truly neutral particles with the half-integral spin, the latter reflects the availability in their nature of the second type of the local axial-vector gauge transformation responsible for origination in the Lagrangian of C-oddity of an interaction Newton component giving an axial-vector mass to all the interacting particles and fields. The mirror axial-vector mass, energy and momentum operators constitute a CP-invariant equation of quantum mechanics, confirming that each of them can individually influence on matter field. Thereby, findings suggest at the level of the mass-charge structure of gauge invariance a new equation for the C-noninvariant Lagrangian.

  9. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Yonatan [Princeton U.; Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Princeton U.; Tait, Tim P. [UC, Irvine

    2016-09-28

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in pi^0 and 8-Be* decay.

  10. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-12-14

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  11. An Axial Vector Photon in a Mirror World

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2015-01-01

    The unity of symmetry laws emphasizes, in the case of a mirror CP-even Dirac Lagrangian, the ideas of the left- and right-handed axial-vector photons referring to long- and short-lived bosons of true neutrality, respectively. Such a difference in lifetimes expresses the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of axial-vector photons of the different components. They define the unified field theory equation of C-odd particles with an integral spin. Together with a new equation of a theory of truly neutral particles with the half-integral spin, the latter reflects the availability in their nature of the second type of the local axial-vector gauge transformation responsible for origination in the Lagrangian of C-oddity of an interaction Newton component giving an axial-vector mass to all the interacting particles and fields. The mirror axial-vector mass, energy and momentum operators constitute a CP-invariant equation of quantum mechanics, confirming that each of them can individually influence on matter ...

  12. Simultaneous Adjustment of Size and Helical Sense of Chiral Nanospheres and Nanotubes Derived from an Axially Racemic Poly(phenylacetylene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Sandra; Núñez-Martínez, Manuel; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo; Freire, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Nanospheres and nanotubes with full control of their size and helical sense are obtained in chloroform from the axially racemic chiral poly(phenylacetylene) poly-(R)-1 using either Ag(+) as both chiral inducer and cross-linking agent or Na(+) as chiral inducer and Ag(+) as cross-linking agent. The size is tuned by the polymer/ion ratio while the helical sense is modulated by the polymer/cosolvent (i.e., MeCN) ratio. In this way, the helicity and the size of the nanoparticles can be easily interconverted by very simple experimental changes.

  13. Dynamic Behaviours of a Single Soft Rock-Socketed Shaft Subjected to Axial Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-jiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft rock was simulated by cement, plaster, sand, water, and concrete hardening accelerator in this paper. Meanwhile, uniaxial compressive strength tests and triaxial compression tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of simulated soft rock samples. Model tests on a single pile socketed in simulated soft rock under axial cyclic loading were conducted by using a device which combined test apparatus with a GCTS dynamic triaxial system. Test results show that the optimal mix ratio is cement : plaster : medium sand : water : concrete hardening accelerator = 4.5% : 5.0% : 84.71% : 4.75% : 1.04%. The static load ratio (SLR, cyclic load ratio (CLR, and the number of cycles affect the accumulated deformation and cyclic secant modulus of the pile head. The accumulated deformation increases with increasing numbers of cycles. However, the cyclic secant modulus of pile head increases and then decreases with the growth in the number of cycles and finally remains stable after 50 cycles. According to the test results, the development of accumulated settlement was analysed. Finally, an empirical formula for accumulated settlement, considering the effects of the number of cycles, the static load ratio, the cyclic load ratio, and the uniaxial compressive strength, is proposed which can be used for feasibility studies or preliminary design of pile foundations on soft rock subjected to traffic loading.

  14. Dynamic Behavior of Axially Functionally Graded Pipes Conveying Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of axially functionally graded (FG pipes conveying fluid was investigated numerically by using the generalized integral transform technique (GITT. The transverse vibration equation was integral transformed into a coupled system of second-order differential equations in the temporal variable. The Mathematica’s built-in function, NDSolve, was employed to numerically solve the resulting transformed ODE system. Excellent convergence of the proposed eigenfunction expansions was demonstrated for calculating the transverse displacement at various points of axially FG pipes conveying fluid. The proposed approach was verified by comparing the obtained results with the available solutions reported in the literature. Moreover, parametric studies were performed to analyze the effects of Young’s modulus variation, material distribution, and flow velocity on the dynamic behavior of axially FG pipes conveying fluid.

  15. Liquid Axial Mixing in Packed Tower at Elevated Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠利; 张鹏; 等

    2003-01-01

    Liquid phase axial mixing was measured with the tracer technique in a packed column with inner diameter of 0.15m,in which the structured packing,Mellapak 350Y,was installed.Tap water as the liquid phase flowed down through the column and stagnant gas was at elevated pressure ranging from atmospheric to 2.0MPa.The model parameters of Bo andθwere estimated with the least square method in the time domain.As liquid flow rate was increased,the liquid axial mixing decreased.under our experimental conditions,the effect of pressure on Bo number on single liquid phase was negligible,and eddy diffusion was believed to be the primary cause of axial mixing in liquid phase.

  16. Unsteady cooperative flow type in the axial compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xinqian; ZHOU Sheng; HOU Anping; XIONG Jinsong

    2005-01-01

    For increasing the performance of the axial compressor, a method for realizing unsteady cooperative flow type is proposed in this paper as a critical objective in the new generation of the axial compressor design system. Unsteady excitations were utilized to trigger the transformation from the unsteady natural flow pattern into the unsteady cooperative flow pattern, resulting in increment of aerodynamic performances of axial compressor. Numerical simulations show that distinct positive effect can be obtained for the 2D cascade in a wide range of subsonic working conditions. No positive effect can be observed under the 2D supersonic working conditions and unsteady excitations have little influence on the flow field space-time structure. However, positive effect can be obtained under the 3D transsonic working conditions. In addition, engineering applications of unsteady cooperative flow type are discussed.

  17. Investigation of Aluminum-Copper Tube Hydroforming with Axial Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto D., M.; Seyedkashi, S. M. H.; Liaghat, Gh.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Panahizadeh R., V.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroforming of a two-layered Aluminum-Copper tube is investigated numerically and experimentally. Pressure is applied through a nonlinear path along with symmetrical axial feeding. ABAQUS/Explicit commercial code is used for finite element simulation of the process. ASTM C11000 Copper alloy is used as inner layer and ASTM AA1050A Aluminum alloy is used as outer layer. The simulation results show that the part can be successfully formed under internal pressure of 40 MPa with 8 mm axial displacement. Stress distributions on both inner and outer tubes are compared and maximum thinning on their wall is also discussed. Different friction conditions are applied on the process using different coefficients of friction and their effects are investigated on thinning percentage of inner and outer tubes and also on axial feeding. It is observed that finite element results are in good agreement with experimental results.

  18. Numerical analysis of cavitation within slanted axial-flow pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 陈红勋

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the cavitating flow within a slanted axial-flow pump is numerically researched. The hydraulic and cavitation performance of the slanted axial-flow pump under different operation conditions are estimated. Compared with the experimental hydraulic performance curves, the numerical results show that the filter-based model is better than the standard k-e model to predict the parameters of hydraulic performance. In cavitation simulation, compared with the experimental results, the proposed numerical method has good predicting ability. Under different cavitation conditions, the internal cavitating flow fields within slanted axial-flow pump are investigated. Compared with flow visualization results, the major internal flow features can be effectively grasped. In order to explore the origin of the cavitation performance breakdown, the Boundary Vorticity Flux (BVF) is introduced to diagnose the cavitating flow fields. The analysis results indicate that the cavitation performance drop is relevant to the instability of cavitating flow on the blade suction surface.

  19. Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals

    CERN Document Server

    Gissinger, Christophe; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in presence of an heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m = 0 axial dipolar field is replaced by an hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m = 1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of the Earth's dynamo.

  20. Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissinger, Christophe; Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2012-06-08

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in the presence of heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m=0 axial dipolar field is replaced by a hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m=1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of Earth's dynamo.

  1. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population's economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human...... Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use.RESULTS: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds...

  2. Prediction of secular acceleration of axial rotation of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    axial rotation which as it would be possible to expect, essentially surpasses the similar characteristic of rotation of the Earth. The obtained result means, that angular velocity of Mars in present period increases on the law r = (0.708821808000+ 0.000000001038×t) × 10-4 1/s, here t - in years. It is possible assume that the estimation of acceleration can be obtained directly on the basis of the data of observations in the nearest years. Velocity of secular change of duration of day for Mars (LOD) thus can make significant value about -0.0903 ms/yr, that considerably surpasses similar value for non-tidal acceleration of the Earth (-0.006 ms/yr). The ratio of positive acceleration of the Earth rotation ṙ to its angular velocity ? makes ṙ•? = (6.9± 1.7) × 10-11 1/yr[7]. In case of Mars the estimation of acceleration was carried out under the formula [8]: ṙ/ ? = -Ċ• C -á¹ °• G ?-Ċ• C = 103.8 × 10-11 1/yr. We here have neglected by an influence of secular change of the axial angular momentum of fluid masses (atmospheric and underground) of Marsá¹ °. As shown in other my report on EGU GA 2009 in case of the Earth the total angular momentum of fluids really is small and within the limits of mistakes can be accepted equal to zero. In the case of Mars we the same as and in case of the Earth, expect of secular change of the angular momentum of Mars and change of global superrotation of its atmosphere which, at least, in part, will be compensated by the angular momentum of fluids. Thus, expected non-tidal acceleration of axial rotation of Mars can be at 10-15 times more those, but observably by astronomical methods, for the Earth. Certainly, the estimations obtained here are preliminary and the phenomena discussed here require more detailed studying with using of new data of precision observations. First of all it is important to obtain the specified values of secular variations ˙ J2 and ˙ J3. In case of the Earth the tidal deceleration

  3. Regional brain axial and radial diffusivity changes during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nguyen, Haidang D; Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2012-02-01

    The developing human brain shows rapid myelination and axonal changes during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, requiring successive evaluations to determine normative values for potential pathological assessment. Fiber characteristics can be examined by axial and radial diffusivity procedures, which measure water diffusion parallel and perpendicular to axons and show primarily axonal status and myelin changes, respectively. Such measures are lacking from widespread sites for the developing brain. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired from 30 healthy subjects (age 17.7 ± 4.6 years, range 8-24 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), 18 males) using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Diffusion tensors were calculated, principal eigenvalues determined, and axial and radial diffusivity maps calculated and normalized to a common space. A set of regions of interest was outlined from widespread brain areas within rostral, thalamic, hypothalamic, cerebellar, and pontine regions, and average diffusivity values were calculated using normalized diffusivity maps and these regions of interest masks. Age-related changes were assessed with Pearson's correlations, and gender differences evaluated with Student's t-tests. Axial and radial diffusivity values declined with age in the majority of brain areas, except for midhippocampus, where axial diffusivity values correlated positively with age. Gender differences emerged within putamen, thalamic, hypothalamic, cerebellar, limbic, temporal, and other cortical sites. Documentation of normal axial and radial diffusivity values will help assess disease-related tissue changes. Axial and radial diffusivities change with age,with fiber structure and organization differing between sexes in several brain areas. The findings may underlie gender-based functional characteristics, and mandate partitioning age- and gender-related changes during developmental brain pathology evaluation.

  4. The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-12-01

    An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer

  5. Recent Results on High-Pressure Axial Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, B.

    1947-01-01

    Considerable progress has, in recent times, been attained in the development of the high-pressure axial blower by well-planned research. The efforts are directed toward improving the efficiencies, which are already high for the axial blower, and in particular the delivery pressure heads. For high pressures multistage arrangements are used. Of fundamental importance is the careful design of all structural parts of the blower that are subject to the effects of the flow. In the present report, several recent results and experiences are reported, which are based on results of German engine research.

  6. The seismic design of axial blower using Ansys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hyung Bin; Kim, Kang Sung; Heo, Jin Wook; Chung, Jin Tai [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The seismic design for an axial blower is the procedure in which the Required Response Spectrum(RRS) is computed by using the Floor Response Spectrum(FRS). The seismic design is very important to reduce severe damages from an earthquake; therefore, the seismic design has been a great concern in engineering society. In this study, after finite element modeling is established by using Ansys, the modal data are obtained such as the natural frequencies, the participation factor, and so on. With these data, the RRS is acquired by a numerical approach. The seismic safety of the axial blower is evaluated.

  7. Fermion decoupling and the axial anomaly on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, H; De, Asit K.

    1999-01-01

    By an explicit calculation of the continuum limit of the triangle graph amplitude in lattice QED we show that in the axial Ward identity the ABJ anomaly exactly cancels the pseudoscalar density term in the limit of infinite fermion mass $m$. The result, a reflection of decoupling of the heavy fermion, provides a convenient framework for computing the flavor-singlet or U(1) axial anomaly in non-Abelian gauge theories on lattice. Our calculations on the lattice are performed using Wilson fermions but the results are general.

  8. Vector and Axial Currents in Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya; Sharpe, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the construction of the vector and axial-vector currents in Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory (WChPT), the low-energy effective theory for lattice QCD with Wilson fermions. We discuss in detail the finite renormalization of the currents that has to be taken into account in order to properly match the currents. We explicitly show that imposing the chiral Ward identities on the currents does, in general, affect the axial-vector current at O(a). As an application of our results we compute the pion decay constant to one loop in the two flavor theory. Our result differs from previously published ones.

  9. Self-collimated axial jets from thin accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tirabassi, Giulio; Carlevaro, Nakia; Benini, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    We show how an appropriate stationary crystalline structure of the magnetic field can induce a partial fragmentation of the accretion disk, generating an axial jet composed of hot rising plasma twisted in a funnel-like structure by the rotation of the system. The most important feature of the obtained jet is its high degree of collimation, naturally arising from the condition for its existence. The presence of non-zero dissipative effects allows the plasma ejection throughout the axial jet and the predicted values of the accretion rate are in agreement with observations.

  10. An effective theory for QCD with an axial chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, Alexander A; Espriu, Domenec; Planells, Xumeu

    2013-01-01

    We consider the low energy realization of QCD in terms of meson fields when an axial chemical potential is present; a situation that may be relevant in heavy ion collisions. We shall demonstrate that the presence of an axial charge constitutes an explicit source of parity breaking. The eigenstates of strong interactions do not have a definite parity and interactions that would otherwise be forbidden compete with the familiar ones. In this work, we first focus on scalars and pseudoscalars that are described by a generalized linear sigma model; and next, we give some hints on how the Vector Meson Dominance model describes the vector sector.

  11. Instability of Meridional Axial System in f(R) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2015-01-01

    We analyze dynamical instability of non-static reflection axial stellar structure by taking into account generalized Euler's equation in metric $f(R)$ gravity. Such an equation is obtained by contracting Bianchi identities of usual anisotropic and effective stress-energy tensors, which after using radial perturbation technique gives modified collapse equation. In the realm of $R+\\epsilon R^n$ gravity model, we investigate instability constraints at Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We find that instability of meridional axial self-gravitating system depends upon static profile of structure coefficients while $f(R)$ extra curvature terms induce stability to the evolving celestial body.

  12. Spectral analysis in thin tubes with axial heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the 3D-1D asymptotic analysis of the Dirichlet spectral problem associated with an elliptic operator with axial periodic heterogeneities. We extend to the 3D-1D case previous 3D-2D results (see [10]) and we analyze the special case where the scale of thickness is much smaller than the scale of the heterogeneities and the planar coefficient has a unique global minimum in the periodic cell. These results are of great relevance in the comprehension of the wave propagation in nanowires showing axial heterogeneities (see [17]).

  13. Determination of energy loss of 1200 keV deuterons along axial and planar channels of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiei, S.; Lamehi-Rachti, M., E-mail: mlamehi@aeoi.org.ir

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, the energy loss of 1200 keV deuterons along the <1 0 0> and <1 1 0> axes as well as the {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} planes of Si were determined by the simulation of the channeling Rutherford backscattering spectra. The simulation was done by taking two considerations into account: (i) a minimum random component of the beam which enters the sample because of the scattering ions from the surface, (ii) the dechanneling starts at greater penetration depths, x{sub Dech}. Moreover, it was assumed that the dechanneling follows a Gompertz type sigmoidal function with two parameters k and x{sub c} which present the dechanneling rate and range, respectively. The best simulation parameters, penetration depth at which the dechanneling starts, energy loss and dechanneling rate and range, were chosen by using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The experimental results are well reproduced by this simulation. The ratio of channeling energy loss to the random is changed from 0.63 ± 0.02 along the <1 1 0> axial channel to the 0.91 ± 0.02 along the {1 0 0} planar direction. The differences in the energy loss and the dechanneling process along the axial and planar channels are attributed to the potential barrier and the fractional area of each channel blocked by atoms. The ratio of channeling to random energy loss of deuterons along the <1 0 0> axial direction is in agreement with another reference.

  14. Nuclear spin dependent atomic parity violation, nuclear anapole moments, and the hadronic axial neutral current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchiat, C.; Piketty, C.A. (Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique)

    1991-01-01

    Left-right symmetries in atomic transitions, depending upon the nuclear spin, could be a source of information on the neutral hadronic axial current. We show that the relevant electroweak parameter can be extracted from experiment by measuring hyperfine component ratios which do not involve the knowledge of the atomic wave function. In the standard electroweak model, the parity violating electron-nucleus interaction associated with the hadronic axial neutral current is accidently suppressed and, as a consequence, dominated by the electron interaction with the nuclear anapole moment, which describes the effect of the parity violating nuclear forces on the nucleus electromagnetic current. One of our objectives was to identify the various physical mechanisms which determine the size of the nuclear anapole moments. As an important step, we have established a simple relation between the anapole moment and the nuclear spin magnetization. From this relation it follows that the computation of the anapole moment can be reduced to that of one-body operators. The basic tool is a unitary transformation W which eliminates the one-body parity violating potential from the nuclear hamiltonian. A particular attention was paid to nuclear correlation effects. They are treated semi-empirically in the independent pair approximation. The nuclear anapole moments of {sup 85}Rb, {sup 133}Cs, and {sup 209}Bi have been evaluated for three sets of parity violating meson-nucleon coupling constants, taking into account configuration mixing effects in a semi-empirical way. We suggest a possible strategy to disentangle the axial neutral current from the anapole moment contribution. (orig.).

  15. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: what are the similarities and differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2015-01-01

    The development of the axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) classification criteria has had several implications for our understanding of the entire spectrum of spondyloarthritides (SpA). Going beyond the modified New York criteria, which concentrate on conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) for the classification of ankylosing spondylitis, the ASAS criteria add active inflammation of the SIJ as obtained by MRI and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 to classify patients with chronic back pain starting at a young age as axial SpA (axSpA). AxSpA should be considered as one disease that includes AS, the radiographic form, as well as the non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) form. Similarities and differences between these subgroups have been described in 3 studies: 1 local study, 1 national study (German SpA Inception Cohort) and 1 international study mainly conducted to test the efficacy of a tumour necrosis factor α blocker. Most clinical features and assessments of axSpA showed the same prevalence in patients with and without radiographic changes. However, some differences have been observed: the male:female ratio, the proportion of patients with objective signs of inflammation such as bone marrow oedema as detected by MRI, and the proportion of patients with increased levels of C reactive protein were higher in patients with AS. Importantly, these factors have also been identified as prognostic factors for more severe disease in terms of new bone formation. Thus, nr-axSpA may represent an early stage of AS but may also just be an abortive form of a disease which does cause much pain but which may also never lead to structural changes of the axial skeleton. Since the cut-off between nr-axSpA and AS is artificial and unreliable, we think that the term nr-axSpA should not be used for diagnosis but only for classification for historical reasons. PMID:26557375

  16. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: what are the similarities and differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2015-01-01

    The development of the axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) classification criteria has had several implications for our understanding of the entire spectrum of spondyloarthritides (SpA). Going beyond the modified New York criteria, which concentrate on conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) for the classification of ankylosing spondylitis, the ASAS criteria add active inflammation of the SIJ as obtained by MRI and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 to classify patients with chronic back pain starting at a young age as axial SpA (axSpA). AxSpA should be considered as one disease that includes AS, the radiographic form, as well as the non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) form. Similarities and differences between these subgroups have been described in 3 studies: 1 local study, 1 national study (German SpA Inception Cohort) and 1 international study mainly conducted to test the efficacy of a tumour necrosis factor α blocker. Most clinical features and assessments of axSpA showed the same prevalence in patients with and without radiographic changes. However, some differences have been observed: the male:female ratio, the proportion of patients with objective signs of inflammation such as bone marrow oedema as detected by MRI, and the proportion of patients with increased levels of C reactive protein were higher in patients with AS. Importantly, these factors have also been identified as prognostic factors for more severe disease in terms of new bone formation. Thus, nr-axSpA may represent an early stage of AS but may also just be an abortive form of a disease which does cause much pain but which may also never lead to structural changes of the axial skeleton. Since the cut-off between nr-axSpA and AS is artificial and unreliable, we think that the term nr-axSpA should not be used for diagnosis but only for classification for historical reasons.

  17. Dynamic response of the occipito-atlanto-axial (C0-C1-C2) complex in right axial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H; Gilbertson, L G; Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Clark, C R; Patwardhan, A

    1992-05-01

    The torque-angular deformation in right axial rotation until failure of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex subjected to variable loading rate (dynamic) axial torque was characterized using a biaxial MTS system. A special fixture and gear box that permitted right axial rotation of the specimen until failure without imposing any additional constraints were used to obtain the data. The specimens were divided into three groups and tested until failure at three different dynamic loading rates: 50, 100, and 400 degrees/s. A previous study by the authors provided data for quasi-static (4 degrees/s) loading conditions. The torque versus rotation curves can be divided into two straight regions and two transition zones. The plots clearly indicated that at loading rates higher than 4 degrees/s, the specimens became stiffer in the region of steadily increasing resistance prior to failure. The increase in stiffness was maximum at 100 degrees/s. The stiffness decreased somewhat at 400 degrees/s in comparison with 100 degrees/s, but this decrease was not significant. The resulting torque-right axial rotation curves were also examined to estimate the magnitude of maximum resistance (torque) and the corresponding angular rotation value. The average maximum resistance torque increased from 13.6 Nm at 4 degrees/s to 27.8 Nm at 100 degrees/s. The corresponding right angular rotation data (65-78 degrees), however, did not show any significant variation with loading rate. Posttest dissection of the specimens indicated that the type of injury observed was related to the rate of axial loading imposed on a specimen during testing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Experimental testing of axial induction based control strategies for wake control and wind farm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, J.; Sætran, L.

    2016-09-01

    In state-of-the-art wind farms each turbine is controlled individually aiming for optimum turbine power not considering wake effects on downstream turbines. Wind farm control concepts aim for optimizing the overall power output of the farm taking wake interactions between the individual turbines into account. This experimental wind tunnel study investigates axial induction based control concepts. It is examined how the total array efficiency of two in-line model turbines is affected when the upstream turbine's tip speed ratio (λcontrol) or blade pitch angle (β-control) is modified. The focus is particularly directed on how the wake flow behind the upstream rotor is affected when its axial induction is reduced in order to leave more kinetic energy in the wake to be recovered by a downstream turbine. It is shown that the radial distribution of kinetic energy in the wake area can be controlled by modifying the upstream turbine's tip speed ratio. By pitching out the upstream turbine's blades, however, the available kinetic energy in the wake is increased at an equal rate over the entire blade span. Furthermore, the total array efficiency of the two turbine setup is mapped depending on the upstream turbines tip speed ratio and pitch angle. For a small turbine separation distance of x/D=3 the downstream turbine is able to recover the major part of the power lost on the upstream turbine. However, no significant increase in the two-turbine array efficiency is achieved by altering the upstream turbine's operation point away from its optimum.

  19. Axial Myopia Is Associated with Visual Field Prognosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiu

    Full Text Available To identify whether myopia was associated with the visual field (VF progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.A total of 270 eyes of 270 POAG followed up for more than 3 years with ≥9 reliable VFs by Octopus perimetry were retrospectively reviewed. Myopia was divided into: mild myopia (-2.99 diopter [D], 0, moderate myopia (-5.99, 3.00 D, marked myopia (-9.00, -6.00 D and non-myopia (0 D or more. An annual change in the mean defect (MD slope >0.22 dB/y and 0.30 dB/y was defined as fast progression, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to determine prognostic factors for VF progression.For the cutoff threshold at 0.22 dB/y, logistic regression showed that vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR; p = 0.004 and the extent of myopia (p = 0.002 were statistically significant. When logistic regression was repeated after excluding the extent of myopia, axial length (AL; p = 0.008, odds ratio [OR] = 0.796 reached significance, as did VCDR (p = 0.001. Compared to eyes with AL≤23 mm, the OR values were 0.334 (p = 0.059, 0.309 (p = 0.044, 0.266 (p = 0.019, 0.260 (p = 0.018, respectively, for 23 26 mm. The significance of vertical cup-to-disk ratio of (p = 0.004 and the extent of myopia (p = 0.008 did not change for the cutoff threshold at 0.30dB/y.VCDR and myopia were associated with VF prognosis of POAG. Axial myopia may be a protective factor against VF progression.

  20. Blank size dependence of microstructure in radial-axial ring rolling of TA15 titanium alloy by macro-micro FE simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lianggang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The blank size, determining the deformation degree and the ratio of axial to radial feed amount of the radial-axial ring rolling process for TA15 titanium alloy, has a strong effect on the grain size and volume fraction of primary α phase, which determine the mechanical properties of the rolled ring. In this paper, a macro-micro 3D-FE model of the radial-axial ring rolling of TA15 titanium alloy has been developed under ABAQUS software. The ring blank transferring from heating furnace to rolling mill, rolling and cooling after rolling during the whole process are considered in the FE model. And multiple blanks with different rolling ratios and ratios of axial to radial feed amount are designed for a desired TA15 titanium alloy ring. Then, the effects of the blank size on the grain size and volume fraction of primary α phase in the rolled ring are investigated by comprehensive FE simulations. Finally, the optimum blank sizes are obtained by evaluating both the volume fraction of primary α phase and the distribution uniformities of grain size and volume fraction of primary α phase.

  1. Nonlocal vibration of axially moving graphene sheet resting on orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation under longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour, E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghparast, E.; BabaAkbar Zarei, H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) subjected to magnetic field is investigated. Orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation is developed to consider the influences of orthotropy angle, damping coefficient, normal and shear modulus. Third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton’s principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, magnetic field, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of SLGS on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving SLGS is strongly dependent on the moving speed. Therefore, the critical speed of moving SLGS can be improved by applying magnetic field. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels in nanoscale.

  2. Nonlocal vibration of axially moving graphene sheet resting on orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation under longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Haghparast, E.; BabaAkbar Zarei, H.

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) subjected to magnetic field is investigated. Orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation is developed to consider the influences of orthotropy angle, damping coefficient, normal and shear modulus. Third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton's principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, magnetic field, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of SLGS on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving SLGS is strongly dependent on the moving speed. Therefore, the critical speed of moving SLGS can be improved by applying magnetic field. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels in nanoscale.

  3. Multi-axial mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered cartilage: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Waldman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tissue engineered cartilage is a promising new approach for the repair of damaged or diseased tissue. Since it has proven difficult to generate cartilaginous tissue with properties similar to that of native articular cartilage, several studies have used mechanical stimuli as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the developed tissue. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multi-axial loading applied during in vitro tissue formation to better reflect the physiological forces that chondrocytes are subjected to in vivo. Dynamic combined compression-shear stimulation (5% compression and 5% shear strain amplitudes increased both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis (76 ± 8% and 73 ± 5%, respectively over the static (unstimulated controls. When this multi-axial loading condition was applied to the chondrocyte cultures over a four week period, there were significant improvements in both extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation and the mechanical properties of the in vitro-formed tissue (3-fold increase in compressive modulus and 1.75-fold increase in shear modulus. Stimulated tissues were also significantly thinner than the static controls (19% reduction suggesting that there was a degree of ECM consolidation as a result of long-term multi-axial loading. This study demonstrated that stimulation by multi-axial forces can improve the quality of the in vitro-formed tissue, but additional studies are required to further optimize the conditions to favour improved biochemical and mechanical properties of the developed tissue.

  4. Optimal design of multi-conditions for axial flow pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L. J.; Tang, F. P.; Liu, C.; Xie, R. S.; Zhang, W. P.

    2016-11-01

    Passage components of the pump device will have a negative flow state when axial pump run off the design condition. Combined with model tests of axial flow pump, this paper use numerical simulation and numerical optimization techniques, and change geometric design parameters of the impeller to optimal design of multi conditions for Axial Flow Pump, in order to improve the efficiency of non-design conditions, broad the high efficient district and reduce operating cost. The results show that, efficiency curve of optimized significantly wider than the initial one without optimization. The efficiency of low flow working point increased by about 2.6%, the designed working point increased by about 0.5%, and the high flow working point increased the most, about 7.4%. The change range of head is small, so all working point can meet the operational requirements. That will greatly reduce operating costs and shorten the period of optimal design. This paper adopted the CFD simulation as the subject analysis, combined with experiment study, instead of artificial way of optimization design with experience, which proves the reliability and efficiency of the optimization design of multi-operation conditions of axial-flow pump device.

  5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF AXIAL FEED BAR ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Xu; G.H. Liu; G.S. Ren; Z. Shen; C.P. Ma; W. W. Ren

    2007-01-01

    A flexible technique of hot working of bars by axial feed rolling was introduced. The processdeformation, strain field, stress field, and temperature field of the parts are analyzed by finite elementmethod (FEM)-simulation software DEFORM-3D. The material flow rule and tool load have beeninvestigated.

  6. 3-D Simulation of Vertical-Axial Tidal Current Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical-axial tidal current turbine is the key for the energy converter, which has the advantages of simple structure, adaptability to flow and uncomplex convection device. It has become the hot point for research and application recently. At present, the study on the hydrodynamic performance of vertical-axial tidal current turbine is almost on 2-D numerical simulation, without the consideration of 3-D effect. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method and blade optimal control technique are used to improve accuracy in the prediction of tidal current turbine hydrodynamic performance. Numerical simulation of vertical-axial tidal current turbine is validated. Fixed and variable deflection angle turbine are comparatively studied to analysis the influence of 3-D effect and the character of fluid field and pressure field. The method, put the plate on the end of blade, of reduce the energy loss caused by 3-D effect is proposed. The 3-D CFD numerical model of vertical-axial tidal current turbine hydrodynamic performance in this study may provide theoretical, methodical and technical reference for the optimal design of turbine.

  7. On aspects of vibration of axially moving continua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageraats-Ponomareva, S.

    2009-01-01

    In axially moving structures like conveyor belt systems, magnetic tapes, and so on, vibrations occur due to the presence of different kinds of imperfections in the systems. For these structures internal resonances can lead to severe vibrations. Resonance free conveyor belt systems can be constructed

  8. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer (R807)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    In this view of the Axial Field Spectrometer at I8, the vertical uranium/scintillator hadron calorimeter (just left of centre) is retracted to give access to the cylindrical central drift chamber. The yellow iron structure served as a filter to identify muons, with MWPCs and the array of Cherenkov counters to the right.

  9. Axially and spherically symmetric solitons in warm plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    We study the existence of stable axially and spherically symmetric plasma structures on the basis of the new nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) accounting for nonlocal electron nonlinearities. The numerical solutions of NLSE having the form of spatial solitions are obtained and their stability is analyzed. We discuss the possible application of the obtained results to the theoretical description of natural plasmoids in the atmosphere.

  10. An axially symmetric solution of metric-affine gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachynsky, E J; Obukhov, Yu N; Hehl, F W

    1996-01-01

    We present an exact stationary {\\it axially symmetric} vacuum solution of metric-affine gravity (MAG) which generalises the recently reported spherically symmetric solution. Besides the metric, it carries nonmetricity and torsion as post-Riemannian geometrical structures. The parameters of the solution are interpreted as mass and angular momentum and as dilation, shear and spin charges.

  11. Further comment on pion electroproduction and the axial form factor

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, V; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    2001-01-01

    We show that a recent claim (H.Haberzettl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 3576) that one cannot extract the nucleon weak axial form factor G_A (t) from charged pion threshold electroproduction is incorrect. Thus previous calculations remain valid and threshold charged pion electroproduction experiments can indeed be used to determine G_A (t), and they should certainly be pursued.

  12. The cause of axial rotation of the scoliotic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, L.G.; Sanders, M.M.; Cool, J.C.; Grootenboer, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    To explain the cause of axial rotation in a scoliotic vertebral column, the influence of the gravitation force on a spine with a C-scoliosis has been investigated by means of a mechanical model. In this model the gravitation force takes hold of the three-dimensionally curved vertebral column eccentr

  13. On the generation techniques of axially symmetric stationary metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chaudhuri

    2002-03-01

    In the present paper, a relationship between the method of Gutsunaev–Manko and the soliton technique (for two-soliton solutions) of Belinskii–Zakharov, for generating solutions of axially symmetric stationary space-times in general relativity is discussed.

  14. Numerical Study of Axial Turbulent Flow Over Long Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    DATAV [NZ/2, MTH, 3, MR] and as DATAP[NZ/2, MTH, MR], respectively. The first index indicates the axial (streamwise) wave number I = 1, ... , NZ/2...MTH + 12, 12 !5 MTH/2, -[(THGR -1) *MTH + 12- MTH/2], I2> MTH/2. The third index in DATAV indicates the velocity component according to/3 = 3 (1 -4 V

  15. Chondrocyte activity is increased in psoriatic arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmann, Natasja Stæhr; Munk, Heidi Lausten; Christensen, Anne Friesgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases with complex origins. Both are characterized by altered extracellular matrix remodeling in joints and entheses that results in destructive and osteochondral proliferative lesions...

  16. Etanercept for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Presently, tumor necrosis factor α antagonist therapy is the only effective alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the entire spectrum of axial spondyloarthritis, including non-radiographic and radiographic (=ankylosing spondylitis) forms. Recently, etanercept has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, increasing the number of available treatment options for this indication. The latest data on etanercept concerning clinical efficacy and safety in short-term and long-term treatment of patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who do not respond to the first-line therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggests good efficacy and safety profiles similar to that observed previously in ankylosing spondylitis. This article reviews recent data on the efficacy and safety of etanercept and is focused on the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This article will also discuss the role of etanercept in the context of current and developing treatment options.

  17. A cylindrical drift chamber with azimuthal and axial position readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Shenhav, N.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Sanjari, A.H.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Shephard, W.D.; Stienike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M. [Massachusetts Univ., North Dartmouth, MA (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, L.I., NY 11973 (United States)]|[Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)]|[Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)]|[Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)]|[Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    1997-02-21

    A cylindrical multiwire drift chamber with axial charge-division has been constructed and used in experiment E852 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It serves as a trigger element and as a tracking device for recoil protons in {pi}{sup -}p interactions. We describe the chamber`s design considerations, details of its construction, electronics, and performance characteristics. (orig.).

  18. Spiral thickenings in the axial Parenchyma of Chrysobalanaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Spiral thickenings in the axial parenchyma, seldom recorded in the secondary xylem of the dicotyledons so far, are described for a number of genera and/or species of Chrysobalanaceae. In 66 out of 99 samples investigated, representing most genera of the Chrysobalanaceae, spiral thickenings proved to

  19. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...

  20. On the Applications of Axial Representation of Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, M. Vali

    2006-01-01

    In terms of modern pedagogy, having visual interpretation of trigonometric functions is useful and quite helpful. This paper presents, pictorially, an easy approach to prove all single angle trigonometric identities on the axes. It also discusses the application of axial representation in calculus--finding the derivative of trigonometric functions.

  1. Observers in spacetimes with spherical and axial symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Gusin, Pawel; Kusnierz, Bartosz; Radosz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    We introduce in the explicit form the tetrads of arbitrary observers in spacetimes with spherical and axial symmetries. The observers confined to the equatorial plane are parametrized by the pair of functions. We apply this description in the analysis of the null-geodesics in the observers' frames. The observers with the constant acceleration are distinguished.

  2. Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin...

  3. Axial dispersion in flowing red blood cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Losserand, Sylvain; Coupier, Gwennou

    2016-11-01

    A key parameter in blood microcirculation is the transit time of red blood cells (RBCs) through an organ, which can influence the efficiency of gas exchange and oxygen availability. A large dispersion of this transit time is observed in vivo and is partly due to the axial dispersion in the flowing suspension. In the classic Taylor-Aris example of a solute flowing in a tube, the combination of molecular diffusion and parabolic velocity profile leads to enhanced axial dispersion. In suspensions of non-Brownian deformable bodies such as RBCs, axial dispersion is governed by a combination of shear induced migration and shear-induced diffusion arising from hydrodynamic interactions. We revisit this problem in the case of RBC pulses flowing in a microchannel and show that the axial dispersion of the pulse eventually saturates with a final extension that depends directly on RBC mechanical properties. The result is especially interesting in the dilute limit since the final pulse length depends only on the channel width, exponent of the migration law and dimensionless migration velocity. In continuous flow, the dispersion of transit times is the result of complex cell-cell and cell-wall interactions and is strongy influenced by the polydispersity of the blood sample. The authors acknowledge support from LabEx TEC21 and CNES.

  4. Uni-axial compaction of a granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, L. W.; Sawicki, A.; Milne, P. C.

    1993-11-01

    S HEARING OF GRANULAR materials causes rearrangement of the granular structure which induces irreversible volume decrease and shear strain, in addition to reversible strain. The model adopted describes the reversible compression and shear by hypoelastic laws, and the irreversible compaction and shear by evolutionary laws. The latter are differential relations defining the progress of irreversible strain as an appropriate time-independent monotonie loading parameter increases, which incorporate dependence on the current state, and which prescribe a direction for the irreversible shear strain increment. The model is described by four material functions and two material constants, and has been shown to determine valid initial response to applied shear stress. We apply the model to the compaction of a granular material in uni-axial strain, which is described by two simultaneous differential equations for the axial stress and compaction with the axial strain as independent variable, together with algebraic relations for the pressure and lateral stress. The equation forms for loading-increasing axial stress—and unloading—decreasing axial stress-are distinct. Reformulation as differential equations for the pressure and the principal stress difference shows that the pressure derivative depends only on two of the material functions and one constant. The axial strain and lateral stress measured during a complete load-unload cycle on a sand determine the pressure and stress difference derivatives which are correlated directly with the model differential relations. Two material functions and one constant are determined by an optimization procedure from the complete loadunload ressure data, then the remaining two functions and constant from the stress difference data. Solution of the resulting model differential equations reproduces accurately the axial strain and lateral stress variations during the experimental loading cycle. In addition, model predictions for load

  5. Corner separation and the onset of stall in an axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Aicha; Whittlesey, Robert; Wark, Candace; Williams, David

    2007-11-01

    Axial compressor performance is limited by the onset of stall between the diffusing passageways of the rotors and stators. The flow physics responsible for the stall depends on the blade geometry of the machine, and in this experiment stall develops from a blade-hub corner separation. The 1.5 stage axial compressor consists of inlet guide vanes, a rotor and stator section. Separate motors drive the downstream fan and rotor, which makes it possible to change the compressor pressure ratio and flow coefficient by changing either the wheel speed or the bulk flow rate through the machine. Detailed maps of the flow behind the stators and in front of the rotors were obtained using a Kulite stagnation pressure probe. Mean pressure measurements show the growth of the corner flow separation and divergence of the ``through flow'' toward the outer casing. Spectra show a sensitivity of the separated region to small amplitude external disturbances, in this case originating from the downstream fan. The onset of rotating stall appears as the first subharmonic of the rotor frequency, 0.5 fr, then shifts to a slightly lower frequency 0.45 fr as the flow coefficient is decreased.

  6. Experimental investigation on circumferential and axial temperature gradient over fuel channel under LOCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashwini Kumar; kumar, Ravi; Gupta, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Barun; Mukhopadhyay, Deb; Lele, H. G.

    2014-06-01

    In a nuclear reactor temperature rises drastically in fuel channels under loss of coolant accident due to failure of primary heat transportation system. Present investigation has been carried out to capture circumferential and axial temperature gradients during fully and partially voiding conditions in a fuel channel using 19 pin fuel element simulator. A series of experiments were carried out by supplying power to outer, middle and center rods of 19 pin fuel simulator in ratio of 1.4:1.1:1. The temperature at upper periphery of pressure tube (PT) was slightly higher than at bottom due to increase in local equivalent thermal conductivity from top to bottom of PT. To simulate fully voided conditions PT was pressurized at 2.0 MPa pressure with 17.5 kW power injection. Ballooning initiated from center and then propagates towards the ends and hence axial temperature difference has been observed along the length of PT. For asymmetric heating, upper eight rods of fuel simulator were activated and temperature difference up-to 250 °C has been observed from top to bottom periphery of PT. Such situation creates steep circumferential temperature gradient over PT and could lead to breaching of PT under high pressure.

  7. Reassessing the Plastic Hinge Model for Energy Dissipation of Axially Loaded Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Korol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy dissipation potential of axially loaded columns and evaluates the use of a plastic hinge model for analysis of hi-rise building column collapse under extreme loading conditions. The experimental program considered seven axially loaded H-shaped extruded aluminum structural section columns having slenderness ratios that would be typical of floor-to-ceiling heights in buildings. All seven test specimens initially experienced minor-axis overall buckling followed by formation of a plastic hinge at the mid-height region, leading to local buckling of the flanges on the compression side of the plastic hinge, and eventual folding of the compression flanges. The experimental energy absorption, based on load-displacement relations, was compared to the energy estimates based on section plastic moment resistance based on measured yield stress and based on measured hinge rotations. It was found that the theoretical plastic hinge model underestimates a column’s actual ability to absorb energy by a factor in the range of 3 to 4 below that obtained from tests. It was also noted that the realizable hinge rotation is less than 180°. The above observations are based, of course, on actual columns being able to sustain high tensile strains at hinge locations without fracturing.

  8. Investigating Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces with Axial Heat Processing (AHP) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Balikci, Ercan; Deal, Andrew; Gonik, Michael; Golyshev, Viladimir D.; Leonardi, Eddie; deVahlDavis, G.; Chen, P. Y. P.; Timchenko, V.

    2003-01-01

    Successful processing of homogeneous semiconductor single crystals from their melts depends strongly on precise control of thermal and fluid flow conditions near the solid/liquid interface. In this project, we utilize a novel crystal growth technique called Axial Heat Processing (AHP) that uses a baffle, positioned inside the melt near the interface, to supply and/or conduct heat axially to the interface. The baffle, which may or may not have a heater encased in it, can promote more stable and planar growth as well as reduce buoyancy driven convection. The latter is because the baffle reduces the aspect ratio of the melt as it separates the melt into three sections, above the baffle, in the feed gap between the baffle and the crucible wall, and below the baffle between the baffle base and the interface. AHP also enables a close monitoring and/or control of thermal boundaries near the solid/liquid interface during crystal growth by means of thermocouples placed in the baffle. The interface is kept planar when a heating element in the baffle is used. However, a proper choice of melt height is necessary to keep the interface planar when using the baffle without a heater. This study addresses the influence of melt height and growth velocity on the segregation profile of AHP-grown Sb doped Ge single crystals.

  9. Fracture analysis of axially cracked pressure tube of pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.; Bhasin, V.; Mahajan, S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Three Dimensional (313) finite element elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for through wall axially cracked thin pressure tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The analysis was done for Zr-2 and Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes operating at 300{degrees}C and subjected to 9.5 Mpa internal pressure. Critical crack length was determined based on tearing instability concept. The analysis included the effect of crack face pressure due to the leaking fluid from tube. This effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. The available formulae for calculating J (for axially cracked tubes) do not take into account the effect of crack face pressure. 3D finite element analysis also gives insight into variation of J across the thickness of pressure tube. It was observed that J is highest at the mid-surface of tube. The results have been presented in the form of across the thickness average J value and a peak factor on J. Peak factor on J is ratio of J at mid surface to average J value. Crack opening area for different cracked lengths was calculated from finite element results. The fracture assessment of pressure tubes was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board R-6 method. Ductile tearing was considered.

  10. Fluid Structural Modal Coupled Numerical Investigation of Transonic Fluttering Of Axial Flow Compressor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Melvin Aro.T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flutter is an unstable oscillation which can lead to destruction. Flutter can occur on fixed surfaces, such as blades, wing or the stabilizer. By self-excited aeroelastic instability, flutter can lead to mechanical or structural failure of aircraft engine blades. The modern engines have been designed with increased pressure ratio and reduced weight in order to improve aerodynamic efficiency, resulting in severe aeroelastic problems. Particularly flutter in axial compressors with transonic flow can be characterized by a number of aerodynamic nonlinear effects such as shock boundary layer interaction, rotating stall, and tip vortex instability. Rotating blades operating under high centrifugal forces may also encounter structural nonlinearities due to friction damping and large deformations. In the future work a standard axial flow compressor blade will be taken for analysis, both Subsonic and Transonic range are taken for analysis. Fluid and Structure are two different domains which will be coupled by full system coupling technique to predict the fluttering effect on the compressor blade. ANSYS is a commercial simulation tool, which will be deployed in this work to perform FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction and FSI coupled Modal to predict the flutter in the compressor blades

  11. Mode division multiplexing technology for single-fiber optical trapping axial-position adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Lei; Liang, Peibo; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate trapped yeast cell axial-position adjustment without moving the optical fiber in a single-fiber optical trapping system. The dynamic axial-position adjustment is realized by controlling the power ratio of the fundamental mode beam (LP01) and the low-order mode beam (LP11) generated in a normal single-core fiber. In order to separate the trapping positions produced by the two mode beams, we fabricate a special fiber tapered tip with a selective two-step method. A yeast cell of 6 μm diameter is moved along the optical axis direction for a distance of ~3 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the trapping position adjustment without moving the fiber for single-fiber optical tweezers. The excitation and utilization of multimode beams in a single fiber constitutes a new development for single-fiber optical trapping and makes possible more practical applications in biomedical research fields.

  12. Foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hyok; Pan, Dong; Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial high-quality InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires are of great interest due to their distinct advantages in fundamental research as well as applications in semiconductor electronic and quantum devices. Currently, nearly all the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is assisted with foreign catalysts such as Au, and work on foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is lacking. Here we report on the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy without using any foreign catalysts. The Sb/In beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio is found to have important influence on the heterostructure nanowire morphology, and InSb nanowires can be epitaxially grown on InAs nanowire stems with a hexagonal prism and nanosheet-like shapes when the Sb/In BEP ratio varies from 10 to 20. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the InAs nanowire stems have a mixture of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) crystal structures, while InSb nanowire parts have a pure ZB crystal structure free of stacking faults. Composition analysis of axial heterostructure nanowires provides clear evidence that the InSb nanowires are epitaxially grown on InAs nanowires in an In self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid manner. This study paves a new route for growing narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction for the study of topological states, and the growth manner presented here is expected to be used to grow other In-based axial heterostructure nanowires.

  13. High-Ratio Gear Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  14. Laser anemometer measurements in a transonic axial-flow fan rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser anemometer surveys were made of the 3-D flow field in NASA rotor 67, a low aspect ratio transonic axial-flow fan rotor. The test rotor has a tip relative Mach number of 1.38. The flowfield was surveyed at design speed at near peak efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Data is presented in the form of relative Mach number and relative flow angle distributions on surfaces of revolution at nine spanwise locations evenly spaced from hub to tip. At each spanwise location, data was acquired upstream, within, and downstream of the rotor. Aerodynamic performance measurements and detailed rotor blade and annulus geometry are also presented so that the experimental results can be used as a test case for 3-D turbomachinery flow analysis codes.

  15. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP neural network and genetic algorithm (GA, the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, stable operating range, and aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement was performed in outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The optimized blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade midspan and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at midspan. In addition, the measured spectrums show that the broadband noise of the impeller is dominant.

  16. Laser anemometer measurements in a transonic axial-flow fan rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    1989-11-01

    Laser anemometer surveys were made of the 3-D flow field in NASA rotor 67, a low aspect ratio transonic axial-flow fan rotor. The test rotor has a tip relative Mach number of 1.38. The flowfield was surveyed at design speed at near peak efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Data is presented in the form of relative Mach number and relative flow angle distributions on surfaces of revolution at nine spanwise locations evenly spaced from hub to tip. At each spanwise location, data was acquired upstream, within, and downstream of the rotor. Aerodynamic performance measurements and detailed rotor blade and annulus geometry are also presented so that the experimental results can be used as a test case for 3-D turbomachinery flow analysis codes.

  17. INTERNAL FLOW MECHANISM AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FAN WITH FORWARD-SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIU Jie; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the flow mechanism analysis and experimental study of a forward-skewed impeller and a radial impeller in low pressure axial fan. The forward-skewed blade was obtained by the optimization design of the radial blade and CFD technique. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade has demonstrated the improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, Stable Operating Range (SOR) and less aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement and computation were performed for outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The results show the forward-skewed blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade mid-span and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at mid-span.

  18. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, P.

    2010-12-01

    Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval

  19. Investigation on a procedure for optimal axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of a previously developed procedure for control of axial depth of cut in high accuracy micromilling operations, this paper presents an investigation on the estimation of the uncertainty of the set axial depth of cut....

  20. Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum......, but where subsequently the load starts to increase again, it is found that near the local load minimum, the buckling pattern switches back to a periodic type of pattern. The inelastic material behavior of the panel is described in terms of J(2) corner theory, which avoids the sometimes unrealistically high...

  1. Effect of axial mixing on RDC and PSE columns performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bastani, D

    2001-01-01

    Using the experimental data obtained from two RDC columns at two different sizes (7.62 and 21.9 cm) and one PSE column with 21.5 cm size, the effect of axial mixing on the performance of these columns was studied. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical (neglecting the axial mixing) number of transfer units indicates that, this effect in PSE columns is more than RDC columns (400% and 200% respectively). These results show that this effect can increase the height of the PSE column up to 4 times for a specific efficiency. Also the results show that this effect is more in law interfacial tension systems, which shows no need of application of agitation facilities when these systems are used.

  2. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  3. A velocity parameter for the correlation of axial fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.

    1982-08-01

    An aerodynamic parameter that relates subsonic axial fan noise to the fundamental flow behavior in the blade row of a fan is proposed. The parameter is the peak or maximum blade surface velocity in the rotating reference frame and includes, either explicitly or implicitly, the influence of tip speed, volume flow rate, pressure rise, shaft horsepower and efficiency. Correlation of the noise associated with a very broad range of axial fans yields good agreement and collapse of data when compared to currently used correlation methods. Use of this parameter, rather than those based on overall performance, allows trade-off studies to be made within a given performance requirement so that a minimum noise configuration may be designed or selected.

  4. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  5. Reduced aniseikonia in axial anisometropia with contact lens correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, B; Ackerley, R G; Brown, C A; Murray, F K; Prais, J; St John, M F

    1988-01-01

    Aniseikonia, although present in isometropia, is associated principally with anisometropia and is widely thought to be the result of differences in the retinal image size presented to each eye. This assumes that equating retinal image size results in congruous cortical images. To test this assumption 1 refractive and 17 axial anisometropic subjects were examined to determine the aniseikonia present when corrected with spectacles and contact lenses. Contrary to many previous predictions, based upon Knapp's Law, the presence of equal retinal images resulted in larger aniseikonias than observed when the eyes were presented with unequal retinal images. This suggests that non-optical components have a significant role in the production of the cortical image, and this therefore requires a shift in the way the management of anisometropia is considered clinically. Contact lens correction maintains the aniseikonia at a minimum level in axial as well as refractive anisometropia and offers the clinician an acceptable practical alternative when prescribing for these patients.

  6. Ritual relieved axial dystonia triggered by gaze-evoked amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome, D E

    1997-11-01

    A woman with chronic posttraumatic axial lateropulsion cervical dystonia ("belly dancer's head") found relief of her spontaneous dystonic spasms by the sequential performance of an elaborate motor ritual. During an episode of left optic papillitis caused by central retinal vein occlusion, gaze-evoked amaurosis of the left eye developed, preceded by achromatopsia, during left lateral gaze. Gaze-evoked amaurosis triggered axial dystonia, which was followed by her unique, stereotyped, dystonia-relieving ritual that simulated a slow dance. Visual symptoms improved progressively in 1 year. Eventually, she was unable to trigger her dystonia by eye movements. Spontaneous dystonia remained otherwise unchanged from before the episode of papillitis and was still relieved by her unique ritual.

  7. Plasticity around an Axial Surface Crack in a Cylindrical Shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    and Ratwani,3–5 it generalises Dugdale's assumption of a concentrated yield zone in the plane of the crack but, contrary to that model, transverse shear effects are included and a continuous stress distribution is assumed in the yield zone. The inherent difficulties arising from the use of shell theory...... field in an axially cracked cylindrical shell arising from use of classical eighth order shallow shell theory is removed when use is made of a tenth order shell theory which accounts for transverse shear deformations. Although the membrane stresses are only moderately affected, the influence...... on the bending stresses is considerable. In the case of surface cracks moments are induced due to the eccentricity of the crack and transverse shear effects should therefore be included. A plasticity model for a rectangular axial surface crack is developed. Like a previous surface crack model by Erdogen...

  8. Instability of meridional axial system in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Yousaf, Z. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    We analyze the dynamical instability of a non-static reflection axial stellar structure by taking into account the generalized Euler equation in metric f(R) gravity. Such an equation is obtained by contracting the Bianchi identities of the usual anisotropic and effective stress-energy tensors, which after using a radial perturbation technique gives a modified collapse equation. In the realm of the R + εR{sup n} gravity model, we investigate instability constraints at Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We find that the instability of a meridional axial self-gravitating system depends upon the static profile of the structure coefficients, while f(R) extra curvature terms induce the stability of the evolving celestial body. (orig.)

  9. Characterizing the dynamics of a flexible rod wrapped by transverse repeated ribs subjected to axial flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perets, Y., E-mail: yaronprts@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, E. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Harari, R. [Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN), Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic instability of a repeated ribs cylindrical rod in annular axial flow geometry was studied. • The results indicate a strong dependency between rod instability and rib roughness. • The rod dynamics become stabilized when the pitch-to-height ratio of the ribs increases. • Increase of the rib width-to-height ratio destabilizes the rod. • The nonlinear model confirms the existence of post critical instability and the reliability of the linear results. - Abstract: This study focuses on the dynamics of a flexible cylindrical structure wrapped by repeated transverse rectangular ribs, in an annular flow geometry, under two boundary conditions: simply supported ends and clamped ends. The dynamics is predicted by linear and nonlinear theories. Based on the linear equation a straightforward nonlinear equation can be derived. A parametric investigation of the effect of the ribs’ dimensionless geometry characterized by the pitch-to-height and width-to-height ratios, on the fluid-elastic instability characteristics is considered. The results of the present study indicate a strong dependency between rod instability and rib roughness. The nonlinear model confirms the existence of post critical instability and the reliability of the linear results.

  10. Parametric Analysis of Composite Reinforced Wood Tubes Under Axial Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero, J.; Heiduschke, A.; Haller, P. (P.)

    2010-01-01

    Wood tubes combine economy, an efficient use of the material and optimal structural performance. They can be optionally reinforced with technical fibers and/or textiles laminated to the outer wood surface. The paper presents the outcomes of a parametric study on the performance of wood reinforced tubes submitted to axial compression. Simple analytical models were applied to estimate the load-carrying capacity of the tubes and their failure mechanisms. Analytical and numerical models were deve...

  11. A Nonlocal Model for Carbon Nanotubes under Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Barretta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various beam theories are formulated in literature using the nonlocal differential constitutive relation proposed by Eringen. A new variational framework is derived in the present paper by following a consistent thermodynamic approach based on a nonlocal constitutive law of gradient-type. Contrary to the results obtained by Eringen, the new model exhibits the nonlocality effect also for constant axial load distributions. The treatment can be adopted to get new benchmarks for numerical analyses.

  12. Dynamic Response of Axially Loaded Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, M.; Barari, Amin; Shahidi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The current research deals with application of a new analytical technique called Energy Balance Method (EBM) for a nonlinear problem. Energy Balance Method is used to obtain the analytical solution for nonlinear vibration behavior of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to axial loads. Analytical expr...... to the conventional methods, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions which are valid for a wide range of vibration amplitudes....

  13. Overview of the Axial Field Spectrometer in the ISR tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A view of the Axial Field Spectrometer – the last large experiment at the ISR. The horizontal top and vertical outer arrays of the uranium-scintillator hadron calorimeter are clear to be seen, with the blue cylindrical pole piece of the magnet just visible. The pipes that are visible in front of the pole piece are cryogenic feed pipes for the superconducting low-beta quadrupoles.

  14. Dynamics and statics of flexible axially symmetric shallow shells

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we propose the method for the investigation of stochastic vibrations of deterministic mechanical systems represented by axially symmetric spherical shells. These structure members are widely used as sensitive elements of pressure measuring devices in various branches of measuring and control industry, machine design, and so forth. The proposed method can be easily extended for the investigation of shallow spherical shells, goffer-type membranes, and so on. T...

  15. Experimental investigations on an axial grooved cryogenic heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Muniappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and studies of a trapezoidal axial grooved nitrogen heat pipe. A special liquid nitrogen cryostat has been designed and developed for evaluating the performance of heat pipe where the condenser portion is connected to the cold sink externally. Experiments have been performed on the heat pipe as well as on an equivalent diameter copper rod at different heat loads. The steady state performance of the heat pipe is compared with that of copper rod.

  16. Aerodynamic optimisation of an industrial axial fan blade

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Numerical optimisation methods have successfully been used for a variety of aerodynamic design problems over quite a few years. However the application of these methods to the aerodynamic blade shape optimisation of industrial axial fans has received much less attention in the literature probably given the fact that the majority of resources available to develop these automated design approaches is to be found in the aerospace field. This work presents the develo...

  17. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-01

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  18. MRI of the axial skeletal manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S.; Forbat, S.M.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2004-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable tool in the imaging and assessment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. MRI can demonstrate the acute and chronic changes of sacroiliitis, osteitis, discovertebral lesions, disc calcifications and ossification and arthopathic lesions, which characterize the disease, as well as the complications, which include fracture and the rare cauda equina syndrome. This article reviews the range of MRI findings commonly seen within the axial skeleton in patients with this condition.

  19. Axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Offen, N

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the emerging possibilities to study threshold pion electroproduction at large momentum transfers at Jefferson Laboratory following the 12 GeV upgrade, we provide a short theory summary and an estimate of the nucleon axial form factor for large virtualities in the $Q^2 = 1-10~\\text{GeV}^2$ range using next-to-leading order light-cone sum rules.

  20. Turbulence and Complex Flow Phenomena in Axial Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Adamczyk J. J., 1996, "Wake Mixing in Axial Flow Compressors," ASME Paper No. 96-GT-029 Adamczyk J.J., Mulac R.A., Celestina M.L., 1986, "A Model for...Closing the Inviscid Form of the Average-Passage Equation System," ASME Paper No. 86-GT-227 Adamczyk J.J.; Celestina M.L.; Beach T.A.; Barnett M., 1990

  1. Experimental studies of axial magnetic fields generated in ultrashort-pulse laser-plasma interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉同; 张杰; 陈黎明; 赵理曾; 夏江帆; 魏志义; 江文勉

    2000-01-01

    The quasistatic axial magnetic fields in plasmas produced by ultrashort laser pulses were measured by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of the backscattered emission. The spatial distribution of the axial magnetic field was obtained with a peak value as high as 170 Tesla. Theory suggests that the axial magnetic field is generated by dynamo effect in laser-plasma interaction.

  2. Octet-baryon axial-vector charges and SU(3)-breaking effects in the semileptonic hyperon decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ledwig, T; Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The octet-baryon axial-vector charges and the g1/f1 ratios measured in the semileptonic hyperon decays are studied up to O(p^3) using the covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit decuplet contributions. We clarify the role of different low-energy constants and find a good convergence for the chiral expansion of the axial-vector charges of the baryon octet, g1(0), with O(p^3) corrections typically around 20% of the leading ones. This is a consequence of strong cancellations between different next-to-leading order terms. We show that considering only non-analytic terms is not enough and that analytic terms appearing at the same chiral order play an important role in this description. The same effects still hold for the chiral extrapolation of the axial-vector charges and result in a rather mild quark-mass dependence. As a result, we report a determination of the leading order chiral couplings, D=0.623(61)(17) and F=0.441(47)(2), as obtained from a completely consistent chiral analysis up to O(p...

  3. Determination of Yield and Flow Surfaces for Inconel 718 Under Axial-Torsional Loading at Temperatures Up to 649 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program to determine flow surfaces has been established and implemented for solution annealed and aged IN718. The procedure involved subjecting tubular specimens to various ratios of axial-torsional stress at temperatures between 23 and 649 C and measuring strain with a biaxial extensometer. Each stress probe corresponds to a different direction in stress space, and unloading occurs when a 30 microstrain (1 micro eplison = 10(exp -6) mm/mm) offset is detected. This technique was used to map out yield loci in axial-torsional stress space. Flow surfaces were determined by post-processing the experimental data to determine the inelastic strain rate components. Surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate (SCISRS) and surfaces of constant inelastic power (SCIPS) were mapped out in the axial-shear stress plane. The von Mises yield criterion appeared to closely fit the initial loci for solutioned IN718 at 23 C. However, the initial loci for solutioned IN718 at 371 and 454 C, and all of the initial loci for aged IN718 were offset in the compression direction. Subsequent loci showed translation, distortion, and for the case of solutioned IN718, a slight cross effect. Aged IN718 showed significantly more hardening behavior than solutioned IN718.

  4. Fiber ring laser for axial micro-strain measurement by employing few-mode concentric ring core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxuan; Liang, Xiao; Sun, Chunran; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a novel few-mode concentric-ring core fiber (FM-CRCF) for axial micro-strain measurement with fiber ring laser based on few-mode-singlemode-few-mode fiber structure. The core area of CRCF consists of four concentric rings which refractive indices are 1.448, 1.441, 1.450, 1.441, respectively. LP01 and LP11 are two dominated propagating mode groups contributing in the CRCF. In this few-mode-singlemode-few-mode structure, two sections of CRCF act as the mode generator and coupler, respectively. The basis of sensing is the center single mode fiber. Moreover, this structure can be used as an optical band-pass filter. By using fiber ring cavity laser, the axial micro-strain sensing system has high intensity (∼20 dB), high optical signal to noise ratio (∼45 dB) and narrow 3 dB bandwidth (∼0.1 nm). In the axial micro-strain range from 0 to 1467 με , the lasing peak wavelength shifts from 1561.05 nm to 1559.9 nm with the experimentally sensitivity of ∼ 0.81pm / με .

  5. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S., E-mail: alexlee.zn@gmail.com; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  6. Behavior of Unbonded Flexible Risers Subject to Axial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任少飞; 唐文勇; 郭晋挺

    2014-01-01

    Owing to nonlinear contact problems with slip and friction, a lot of limiting assumptions are made when developing analytical models to simulate the behavior of an unbonded flexible riser. Meanwhile, in order to avoid convergence problems and excessive calculating time associated with running the detailed finite element (FE) model of an unbonded flexible riser, interlocked carcass and zeta layers with complicated cross section shapes are replaced by simple geometrical shapes (e.g. hollow cylindrical shell) with equivalent orthotropic materials. But the simplified model does not imply the stresses equivalence of these two layers. To solve these problems, based on ABAQUS/Explicit, a numerical method that is suitable for the detailed FE model is proposed. In consideration of interaction among all component layers, the axial stiffness of an eight-layer unbonded flexible riser subjected to axial tension is predicted. Compared with analytical and experimental results, it is shown that the proposed numerical method not only has high accuracy but also can substantially reduce the calculating time. In addition, the impact of the lay angle of helical tendons on axial stiffness is discussed.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Erosion Caused by Biomimetic Axial Fan Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qiu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by erosion has been reported in several industries for a wide range of situations. In the present work, a new method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components by biomimetic method. A numerical investigation of solid particle erosion in the standard and biomimetic configuration blade of axial fan is presented. The analysis consists in the application of the discrete phase model, for modeling the solid particles flow, and the Eulerian conservation equations to the continuous phase. The numerical study employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on a finite volume method. User-defined function was used to define wear equation. Gas/solid flow axial fan was simulated to calculate the erosion rate of the particles on the fan blades and comparatively analyzed the erosive wear of the smooth surface, the groove-shaped, and convex hull-shaped biomimetic surface axial flow fan blade. The results show that the groove-shaped biomimetic blade antierosion ability is better than that of the other two fan blades. Thoroughly analyze of antierosion mechanism of the biomimetic blade from many factors including the flow velocity contours and flow path lines, impact velocity, impact angle, particle trajectories, and the number of collisions.

  8. Magnetic and axial-vector transitions of the baryon antidecuplet

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H -Ch; Göke, K

    2007-01-01

    We report the recent results of the magnetic transitions and axial-vector transitions of the baryon antidecuplet within the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model. The dynamical model parameters are fixed by experimental data for the magnetic moments of the baryon octet, for the hyperon semileptonic decay constants, and for the singlet axial-vector constant. The transition magnetic moments $\\mu_{\\Lambda\\Sigma}$ and $\\mu_{N\\Delta}$ are well reproduced and other octet-decuplet and octet-antidecuplet transitions are predicted. In particular, the present calculation of $\\mu_{\\Sigma\\Sigma^*}$ is found to be below the upper bound $0.82\\mu_N$ that the SELEX collaboration measured very recently. The results explains consistently the recent findings of a new $N^*$ resonance from the GRAAL and Tohoku LNS group. We also obtain the transition axial-vector constants for the $\\Theta^+\\to KN$ from which the decay width of the $\\Theta^{+}$ pentaquark baryon is determined as a function of the pion-nucleon sigma term $\\Si...

  9. On the axial $U(1)$ symmetry at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji; Noaki, Jun-ichi; Tomiya, Akio

    2015-01-01

    We study the $U(1)_A$ anomaly in two-flavor lattice QCD at finite temperature with the M\\"obius domain-wall Dirac operator. We generate gauge configurations in the temperature range $(0.9, 1.2) T_c$ on different physical volumes, $L=$ 2--4 fm, and lattice spacings. We measure the difference of the susceptibilities of the flavor non-singlet scalar ($\\chi_\\delta$) and pseudoscalar ($\\chi_\\pi$) mesons. They are related by an axial $U(1)$ transformation and the difference vanishes if the axial $U(1)$ symmetry is respected. We identify the source of axial $U(1)$ symmetry breaking at finite temperature in the lowest eigenmodes, for the observable $\\chi_\\pi - \\chi_\\delta$. We then reweight the M\\"obius domain-wall fermion partition function to that of the overlap-Dirac operator to fully recover chiral symmetry. Our data show a significant discrepancy in the results coming from the M\\"obius domain-wall valence quarks, the overlap valence quarks on our DWF configurations and the reweighted ones that have full chiral s...

  10. Axial stress localization facilitates pressure propagation in gelled pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Jens; Skjæraasen, Olaf; Oschmann, Hans-Jörg; Paso, Kristofer; Sjöblom, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Paraffin wax-oil gels are unique rheological fluids which undergo shear degradation starting at a deformation (shear strain level) of approximately 1%. Flow commencement in pipelines filled with wax-oil gels is a complex hydrodynamic process involving propagation of acoustic, diffusive, and rheological degradation pressure wave fronts. Dynamic simulation informed by qualified rheological relations provides useful insight into the physical nature of these flow processes. Eulerian simulations are presented which emulate known physical phenomena and essential characteristics of wax-gel flow dynamics. A constitutive rheological equation set accounts for deformation-driven reduction in yield stress and viscosity terms. No explicit time-dependent rheological parameters are utilized in the equations. Rheological yielding alters the nature of the dominant pressure wave from inherently diffusive towards self-sharpening. Axial stress localization effectively sequentializes the gel breakage process, quantified by reduced length of the pressure wave-front zone. Ultimately, axial stress localization allows flow in longer pipe segments, albeit with a concomitant time delay. Viscous behavior and yielding degradation behavior are shown to account for upward and downward concavity in transient axial pressure profiles, respectively. Overall, a unique synergy between gel compressibility and gel degradation is revealed. Deformation-coupled interaction between compressibility and degradation allows pressure propagation and subsequent sustained flow through a gel material which is otherwise immobile in the incompressible case.

  11. Characteristics of tip-leakage flow in an axial fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keuntae; Choi, Haecheon; Choi, Seokho; Sa, Yongcheol

    2014-11-01

    An axial fan with a shroud generates complicated vortical structures by the interaction of the axial flow with the fan blades and shroud near the blade tips. Large eddy simulation (LES) is performed for flow through a forward-swept axial fan, operating at the design condition of Re = 547,000 based on the radius of blade tip and the tip velocity. A dynamic global model (Lee et al. 2010) is used for a subgrid-scale model, and an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi 2006) is adopted for the present simulation. It is found that two vortical structures are formed near the blade tip: the main tip leakage vortex (TLV) and the auxiliary TLV. The main TLV is initiated near the leading edge, develops downstream, and impinges on the pressure surface of the next blade, where the pressure fluctuations and turbulence intensity become high. On the other hand, the auxiliary TLV is initiated at the aft part of the blade but is relatively weak such that it merges with the main TLV. Supported by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2014-C2-014).

  12. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the held of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The Fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations ( <2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete held of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-cr...

  13. ASAS classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis: time to modify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Nurullah; Khan, Muhammad A

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between ankylosing spondylitis and the recently proposed entity called axial spondyloarthritis with its radiographic and non-radiographic forms that have been defined by the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), is currently being debated. The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) had criticized the ASAS criteria and the studies which used these criteria to enroll patients in a clinical trial of certolizumab and adalimumab for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. The primary aim of classification criteria is to create homogenous patient populations for basic and clinical research. But the multi-arm construct of the ASAS criteria is a potential source of heterogeneity reducing their utility. Criteria sets should be regarded as dynamic concepts open to modifications or updates as our knowledge advances. We provide evidence to conclude that it is time to modify the ASAS Criteria for axSpA, and we propose some of the steps that can be taken to start moving forward in improving the validity of these criteria.

  14. Axial Non-linear Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction - Keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeyman A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This keynote lecture describes recent analytical and numerical advances in the modeling of the axial nonlinear dynamic interaction between a single pile and its embedding soil. On one hand, analytical solutions are developed for assessing the nonlinear axial dynamic response of the shaft of a pile subjected to dynamic loads, and in particular to vibratory loads. Radial inhomogeneity arising from shear modulus degradation is evaluated over a range of parameters and compared with those obtained by other authors and by a numerical radial discrete model simulating the pile and soil movements from integration of the laws of motion. New approximate non linear solutions for axial pile shaft behaviour developed from general elastodynamic equations are presented and compared to existing linear solutions. The soil non linear behaviour and its ability to dissipate mechanical energy upon cyclic loading are shown to have a significant influence on the mechanical impedance provided by the surrounding soil against pile shaft movement. The limitations of over-simplified modelling of pile response are highlighted.

  15. Estimation of volume flow in curved tubes based on analytical and computational analysis of axial velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik, A. C.; Beulen, B. W. A. M. M.; Bogaerds, A. C. B.; Rutten, M. C. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.

    2009-02-01

    To monitor biomechanical parameters related to cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to perform correct volume flow estimations of blood flow in arteries based on local blood velocity measurements. In clinical practice, estimates of flow are currently made using a straight-tube assumption, which may lead to inaccuracies since most arteries are curved. Therefore, this study will focus on the effect of curvature on the axial velocity profile for flow in a curved tube in order to find a new volume flow estimation method. The study is restricted to steady flow, enabling the use of analytical methods. First, analytical approximation methods for steady flow in curved tubes at low Dean numbers (Dn) and low curvature ratios (δ) are investigated. From the results a novel volume flow estimation method, the cos θ-method, is derived. Simulations for curved tube flow in the physiological range (1≤Dn≤1000 and 0.01≤δ≤0.16) are performed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The asymmetric axial velocity profiles of the analytical approximation methods are compared with the velocity profiles of the CFD model. Next, the cos θ-method is validated and compared with the currently used Poiseuille method by using the CFD results as input. Comparison of the axial velocity profiles of the CFD model with the approximations derived by Topakoglu [J. Math. Mech. 16, 1321 (1967)] and Siggers and Waters [Phys. Fluids 17, 077102 (2005)] shows that the derived velocity profiles agree very well for Dn≤50 and are fair for 50100), no analytical approximation method exists. In the position of the maximum axial velocity, a shift toward the inside of the curve is observed for low Dean numbers, while for high Dean numbers, the position of the maximum velocity is located at the outer curve. When the position of the maximum velocity of the axial velocity profile is given as a function of the Reynolds number, a "zero-shift point" is found at Re=21.3. At this point the shift in

  16. Peri-implant biomechanical responses to standard, short-wide, and mini implants supporting single crowns under axial and off-axial loading (an in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiralla, Lamia Sayed; Younis, Jihan Farouk

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the biomechanical responses of 3 single crowns supported by 3 different implants under axial and off-axial loading. A standard implant (3.75 mm diameter, 13 mm length), a mini implant (3 mm diameter, 13 mm length), and a short-wide implant (5.7 mm diameter, 8 mm length) were embedded in epoxy resin by the aid of a surveyor to ensure their parallelism. Each implant supported a full metal crown made of Ni-Cr alloy with standardized dimensions. Strain gauges and finite element analysis (FEA) were used to measure the strain induced under axial and off-axial functional loads of 300 N. Results showed that mini implants recorded the highest microstrains, under both axial and off-axial loading. All implants showed a considerable increase in strain values under off-axial loading. Standard and short-wide implants proved to be preferable in supporting crowns, as the standard implant showed the lowest strains under axial and off-axial loading using FEA simulation, while the short-wide implant showed the lowest strains under nonaxial loading using strain gauge analysis.

  17. Axial-transversal coupling in the free nonlinear vibrations of Timoshenko beams with arbitrary slenderness and axial boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear free oscillations of a straight planar Timoshenko beam are investigated analytically by means of the asymptotic development method. Attention is focused for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the nonlinear coupling between the axial and the transversal oscillations of the beam, which are decoupled in the linear regime. The existence of coupled and uncoupled motion is discussed. Furthermore, the softening versus hardening nature of the backbone curves is investigated in depth. The results are summarized by means of behaviour charts that illustrate the different possible classes of motion in the parameter space. New, and partially unexpected, phenomena, such as the changing of the nonlinear behaviour from softening to hardening by adding/removing the axial vibrations, are highlighted.

  18. Axial psoriatic arthritis: an intriguing clinical entity or a subset of an intriguing disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrano, Ennio; Spadaro, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    This article summarizes the state of the art of axial involvement in psoriatic arthritis (axial PsA). The definition and measurement of axial disease in PsA still remain problematic, and this, in turn, could affect the best approach of recognition and treatment of this intriguing subset of the psoriatic disease. Axial PsA has been studied over the last few years looking at the difference in function and radiological finding compared to ankylosing spondylitis (AS), trying to differentiate it from a coincidental AS with psoriasis. Finally, this review has described the diagnosis and treatment of axial PsA reporting the data obtained from the literature.

  19. Application of the wavelet transforms on axial strain calculation in ultrasound elastography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jianwen; BAI Jing; SHAO Jinhua

    2006-01-01

    In ultrasound elastography, the axial strain distribution within biological tissues is calculated as the numerical derivative (differentiation) of the estimated axial displacement field. Unfortunately, the numerical derivative is unstable because it can greatly amplify the noises, especially at high frequencies. This work focuses on the axial strain calculation from the estimated axial displacements using wavelet transforms (WTs), including continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs) and discrete wavelet transforms (DWTs). The feasibility of the WT-based method using the quadratic spline function is verified by computer simulations and some phantom data. Results indicate that the WT-based method can effectively reduce the noise amplification in axial strain calculation.

  20. Light fields with an axially expanded intensity distribution for stable three-dimensional optical trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Susanne; Schaub, Christian; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-13

    We introduce a new kind of light field to improve and simplify the trapping process of axially displaced particles. To this end we employ a light field with an axially expanded intensity distribution, which at the same time enables stable axial trapping. We present simulations of the axial intensity distribution of the novel trapping field and first experimental results, which demonstrate the improvement of the reliability of the axial trapping process. The method can be used to automate trapping of particles that are located outside of the focal plane of the microscope.

  1. Design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel for BWR reactors; Diseno y optimizacion axial de combustible nuclear para reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A

    2006-07-01

    In the present thesis, the modifications made to the axial optimization system based on Tabu Search (BT) for the axial design of BWR fuel type are presented, developed previously in the Nuclear Engineering Group of the UNAM Engineering Faculty. With the modifications what is mainly looked is to consider the particular characteristics of the mechanical design of the GE12 fuel type, used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV) and that it considers the fuel bars of partial longitude. The information obtained in this thesis will allow to plan nuclear fuel reloads with the best conditions to operate in a certain cycle guaranteeing a better yield and use in the fuel burnt, additionally people in charge in the reload planning will be favored with the changes carried out to the system for the design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel, which facilitate their handling and it reduces their execution time. This thesis this developed in five chapters that are understood in the following way in general: Chapter 1: It approaches the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, it describes the physical and chemical composition of the atoms as well as that of the uranium isotopes, the handling of the uranium isotope by means of the nuclear fission until arriving to the operation of the nuclear reactors. Chapter 2: The nuclear fuel cycle is described, the methods for its extraction, its conversion and its enrichment to arrive to the stages of the nuclear fuel management used in the reactors are described. Beginning by the radial design, the axial design and the core design of the nuclear reactor related with the fuel assemblies design. Chapter 3: the optimization methods of nuclear fuel previously used are exposed among those that are: the genetic algorithms method, the search methods based on heuristic rules and the application of the tabu search method, which was used for the development of this thesis. Chapter 4: In this part the used methodology to the

  2. Axial-Flow Compressor Performance Prediction in Design and Off-Design Conditions through 1-D and 3-D Modeling and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Peyvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main objective is to develop a one dimensional model to predict design and off design performance of an operational axial flow compressor by considering the whole gas turbine assembly. The design and off-design performance of a single stage axial compressor are predicted through 1D and 3D modeling. In one dimensional model the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations and ideal gas equation of state are solved in mean line at three axial stations including rotor inlet, rotor outlet and stator outlet. The total to total efficiency and pressure ratio are forecasted using the compressor geometry, inlet stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure, the mass flow rate and the rotational speed of the rotor, and the available empirical correlation predicting the losses. By changing the mass flow rate while the rotational speed is fixed, characteristic curves of the compressor are obtained. The 3D modeling is accomplished with CFD method to verify one dimensional code at non-running line conditions. By defining the three-dimensional geometry of the compressor and the boundary conditions coinciding with one dimensional model for the numerical solver, axial compressor behavior is predicted for various mass flow rates in different rotational speeds. Experimental data are obtained from tests of the axial compressor of a gas turbine engine in Sharif University gas turbine laboratory and consequently the running line is attained. As a result, the two important extremities of compressor performance including surge and choking conditions are obtained through 1D and 3D modeling. Moreover, by comparing the results of one-dimensional and three-dimensional models with experimental results, good agreement is observed. The maximum differences of pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency of one dimensional modeling with experimental results are 2.1 and 3.4 percent, respectively.

  3. Ingestion into the upstream wheelspace of an axial turbine stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T.; Turner, A. B.

    1994-04-01

    The upstream wheelspace of an axial air turbine stage complete with nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and rotor blades (430 mm mean diameter) has been tested with the objective of examining the combined effect of NGVs and rotor blades on the level of mainstream ingestion for different seal flow rates. A simple axial clearance seal was used with the rotor spun up to 6650 rpm by drawing air through it from atmospheric pressure with a large centrifugal compressor. The effect of rotational speed was examined for several constant mainstream flow rates by controlling the rotor speed with an air brake. The circumferential variation in hub static pressure was measured at the trailing edge of the NGVs upstream of the seal gap and was found to affect ingestion significantly. The hub static pressure distribution on the rotor blade leading edges was rotor speed dependent and could not be measured in the experiments. The Denton three-dimensional CFD computer code was used to predict the smoothed time-dependent pressure field for the rotor together with the pressure distribution downstream of the NGVs. The level and distribution of mainstream ingestion, and thus, the seal effectiveness, was determined from nitrous oxide gas concentration measurements and related to static pressure measurements made throughout the wheelspace. With the axial clearance rim seal close to the rotor the presence of the blades had a complex effect. Rotor blades in connection with NGVs were found to reduce mainstream ingestion seal flow rates significantly, but a small level of ingestion existed even for very high levels of seal flow rate.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an Axial Rotary Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Chan Yong; Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Lommel, Michael; Karakaya, Tamer; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2016-04-18

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become a standard therapy for patients with severe heart failure. As low blood trauma in LVADs is important for a good clinical outcome, the assessment of the fluid loads inside the pump is critical. More specifically, the flow features on the surfaces where the interaction between blood and artificial material happens is of great importance. Therefore, experimental data for the near-wall flows in an axial rotary blood pump were collected and directly compared to computational fluid dynamic results. For this, the flow fields based on unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations-computational fluid dynamics (URANS-CFD) of an axial rotary blood pump were calculated and compared with experimental flow data at one typical state of operation in an enlarged model of the pump. The focus was set on the assessment of wall shear stresses (WSS) at the housing wall and rotor gap region by means of the wall-particle image velocimetry technique, and the visualization of near-wall flow structures on the inner pump surfaces by a paint erosion method. Additionally, maximum WSS and tip leakage volume flows were measured for 13 different states of operation. Good agreement between CFD and experimental data was found, which includes the location, magnitude, and direction of the maximum and minimum WSS and the presence of recirculation zones on the pump stators. The maximum WSS increased linearly with pressure head. They occurred at the upstream third of the impeller blades and exceeded the critical values with respect to hemolysis. Regions of very high shear stresses and recirculation zones could be identified and were in good agreement with simulations. URANS-CFD, which is often used for pump performance and blood damage prediction, seems to be, therefore, a valid tool for the assessment of flow fields in axial rotary blood pumps. The magnitude of maximum WSS could be confirmed and were in the order of several hundred Pascal.

  5. Wireless Tri-Axial Trunk Accelerometry Detects Deviations in Dynamic Center of Mass Motion Due to Running-Induced Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt H Schütte

    Full Text Available Small wireless trunk accelerometers have become a popular approach to unobtrusively quantify human locomotion and provide insights into both gait rehabilitation and sports performance. However, limited evidence exists as to which trunk accelerometry measures are suitable for the purpose of detecting movement compensations while running, and specifically in response to fatigue. The aim of this study was therefore to detect deviations in the dynamic center of mass (CoM motion due to running-induced fatigue using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty runners aged 18-25 years completed an indoor treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion at speeds equivalent to their 3.2 km time trial performance. The following dependent measures were extracted from tri-axial trunk accelerations of 20 running steps before and after the treadmill fatigue protocol: the tri-axial ratio of acceleration root mean square (RMS to the resultant vector RMS, step and stride regularity (autocorrelation procedure, and sample entropy. Running-induced fatigue increased mediolateral and anteroposterior ratios of acceleration RMS (p < .05, decreased the anteroposterior step regularity (p < .05, and increased the anteroposterior sample entropy (p < .05 of trunk accelerometry patterns. Our findings indicate that treadmill running-induced fatigue might reveal itself in a greater contribution of variability in horizontal plane trunk accelerations, with anteroposterior trunk accelerations that are less regular from step-to-step and are less predictable. It appears that trunk accelerometry parameters can be used to detect deviations in dynamic CoM motion induced by treadmill running fatigue, yet it is unknown how robust or generalizable these parameters are to outdoor running environments.

  6. Evaluation of the performance and flow in an axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, J. L.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental evaluation of the axial compressor test rig with one stage of symmetric blading was conducted to determine its suitability for studies of tip clearance effects. Measurements were made of performance parameters and internal flow fields. The configuration tested was found to be unsuitable due to poor flow from the inlet guide vanes, particularly near the tip region. Secondary flows and flaws in construction of the guide vanes were suggested as probable causes. Recommendations were made for a program to resolve the problem.

  7. Parametric design of tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jake J

    2015-05-01

    This paper provides an optimal parametric design for tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils, which are used to generate a uniform magnetic field with controllable magnitude and direction. Circular and square coils, both with square cross section, are considered. Practical considerations such as wire selection, wire-wrapping efficiency, wire bending radius, choice of power supply, and inductance and time response are included. Using the equations provided, a designer can quickly create an optimal set of custom coils to generate a specified field magnitude in the uniform-field region while maintaining specified accessibility to the central workspace. An example case study is included.

  8. Axial Permanent Magnet Generator for Wearable Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Sødahl, Jakob Wagner; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    An increasing demand for battery-free electronics is evident by the rapid increase of wearable devices, and the design of wearable energy harvesters follows accordingly. An axial permanent magnet generator was designed to harvest energy from human body motion and supplying it to a wearable......W, respectively) with an iron yoke is subject to losses that exceed the realistic input power, and was therefore deemed infeasible. A generator without the iron yoke was concluded to perform well as a wearable energy harvester. An experimental investigation of a prototype revealed an output power of almost 1 m...

  9. Axial and Radial Gas Holdup in Bubble Column Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Sameer M.; Ansari, Mohashin E Alan; Kene, Pragati T. [RTMNU Nagpur, Nagpur (India)

    2014-06-15

    Bubble column reactors are considered the reactor of choice for numerous applications including oxidation, hydrogenation, waste water treatment, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. They are widely used in a variety of industrial applications for carrying out gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reactions. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used for predicting the gas holdup and its distribution along radial and axial direction are presented. Gas holdup increases linearly with increase in gas velocity. Gas bubbles tends to concentrate more towards the center of the column and follows a wavy path.

  10. ITERATIVE ALGORITHM FOR AXIALLY ACCELERATING STRINGS WITH INTEGRAL CONSTITUTIVE LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijia Zhao; Liqun Chen

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method is proposed to simulate the transverse vibrations of a viscoelastic moving string constituted by an integral law.In the numerical computation,the Galerkin method based on the Hermite functions is applied to discretize the state variables,and the RungeKutta method is applied to solve the resulting differential-integral equation system.A linear iterative process is designed to compute the integral terms at each time step,which makes the numerical method more efficient and accurate.As examples,nonlinear parametric vibrations of an axially moving viscoelastic string are analyzed.

  11. Axial dispersion via shear-enhanced diffusion in colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    The familiar example of Taylor dispersion of molecular solutes is extended to describe colloidal suspensions, where the fluctuations that contribute to dispersion arise from hydrodynamic interactions. The generic scheme is illustrated for a suspension of particles in a pressure-driven pipe flow, with a concentration-dependent diffusivity that captures both the shear-induced and Brownian contributions. The effect of the cross-stream migration via shear-induced diffusion is shown to dramatically reduce the axial dispersion predicted by classical Taylor dispersion for a molecular solute. Analytic and numerical solutions are presented that illustrate the effect of the concentration dependence of this nonlinear hydrodynamic mechanism. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  12. A mechanical model of an axial piston machine

    OpenAIRE

    Löfstrand Grip, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    A mechanical model of an axial piston-type machine with a so-called wobble plate and Z-shaft mechanism is presented. The overall aim is to design and construct an oil-free piston expander demonstrator as a first step to realizing an advanced and compact small-scale steam engine system. The benefits of a small steam engine are negligible NOx emissions (due to continuous, low-temperature combustion), no gearbox needed, fuel flexibility (e.g., can run on biofuel and solar), high part-load effici...

  13. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  14. Nucleon axial and tensor charges with dynamical overlap quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, N; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T

    2015-01-01

    We report on our calculation of the nucleon axial and tensor charges in 2+1-flavor QCD with dynamical overlap quarks. Gauge ensembles are generated at a single lattice spacing 0.12 fm and at a strange quark mass close to its physical value. We employ the all-mode-averaging technique to calculate the relevant nucleon correlation functions, and the disconnected quark loop is efficiently calculated by using the all-to-all quark propagator. We present our preliminary results for the isoscalar and isovector charges obtained at pion masses $m_\\pi$ = 450 and 540 MeV.

  15. Induced axial chirality in biocatalytic asymmetric ketone reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Rubén; Roiban, Gheorghe-Doru; Reetz, Manfred T

    2013-02-06

    Catalytic asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones of type 4-alkylidene cyclohexanone with formation of the corresponding axially chiral R-configurated alcohols (up to 99% ee) was achieved using alcohol dehydrogenases, whereas chiral transition-metal catalysts fail. Reversal of enantioselectivity proved to be possible by directed evolution based on saturation mutagenesis (up to 98% ee (S)). Utilization of ketone with a vinyl bromide moiety allows respective R- and S-alcohols to be exploited as key compounds in Pd-catalyzed cascade reactions.

  16. Comparison of design methods for axially loaded buckets in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study of the present knowledge about the bucket resistance for axial loading was performed considering analytical and numerical design methods as well as physical models. A case study was performed with two bucket foundations of equal diameter, but different skirt lengths installed in dense sand....... Itwas found that bearing capacity from the surcharge increases approximately twice if the foundation skirt is two times longer. However, the predicted compressive soil capacity can differ by 3.6 times depending on the chosen bearing capacity parameters. Few methods are available for the estimation...

  17. DYNAMICAL BEHAVIOR OF VISCOELASTIC CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER AXIAL PRESSURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昌钧; 张能辉

    2001-01-01

    The hypotheses of the Kármán-Donnell theory of thin shells with large deflections and the Boltzmann laws for isotropic linear, viscoelastic materials, the constitutive equations of shallow shells are first derived. Then the governing equations for the deflection equations of elastic thin plates. Introducing proper assumptions, an approximate theory for viscoelastic cylindrical shells under axial pressures can be obtained. Finally, the dynamical behavior is studied in detail by using several numerical methods. Dynamical properties,such as, hyperchaos , chaos, strange attractor, limit cycle etc., are discovered.

  18. Mandibular reconstruction using an axially vascularized tissue-engineered construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Mohamed R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current reconstructive techniques for continuity defects of the mandible include the use of free flaps, bone grafts, and alloplastic materials. New methods of regenerative medicine designed to restore tissues depend mainly on the so-called extrinsic neovascularization, where the neovascular bed originates from the periphery of the construct. This method is not applicable for large defects in irradiated fields. Methods We are introducing a new animal model for mandibular reconstruction using intrinsic axial vascularization by the Arterio-Venous (AV loop. In order to test this model, we made cadaveric, mechanical loading, and surgical pilot studies on adult male goats. The cadaveric study aimed at defining the best vascular axis to be used in creating the AV loop in the mandibular region. Mechanical loading studies (3 points bending test were done to ensure that the mechanical properties of the mandible were significantly affected by the designed defect, and to put a base line for further mechanical testing after bone regeneration. A pilot surgical study was done to ensure smooth operative and post operative procedures. Results The best vascular axis to reconstruct defects in the posterior half of the mandible is the facial artery (average length 32.5 ± 1.9 mm, caliber 2.5 mm, and facial vein (average length 33.3 ± 1.8 mm, caliber 2.6 mm. Defects in the anterior half require an additional venous graft. The defect was shown to be significantly affecting the mechanical properties of the mandible (P value 0.0204. The animal was able to feed on soft diet from the 3rd postoperative day and returned to normal diet within a week. The mandible did not break during the period of follow up (2 months. Conclusions Our model introduces the concept of axial vascularization of mandibular constructs. This model can be used to assess bone regeneration for large bony defects in irradiated fields. This is the first study to introduce the

  19. An Axial Sliding Test for machine elements surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran;

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the years, it has become more and more important to find new methods for reducing friction and wear occurrence in machine elements. A possible solution is found in texturing the surfaces under tribological contact, hence the development and spread of plateau-honed surface for cylinder...... liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed Axial Sliding Test. It presents four major components: a rod, a sleeve...

  20. Electromagnetic Reciprocal Cloak with Only Axial Material Parameter Spatially Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal cloak is an intriguing metamaterial device, in which a hidden antenna or a sensor can receive electromagnetic irradiation from the outside but its presence will not be detected. Based on transformation optics, a cylindrical electromagnetic reciprocal cloak with only axial parameter varying with radius is designed and validated by full wave simulation. When two dispersive reciprocal cloaks are put together, they do not interfere with each other. Our work demonstrates the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC ability of the reciprocal cloak which is very important in multi antenna and sensor design.

  1. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciurea, A.; Weber, U.; Stekhoven, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the initiation of and response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) in private rheumatology practices versus academic centers. The Journal of Rheumatology, Methods.We compared newly initiated TNF inhibition for axSpA in 363 patients...... was slightly higher in the hospital setting. Mean levels (+/- SD) of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score were, however, virtually identical in private practices and academic centers (3.4 +/- 1.0 vs 3.4 +/- 0.9, p = 0.68). An Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS40) response...

  2. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  3. Model tests on a semi-axial pump turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Horacek, G.

    1984-03-01

    Due to their good hydraulic characteristic semi-axial pump turbines are used in the medium head range of pumped storage plants. This paper describes model tests performed on a semiaxial pump turbine model and shows the results of these tests. The aim of the model tests was the optimization of the hydraulic water passage, the measurement of the hydraulic characteristics over the whole operating range, the investigation of the cavitation behaviour, the investigation of the hydraulic forces and torques as well as the proof of the values guaranteed to the customer.

  4. One-loop corrections to the baryon axial vector current

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Hernández-Ruíz

    2012-10-01

    The symmetry breaking corrections to the pion–baryon couplings vanish to first order in $1/N_{c}$, where $N_{c}$ is the number of colours. Loop graphs with octet and decuplet intermediate states cancel to various orders in $N_{c}$ as a consequence of the large-$N_{c}$ spin-flavour symmetry of QCD baryons. The baryon axial vector current is computed at one-loop order in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory in the large Nc limit. $1/N_{c}$ corrections in the case of $g_{A}$ in QCD are presented here.

  5. [Inadvertent thoracic duct puncture during right axially central venous cannulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Itagaki, Taiga; Adachi, Yushi; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Midzuki; Doi, Matsuyuki; Sato, Shigehito

    2010-10-01

    A case of inadvertent thoracic duct puncture during right axially central venous cannulation is reported. The catheterization was performed under the real time ultrasound guidance technique and the coronal view image was continuously displayed. After confirming the feelings of venous puncture, clear yellow fluid was aspired into the connected syringe to the needle. Initially, an accidental thoracic puncture with subsequent pleural fluid aspiration was suspected;however, no finding of pleural effusion was observed with ultrasound imaging and computed tomography. Thus, an accidental thoracic duct puncture and the subsequent lymph fluid aspiration were suspected. Even in a right side approach for central venous catheterization, thoracic duct injury might ensure.

  6. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  7. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  8. DYNAMIC STABILITY OF AXIALLY MOVING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS WITH PULSATING SPEED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-dong; CHEN Li-qun

    2005-01-01

    Parametric vibration of an axially moving, elastic, tensioned beam with pulsating speed was investigated in the vicinity of subharmonic and combination resonance. The method of averaging was used to yield a set of autonomous equations when the parametric excitation frequency is twice or the combination of the natural frequencies. Instability boundaries were presented in the plane of parametric frequency and amplitude. The analytical results were numerically verified. The effects of the viscoelastic damping, steady speed and tension on the instability boundaries were numerically demonstrated. It is found that the viscoelastic damping decreases the instability regions and the steady speed and the tension make the instability region drift along the frequency axis.

  9. Renormalisation group flows for gauge theories in axial gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Gauge theories in axial gauges are studied using Exact Renormalisation Group flows. We introduce a background field in the infrared regulator, but not in the gauge fixing, in contrast to the usual background field gauge. It is shown how heat-kernel methods can be used to obtain approximate solutions to the flow and the corresponding Ward identities. Expansion schemes are discussed, which are not applicable in covariant gauges. As an application, we derive the one-loop effective action for covariantly constant field strength, and the one-loop beta-function for arbitrary regulator.

  10. Diffusion air effects on the soot axial distribution concentration in a premixed acetylene/air flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassani, Fabio Luis; Santos, Alex Alisson Bandeira; Goldstein Junior, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos]. E-mails: fassani@fem.unicamp.br; absantos@fem.unicamp.br; leonardo@fem.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Eletronica Quantica]. E-mail: ferrari@ifi.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Soot particles are produced during the high temperature pyrolysis or combustion of hydrocarbons. The emission of soot from a combustor, or from a flame, is determined by the competition between soot formation and its oxidation. Several factors affect these processes, including the type of fuel, the air-to-fuel ratio, flame temperature, pressure, and flow pattern. In this paper, the influence of the induced air diffusion on the soot axial distribution concentration in a premixed acetylene/air flame was studied. The flame was generated in a vertical axis burner in which the fuel - oxidant mixture flow was surrounded by a nitrogen discharge coming from the annular region between the burner tube and an external concentric tube. The nitrogen flow provided a shield that protected the flame from the diffusion of external air, enabling its control. The burner was mounted on a step-motor driven, vertical translation table. The use of several air-to-fuel ratios made possible to establish the sooting characteristics of this flame, by measuring soot concentration along the flame height with a non-intrusive laser light absorption technique. (author)

  11. Transient mathematical model for the axial annular fluid flow caused by drillpipe motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hudson F.; Ramalho, Vanessa A.O.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica. Lab. de Ciencias Termicas]. E-mails: hudsonhfk@yahoo.com.br; vanessinha123@gmail.com; negrao@utfpr.edu.br; silvio@utfpr.edu.br; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Pocos (TEP)]. E-mail: aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The axial movement of drill pipes is a common operation in oil well drilling. This motion displaces the drilling fluid and causes pressure changes in the borehole. The descending pipe movement increases the pressure at the bottomhole (surge) and its extraction reduces it (swab). If the bottomhole pressure overcomes the formation fracture pressure, circulation loss may take place. On the other hand, if the pressure within the well is smaller than the pore pressure, kicks can occur. In order to maintain the bottomhole pressure within the formation fracture and pore pressures, the drill pipe must be moved slowly and therefore, the task becomes quite time consuming. The current work presents a mathematical model to predict surge and swab pressures in annular spaces. The approach is based on conservation equations of mass and momentum. The fluid flow is considered laminar, one-dimensional, compressible, isothermal and transient. The fluid is regarded as Newtonian with constant compressibility. The viscous effect is lumped and the concept of friction factor is applied. The governing differential equations are non-linear and therefore, they are solved numerically by the finite volume method. A sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters is carried out. For instance, the pressure wave propagation is observed for low compressibility fluids. Pressure oscillation is observed for low aspect ratio ratios. (author)

  12. A Developed Methodology in Design of Highly Loaded Tandem Axial Flow Compressor Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Boroomand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, primarily reports the development of a 3D design procedure for axial flow tandem compressor stages and then the method is used to design a highly loaded tandem stage. In order to investigate the effects of such arrangement, another stage with conventional loading with single blade for both rotor and stator rows is designed with similar specification. In order to ease the comparison of results, chord lengths and hub/shroud geometries are selected with the same dimensions. At the next stage a three dimensional numerical model is developed to predict the characteristic performance of both tandem and conventional stages. The model is validated with the experimental results of NASA-67 stage and the level of the accuracy of the model is presented. Employing the model to simulate the performance of both stages at design and offdesign operating points show that, tandem stage can provide higher pressure ratio with acceptable efficiency. In another word, tandem stage is capable having the same pressure ratio at lower rotational speed. The safe operation domain and loss mechanism in tandem stage are also discussed in this report.

  13. Nonlocal axial load-bearing capacity of two neighboring perpendicular single-walled carbon nanotubes accounting for shear deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-11-01

    This study is devoted to examine load-bearing capacity of a nanosystem composed of two adjacent perpendicular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which are embedded in an elastic matrix. Accounting for the nonlocality and the intertube van der Waals forces, the governing equations are established based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko, and higher-order beam theories. These are sets of coupled integro-ordinary differential equations whose analytical solutions are unavailable. Hence, an efficient meshless methodology is proposed and the discrete governing equations are obtained via Galerkin approach. By solving the resulting set of eigenvalue equations, the axial buckling load of the elastically embedded nanosystem is evaluated. The roles of the radius and slenderness ratio of the constitutive SWCNTs, free distance between two tubes, small-scale parameter, aspect ratio, transverse and rotational stiffness of the surrounding matrix on the axial buckling load of the nanosystem are comprehensively addressed. The obtained results can be regarded as a pivotal step for better understanding the mechanism of elastic buckling of more complex systems such as elastically embedded-orthogonal membranes or even forests of SWCNTs.

  14. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  15. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  16. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  17. Fibromyalgia in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: epidemiological profile and effect on measures of disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; De Angelis, Rossella; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2014-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) characterized by axial involvement (axial-PsA), and to assess the discriminative ability of different versions of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) in measuring disease activity in three different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axial-SpA), FM, or both (axial-SpA + FM), this study was divided into two phases: (1) 402 patients with definite AS or axial-PsA were examined to diagnose FM and estimate its prevalence; and (2) 419 patients (111 with axial-SpA, 248 with FM, and 60 with aSpA + FM) were evaluated using the different versions of the ASDAS and BASDAI to assess the effect on disease activity. The overall prevalence of FM in the axial-SpA population was 14.9 %, significantly higher among women (p axial-PsA was 17.2 %. Although the BASDAI scores correlated with those of ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP) and ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p axial-SpA and more prevalent in female patients. Our findings suggest that ASDAS is better than BASDAI in distinguishing patients with disease activity from those with functional impairment. The use of ASDAS may be very useful in clinical practice as it allows treating patients with the most appropriate therapy.

  18. The term 'non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis' is much more important to classify than to diagnose patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Atul; Strand, Vibeke; Kay, Jonathan; Braun, Juergen

    2016-05-01

    The term axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) now is used frequently to describe patients with predominantly axial symptoms who fit into the spectrum of a well-recognised rheumatic disease that continues to be known as ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The 2009 Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria, developed to identify patients with early or atypical disease which could not be classified by the 1984 modified New York (mNY) criteria for AS, have led to a differentiation between non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and radiographic axSpA, which is largely synonymous with AS. The main reason to distinguish between these ends of the spectrum of axSpA was that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFi) approved for AS could obtain additional labelling for nr-axSpA and be used to treat all patients manifesting clinical features of axSpA. These two terms are distinguished by the degree of 'radiographic sacroiliitis' assessed by conventional radiography, according to the 1984 mNY criteria for AS. Since this differentiation has been shown to be not very reliable, we argue that the terms nr-axSpA and AS should only be used for classification of patients with axSpA and not as separate diagnoses. Therefore, we propose that only the term axSpA be used to diagnose patients, unless there is a meaningful medical reason to differentiate nr-axSpA from AS. The available data justify performing randomised controlled trials designed to obtain regulatory approval for therapeutic agents in patients across the entire spectrum of axSpA.

  19. Quasi-static compression of electric resistance welded mild steel tubes with axial gradient-distributed microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shengjie; Sun, Lei; Ma, Xudong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai (China)

    2016-05-15

    This paper presents the deformation behavior and crash worthiness of electric resistance welded mild steel tubes with axial gradient microstructures in quasi-static compression. Three sets of tubes were prepared, and regions of each tube were Induction heated and directly quenched (IH-DQ). The effect of the length to diameter (L/D) ratio, and length of the IH-DQ region on crushing characteristics was investigated, and compared with untreated tubes. The compression tests revealed that improved energy absorption can be obtained in IHDQ tubes if the collapse is controlled by the formation of a concertina buckling mode. However, there was a tendency to produce mixed or Euler buckling modes as the ratio of L/D increased. Meanwhile, the results of the crush experiments and the FEM models showed that the heat-treatment process should be precisely controlled to produce the correct type of microstructure, and circumferential uniformity of microstructure distribution.

  20. Wire electrochemical machining with axial electrolyte flushing for titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ningsong; Fang Xiaolong; Li Wei; Zeng Yongbin; Zhu Di

    2013-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have found very wide application in aerospace due to their excellent characteristics although their processing is still a challenge.Electrochemical machining is an important issue in the fabrication of titanium and titanium alloys.Wire electrochemical machining (WECM) is mainly used for workpiece cutting under the condition of different thickness plates.It has a great advantage over wire electro-discharge machining,which is the absence of heat-affected zone around the cutting area.Moreover,the wire electrode in WECM could be used repetitively because it is not worn out.Thus,much attention has been paid to WECM.The effective way of removing electrolysis products is of importance to WECM.In this paper,the axial electrolyte flushing is presented to WECM for removing electrolysis products and renewing electrolyte.The Taguchi experiment is conducted to optimize the machining parameters,such as wire feedrate,machining voltage,electrolyte concentration,etc.Experimental results show that WECM with axial electrolyte flushing is a promising issue in the fabrication of titanium alloy (TC1).The feasibility of multi-wire electrochemical machining is also demonstrated to improve the machining productivity of WECM.

  1. Development of a miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Outa, E; Ogino, S; Otake, Y; Shiozaki, H; Fujimoto, T; Tagusari, O; Kitamura, M

    1993-01-01

    A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as a totally implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). This pump consists of an impeller combined with a guide-vane, a tube housing, and a DC motor. The pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged to the ascending aorta. Our newly developed axial flow pump system has the following advantages: 1) it is a simple and compact system, 2) minimal blood stasis both in the device and the LV cavity, 3) minimal blood contacting surface of the pump, 4) easy accessibility with a less invasive surgical procedure, and 5) low cost. A pump flow > 5 L/min was obtained against 100 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. The pump could produce a passive pulsatile flow effect with a beating heart more efficiently than other non-pulsatile pumps because of minimal pressure drop and inertia along the bypass tract. Anatomic fit studies using dissected hearts of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cadavers showed that this pump could smoothly pass through the aortic valve without any interference with mitral valve function. Recently, a dynamic pressure groove bearing and a miniature lip seal have been developed. The dynamic pressure groove bearing has a simple structure and acts as a pressure resistant sealing mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Computational Study of Axial Fatigue for Peripheral Nitinol Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoli, Alessio; Dordoni, Elena; Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2014-07-01

    Despite their success as primary treatment for vascular diseases, Nitinol peripheral stents are still affected by complications related to fatigue failure. Hip and knee movements during daily activities produce large and cyclic deformations of the superficial femoral artery, that concomitant to the effects of pulsatile blood pressure, may cause fatigue failure in the stent. Fatigue failure typically occurs in cases of very extended lesions, which often require the use of two or more overlapping stents. In this study, finite element models were used to study the fatigue behavior of Nitinol stents when subjected to cyclic axial compression in different conditions. A specific commercial Nitinol stent was chosen for the analysis and subjected to cyclic axial compression typical of the femoral vascular region. Three different configurations were investigated: stent alone, stent deployed in a tube, and two overlapping stents deployed in a tube. Results confirm that stent oversizing has an influence in determining both the mean and amplitude strains induced in the stent and plays an important role in determining the fatigue response of Nitinol stents. In case of overlapping stents, numerical results suggest higher amplitude strains concentrate in the region close to the overlapping portion where the abrupt change in stiffness causes higher cyclic compression. These findings help to explain the high incidence of stent fractures observed in various clinical trials located close to the overlapping portion.

  3. On two transverse nonlinear models of axially moving beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear models of transverse vibration of axially moving beams are computationally investigated. A partial-differential equation is derived from the governing equation of coupled planar motion by omit- ting its longitudinal terms. The model can be reduced to an integro-partial-differential equation by av- eraging the beam disturbed tension. Numerical schemes are respectively presented for the governing equations of coupled planar and the two governing equations of transverse motion via the finite dif- ference method and differential quadrature method under the fixed boundary and the simple support boundary. A steel beam and a copper beam are treated as examples to demonstrate the deviations of the solutions to the two transverse equations from the solution to the coupled equation. The numerical results indicate that the differences increase with the amplitude of vibration and the axial speed. Both models yield almost the same precision results for small amplitude vibration and the inte- gro-partial-differential equation gives better results for large amplitude vibration.

  4. On two transverse nonlinear models of axially moving beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hu; CHEN LiQun

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear models of transverse vibration of axially moving beams are computationally investigated. A partial-differential equation is derived from the governing equation of coupled planar motion by omit-ting its longitudinal terms. The model can be reduced to an integro-partial-differential equation by av-eraging the beam disturbed tension. Numerical schemes are respectively presented for the governing equations of coupled planar and the two governing equations of transverse motion via the finite dif-ference method and differential quadrature method under the fixed boundary and the simple support boundary. A steel beam and a copper beam are treated as examples to demonstrate the deviations of the solutions to the two transverse equations from the solution to the coupled equation. The numerical results indicate that the differences increase with the amplitude of vibration and the axial speed. Both models yield almost the same precision results for small amplitude vibration and the inte-gro-partial-differential equation gives better results for large amplitude vibration.

  5. In vivo axial loading of the mouse tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Katherine M; Robling, Alexander G; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as anabolic procedures to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days.

  6. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  7. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  8. Mass Structure of Axial Vector Types of Leptons and Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2011-01-01

    A classification of currents with respect to C-operation admits the existence of C-noninvariant types of Dirac fermions. Among them one can meet an electroweakly charged C-antisymmetrical leptons, the mass of which includes the electric and weak components responsible for the existence of their anapole charge, charge radius and electric dipole moment. Such connections can constitute the paraleptons of axial-vector currents, for example, at the interactions with field of spinless nuclei of true neutrality. We derive the united equations which relate the structural parts of mass to anapole, charge radius and electric dipole of any truly neutral lepton in the framework of flavour symmetry. Thereby, they establish the C-odd nature of leptons and fields at the level of constancy law of the size implied from the multiplication of a weak mass of C-antisymmetrical lepton by its electric mass. Therefore, all leptons of C-antisymmetricality regardless of the difference in masses of an axial-vector character, have the s...

  9. Axial Vector Current Matrix Elements and QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupathy, J; Singh, Ritesh K.

    2003-01-01

    The matrix element of the isoscalar axial vector current, $\\bar{u}\\gamma_\\mu\\gamma_5u + \\bar{d}\\gamma_\\mu\\gamma_5d $, between nucleon states is computed using the external field QCD sum rule method. The external field induced correlator, $$, is calculated from the spectrum of the isoscalar axial vector meson states. Since it is difficult to ascertain, from QCD sum rule for hyperons, the accuracy of validity of flavour SU(3) symmetry in hyperon decays when strange quark mass is taken into account, we rely on the empirical validity of Cabbibo theory to dertermine the matrix element $\\bar{u}\\gamma_{\\mu}\\gamma_5 u + \\bar{d}\\gamma_{\\mu}\\gamma_5 d - 2 \\bar{s}\\gamma_{\\mu}\\gamma_5 s$ between nucleon states. Combining with our calculation of $\\bar{u}\\gamma_{\\mu}\\gamma_5 u + \\bar{d}\\gamma_{\\mu}\\gamma_5 d$ and the well known nucleon $\\beta$-decay constant allows us to determine $$ occuring in the Bjorken sum rule. The result is in reasonable agreement with experiment. We also discuss the role of the anomaly in maintaini...

  10. Molecular dynamics study of nanojoining between axially positioned Ag nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianlei; Theogene, Barayavuga; Wang, Xuewen; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Kedian

    2016-08-01

    The miniaturization of electronics devices into nanometer scale is indispensable for next-generation semiconductor technology. Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) are considered to be the promising candidates for future electronic circuit owing to the excellent electrical and thermal properties. The nanojoining of axially positioned Ag NWs was performed by molecular dynamics simulation. Through the detailed atomic evolution during the nanojoining, the results indicate that the temperature and the distance between Ag NWs in axial direction have a great impact on nanojoining effect. When the nanojoining temperature is relatively high, the atoms are disordered and the atomic queues become to distort with strong thermodynamic properties and weak effect of metal bonds. At the relatively low temperature, the Ag NWs can be well connected with good junction quality and their own morphology, which is similar to the cold welding without fusion, while the distance between Ag NWs should be controlled for interaction and diffusion of interfacial atoms at nanowires head. When the Ag NWs are placed on Si and SiO2 substrate, because the atomic species and lattice structure of substrate material can differently affect the motions of Ag atoms through the interactive force between the atoms, the nanojoining quality of Ag NWs on Si substrate is better than that on the SiO2 substrate. So, for getting effective and reliable nanojoining without nanosolders and other materials, the temperature, distance and substrate surface should be reasonably controlled and selected, providing helpful theoretical guidance for experiment and application of nanojoining.

  11. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmold, William; Lin, C-J David; Meinel, Stefan

    2012-04-27

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeVaxial couplings are g(1)=0.449(51), g(2)=0.84(20), and g(3)=0.71(13), where g(1) governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g(2,3) are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g(3), and constraining 1/m(Q) corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for Σ(c)(*) decays, we obtain Γ[Σ(b)(*)→Λ(b)π(±)]=4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the Σ(b)(+), Σ(b)(-), Σ(b)(*+), Σ(b)(*-) initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the Ξ(b)(I(*)) baryons.

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SPHERICAL, CYLINDRICAL AND AXIAL BUBBLE CLOUDS COLLAPSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHDI Miralam; EBRAHIMI Reza; SHAMS Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a spherical,cylindrical and axial cloud of cavitation bubbles were numerically simulated in order to learn more about the physical phenomena occurring in the cloud cavitation.The simulations employed the fully nonlinear continuum mixture equations coupled with the Gilmore equation for the dynamics of bubbles by considering the compressibility of liquid.A set of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved for the gas inside a spherical bubble,considering heat transfer through the gas inside the bubble and the liquid layer.The flow field around the cylindrical and axial cloud was obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using a finite volume method and a dynamic layering mesh scheme.The calculated strength of shock wave in the liquid around the cloud was of the order of 1 × 106 Pa and the propagation of this shock wave lasted for 10 μs.The conducted investigations illustrate that the shock wave propagates before the cloud has completely collapsed.A good agreement with experimental data was observed.

  13. Axial offset anomalies and local pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarin, F.; Montes, M. [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas S.A. Technology and Quality, Madrid (Spain); Izquierdo, J. [IBERDROLA Generacion S.A. Unidad de Tecnologia de Materiales, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, J. [Asociacion Nuclear Asco-Vandellos, A.I.E. Licenciamiento y Combustible, Tarragona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Small radial and axial offset anomalies (AOA) in some Spanish PWR-type NPP's, in addition to the knowledge of the existence of similar anomalies in U.S. PWR's, led us in 1993 to study this problem. Important parameters were correlated for a database of plant operating data consisting of six cycles of five different PWR plants (all of them of the Westinghouse 3-loop, 12 ft., 17 x 17 fuel design). One of these cycles (the oldest one) followed the standard constant pH{sub 308} = 7.0, and the remaining ones followed a modified elevated pH control strategy (the pH at EOC is typically 7.4). Only for the oldest cycle that used the standard pH control was the in-core and ex-core axial offset values found to be in good agreement with the predictions, and an anomalous soluble boron curve behavior not observed. (author)

  14. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reji K Dhaman; V Krishnakumar; V P Mahadevan Pillai; M Satyanarayana; K Raghunath

    2014-02-01

    The study on the optical characteristics of aerosol is carried out using the dual polarization lidar observations from the tropical inland station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) for the period of observation during the year 2010. The summer and monsoon observation days show high scattering ratio at the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and at the lower stratosphere region. The depolarization ratio is also high at this altitude due to the transport of particulates to the TTL layer by the active convection prevailing at the period. The study reveals more dependable values of scattering ratio that are seasonal and range-dependent.

  15. Effect of weld reinforcement on axial plastic buckling of welded steel cylindrical shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu-lin YU; Zhi-ping CHEN; Ji WANG; Shun-juan YAN; Li-cai YANG

    2012-01-01

    The effect of weld reinforcement on axial plastic buckling of welded steel cylindrical shells is investigated through experimental and numerical buckling analysis using six welded steel cylindrical shell specimens.The relationship between the amplitude of weld reinforcement and the axial plastic buckling critical load is explored.The effect of the material yield strength and the number of circumferential welds on the axial plastic buckling is studied.Results show that circumferential weld reinforcement represents a severe imperfect form of axially compressed welded steel cylindrical shells and the axial plastic buckling critical load decreases with the increment of the mean amplitude of circumferential weld reinforcement.The material yield strength and the number of circumferential welds are found to have no significant effect on buckling waveforms; however,the axial plastic buckling critical load can be decreased to some extent with the increase of the number of circumferential welds.

  16. Cdx and T Brachyury Co-activate Growth Signaling in the Embryonic Axial Progenitor Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrate embryos, anterior tissues are generated early, followed by the other axial structures that emerge sequentially from a posterior growth zone. The genetic network driving posterior axial elongation in mice, and its disturbance in mutants with posterior truncation, is not yet fully understood. Here, we show that the combined expression of Cdx2 and T Brachyury is essential to establish the core signature of posterior axial progenitors. Cdx2 and T Brachyury are required for extension of a similar trunk portion of the axis. Simultaneous loss of function of these two genes disrupts axial elongation to a much greater extent than each single mutation alone. We identify and validate common targets for Cdx2 and T Brachyury in vivo, including Wnt and Fgf pathway components active in the axial progenitor niche. Our data demonstrate that integration of the Cdx/Hox and T Brachyury transcriptional networks controls differential axial growth during vertebrate trunk elongation.

  17. THE STABILITY OF AN AXIALLY ACCELERATING BEAM ON SIMPLE SUPPORTS WITH TORSION SPRINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Chen Liqun

    2005-01-01

    The axially moving beams on simple supports with torsion springs are studied. The general modal functions of the axially moving beam with constant speed have been obtained from the supporting conditions. The contribution of the spring stiffness to the natural frequencies has been numerically investigated. Transverse stability is also studied for axially moving beams on simple supports with torsion springs. The method of multiple scales is applied to the partialdifferential equation governing the transverse parametric vibration. The stability boundary is derived from the solvability condition. Instability occurs if the axial speed fluctuation frequency is close to the sum of any two natural frequencies or is two fold natural frequency of the unperturbed system. It can be concluded that the spring stiffness makes both the natural frequencies and the instability regions smaller in the axial speed fluctuation frequency-amplitude plane for given mean axial speed and bending stiffness of the beam.

  18. Defining and Generating Axial Lines from Street Center Lines for better Understanding of Urban Morphologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xintao

    2010-01-01

    Axial lines are defined as the longest visibility lines for representing individual linear spaces in urban environments. The least number of axial lines that cover the free space of an urban environment constitute what is often called an axial map. This is a fundamental tool in space syntax, a theory developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues for characterizing the underlying urban morphologies. For a long time, generating axial lines with help of some graphic software has been a tedious manual process that is criticized for being time consuming, subjective, or even arbitrary. In this paper, we redefine axial lines as the least number of individual straight line segments mutually intersected along natural streets that are generated from street center lines using the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Based on this new definition, we develop an automatic solution to generating the newly defined axial lines from street center lines. We apply this solution to six typical street networks (three from North Am...

  19. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  20. Axial design of fuel for BWRs using neural networks; Diseno axial de combustible para BWRs usando redes neuronales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In this work a new system of axial optimization of fuel is presented based on a recurrent multi state neural net called RENODC. They are described with detail the main characteristics of this type of neural net (architecture, energy function and actualization of neural states) and like was adapted to the assemble design of nuclear fuel. The fuel design is proven by means of a fuel recharge and pre determined control rod patterns. By this way a good axial fuel design one has, when the thermal limits are fulfilled along the cycle, the reactor stays critic and at least the wanted longitude of the cycle is reached; also the margin of in cold turned off is verified. The assemble of fuel created with RENODC it is substituted by a recharge assemble and it is sought to verify that the energy requirements and aspects of safety are completed. The used cycle corresponds to a balance cycle of 18 months that it can be applied to the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the system to reach satisfactory results in times of CPU of around 4 hours. This way, it could be proven that the design proposed with a lightly superior enrichment to that of the substituted design, fulfills the energy requirements. In later stages of this project this system will be coupled to the other optimization modules that are already had. (Author)

  1. Detailed measurement of the flow field in an axial transonic compressor; Mesure detaillee des ecoulements dans un compresseur axial transsonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, C.

    1998-07-01

    The prediction of flow structure and performances of an axial transonic compressor requires accurate solvers. Taking into account the complex flow patterns, it is important to validate codes by comparing it with experimental results. It is well understood that the availability of experimental data is fundamentally important for the improvement of the solvers. An axial transonic compressor has been fitted in the ERECA test facility of ONERA. The rotor of this compressor is isolated from stators. This experimental configuration allows to obtain a steady flow into the relative frame linked to the rotor. Due to this fact, experimental tests became easier because the basic phenomena are not hidden by mutual interactions rotor-stator. Measurements have been made in a test section far upstream the rotor, to provide the inlet conditions in the computation domain. Non intrusive and fast response measurement techniques allow to obtain the detailed flow structure in several test sections located in the rotor and far downstream it. All tests were carried out at four operating conditions of the compressor. Results provide good test cases for numerical prediction methods using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solvers. (author)

  2. Axial-vector dominance predictions in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, J E

    2015-01-01

    We use the minimum meson-dominance ansatz compatible with low- and high energy constrains to model the nucleon axial form factor. The parameters of the resulting axial form factor are the masses and widths of the two axial mesons, incorporated as a product of monopoles. By applying the half width rule in a Monte Carlo simulation a distribution of theoretical predictions can be generated for the neutrino-nucleus quasielastic cross section. We test the model by applying it to the $(\

  3. Magnetic field uniformity of the practical tri-axial Helmholtz coils systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, R

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, effects of the assembly misalignments and the manufacturing mismatches on the magnetic field uniformity of a practical tri-axial Helmholtz coils system have been modeled mathematically. These undesired effects regularly occur in any practical tri-axial Helmholtz coils system. To confirm the mathematical calculations, a tri-axial Helmholtz coils system has been constructed and the uniformity of its magnetic field has been measured under different conditions. The experimental results are in good agreement with the mathematical analyses.

  4. Design and Enantioselective Construction of Axially Chiral Naphthyl-Indole Skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hao; Wang, Cong-Shuai; Li, Can; Mei, Guang-Jian; Li, Yuxue; Shi, Feng

    2017-01-02

    The first enantioselective construction of a new class of axially chiral naphthyl-indole skeletons has been established by organocatalytic asymmetric coupling reactions of 2-naphthols with 2-indolylmethanols (up to 99 % yield, 97:3 e.r.). This approach not only affords a new type of axially chiral heterobiaryl backbone, but also provides a new catalytic enantioselective strategy for constructing axially chiral biaryl scaffolds by making use of the C3-electrophilicity of 2-indolylmethanols.

  5. Effect of Axial Pre-Compression on Lateral Performance of Masonry Under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed HassanFarooq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening of masonry against seismic events is very essential and getting maximum attention of researchers around the globe. An extensive experimental program was carried out to study the in-plane lateral performance of un-reinforced masonry, strengthened and retrofitted masonry wall panels under lateral cyclic loading. Twenty tests were carried out; four tests under monotonic lateral loading, twelve tests under static cyclic loading and four tests under pure compression. The test results were analyzed in five groups and this paper presents the analysis of group 4, which deals with effect of axial pre-compression on masonry seismic performance. Three single leaf panels with aspect ratio of 0.67 having size 1.65x1.1m were constructed using same material and workmanship. All the three un-reinforced walls were tested under 0, 0.5 and 1.0MPa vertical pre-compression and displacement controlled static cyclic loading. The wall tested under 0.5MPa pre-compression was reference specimen. The key parameters studied were hysterics behavior, peak lateral load, ultimate lateral displacement, energy dissipation, ductility, response factor and damping ratio. It was observed that level of axial pre-compression has significant effect on lateral capacity, failure mode and performance of masonry. In case of zero pre-compression the lateral capacity was very less and wall went into rocking failure at early stages of loading. Increase in pre-compression to 1.0MPa enhanced the lateral capacity by a factor of 1.92 times. After analysis of test results, it is found that pre-compression has significant effect on lateral capacity, failure mode and performance of masonry. In case of zero pre-compression the lateral capacity was very less and wall went into rocking failure at early stages of loading. Increase in pre-compression to 1.0MPa enhanced the lateral capacity by a factor of 1.92 times. After analysis of test results, it is found that pre-compression has very

  6. Dynamic impedance of piles in visco-elastic material considering axial loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-guo; ZHOU Xu-hong; ZHANG Jia-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic impedance function of pile in visco-elastie material considering axial loads under lateral dynamic force was analyzed, and the beam dynamic differential equation was used to induce the dynamic impedance function. After analyzing the edge conditions, the dynamic impedance functions were deduced. Contrasted with the result that does not consider axial loads, the axial loads have obvious influence on the dynamic impedance function.And the results show that the dimensionless prarmeter of the dynamic impedance will change from 6 % to 9 % when considering axial loads, and dimensionless prarmeter of the dynamic impedance of the coupling horizontal-sway will increase by 31 %.

  7. Significance of axial length monitoring in children with congenital cataract and update of measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiao; Lin, Haotian; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2013-06-01

    Congenital cataract is the main cause of blindness in children, with significantly varying treatment effects. The development of axial length is an important factor that affects the prognosis of these children. However, when compared with the eyes of normal children, the mechanism of growth of the axial length is so complicated that the reported findings differ significantly in terms of the measuring apparatus, assessment methods, and statistical outcome, making the rule of axial length development still unclear. In this paper, we first review the process of axial length development in normal healthy children and compare different hypotheses about certain factors that could affect the development of axial length. The results of some current research about the characteristics of axial length development in congenital cataract children are then reviewed. Lastly, the advantages and disadvantages of current axial length measurements methods are compared and analyzed. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the complexity and importance of axial length development and to suggest better use of axial length monitoring measurements in congenital cataract children for pediatric ophthalmologists, with the hope of offering assistance that will enhance long-term therapeutic effects for these children.

  8. Resolving optical illumination distributions along an axially symmetric photodetecting fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Fabien; Lestoquoy, Guillaume; Danto, Sylvain; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2010-11-08

    Photodetecting fibers of arbitrary length with internal metal, semiconductor and insulator domains have recently been demonstrated. These semiconductor devices exhibit a continuous translational symmetry which presents challenges to the extraction of spatially resolved information. Here, we overcome this seemingly fundamental limitation and achieve the detection and spatial localization of a single incident optical beam at sub-centimeter resolution, along a one-meter fiber section. Using an approach that breaks the axial symmetry through the constuction of a convex electrical potential along the fiber axis, we demonstrate the full reconstruction of an arbitrary rectangular optical wave profile. Finally, the localization of up to three points of illumination simultaneously incident on a photodetecting fiber is achieved.

  9. Performance studies on an axial flow compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaram, N.

    1986-12-01

    A low-speed, medium loaded axial flow compressor stage is studied experimentally and theoretically. The flow compressor facility, composed of an inlet guide vane row, a rotor blade row, and a stator blade row, and the principles of the streamline curvature method (SCM) and the Douglas-Neumann cascade program are described. The radial distribution of the flow properties, the rotor blade static pressure distribution, and the lift coefficient and relative flow angle derived experimentally and theoretically are compared. It is determined that there is good correlation between the experimental flow properties and the SCM data, the Douglas-Neumann cascade program and experimental rotor blade static pressure data, and the experimental and theoretical lift coefficients only in the midspan region. Modifications to the SCM and the Douglas-Neumann cascade program in order to improve their accuracy are discussed.

  10. Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Xiangyang DENG; Jingyi CHEN; Weiguang HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates effects of operating conditions, tip clearance sizes and external unsteady excitations on the unsteady tip clearance flow in an isolated axial compressor rotor by unsteady 3D Navier-Stokes simulations. The results show that the unsteady tip clearance vortex takes a periodic flow behavior in the rotor tip region. With the decrease of the flow coefficient, the unsteady tip clearance vortex is enhanced and its frequency becomes lower. A larger tip clearance size can cause bigger unsteady fluctuation amplitude and a lower fluctuation frequency of the tip clearance vortex at the near stall operating condition. The unsteady excitation with the natural frequency of the tip clearance vortex can enhance the unsteadiness of the tip clearance vortex and improve the overall rotor performance. The frequency of the unsteady tip clearance vortex is independent of external unsteady excitations with different frequencies.

  11. Axial shape index calculation for the 3-level excore detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Byung Sop; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Sung Jae [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A new method based on the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is developed to calculate axial shape index (ASI) for the 3-level excore detector. The ACE algorithm, a type of nonparametric regression algorithms, yields an optimal relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. In this study, the simple correlation between ASI and excore detector signals is developed using the Younggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 (YGN-3) data without any preprocessing on the relationships between independent variables and dependent variable. The numerical results show that simple correlations exist between the three excore signals and ASI of the core. The accuracy of the new method is much better than those of the current CPC and COLSS algorithms. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  12. NON-LINEAR FORCED VIBRATION OF AXIALLY MOVING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Chen Li-Qun

    2006-01-01

    The non-linear forced vibration of axially moving viscoelastic beams excited by the vibration of the supporting foundation is investigated. A non-linear partial-differential equation governing the transverse motion is derived from the dynamical, constitutive equations and geometrical relations. By referring to the quasi-static stretch assumption, the partial-differential non-linearity is reduced to an integro-partial-differential one. The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations with the two types of non-linearity, respectively. The amplitude of near- and exact-resonant steady state is analyzed by use of the solvability condition of eliminating secular terms. Numerical results are presented to show the contributions of foundation vibration amplitude, viscoelastic damping, and nonlinearity to the response amplitude for the first and the second mode.

  13. Treatment challenges in axial spondylarthritis and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, Joachim

    2013-09-01

    Major progress has been made in recent years in the management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). Most predictors of response have been defined for TNF-blocker therapy, and new treatment strategies are being discussed about how to best reach remission and how to maintain remission. Other biologics besides TNF-blockers have been tested in AS but have so far failed. The IL-17/IL-23 cytokines currently seem to be the most interesting targets. Short-term TNF-blocker therapy does not inhibit radiographic progression but long-term might do so. NSAIDs have been proven to inhibit such progression, even after 2 years of treatment. The effect of a combined therapy of NSAIDs with TNF-blockers on the inhibition of new bone formation in AS patients is currently unknown.

  14. Failure processes in embedded monolayer graphene under axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Frank, Otakar; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Sfyris, Dimitris; Parthenios, John; Pugno, Nicola; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Novoselov, Kostya S; Galiotis, Costas

    2014-06-12

    Exfoliated monolayer graphene flakes were embedded in a polymer matrix and loaded under axial compression. By monitoring the shifts of the 2D Raman phonons of rectangular flakes of various sizes under load, the critical strain to failure was determined. Prior to loading care was taken for the examined area of the flake to be free of residual stresses. The critical strain values for first failure were found to be independent of flake size at a mean value of -0.60% corresponding to a yield stress up to -6 GPa. By combining Euler mechanics with a Winkler approach, we show that unlike buckling in air, the presence of the polymer constraint results in graphene buckling at a fixed value of strain with an estimated wrinkle wavelength of the order of 1-2 nm. These results were compared with DFT computations performed on analogue coronene/PMMA oligomers and a reasonable agreement was obtained.

  15. Collimation of laser-produced plasmas using axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassan, Syed M.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas; Hassanein, A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the expansion dynamics of laser-produced plasmas expanding into an axial magnetic field. Plasmas were generated by focusing 1.064 µm Nd:YAG laser pulses onto a planar tin target in vacuum and allowed to expand into a 0.5 T magnetic-filed where field lines were aligned along the plume expansion direction. Gated images employing intensified CCD showed focusing of the plasma plume, which were also compared with results obtained using particle-in-cell modelling methods. The estimated density and temperature of the plasma plumes employing emission spectroscopy revealed significant changes in the presence and absence of the 0.5T magnetic field. In the presence of the field, the electron temperature is increased with distance from the target, while the density showed opposite effects.

  16. Axial dipolar dynamo action in the Taylor-Green vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Giorgio; Thorner, Gentien; Vest, Julien-Piera; Fauve, Stephan; Brachet, Marc

    2011-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the magnetic field generated by the Taylor-Green vortex. We show that periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic realistic boundary conditions by prescribing the symmetries of the velocity and magnetic fields. This gives insight into some problems of central interest for dynamos: the possible effect of velocity fluctuations on the dynamo threshold, and the role of boundary conditions on the threshold and on the geometry of the magnetic field generated by dynamo action. In particular, we show that an axial dipolar dynamo similar to the one observed in a recent experiment can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the symmetries of the magnetic field. The nonlinear saturation is studied and a simple model explaining the magnetic Prandtl number dependence of the super- and subcritical nature of the dynamo transition is given.

  17. Optimal design of axial hydro turbine for micro hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, S.; Kasaeian, N.

    2012-11-01

    In our country we have enormous low head potation flows in agricultures and aquacultures with almost fix flow rates that can be used as micro hydro power plants for producing energy. But the main problem is the high capital price per kW. Therefore there is needed to design a simple machine with a good runner for covering the various potential flows. In this paper an axial hydro turbine has designed for some low heads micro potential flow with flow rates ranged from 50 lit/sec to 150 lit/sec and heads ranged from 1 m to 5 m. The initial runner designed using classical methods and then the runner geometry has been optimized by evolutionary optimization algorithms. The final design has been simulated by a commercial flow solver in a various blade positions. The results showed a wide range characteristic curve with a wide range high efficiency.

  18. Axial dechanneling and its application to defect analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, K.; Goetz, G.; Hehl, K. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik)

    1984-03-01

    Within the basic description of Lindhard a theoretical model of axial dechanneling starting from the master equation for transverse energy distribution is developed. In contrast to the diffusion model, large changes in transverse energy are included which are of special importance for defects. Numerical results of the minimum backscattering yield for perfect crystals, crystals with point defects and crystals with dislocations show good agreement with experimental data for different temperatures and energies. This is the basis for the application to defect analysis. For point defects the measurement of temperature dependence of the minimum yield proved to be a very suitable method for the determination of preferred lattice positions if they are not too far from the string (< or approx. 0.07 nm in silicon).

  19. Invariant and energy analysis of an axially retracting beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Liu Ming; Zhang Wei; Roderick V.N. Melnik

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of a retracting cantilevered beam has been investigated by the invariant and energy-based analysis. The time-varying parameter partial differential equation governing the transverse vibrations of a beam with retracting motion is derived based on the momentum theorem. The assumed-mode method is used to truncate the governing partial differential equation into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with time-dependent coefficients. It is found that if the order of truncation is not less than the order of the initial conditions, the assumed-mode method can yield accurate results. The energy transfers among assumed modes are discussed during retrac-tion. The total energy varying with time has been investigated by numerical and analytical methods, and the results have good agreement with each other. For the transverse vibrations of the axially retracting beam, the adiabatic invariant is derived by both the averaging method and the Bessel function method.

  20. Effect of inlet box on performance of axial flow fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyin LI; Hua TIAN; Xiaofang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations on 3D flow fields in an axial flow fan with and without an inlet box have been extensively conducted, focusing on the variation of fan performance caused by the internal flow fields and the velocity evenness at the exit of the inlet box. It is interest-ing to find that although the inlet box is well designed in accordance with basic design principles, there is a flow separation region in it. Furthermore, this flow separation and the resulting uneven velocity distribution at the exit lead to some decrease in the efficiency and an increase in the total pressure rise of the fan. This research shows that the inlet box needs further improvement and such a check on the flow fields is of value for the design of inlet boxes.

  1. Skyrme RPA for spherical and axially symmetric nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Repko, Anton; Nesterenko, V O; Reinhard, P -G

    2015-01-01

    Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is the basic method for calculation of excited states of nuclei over the Hartree-Fock ground state, suitable also for energy density functionals (EDF or DFT). We developed a convenient formalism for expressing densities and currents in a form of reduced matrix elements, which allows fast calculation of spectra for spherical nuclei. All terms of Skyrme functional were taken into account, so it is possible to calculate electric, magnetic and vortical/toroidal/compression transitions and strength functions of any multipolarity. Time-odd (spin) terms in Skyrme functional become important for magnetic M1 and isovector toroidal E1 transitions. It was also found that transition currents in pygmy region (low-lying part of E1 resonance) exhibit isoscalar toroidal flow, so the previously assumed picture of neutron-skin vibration is not the only mechanism present in pygmy transitions. RPA calculations with heavy axially-symmetric nuclei now become feasible on ordinary PC. Detailed formul...

  2. Axial electron channeling statistical method of site occupancy determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Multibeams dynamical theory of electron diffraction has been used to calculate the fast electron thickness-integrated probability density on Ti and Al sites in the γ-TiAl phase as a function of the incident electron beam orientation along \\[100\\], \\[110\\] and \\[011\\] zone axes, with the effect of absorption considered. Both of the calculation and experiments show that there are big differences in electron channeling effect for different zone axes or the same axis but with different orientations, so we should choose proper zone axis and suitable incident beam tilting angles when using the axial electron channeling statistical method to determine the site occupancies of impurities. It is suggested to calculate the channeling effect map before the experiments.

  3. Forming method of axial micro grooves inside copper heat pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; XIAO Hui; LIAN Bin; TANG Yong; ZENG Zhi-xin

    2008-01-01

    The high-speed oil-filled ball spinning and drawing process was put forward to manufacture the axially grooved heat pipe with highly efficient heat-transfer performance, and the forming mechanism of micro-grooves inside the pipe was investigated. The key factors influencing the configurations of micro-grooves were analyzed. When the spinning depth varies between 0.4 mm and 0.5 mm, drawing speed varies from 200 mm/min to 450 mm/min, rotary speed is beyond 6 000 r/min and working temperature is less than 50 ℃, the grooved tubes are formed with high quality and efficiency. The ball spinning process uses full oil-filling method to set up the steady dynamic oil-film that reduces the drawing force and improves the surface quality of grooved copper tube.

  4. Operational Experience with a Cryogenic Axial-Centrifugal Compressor

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Löhlein, K; Purtschert, W; Ziegler, B L; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Brunovsky, I; Tucek, L

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires large refrigeration capacity at 1.8 K. Compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures is therefore inevitable. Together with subcontractors, Linde Kryotechnik has developed a prototype machine. This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating at ambient temperature. Integrated in a test facility for superconducting magnets the machine has been commissioned without major problems and successfully gone through the acceptance test in autumn 1995. Subsequent steps were initiated to improve efficiency of this prototype. This paper describes operating experience gained so far and reports on measured performance prior to and after constructional modifications.

  5. The Effect of Ultrapolish on a Transonic Axial Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William B.; Thorp, Scott; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Back-to-back testing has been done using NASA fan rotor 67 in the Glenn Research Center W8 Axial Compressor Test Facility. The rotor was baseline tested with a normal industrial RMS surface finish of 0.5-0.6 m (20-24 microinches) at 60, 80 and 100% of design speed. At design speed the tip relative Mach number was 1.38. The blades were then removed from the facility and ultrapolished to a surface finish of 0.125 m (5 microinch) or less and retested. At 100% speed near the design point, the ultrapolished blades showed approximately 0.3 - 0.5% increase in adiabatic efficiency. The difference was greater near maximum flow. Due to increased relative measurement error at 60 and 80% speed, the performance difference between the normal and ultrapolished blades was indeterminate at these speeds.

  6. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Fuentes-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones.

  7. Axial dependence of optical weak measurements in the critical region

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Manoel P; Maia, Gabriel G

    2015-01-01

    The interference between optical beams of different polarizations plays a fundamental role in reproducing the optical analog of the electron spin weak measurement. The extraordinary point in optical weak measurements is represented by the possibility to estimate with great accuracy the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift by measuring the distance between the peak of the outgoing beams for two opposite rotation angles of the polarizers located before and after the dielectric block. Starting from the numerical calculation of the GH shift, which clearly shows a frequency crossover for incidence near to the critical angle, we present a detailed study of the interference between s and p polarized waves in the critical region. This allows to determine in which conditions it is possible to avoid axial deformations and reproduce the GH curves. In view of a possible experimental implementation, we give the expected weak measurement curves for Gaussian lasers of different beam waist sizes propagating through borosilicate (BK7) an...

  8. Fast imaging of mean, axial and radial diffusion kurtosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian; Shemesh, Noam; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is being increasingly reported to provide sensitive biomarkers of subtle changes in tissue microstructure. However, DKI also imposes larger data requirements than diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), hence, the widespread adaptation and exploration of DKI would...... for the first time, and referred to as axially symmetric DKI. The second approach is applicable in tissues with a priori known principal diffusion direction, and does not require fitting of any kind. The approaches are evaluated in human brain in vivo as well as in fixed rat spinal cord, and are demonstrated...... benefit from more efficient acquisition and computational methods. To meet this demand, we recently developed a method capable of estimating mean kurtosis with only 13 diffusion weighted images. This approach was later shown to provide very accurate mean kurtosis estimates and to be more efficient...

  9. Experimental investigation of axially aligned flow past spinning cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2016-11-01

    Experimental and numerical results of ongoing subsonic investigations of the flow field about axially aligned spinning cylinders with variable inter-cylinder spacing are presented. The experimental design is capable of investigating wake dynamics of the modeled system up to a Reynolds Number of 300,000 and rotation numbers up to 2. The experimental results are used to validate and confirm numerical simulations with and without the effects of swirl. The focus of the overall effort is an understanding of the dynamics of multi-body problems in a flow field, as such we relate the ongoing effort to previous studies by both the authors and the community at large and our ongoing work in developing accurate plant models for use in engineering analysis and design. Funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  10. The genetics of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip C; Brown, Matthew A

    2012-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and spondyloarthritis are strongly genetically determined. The long-standing association with HLA-B27 is well described, although the mechanism by which that association induces AS remains uncertain. Recent developments include the description of HLA-B27 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in European and Asian populations. An increasing number of non-MHC genetic associations have been reported, which provided amongst other things the first evidence of the involvement of the IL-23 pathway in AS. The association with ERAP1 is now known to be restricted to HLA-B27 positive disease. Preliminary studies on the genetics of axial spondyloarthritis demonstrate a lower HLA-B27 carriage rate compared with AS. Studies with larger samples and including non-European ethnic groups are likely to further advance the understanding of the genetics of AS and spondyloarthritis.

  11. Seeing the Axial Line: Evidence from Wayfinding Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Emo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Space-geometric measures are proposed to explain the location of fixations during wayfinding. Results from an eye tracking study based on real-world stimuli are analysed; the gaze bias shows that attention is paid to structural elements in the built environment. Three space-geometric measures are used to explain the data: sky area, floor area and longest line of sight. Together with the finding that participants choose the more connected street, a relationship is proposed between the individual cognitive processes that occur during wayfinding, relative street connectivity measured through space syntactic techniques and the spatial geometry of the environment. The paper adopts an egocentric approach to gain a greater understanding on how individuals process the axial map.

  12. Micro-Doppler Frequency Comb Generation by Axially Rotating Scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, Vitali; Yankelevich, Yefim; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering in accelerating reference frames inspires a variety of phenomena, requiring employment of general relativity for their description. While the quasi-stationary field analysis could be applied to slowly-accelerating bodies as a first-order approximation, the scattering problem remains fundamentally nonlinear in boundary conditions, giving rise to multiple frequency generation (micro-Doppler shifts). Here a frequency comb, generated by an axially rotating subwavelength (cm-range) wire and split ring resonator (SRR), is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally by illuminating the system with a 2GHz carrier wave. Highly accurate lock in detection scheme enables factorization of the carrier and observation of more than ten peaks in a comb. The Hallen integral equation is employed for deriving the currents induced on the scatterer at rest and a set of coordinate transformations, connecting laboratory and rotating frames, is applied in order to predict the spectral positions and a...

  13. A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L

    1997-01-01

    CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

  14. Global axial-torsional dynamics during rotary drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunit K.; Wahi, Pankaj

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the global dynamics of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during rotary drilling with a lumped parameter axial-torsional model for the drill-string and a linear cutting force model. Our approach accounts for bit-bounce and stick-slip along with the regenerative effect and is independent of the drill-string and the bit-rock interaction model. Regenerative axial dynamics due to variable depth of cut is incorporated through a functional description of the cut surface profile instead of a delay differential equation with a state-dependent delay. The evolution of the cut surface is governed by a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) which is coupled with the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the longitudinal and angular dynamics of the BHA. The boundary condition for the PDE captures multiple regeneration in the event of bit-bounce. Interruption in the torsional dynamics is included by considering separate evolution equations for the various states during the stick period. Finite-dimensional approximation for our coupled PDE-ODE model has been obtained and validated by comparing our results against existing results. Bifurcation analysis of our system reveals a supercritical Hopf bifurcation leading to periodic vibrations without bit-bounce and stick-slip which is followed by solutions involving bit-bounce or stick-slip depending on the operating parameters. Further inroads into the unstable regime leads to a variety of complex behavior including co-existence of periodic and chaotic solutions involving both bit-bounce and stick-slip.

  15. Analysis of brushless DC generator incorporating an axial field coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Hassan, E-mail: H_moradi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afjei, E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Magnetic analysis and experiment of a three-phase field assisted BLDC generator. {yields} Confirm the accuracy of the predicted flux-linkage by 2-D FE analysis. {yields} Confirm the accuracy of the FE analysis results by coupling the FE and BE method. {yields} Control the output voltage to a desired level by control the amplitude of the I{sub f}. {yields} Compatible with any application that requires variable speed operation. -- Abstract: This paper describes the magnetic analysis and experiment of a three-phase field assisted brushless DC (BLDC) generator. Unlike conventional BLDC generators, the permanent magnet is replaced with an assisted field winding. The stator and rotor are constructed with two dependent magnetically sets, in which each stator set includes nine salient poles with coil windings, and the rotor comprises of six salient poles. Other pole combinations also are possible. This construction is similar to a homopolar inductor alternator. The DC current in the assisted field winding produces axial flux which makes the rotor magnetically polarized at its ends. The magnetic field flows axially through the rotor shaft and closes through the stator teeth and the machine housing. To evaluate the generator performance, two types of analysis, namely the numerical technique and the experimental study have been utilized. In the numerical analysis, 2-D finite element (FE) analysis has been carried out using a MagNet CAD package (Infolytica Corporation Ltd.), to confirm the accuracy of the predicted flux-linkage characteristics, whereas in the experimental study, a prototype BLDC generator was constructed for verifying the actual performance. Furthermore, the evaluation method based on a hybrid numerical method coupling the finite element (FE) analysis and boundary element (BE) method, has been carried out to confirm the accuracy of the 2-D FE analysis simulation results. It provides not only confirmations of the investigation in results

  16. Mind the gap - tip leakage vortex in axial turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, M.; Decaix, J.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Farhat, M.

    2014-03-01

    The tendency of designing large Kaplan turbines with a continuous increase of output power is bringing to the front the cavitation erosion issue. Due to the flow in the gap between the runner and the discharge ring, axial turbine blades may develop the so called tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavitation with negative consequences. Such vortices may interact strongly with the wake of guide vanes leading to their multiple collapses and rebounds. If the vortex trajectory remains close to the blade tip, these collapses may lead to severe erosion. One is still unable today to predict its occurrence and development in axial turbines with acceptable accuracy. Numerical flow simulations as well as the actual scale-up rules from small to large scales are unreliable. The present work addresses this problematic in a simplified case study representing TLV cavitation to better understand its sensitivity to the gap width. A Naca0009 hydrofoil is used as a generic blade in the test section of EPFL cavitation tunnel. A sliding mounting support allowing an adjustable gap between the blade tip and wall was manufactured. The vortex trajectory is visualized with a high speed camera and appropriate lighting. The three dimensional velocity field induced by the TLV is investigated using stereo particle image velocimetry. We have taken into account the vortex wandering in the image processing to obtain accurate measurements of the vortex properties. The measurements were performed in three planes located downstream of the hydrofoil for different values of the flow velocity, the incidence angle and the gap width. The results clearly reveal a strong influence of the gap width on both trajectory and intensity of the tip leakage vortex.

  17. Stall inception in a high-speed axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Joshua David

    A research program designed to provide understanding of the fluid dynamic mechanisms that lead to rotating stall in the Notre Dame Stage 01 high-speed axial compressor is described. The stalling behavior of this compressor was studied with unsteady casing pressure measurements from a circumferentially spaced array of sensors. In addition, over rotor casing surface streak measurements were performed to investigate the time-averaged end-wall flow near the rotor at operating points near stall. Several investigative tools were applied to the analysis and interpretation of the unsteady casing pressure data. Traditional methods such as visual inspection, spatial Fourier decomposition, traveling wave energy and wavelet analysis were shown to be insufficient to characterize the pre-stall and stall inception behavior of the compressor. A new technique based on a windowed two-point correlation between adjacent sensors was developed and demonstrated to provide spatial and temporal resolution of both pre-stall and stall inception behavior. The spatial correlation technique was then applied to the analysis of stall inception data from experiments with asymmetric tip clearance. The non-uniform tip clearance was produced using the magnetic bearings which levitate the rotor shaft of the Notre Dame Transonic Axial Compressor facility. Both steady rotor centerline offset and rotor whirl were investigated. The results of these experiments, along with the surface streak measurements, provide evidence in support of recent computational observations (found in the literature) that predict that short length scale stall inception is related to specific features of the rotor tip clearance flow.

  18. Experimental study of partially flattened axial grooved heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO HanZhong; ZHANG Hong; ZHUANG Jun; Jerry W. BOWMANS

    2008-01-01

    This article made experimental study on mini-axial grooved heat pipes (AGHP) with 11 flattening forms. It analyzed how the flattening form, flattening thickness and working temperature affect axial tem-perature distribution, thermal resistance, heat transfer limit and the phase-change heat transfer coeffi-cients in evaporator and condenser sections. The result indicates that all forms of AGHPs can maintain good isothermal performance under normal operating condition. The geometric shape of AGHP has obvious impact on heat transfer limit. With respect to an AGHP with 2 mm-thick evaporator section, when the thickness of its condenser section increases from 2 to 3 mm, its heat transfer limit increases by 81%; with respect to an AGHP with 3 mm-thick evaporator section, when the thickness of its con-denser section increases from 2 to 3 mm, its heat transfer limit increases by 134%; with respect to an AGHP with 4 mm-thick condenser section, when the thickness of its evaporator section increases from 2 to 3 mm, its heat transfer limit increases by 26%. When the thickness of the evaporator section in-creases by 1 mm, the heat transfer limit will increase by 9%-26%, while when the thickness of the condenser section increases by 1 mm, the heat transfer limit will increase by 20%-86%. The thickness of the condenser section has greater impact on heat transfer performance of an AGHP than the thick-ness of the evaporator section does. The study content of this article will help understand the heat transfer performance of AGHP, and electronic thermal design process.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  20. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  1. Coronal Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Kidney: Agreement with Axial Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Imaging in Terms of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yi Wang; Jia Wang; Ye-Huan Tang; Hui-Yi Ye; Lin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background:Coronal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values have gradually become applied (following conventional axial DW-MRI) in the renal analysis.To explore whether data obtained using coronal DW-MRI are comparable with those derived using axial DW-MRI,this preliminary study sought to assess the agreement in renal ADC values between coronal DW-MRI and axial DW-MRI.Methods:Thirty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study; written consents were obtained.All subjects underwent respiratory-triggered axial and coronal DW-MRI using a 1.5-MR system with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm2.The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the two DW-MRI sequences were measured and statistically compared using the paired t-test.The extent of agreement of ADC values of the upper pole,mid-pole,and lower pole of the kidney; the mean ADC values of the left kidney and right kidney; and the mean ADC values of the bilateral kidneys were evaluated via calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) or Bland-Altman method between the two DW-MRI sequences.Results:The SNR of coronal DW-MR images was statistically inferior to that of axial DW-MR images (P < 0.001).The ICCs of the ADC values of each region of interest,and the mean ADC values of bilateral kidneys,between the two sequences,were greater than 0.5,and the mean ADCs of the bilateral kidneys demonstrated the highest ICC (0.869; 95% confidence interval:0.739-0.935).In addition,94.1% (32/34),94.1% (32/34),and 97.1% (31/34) of the ADC bias was inside the limits of agreement in terms of the mean ADC values of the left kidneys,right kidneys,and bilateral kidneys when coronal and axial DWI-MRI were compared.Conclusions:ADC values derived using coronal DW-MRI exhibited moderate-to-good agreement to those of axial DW-MRI,rendering the former an additional useful DW-MRI method,and causing the ADC values derived using the two types of DW-MRI to be comparable.

  2. Atropisomerism: the effect of the axial chirality in bioactive compounds; Atropoisomerismo: o efeito da quiralidade axial em substancias bioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anderson Rouge dos; Pinheiro, Alessandra Campbell; Sodero, Ana Carolina Renno; Cunha, Andrea Sousa da; Padilha, Monica Costa; Sousa, Priscila Mesquita de; Fontes, Silvia Paredes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Veloso, Marcia Paranho [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Lab. de Avaliacao e Sintese de Substancias Bioativas (LASSBio)]. E-mail: cmfraga@pharma.ufrj.br

    2007-01-15

    Atropisomerism is a special kind of stereoisomeric relationship that arises from the freezing of a certain conformation of an organic molecule, associated with a high rotational barrier about a single covalent bond. Atropisomerism has been originally described in orto-functionalized biphenyl derivatives, but a lot of other organic functionalities can present this structural phenomenon, characterized by the presence of chiral properties in compounds that do not present classical stereogenic centers. Atropisomeric compounds, intermediates and catalysts have well-know importance in organic synthesis, but the influence of the axial chirality in substances able to modulate biological systems is still not very exploited in drug design and development. In this context, the present account describes the importance of this structural property in the medicinal chemistry of different classes of bioactive compounds or therapeutic agents, emphasizing how atropisomerism could affect the molecular recognition of a ligand or a prototype by the target bioreceptor. (author)

  3. Real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment using axial strain and axial-shear strain elastograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rongmin; Thittai, Arun K

    2014-03-01

    Axial strain elastograms (ASEs) have been found to help visualize sonographically invisible thermal lesions. However, in most studies involving high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced thermal lesions, elastography imaging was performed separately later, after the lesion was formed. In this article, the feasibility of monitoring, in real time, tissue elasticity variation during HIFU treatment and immediately thereafter is explored using quasi-static elastography. Further, in addition to ASEs, we also explore the use of simultaneously acquired axial-shear strain elastograms (ASSEs) for HIFU lesion visualization. Experiments were performed on commercial porcine liver samples in vitro. The HIFU experiments were conducted at two applied acoustic power settings, 35 and 20 W. The experimental setup allowed us to interrupt the HIFU pulse momentarily several different times during treatment to perform elastographic compression and data acquisition. At the end of the experiments, the samples were cut along the imaging plane and photographed to compare size and location of the formed lesion with those visualized on ASEs and ASSEs. Single-lesion and multiple-lesion experiments were performed to assess the contribution of ASEs and ASSEs to lesion visualization and treatment monitoring tasks. At both power settings, ASEs and ASSEs provided accurate location information during HIFU treatment. At the low-power setting case, ASEs and ASSEs provide accurate lesion size in real-time monitoring. Lesion appearance in ASEs and ASSEs was affected by the cavitation bubbles produced at the high-power setting. The results further indicate that the cavitation bubbles influence lesion appearance more in ASEs than in ASSEs. Both ASEs and ASSEs provided accurate size information after a waiting period that allowed the cavitation bubbles to disappear. The results indicate that ASSEs not only improve lesion visualization and size measurement of a single lesion, but, under certain

  4. Dynamical parametric instability of carbon nanotubes under axial harmonic excitation by nonlocal continuum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ze; Li, Feng-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Structures under parametric load can be induced to the parametric instability in which the excitation frequency is located the instability region. In the present work, the parametric instability of double-walled carbon nanotubes is studied. The axial harmonic excitation is considered and the nonlocal continuum theory is applied. The critical equation is derived as the Mathieu form by the Galerkin's theory and the instability condition is presented with the Bolotin's method. Numerical calculations are performed and it can be seen that the van der Waals interaction can enhance the stability of double-walled nanotubes under the parametric excitation. The parametric instability becomes more obvious with the matrix stiffness decreasing and small scale coefficient increasing. The parametric instability is going to be more significant for higher mode numbers. For the nanosystem with the soft matrix and higher mode number, the small scale coefficient and the ratio of the length to the diameter have obvious influences on the starting point of the instability region.

  5. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurst P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV, rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was designed with the use of a speaker by UT AVCR. Its membrane had diameter of 63 mm. Excitation frequency was chosen in the range of 500 Hz – 700 Hz. Synthetic jets favourably influenced separated flow on the vane profiles in the distance of (5 – 12 mm from the casing surface. The reduction of flow separation area caused in the region near the casing the decrease of the profile loss coefficient approximately by 20%.

  6. Stepped tip gap effects on a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Donald William

    The effects of stepped tip gaps and clearance levels on the performance, flowfield, and stall characteristics of a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor were experimentally and numerically determined. A theory and mechanism for relocation of blockage in the rotor tip region was developed. A two-stage compressor with no inlet guide vanes was tested in a modern transonic compressor research facility. The first-stage rotor was unswept and was tested for an optimum tip clearance with variations in stepped gaps machined into the casing near the aft tip region of the rotor. Nine casing geometries were investigated consisting of three step profiles at each of three clearance levels. For small and intermediate clearances, stepped tip gaps were found to improve pressure ratio, efficiency, and flow range for most operating conditions. At 100% design rotor speed, stepped tip gaps produced a doubling of mass flow range with as much as a 2.0% increase in mass flow and a 1.5% improvement in efficiency. The flowfield characteristics associated with performance improvements were experimentally and numerically analyzed. Stepped tip gaps were found to have no significant effect on the stall characteristics of the rotor; the stability characteristics attributable to tip geometry were determined by the clearance over the forward portion of the rotor blade. This study provides guidelines for engineers to improve compressor performance for an existing design by applying an optimum casing profile.

  7. Adjoint Optimization of Multistage Axial Compressor Blades with Static Pressure Constraint at Blade Row Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Ji, Lucheng; Li, Weiwei; Yi, Weilin

    2016-06-01

    Adjoint method is an important tool for design refinement of multistage compressors. However, the radial static pressure distribution deviates during the optimization procedure and deteriorates the overall performance, producing final designs that are not well suited for realistic engineering applications. In previous development work on multistage turbomachinery blade optimization using adjoint method and thin shear-layer N-S equations, the entropy production is selected as the objective function with given mass flow rate and total pressure ratio as imposed constraints. The radial static pressure distribution at the interfaces between rows is introduced as a new constraint in the present paper. The approach is applied to the redesign of a five-stage axial compressor, and the results obtained with and without the constraint on the radial static pressure distribution at the interfaces between rows are discussed in detail. The results show that the redesign without the radial static pressure distribution constraint (RSPDC) gives an optimal solution that shows deviations on radial static pressure distribution, especially at rotor exit tip region. On the other hand, the redesign with the RSPDC successfully keeps the radial static pressure distribution at the interfaces between rows and make sure that the optimization results are applicable in a practical engineering design.

  8. Axisymmetry vs. nonaxisymmetry of hydromagnetic Taylor-Couette flows with axial electric currents

    CERN Document Server

    Gellert, M; Rüdiger, G

    2013-01-01

    The stability of a Taylor-Couette flow with resting outer cylinder under the influence of a homogeneous axial electric current is investigated. In the linear theory the critical Reynolds number for axisymmetric perturbations Re=68 is not influenced by the current-induced magnetic field but all the axisymmetric magnetic perturbations decay. The nonaxisymmetric perturbations with |m|=1 are excited even without rotation for large enough Hartmann numbers ('Tayler Instability') but the growth rate increases with Reynolds number. In the nonlinear regime shear energy is pumped into the neighboring modes m=0 and |m|=2. The ratio q of the energy of the magnetic |m|=1 modes and the toroidal background field is very small for the pure (non-rotating) Tayler instability and grows strongly if differential rotation is present. For super-Alfv\\'enic rotation the energy in the |m|=1 modes of flow and field are in equipartition, with about 1% of the centrifugal energy of the inner cylinder. If the electric current is strong eno...

  9. Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper descirbes a relatively simple axial flow gas expansion turbine mass model, which we developed for use in our space power system studies. The model uses basic engineering principles and realistic physical properties, including gas conditions, power level, and material stresses, to provide reasonable and consistent estimates of turbine mass and size. Turbine design modifications caused by boundary layer interactions, stress concentrations, stage leakage, or bending and thermal stresses are not accounted for. The program runs on an IBM PC, uses little computer time and has been incorporated into our system-level space power platform analysis computer codes. Parametric design studies of hydrogen turbines using this model are presented for both nickel superalloy and carbon/carbon composite turbines. The effects of speed, pressure ratio, and power level on hydrogen turbine mass are shown and compared to a baseline case 100-MWe, 10,000-rpm hydrogen turbine. Comparison with more detailed hydrogen turbine designs indicates that our simplified model provides mass estimates that are within 25% of the ones provided by more complex calculations. 8 figs.

  10. Single Schottky junction FETs based on Si:P nanowires with axially graded doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Jorge; Keiper, Timothy; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Si nanowires (NWs) with a systematic axial increase in phosphorus doping have been synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid method. Silane and phosphine precursor gases are utilized for the growth and doping, respectively. The phosphorous doping profile is controlled by the flow ratio of the precursor gases. After the as-grown product is ultrasonically agitated into a solution, the Si NWs are dispersed on a SiO2 substrate with a highly doped Si back gate. Individual NWs are identified for the fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) with multiple Cr/Ag contacts along the NW. Two-probe and four-probe measurements are taken systematically under vacuum conditions at room temperature and the contribution from each contact and each NW section between adjacent contacts is determined. The graded doping level, produced by a systematic reduction in dopant density along the length of the NWs, is manifested in the regular increases in the channel and contact resistances. Our Si NWs facilitate the fabrication of asymmetric FETs with one ohmic and one Schottky contact. A significant increase in gate modulation is obtained due to the single Schottky-barrier contact. Characterization details and the applicability for sensing purposes will be discussed.

  11. Optimum Design and Analysis of Axial Hybrid Magnetic Bearings Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J. S.; Tiwari, R.

    2012-01-01

    Design optimization of axial hybrid magnetic thrust bearings (with bias magnets) was carried out using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and compared with the case of electromagnetic bearings (without bias magnets). Mathematical models of objective functions and associated constraints are presented and discussed. The different aspects of implemented MOEA are discussed. It is observed that the size of the bearing with bias magnets is considerably reduced as compared to the case of those without bias magnets, with the objective function as the minimization of weight for the same operating conditions. Similarly, current densities aret reduced drastically with biased magnets when the objective function is chosen as the minimization of the power loss. For illustration of various performances of the bearing, a typical design has been chosen from the final optimized population by an "a posteriori" approach. Sensitivities for both the objective functions with respect to the outer radius, the inner radius, and the height of coil are observed to be approximately in the ratio 2.5:1.6:1. Analysis of final optimized population has been carried out and is compared with the case without bias magnets and some salient points are observed in the case of using bias magnets.

  12. Pressure wave propagation in fluid-filled co-axial elastic tubes. Part 1: Basic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkouk, K; Carpenter, P W; Lucey, A D

    2003-12-01

    Our work is motivated by ideas about the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. This is a serious disease characterized by the appearance of longitudinal cavities within the spinal cord. Its causes are unknown, but pressure propagation is probably implicated. We have developed an inviscid theory for the propagation of pressure waves in co-axial, fluid-filled, elastic tubes. This is intended as a simple model of the intraspinal cerebrospinal-fluid system. Our approach is based on the classic theory for the propagation of longitudinal waves in single, fluid-filled, elastic tubes. We show that for small-amplitude waves the governing equations reduce to the classic wave equation. The wave speed is found to be a strong function of the ratio of the tubes' cross-sectional areas. It is found that the leading edge of a transmural pressure pulse tends to generate compressive waves with converging wave fronts. Consequently, the leading edge of the pressure pulse steepens to form a shock-like elastic jump. A weakly nonlinear theory is developed for such an elastic jump.

  13. Flow control in axial fan inlet guide vanes by synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, V.; Trávníček, Z.; Wurst, P.; Kordík, J.

    2013-04-01

    Tested high pressure axial flow fan with hub/tip ratio of 0.70 and external diameter of 600 mm consisted of inlet guide vanes (IGV), rotor and stator blade rows. Fan peripheral velocity was 47 m/s. Air volume flow rate was changed by turning of rear part of the inlet guide vanes. At turning of 20 deg the flow was separated on the IGV profiles. The synthetic jets were introduced through radial holes in machine casing in the location before flow separation origin. Synthetic jet actuator was designed with the use of a speaker by UT AVCR. Its membrane had diameter of 63 mm. Excitation frequency was chosen in the range of 500 Hz - 700 Hz. Synthetic jets favourably influenced separated flow on the vane profiles in the distance of (5 - 12) mm from the casing surface. The reduction of flow separation area caused in the region near the casing the decrease of the profile loss coefficient approximately by 20%.

  14. Axial interface optical phonon modes in a double-nanoshell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanyinda-Malu, C; Clares, F J; Cruz, R M de la [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, EPS Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Madrid) (Spain)], E-mail: clement.kanyindamalu@urjc.es, E-mail: rmc@fis.uc3m.es

    2008-07-16

    Within the framework of the dielectric continuum (DC) model, we analyze the axial interface optical phonon modes in a double system of nanoshells. This system is constituted by two identical equidistant nanoshells which are embedded in an insulating medium. To illustrate our results, typical II-VI semiconductors are used as constitutive polar materials of the nanoshells. Resolution of Laplace's equation in bispherical coordinates for the potentials derived from the interface vibration modes is made. By imposing the usual electrostatic boundary conditions at the surfaces of the two-nanoshell system, recursion relations for the coefficients appearing in the potentials are obtained, which entails infinite matrices. The problem of deriving the interface frequencies is reduced to the eigenvalue problem on infinite matrices. A truncating method for these matrices is used to obtain the interface phonon branches. Dependences of the interface frequencies on the ratio of inter-nanoshell separation to core size are obtained for different systems with several values of nanoshell interdistance. Effects due to the change of shell and embedding materials are also investigated in interface phonon modes.

  15. Performance Analysis of CFRP Composite Strips Confined RC Columns under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raja Murugadoss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to mitigate the high cost of FRP composite strengthening, an experimental investigation was carried out that sought to achieve efficient and most favorable FRP strengthening using CFRP composite strips. 50 mm wide CFRP composite strips were used in two different spacings (20 mm and 40 mm to confine columns. The test results of the column confined with smaller spacing (20 mm showed significant restraint of axial deformation of the column and enhanced the strength capacity to a maximum of 99.20% compared to that of reference column. In contrast, the column confined by strips with larger spacing (40 mm failed by crushing of concrete alone, which occurred even before the CFRP strips reached their ultimate strain. In addition, the embodied energy that exists in the CFRP strips could not be utilized effectively. The stress and strength enhancement ratio of this present study was compared with the previous research that has been conducted on columns confined with full wrapping. From the obtained results, it is recommended that CFRP strips with a spacing of 20 mm be used to improve the strength capacity of the RC column; in addition, this wrapping technique provides economic benefits compared to a column confined with full wrapping.

  16. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies of Axially Ligated Zn(II5,10,15,20-meso-tetra(p-chlorophenylporphyrin with Oxygen and Nitrogen Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri D. Bajju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetra(p-chlorophenylporphyrin[H2(p-Clpp] with zinc(IIacetate(Zn(OAc2 and phenols results in the formation of corresponding axially ligated zinc(II-meso-tetra(p-chlorophenylporphyrin (X-Zn-t(p-ClPP (X = phenolates and pyridinates. The four-coordinated zinc porphyrin accepts one axial ligand in 1 : 1 molar ratio to form five-coordinated complex, which is purified by column chromatography and characterized by IR spectra, 1H NMR, electronic absorption spectra, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, and TGA/DTA studies. IR spectra confirms the appearance of Zn– at 500–400 cm−1, Zn– at 650–570 cm−1 and Zn–O at 650–350 cm−1. 1H NMR spectra show that the protons of the Phenolic ring axially attached to the central metal ion are merged with the protons of the tetraphenyl rings of the porphyrin moiety. Absorption spectra reveal that complexes are accompanied by blue shift (hypsochromic shift for phenolates and red shift (bathchromic shift for pyridinates in comparison with the basic Zporphyrin emission bands. Mass Spectra determine the m/z ratio. The percentage of each element is confirmed by elemental analysis. According to the thermal studies, the complexes have a higher thermal stability and the decomposition temperature of these complexes depends on the axial ligation. The invitro antifungal activity of the complexes synthesized above had been done by disc diffusion method against the pathogen “Fusarium spp.,” which shows that with the increase in the concentration of the complexes, the colony diameter decreases and hence percent inhibition increases.

  17. Extra-axial ependymoma of posterior fossa extending to the Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Fuat; Tuna, Hakan; Bozkurt, Melih; Deda, Haluk

    2005-06-01

    An extra-axial ependymoma extending from the left cerebellopontine corner to the Meckel's cave is reported. This lesion's clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics are presented. This tumor's infrequent extra-axial location, extension to the Meckel's cave and possible origin are discussed.

  18. Axial Anomaly for Eguchi-Hanson Metrics with Nonzero Total Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Yao-Zhong

    2005-01-01

    We compute the Dirac indexes for the two spin structures K0 and K1 for Eguchi-Hanson metrics with nonzero total mass. It shows that the Dirac indexes do not vanish in general, and axial anomaly exists. When the metric has zero total mass, the Dirac index vanishes for the spin structure K0, and no axial anomaly exists in this case.

  19. Cdx and Hox Genes Differentially Regulate Posterior Axial Growth in Mammalian Embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Teddy; Rowland, Jennifer Elizabeth; van de Ven, Cesca; Bialecka, Monika; Novoa, Ana; Carapuco, Marta; van Nes, Johan; de Graaff, Wim; Duluc, Isabelle; Freund, Jean-Noel; Beck, Felix; Mallo, Moises; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Hox and Cdx transcription factors regulate embryonic positional identities. Cdx mutant mice display posterior body truncations of the axial skeleton, neuraxis, and caudal urorectal structures. We show that trunk Hox genes stimulate axial extension, as they can largely rescue these Cdx mutant phenoty

  20. Cdx and T Brachyury Co-activate Growth Signaling in the Embryonic Axial Progenitor Niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Shilu; Neijts, Roel; Simmini, Salvatore; van Rooijen, Carina; Tan, Sander C; Kester, Lennart; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Creyghton, Menno P; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrate embryos, anterior tissues are generated early, followed by the other axial structures that emerge sequentially from a posterior growth zone. The genetic network driving posterior axial elongation in mice, and its disturbance in mutants with posterior truncation, is not yet fully unders

  1. Principal parametric resonance of axially accelerating rectangular thin plate in magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宇达; 张金志

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear parametric vibration and stability is investigated for an axially accelerating rectangular thin plate subjected to parametric excitations resulting from the axial time-varying tension and axial time-varying speed in the magnetic field. Consid-ering geometric nonlinearity, based on the expressions of total kinetic energy, potential energy, and electromagnetic force, the nonlinear magneto-elastic vibration equations of axially moving rectangular thin plate are derived by using the Hamilton principle. Based on displacement mode hypothesis, by using the Galerkin method, the nonlinear para-metric oscillation equation of the axially moving rectangular thin plate with four simply supported edges in the transverse magnetic field is obtained. The nonlinear principal parametric resonance amplitude-frequency equation is further derived by means of the multiple-scale method. The stability of the steady-state solution is also discussed, and the critical condition of stability is determined. As numerical examples for an axially moving rectangular thin plate, the influences of the detuning parameter, axial speed, axial tension, and magnetic induction intensity on the principal parametric resonance behavior are investigated.

  2. Axial disability and deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasano, A.; Aquino, C.C.; Krauss, J.K.; Honey, C.R.; Bloem, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Axial motor signs-including gait impairment, postural instability and postural abnormalities-are common and debilitating symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Dopamine replacement therapy and physiotherapy provide, at best, partial relief from axial motor symptoms. In carefully selec

  3. Qualitative behavior of axial-symmetric solutions of elliptic free boundary problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. Acker

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available axial-symmetric solutions and qualitative geometric properties of the free boundary are compared to those of the fixed boundary for the axial and radial directions. Counterexamples obtained previously by the first author show that our results cannot hold in the same generality as those for similar free boundary problems in R^2.

  4. Cartilage collagen type II seromarker patterns in axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Heidi Lausten; Gudmann, Natasja Staehr; Christensen, Anne Friesgaard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible association between type II collagen turnover seromarkers and disease profile in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Outpatients with axial SpA (n = 110) or PsA (n = 101) underwent clinical examination including...

  5. Lungfish axial muscle function and the vertebrate water to land transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Horner

    Full Text Available The role of axial form and function during the vertebrate water to land transition is poorly understood, in part because patterns of axial movement lack morphological correlates. The few studies available from elongate, semi-aquatic vertebrates suggest that moving on land may be powered simply from modifications of generalized swimming axial motor patterns and kinematics. Lungfish are an ideal group to study the role of axial function in terrestrial locomotion as they are the sister taxon to tetrapods and regularly move on land. Here we use electromyography and high-speed video to test whether lungfish moving on land use axial muscles similar to undulatory swimming or demonstrate novelty. We compared terrestrial lungfish data to data from lungfish swimming in different viscosities as well as to salamander locomotion. The terrestrial locomotion of lungfish involved substantial activity in the trunk muscles but almost no tail activity. Unlike other elongate vertebrates, lungfish moved on land with a standing wave pattern of axial muscle activity that closely resembled the pattern observed in terrestrially locomoting salamanders. The similarity in axial motor pattern in salamanders and lungfish suggests that some aspects of neuromuscular control for the axial movements involved in terrestrial locomotion were present before derived appendicular structures.

  6. Instrumentation to Support PIV and HPIV Measurements in an Axial Turbomachine Flow Visualization Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in axial turbomachines and use the data to address turbulence and flow modeling issues that are specific to such complex environments. The motivation...stress modeling for LES. The report describes in detail our unique two-stage axial- turbomachine flow visualization facility, specifying the instruments

  7. Dopant segregation during vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger growth with melt stabilization by strong axial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Wargo, M. J.; Motakef, S.; Carlson, D. J.; Nakos, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Ga-doped germanium was grown in a vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger system with melt stabilization by axial magnetic fields of 30 kG. It was found that radial segregation of gallium is negligible and that the initial transient of axial macro-segregation is in apparent compliance with the theory of diffusion controlled plane front solidification.

  8. Axial compression physical testing of traditional and bird beak SHS T-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈誉; 王江

    2015-01-01

    The static tests of nine traditional and bird beak square hollow structure (SHS) T-joints with differentβ values and connection types under axial compression at brace end were carried out. Experimental test schemes, failure modes of specimens, jack load−vertical displacement curves, jack load−deformation of chord and strain intensity distribution curves of joints were presented. The effects ofβ and connection types on axial compression property of joints were studied. The results show that the ultimate axial compression capacity of common bird beak SHS T-joints and diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is larger than that of traditional SHS T-joint specimens with big values ofβ. The ultimate axial compression capacity of diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is larger than that of common bird beak SHS T-joints. Asβ increases, the increase of the ultimate axial compression capacity of diamond bird beak SHS T-joints over that of common bird beak joints grows. The ultimate axial compression capacity and the initial axial stiffness of all kinds of joints increase asβincreases, and the initial axial stiffness of the diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is the largest. The ductilities of common bird beak and diamond bird beak SHS T-joints increase asβ increases, but the ductility of the traditional SHS T-joints decreases asβ increases.

  9. Effect of Partial Span Aspiration on the Performance of a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspiration in an axial compressor is normally regarded as sucking out the low momentum boundary layer from blade suction surface, thus lowering the chances of flow separation and consequently that of stall under off-design operation. However, the suction mass flow does not take part in useful work and leads to loss of engine power output. This paper deals with a new concept of natural aspiration to energize blade suction surface boundary layer by injecting some fluid from pressure to suction side through a part span slot on the blade. The energized boundary layer has lesser tendency to separate, thus enhancing stall margin. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the effect of aspiration slot location and geometry on the performance and stall margin of a transonic axial compressor rotor. The computational results without aspiration slot were in fair agreement with the published experimental data. The modified rotor, with part span aspiration, showed ~3.2% improvement in stall margin at design rotational speed. The pressure ratio and efficiency of the aspirated rotor dropped by ~1.42% and ~2.0%, respectively, whereas the structural analysis did not indicate any adverse effect on the blade stress distribution in the presence of aspiration slot.

  10. Proposed Model of Predicting the Reduced Yield Axial Load of Reinforced Concrete Columns Due to Casting Deficiency Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the investigation of the effect of casting deficiencies- both experimentally and analytically on axial yield load or reinforced concrete columns. It includes 6 specimens of square section (150x150x500 mm of 24.37 MPa nominal concrete strength with 4 longitudinal steel bars of 8 mm (500 MPa nominal strength with confinement ratio ωc=0.15. Through casting procedure the necessary provisions defined by International Standards were not applied strictly in order to create construction deficiencies. These deficiencies are quantified geometrically without the use of expensive and expertise non-destructive methods and their effect on the axial load capacity of the concrete columns is calibrated trough a novel and simplified prediction model extracted by an experimental and analytical investigation that included 6 specimens. It is concluded that: a even with suitable repair, load reduction up to 22% is the outcome of the initial construction damage presence, b the lower dispersion is noted for the section damage index proposed, c extended damage alters the failure mode to brittle accompanied with longitudinal bars buckling, d the proposed model presents more than satisfying results to the load capacity prediction of repaired columns.

  11. The buckling of FGM truncated conical shells subjected to axial compressive load and resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofiyev, A.H., E-mail: asofiyev@mmf.sdu.edu.t [Department of Civil Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the buckling analysis of the simply supported truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is presented. The FGM truncated conical shell subjected to an axial compressive load and resting on Winkler-Pasternak type elastic foundations. The material properties of functionally graded shells are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness. The modified Donnell type stability and compatibility equations are solved by Galerkin's method and the critical axial load of FGM truncated conical shells with and without elastic foundations have been found analytically. The appropriate formulas for homogenous and FGM cylindrical shells with and without elastic foundations are found as a special case. Several examples are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the formulation. Finally, parametric studies on the buckling of FGM truncated conical and cylindrical shells on elastic foundations are being investigated. These parameters include; power-law and exponential distributions of FGM, Winkler foundation modulus, Pasternak foundation modulus and aspect ratios of shells.

  12. Development of an accurate molecular mechanics model for buckling behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, B; Naseradinmousavi, P; Rahmani, A

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, an analytical solution based on a molecular mechanics model is developed to evaluate the elastic critical axial buckling strain of chiral multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To this end, the total potential energy of the system is calculated with the consideration of the both bond stretching and bond angular variations. Density functional theory (DFT) in the form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is implemented to evaluate force constants used in the molecular mechanics model. After that, based on the principle of molecular mechanics, explicit expressions are proposed to obtain elastic surface Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the single-walled carbon nanotubes corresponding to different types of chirality. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the influence of the type of chirality, tube diameter, and number of tube walls in detailed. An excellent agreement is found between the present numerical results and those found in the literature which confirms the validity as well as the accuracy of the present closed-form solution. It is found that the value of critical axial buckling strain exhibit significant dependency on the type of chirality and number of tube walls.

  13. The effect of variable stator on performance of a highly loaded tandem axial flow compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Hamzeh; Boroomand, Masoud; Tousi, Abolghasem M.; Fallah, Mohammad Toude; Mohammadi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the aerodynamic load on compressor blades helps to obtain a higher pressure ratio in lower rotational speeds. Considering the high aerodynamic load effects and structural concerns in the design process, it is possible to obtain higher pressure ratios compared to conventional compressors. However, it must be noted that imposing higher aerodynamic loads results in higher loss coefficients and deteriorates the overall performance. To avoid the loss increase, the boundary layer quality must be studied carefully over the blade suction surface. Employment of advanced shaped airfoils (like CDAs), slotted blades or other boundary layer control methods has helped the designers to use higher aerodynamic loads on compressor blades. Tandem cascade is a passive boundary layer control method, which is based on using the flow momentum to control the boundary layer on the suction surface and also to avoid the probable separation caused by higher aerodynamic loads. In fact, the front pressure side flow momentum helps to compensate the positive pressure gradient over the aft blade's suction side. Also, in comparison to the single blade stators, tandem variable stators have more degrees of freedom, and this issue increases the possibility of finding enhanced conditions in the compressor off-design performance. In the current study, a 3D design procedure for an axial flow tandem compressor stage has been applied to design a highly loaded stage. Following, this design is numerically investigated using a CFD code and the stage characteristic map is reported. Also, the effect of various stator stagger angles on the compressor performance and especially on the compressor surge margin has been discussed. To validate the CFD method, another known compressor stage is presented and its performance is numerically investigated and the results are compared with available experimental results.

  14. The Effect of Variable Stator on Performance of a Highly Loaded Tandem Axial Flow Compressor Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamzeh Eshraghi; Masoud Boroomand; Abolghasem M.Tousi; Mohammad Toude Fallah; Ali Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the aerodynamic load on compressor blades helps to obtain a higher pressure ratio in lower rotational speeds.Considering the high aerodynamic load effects and structural concerns in the design process,it is possible to obtain higher pressure ratios compared to conventional compressors.However,it must be noted that imposing higher aerodynamic loads results in higher loss coefficients and deteriorates the overall performance.To avoid the loss increase,the boundary layer quality must be studied carefully over the blade suction surface.Employment of advanced shaped airfoils (like CDAs),slotted blades or other boundary layer control methods has helped the designers to use higher aerodynamic loads on compressor blades.Tandem cascade is a passive boundary layer control method,which is based on using the flow momentum to control the boundary layer on the suction surface and also to avoid the probable separation caused by higher aerodynamic loads.In fact,the front pressure side flow momentum helps to compensate the positive pressure gradient over the aft blade's suction side.Also,in comparison to the single blade stators,tandem variable stators have more degrees of freedom,and this issue increases the possibility of finding enhanced conditions in the compressor off-design performance.In the current study,a 3D design procedure for an axial flow tandem compressor stage has been applied to design a highly loaded stage.Following,this design is numerically investigated using a CFD code and the stage characteristic map is reported.Also,the effect of various stator stagger angles on the compressor performance and especially on the compressor surge margin has been discussed.To validate the CFD method,another known compressor stage is presented and its performance is numerically investigated and the results are compared with available experimental results.

  15. Rotational swashplate pulse continuously variable transmission based on helical gear axial meshing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Wenyu; Lei, Hong; Tian, E.; Liu, Ziping

    2012-11-01

    The current research on pulse continuously variable transmission(CVT) is mainly focused on reducing the pulse degree and making pulse degrees a constant value. Current research mainly confined to find out new design parameters by using the method of optimization, and reduce the pulse degree of pulse CVT and its range of variation. But the fact is that the reduction of the pulse degree is not significant. This article presents a new structure of mechanical pulse CVT—the rotational swashplate pulse CVT with driven by helical gear axial meshing. This transmission is simple and compact in structure and low in pulsatile rate (it adopts 6 guide rods), and the pulsatile degree is irrelevant to the transmission ratio. Theoretically, pulsatile rate could be reduced to zero if appropriate curved surface of the swashplate is used. Compared with the connecting rod pulse CVT, the present structure uses helical gear mechanism as transmission part and it avoids unbalanced inertial force in the former model. This paper analyzes the principle of driving of this transmission, presents its mechanical structure, and discusses its motion characteristics. Experimental prototype of this type of CVT has been manufactured. Tests for the transmission efficiency(when the rotational speed of the output shaft is the maximum) and the angular velocity of the output shaft have been carried out, and data have been analyzed. The experimental results show that the speed of the output shaft for the experimental prototype is slightly lower than the theoretical value, and the transmission efficiency of the experimental prototype is about 70%. The pulse degree of the CVT discussed in this paper is less than the existing pulse CVT of other types, and it is irrelevant to the transmission ratio of the CVT. The research provides the new idea to the CVT study.

  16. Exploring the utility of axial lumbar MRI for automatic diagnosis of intervertebral disc abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the importance of axial lumbar MRI slices for automatic detection of abnormalities. In the past, only the sagittal views were taken into account for lumbar CAD systems, ignoring the fact that a radiologist scans through the axial slices as well, to confirm the diagnosis and quantify various abnormalities like herniation and stenosis. Hence, we present an automatic diagnosis system from axial slices using CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) for dynamic feature extraction and classification of normal and abnormal lumbar discs. We show 80:81% accuracy (with a specificity of 85:29% and sensitivity of 75:56%) on 86 cases (391 discs) using only an axial slice for each disc, which implies the usefulness of axial views for automatic lumbar abnormality diagnosis in conjunction with sagittal views.

  17. Effect of axial ligands on the molecular configurations, stability, reactivity, and photodynamic activities of silicon phthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Liqiang; Ding, Lanlan; Shi, Jiawei; Fang, Wenjuan; Ni, Yuxing; Liu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate the effect of axial ligands on the structure-activity relationship, a series of axially substituted silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs) have been synthesized with changes to the axial ligands. The reactivity of the axial ligand upon shielding by the phthalocyanine ring current, along with their stability, photophysical, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) activities were compared and evaluated for the first time. As revealed by single-crystal XRD analysis, rotation of the axial -OMe ligands was observed in SiPc 3, which resulted in two molecular configurations coexisting synchronously in both the solid and solution states and causing a split of the phthalocyanine α protons in the (1)H NMR spectra that is significantly different from all SiPcs reported so far. The remarkable photostability, good singlet oxygen quantum yield, and efficient in vitro photodynamic activity synergistically show that compound 3 is one of the most promising photosensitizers for PDT.

  18. Complex-mode Galerkin approach in transverse vibration of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Neng-hui; WANG Jian-jun; CHENG Chang-jun

    2007-01-01

    Under the consideration of harmonic fluctuations of initial tension and axially velocity, a nonlinear governing equation for transverse vibration of an axially accelerating string is set up by using the equation of motion for a 3-dimensional deformable body with initial stresses. The Kelvin model is used to describe viscoelastic behaviors of the material. The basis function of the complex-mode Galerkin method for axially accelerating nonlinear strings is constructed by using the modal function of linear moving strings with constant axially transport velocity. By the constructed basis functions, the application of the complex-mode Galerkin method in nonlinear vibration analysis of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string is investigated. Numerical results show that the convergence velocity of the complex-mode Galerkin method is higher than that of the real-mode Galerkin method for a variable coefficient gyroscopic system.

  19. Axial dispersion in packed bed reactors involving viscoinelastic and viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Renu; Bansal, Ajay

    2013-08-01

    Axial dispersion is an important parameter in the performance of packed bed reactors. A lot of fluids exhibit non-Newtonian behaviour but the effect of rheological parameters on axial dispersion is not available in literature. The effect of rheology on axial dispersion has been analysed for viscoinelastic and viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluids. Aqueous solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose and polyacrylamide have been chosen to represent viscoinelastic and viscoelastic liquid-phases. Axial dispersion has been measured in terms of BoL number. The single parameter axial dispersion model has been applied to analyse RTD response curve. The BoL numbers were observed to increase with increase in liquid flow rate and consistency index 'K' for viscoinelastic as well as viscoelastic fluids. Bodenstein correlation for Newtonian fluids proposed has been modified to account for the effect of fluid rheology. Further, Weissenberg number is introduced to quantify the effect of viscoelasticity.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Performance of an Axial-Flow Pump with Tandem Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-yi; LIU Shu-yan; WANG Guo-yu

    2007-01-01

    The performance characteristics of an axial-flow pump with tandem blades are studied based on the numerical computations. The arrangement of the pump impellers is established through the analysis of velocity triangles. With the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software NUMECA, the turbulent flow in the tandem axial-flow pump is simulated in various flow conditions. The detail flow structure in the leading edge region of the rear impeller is described, and the i nfluence of the deflection angle of the rear blade on the head performance is studied. According to the simulation, the performance comparison is made between the tandem axial-flow pump and the conventional two-stage axial-flow pump with a uniform impeller size. Results of the study indicate that the tandem axial-flow pump can work in a wider range with high efficiency.

  1. Shunting ratios for MHD flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birzvalk, Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The shunting ratio and the local shunting ratio, pertaining to currents induced by a magnetic field in a flow channel, are properly defined and systematically reviewed on the basis of the Lagrange criterion. Their definition is based on the energy balance and related to dimensionless parameters characterizing an MHD flow, these parameters evolving from the Hartmann number and the hydrodynamic Reynolds number as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, and the Lundquist number. These shunting ratios, of current density in the core of a stream (uniform) or equivalent mean current density to the short-circuit (maximum) current density, are given here for a slot channel with nonconducting or conducting walls, for a conduction channel with heavy side rails, and for an MHD-flow around bodies. 5 references, 1 figure.

  2. Angular and axial deformities of the legs of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, M W

    1984-12-01

    Age is often a determining factor in establishing a treatment program for these axial and angular problems. As can be seen, the deformities of torsion are noticeable from early life. Any tibial torsion should be treated early, but an excessive medial range of motion in the infant leg with a corresponding adequate lateral range of motion of the limb may be cautiously observed. Medial femoral torsion is a normal early finding in the infant thigh. The problem becomes evident as the child matures without the corresponding reduction in femoral torsion, leading to a persistence of fetal or infantile alignment. The gait consequences are usually noticed at 4 to 8 years of age. The angular changes generally are a delayed finding noticed in stance. The bowleg may be associated with marked tibial torsion and picked up early but the Blount's patient has been traditionally definable at 2 years of age. Levin and Drennan may hasten the time of diagnosis with their radiographic criteria. Knock-knee is an alignment disturbance noticed during the early to mid-childhood years, age 4 to 8 years. The diagnosis is important, differentiating physiologic from torsion-related deformities, and treatment, if warranted, should not be delayed. Generally the earlier these problems are discovered, the more optimistic the prognosis. Since the pediatric limb is in a constant state of transition, there will be a perpetual argument as to the need or efficacy of various approaches to the problems of knock-knee and bowleg. If observation is the treatment of choice, the percentage of cases which go on to osteotomies and epiphyseal stapling will continue. For those with axial or angular deformities, degenerative arthritis of the knee may be forthcoming. Swanson, Greene, and Allis warned of problems becoming "unphysiologic." If we consider the epiphyseal malleability, not only to deformity but to correction, we can appreciate Lenoir's comment of "every day the problem goes untreated is a golden

  3. Analysis of Axial Flow Ventilation Fans by Vortex - Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Richard Anthony

    A steady vortex-lattice method is used to solve the lifting surface equation for an axial flow fan. The type of fan studied is designed for industrial and ventilation applications and in thermofluid systems such as cooling towers. The fan blades are thin cambered surfaces manufactured from metal sheets. The numerical approach is inviscid and results in a boundary value problem with viscous effects partially accounted for by application of drag coefficient data. A non-linear wake alignment procedure is used to account for the effects of vorticity shedding in the wake and variation in wake geometry with operating conditions. The wake alignment procedure is semi-free with wake input parameters required for accurate use of the technique. A study of the wake parameters was conducted and gave trends in the variation of their values with flow rate. At "free-air" conditions, flow visualization estimates of these parameters were found to agree with those from the computations. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted fan performance with and without a surrounding duct. The comparison of the results were especially good at the "free-air" condition using wake parameters determined from flow visualization and an inlet velocity profile measured using hot-wire anemometry. To enable better understanding of basic flow phenomena and to provide data for verification of numerical analyses, a method for measuring unsteady surface pressure on a rotating axial-flow fan blade was devised. Unsteadiness of pressure on the blade surfaces is due to the effects of upstream fan motor supports and other installation features. A pressure transducer and signal amplification circuit were mounted on a circuit board at the rotating hub with signals taken off the rotating shaft through copper disk-mercury slip rings. The pressure difference across the blade was determined and the data were corrected for time lag and distortion caused by the length of tubing. The pressure difference

  4. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  5. Identification of an amphipathic helix important for the formation of ectopic septin spirals and axial budding in yeast axial landmark protein Bud3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-03-08

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (∼1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1-858, 850-1220, and 1221-1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1-858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850-858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850-1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1-858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes.

  6. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which is ...

  7. STUDY ON RECIPROCATING SEALS FOR A LARGER DIAMETER AXIAL PISTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian; Yang Huayong; Xu Bing

    2004-01-01

    Sealing performance of the reciprocating seals on a larger diameter (100 mm in diameter ) axial piston is theoretically investigated.Based on the characteristics of the clearance flow between the seal and the piston, reasonable boundary conditions for Navier-Stokes equations are determined and the equations are modified, so that the final equations can describe the real flow state of the clearance flow.Through combining the final equations with finite element method, the pressure distributions within the clearance field during the reciprocating motion of the piston and the leakage rate with the pressure are studied.The deflections of the seal which affect sealing performance are calculated as well.Sealing performance of piston seals using oil as the working liquid is compared with using water.It is concluded that the seal using water as the working liquid is under dry friction, which cannot be dealt with the theory of fluid mechanics.The seal structure is only acceptable using oil as the working liquid..

  8. Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghenaiet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic performances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or separately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while downstream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevailing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.

  9. Flow and Performance Calculations of Axial Compressor near Stall Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoojun; Kang, Shin-Hyoung

    2010-06-01

    Three-dimensional flows through a Low Speed Research Axial Compressor were numerically conducted in order to estimate the performance through unsteady and steady-state simulations. The first stage with the inlet guide vane was investigated at the design point to confirm that the rotor blade induced periodicity exists. Special attention was paid to the flow near the stall condition to inspect the flow behavior in the vicinity of the stall margin. The performance predicted under the steady-state assumption is in good agreement with the measured data. However, the steady-state calculations induce more blockage through the blade passage. Flow separations on the blade surface and end-walls are reduced when unsteady simulation is conducted. The negative jet due to the wake of the rotor blade periodically distorts the boundary layer on the surface of the stator blade and improves the performance of the compressor in terms of the pressure rise. The advantage of the unsteadiness increases as the flow rate reduces. In addition, the rotor tip leakage flow is forced downstream by the unsteadiness. Consequently, the behavior contributes to extending the range of operation by preventing the leakage flow from proceeding upstream near the stall margin.

  10. Numerical optimisation of an axial turbine; Numerische Optimierung einer Axialturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, B.

    1998-12-31

    The author presents a method for automatic shape optimisation of components with internal or external flow. The method combines a program for numerical calculation of frictional turbulent flow with an optimisation algorithm. Algorithms are a simplex search strategy and an evolution strategy. The shape of the component to be optimized is variable due to shape parameters modified by the algorithm. For each shape, a flow calculation is carried out on whose basis a functional value like performance, loss, lift or resistivity is calculated. For validation, the optimisation method is used in simple examples with known solutions. It is applied. It is applied to the components of a slow-running axial turbine. Components with accelerated and delayed rotationally symmetric flow and 2D blade profiles are optimized. [Deutsch] Es wird eine Methode zur automatischen Formoptimierung durchstroemter oder umstroemter Bauteile vorgestellt. Diese koppelt ein Programm zur numerischen Berechnung reibungsbehafteter turbulenter Stroemungen mit einem Optimierungsalgorithmus. Dabei kommen als Algorithmen eine Simplex-Suchstrategie und eine Evolutionsstrategie zum Einsatz. Die Form des zu optimierenden Koerpers ist durch Formparameter, die vom Algorithmus veraendert werden, variabel. Fuer jede Form wird eine Stroemungsberechnung durchgefuehrt und mit dieser ein Funktionswert wie Wirkungsgrad, Verlust, Auftrieb oder Widerstandskraft berechnet. Die Optimierungsmethode wird zur Validierung in einfachen Beispielen mit bekannter Loesung eingesetzt. Zur Anwendung kommt sie in den einzelnen Komponenten einer langsamlaeufigen Axialturbine. Es werden Bauteile mit beschleunigter und verzoegerter rotationssymmetrischer Stroemung und 2D-Schaufelprofile optimiert. (orig.)

  11. Large co-axial pulse tube preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, N.; Caughley, A.; Meier, J.; Nation, M.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that Callaghan Innovation, formally known as Industrial Research Ltd (IRL), has designed and built its largest of three high frequency single-stage co-axial pulse tubes, closely coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator (PWG). The previous pulse tube achieved 110 W of cooling power @ 77 K, with an electrical input power of 3.1 kW from a 90 cc swept volume PWG. The pulse tubes have all been tuned to operate at 50 Hz, with a mean helium working pressure of 2.5 MPa. Sage pulse tube simulation software was used to model the latest pulse tube and predicted 280 W of cooling power @ 77 K. The nominal 250 W cryocooler was designed to be an intermediate step to up-scale pulse tube technology for our 1000 cc swept-volume PWG, to provide liquefaction of gases and cooling for HTS applications. Details of the modeling, design, development and preliminary experimental results are discussed.

  12. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  13. Axially symmetric equations for differential pulsar rotation with superfluid entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Pizzochero, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present an analytical two-component model for pulsar rotational dynamics. Under the assumption of axial symmetry, implemented by a paraxial array of straight vortices that thread the entire neutron superfluid, we are able to project exactly the 3D hydrodynamical problem to a 1D cylindrical one. In the presence of density-dependent entrainment the superfluid rotation is non-columnar: we circumvent this by using an auxiliary dynamical variable directly related to the areal density of vortices. The main result is a system of differential equations that take consistently into account the stratified spherical structure of the star, the dynamical effects of non-uniform entrainment, the differential rotation of the superfluid component and its coupling to the normal crust. These equations represent a mathematical framework in which to test quantitatively the macroscopic consequences of the presence of a stable vortex array, a working hypothesis widely used in glitch models. Even without solving the equations explicitly, we are able to draw some general quantitative conclusions; in particular, we show that the reservoir of angular momentum (corresponding to recent values of the pinning forces) is enough to reproduce the largest glitch observed in the Vela pulsar, provided its mass is not too large.

  14. High temperature superconducting axial field magnetic coupler: realization and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguerras, L.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.; Rezzoug, A.

    2015-09-01

    Contactless torque transmission through a large airgap is required in some industrial applications in which hermetic isolation is necessary. This torque transmission usually uses magnetic couplers, whose dimension strongly depends on the airgap flux density. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create a strong magnetic field may constitute a solution to reduce the size of the coupler. It is also possible to use this coupler to replace a torque tube in transmitting the torque produced by a HTS motor to its load. This paper presents the detailed construction and tests of an axial field HTS magnetic coupler. Pancake coils have been manufactured from BSCCO tape and used in one rotor of the coupler. The second rotor is mainly composed of NdFeB permanent magnets. Several tests have been carried out showing that the constructed coupler is working properly. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the studied coupler has been developed. Airgap magnetic field and torque measurements have been carried out and compared to the FE results. It has been shown that the measured and the computed quantities are in satisfactory agreement.

  15. Investigation of unsteady flow in axial turbine stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The never ending process to increase the efficiency of turbine stages introduced an idea to create an axial turbine stage test rig as part of closed loop transonic wind tunnel at Vyzkumny a zkusebni letecky ustav (VZLU. Studying of unsteady flow field behaviours in turbine stages is nowadays essential in the development process. Therefore, the test rig was designed with focusing on possibility of detailed studying of unsteady flow fields in turbine stages. New methodologies and new instrumentations were developed at VZLU and successfully integrated to gain valuable information from experiments with turbine stages. Two different turbine stages were tested during the facility introduction process. The measurement of these two models demonstrated how flexible the test rig is. One of them was an enlarged model of small gas turbine stage. The other was scaled-down model of stage of intermediate-pressure steam turbine. The external characteristics of both models were acquired during experiments as well as the detailed unsteady flow field measurement. Turbine stages were tested in various regimes in order to check the capabilities of the facility, methodology and instrumentation together. The paper presents results of unsteady flow field investigation in the enlarged turbine stage with unshrouded rotor. The interaction of structures developed in a stator with the rotor flow field is depicted and the influence of turbine load on evolution of secondary flows in rotor is analysed.

  16. Vortex sinks with axial flow: Solution and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtern, Vladimir; Borissov, Anatoly; Hussain, Fazle

    1997-10-01

    In this paper we develop a new class of analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and suggest ways to predict and control complex swirling flows. We consider vortex sinks on curved axisymmetric surfaces with an axial flow and obtain a five-parameter solution family that describes a large variety of flow patterns and models fluid motion in a cylindrical can, whirlpools, tornadoes, and cosmic swirling jets. The singularity of these solutions on the flow axis is removed by matching them with swirling jets. The resulting composite solutions describe flows, consisting of up to seven separation regions (recirculatory "bubbles" and vortex rings), and model flows in the Ranque-Hilsch tube, in the meniscus of electrosprays, in vortex breakdown, and in an industrial vortex burner. The analytical solutions allow a clear understanding of how different control parameters affect the flow and guide selection of optimal parameter values for desired flow features. The approach permits extension to swirling flows with heat transfer and chemical reaction, and have the potential of being significantly useful for further detailed investigation by direct or large-eddy numerical simulations as well as laboratory experimentation.

  17. Axial ion channeling patterns from ultra-thin silicon membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motapothula, M., E-mail: g0801315@nus.edu.sg [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Dang, Z.Y. [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H. [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); SSLS, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Rana, M.A. [Physics Division, Directorate of Science, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Osman, A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    We present channeling patterns produced by MeV protons transmitted through 55 nm thick [0 0 1] silicon membranes showing the early evolution of the axially channeled beam angular distribution for small tilts away from the [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] axes. Instead of a ring-like 'doughnut' distribution previously observed at small tilts to major axes in thicker membranes, geometric shapes such as squares and hexagons are observed along different axes in ultra-thin membranes. The different shapes arise because of the highly non-equilibrium transverse momentum distribution of the channeled beam during its initial propagation in the crystal and the reduced multiple scattering which allows the fine angular structure to be resolved. We describe a simple geometric construction of the intersecting planar channels at an axis to gain insight into the origin of the geometric shapes observed in such patterns and how they evolve into the 'doughnut' distributions in thicker crystals.

  18. Internal resonance of axially moving laminated circular cylindrical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing; Liang, Li; Guo, Xing Hui

    2013-11-01

    The nonlinear vibrations of a thin, elastic, laminated composite circular cylindrical shell, moving in axial direction and having an internal resonance, are investigated in this study. Nonlinearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory, with consideration of the effect of viscous structure damping. Differently from conventional Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell equations, an improved nonlinear model without employing Airy stress function is developed to study the nonlinear dynamics of thin shells. The system is discretized by Galerkin's method while a model involving four degrees of freedom, allowing for the traveling wave response of the shell, is adopted. The method of harmonic balance is applied to study the nonlinear dynamic responses of the multi-degrees-of-freedom system. When the structure is excited close to a resonant frequency, very intricate frequency-response curves are obtained, which show strong modal interactions and one-to-one-to-one-to-one internal resonance phenomenon. The effects of different parameters on the complex dynamic response are investigated in this study. The stability of steady-state solutions is also analyzed in detail.

  19. Dynamics and statics of flexible axially symmetric shallow shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose the method for the investigation of stochastic vibrations of deterministic mechanical systems represented by axially symmetric spherical shells. These structure members are widely used as sensitive elements of pressure measuring devices in various branches of measuring and control industry, machine design, and so forth. The proposed method can be easily extended for the investigation of shallow spherical shells, goffer-type membranes, and so on. The so-called charts of control parameters for a shell subjected to a transversal uniformly distributed and local harmonic loading force and resistance moment are constructed. The scenarios of the transition of vibration of shallow-type system into chaotic state are investigated with the use of the theory of differential equations and the theory of nonlinear dynamics. The method of the control of chaotic vibrations of flexible spherical shells subjected to a transversal harmonic load through a synchronized action of either harmonic resistance moment or force is proposed, illustrated, and discussed.

  20. The Axially Symmetric Ejecta of Supernova 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L; Höflich, P; Khokhlov, A; Baade, D; Branch, D; Challis, P M; Filippenko, A V; Fransson, C; Garnavich, P M; Kirshner, R P; Lundqvist, P; McCray, R; Panagia, N; Pun, C S J; Phillips, M M; Sonneborn, G; Suntzeff, N B

    2002-01-01

    Extensive early observations proved that the ejecta of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) are aspherical. Fifteen years after the supernova explosion, the Hubble Space Telescope has resolved the rapidly expanding ejecta. The late-time images and spectroscopy provide a geometrical picture that is consistent with early observations and suggests a highly structured, axially symmetric geometry. We present here a new synthesis of the old and new data. We show that the Bochum event, presumably a clump of $^{56}$Ni, and the late-time image, the locus of excitation by $^{44}$Ti, are most naturally accounted for by sharing a common position angle of about 14\\degree, the same as the mystery spot and early speckle data on the ejecta, and that they are both oriented along the axis of the inner circumstellar ring at 45\\degree to the plane of the sky. We also demonstrate that the polarization represents a prolate geometry with the same position angle and axis as the early speckle data and the late-time image and hence that the geo...