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Sample records for axial cyclic compression

  1. Effect of Axial Pre-Compression on Lateral Performance of Masonry Under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed HassanFarooq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening of masonry against seismic events is very essential and getting maximum attention of researchers around the globe. An extensive experimental program was carried out to study the in-plane lateral performance of un-reinforced masonry, strengthened and retrofitted masonry wall panels under lateral cyclic loading. Twenty tests were carried out; four tests under monotonic lateral loading, twelve tests under static cyclic loading and four tests under pure compression. The test results were analyzed in five groups and this paper presents the analysis of group 4, which deals with effect of axial pre-compression on masonry seismic performance. Three single leaf panels with aspect ratio of 0.67 having size 1.65x1.1m were constructed using same material and workmanship. All the three un-reinforced walls were tested under 0, 0.5 and 1.0MPa vertical pre-compression and displacement controlled static cyclic loading. The wall tested under 0.5MPa pre-compression was reference specimen. The key parameters studied were hysterics behavior, peak lateral load, ultimate lateral displacement, energy dissipation, ductility, response factor and damping ratio. It was observed that level of axial pre-compression has significant effect on lateral capacity, failure mode and performance of masonry. In case of zero pre-compression the lateral capacity was very less and wall went into rocking failure at early stages of loading. Increase in pre-compression to 1.0MPa enhanced the lateral capacity by a factor of 1.92 times. After analysis of test results, it is found that pre-compression has significant effect on lateral capacity, failure mode and performance of masonry. In case of zero pre-compression the lateral capacity was very less and wall went into rocking failure at early stages of loading. Increase in pre-compression to 1.0MPa enhanced the lateral capacity by a factor of 1.92 times. After analysis of test results, it is found that pre-compression has very

  2. Mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, A.; Darwin, D.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of the mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression was studied and a simple analytic model was developed to represent its cyclic behavior. Experimental work consisted of monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of mortar. Two mixes were used, with proportions corresponding to concretes having water cement ratios of 0.5 and 0.6. Forty-four groups of specimens were tested at ages ranging from 5 to 70 days. complete monotonic and cyclic stress strain envelopes were obtained. A number of loading regimes were investigated, including cycles to a constant maximum strain. Major emphasis was placed on tests using relatively high stress cycles. Degradation was shown to be a continuous process and a function of both total strain and load history. No stability or fatigue limit was apparent.

  3. Dynamic Behaviours of a Single Soft Rock-Socketed Shaft Subjected to Axial Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-jiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft rock was simulated by cement, plaster, sand, water, and concrete hardening accelerator in this paper. Meanwhile, uniaxial compressive strength tests and triaxial compression tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of simulated soft rock samples. Model tests on a single pile socketed in simulated soft rock under axial cyclic loading were conducted by using a device which combined test apparatus with a GCTS dynamic triaxial system. Test results show that the optimal mix ratio is cement : plaster : medium sand : water : concrete hardening accelerator = 4.5% : 5.0% : 84.71% : 4.75% : 1.04%. The static load ratio (SLR, cyclic load ratio (CLR, and the number of cycles affect the accumulated deformation and cyclic secant modulus of the pile head. The accumulated deformation increases with increasing numbers of cycles. However, the cyclic secant modulus of pile head increases and then decreases with the growth in the number of cycles and finally remains stable after 50 cycles. According to the test results, the development of accumulated settlement was analysed. Finally, an empirical formula for accumulated settlement, considering the effects of the number of cycles, the static load ratio, the cyclic load ratio, and the uniaxial compressive strength, is proposed which can be used for feasibility studies or preliminary design of pile foundations on soft rock subjected to traffic loading.

  4. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    conditions for all tests. For verifications purposes six static tension tests conducted at three different vertical effective stress levels of 0, 35 and 70 kPa. The load-displacement curves showed that the test setup provides repeatable test results. A preliminary comparison between the unit shaft friction......This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...

  5. Upregulation of matrix synthesis in chondrocyte-seeded agarose following sustained bi-axial cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05. The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05, indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  6. Fatigue Properties of Plain Concrete Under Triaxial Compressive Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟; 宋玉普; 刘海成

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were made on plain concrete subjected to triaxial static loading and constant-amplitude compressive fatigue loading with a constant lateral pressure in two directions. The initial confining pressure was O, 0. 1fc, 0.25fc andO. 4fc, respectively, for the static test, and 0. 1fc and 0.25fc for the fatigue test. Based on the triaxial compressive constitutive behavior of concrete, the inflexion of confining pressure evolution was chosen to be the fatigue damage criterion during the test. The rule of evolution of longitudinal maximum and minimum strains, longitudinal cyclic modulus and damage were recorded and analyzed. According to the Fardis-Chen criterion model and the concept of equivalent fatigue life and equivalent stress level, a unified S-N curve for multi-axial compressive fatigue loading was proposed. Thus, the fatigue strength factors for different fatigue loading cases can be obtained. The present investigation provides information for the fatigue design of concrete structures.

  7. Recovery of Compressively Sampled Sparse Signals using Cyclic Matching Pursuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Gribonval, Rémi

    We empirically show how applying a pure greedy algorithm cyclically can recover compressively sampled sparse signals as well as other more computationally complex approaches, such as orthogonal greedy algorithms, iterative thresholding, and $\\ell_1$-minimization.......We empirically show how applying a pure greedy algorithm cyclically can recover compressively sampled sparse signals as well as other more computationally complex approaches, such as orthogonal greedy algorithms, iterative thresholding, and $\\ell_1$-minimization....

  8. Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum...

  9. Parametric Analysis of Composite Reinforced Wood Tubes Under Axial Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero, J.; Heiduschke, A.; Haller, P. (P.)

    2010-01-01

    Wood tubes combine economy, an efficient use of the material and optimal structural performance. They can be optionally reinforced with technical fibers and/or textiles laminated to the outer wood surface. The paper presents the outcomes of a parametric study on the performance of wood reinforced tubes submitted to axial compression. Simple analytical models were applied to estimate the load-carrying capacity of the tubes and their failure mechanisms. Analytical and numerical models were deve...

  10. Axial Compressive Strength of Foamcrete with Different Profiles and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight foamcrete is a versatile material; primarily consist of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20% volume of air. High flow ability, lower self-weight, minimal requirement of aggregate, controlled low strength and good thermal insulation properties are a few characteristics of foamcrete. Its dry densities, typically, is below 1600kg/m3 with compressive strengths maximum of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strengths of between 14 and 42MPa to compensate for the reduced strength when the aspect height-to-diameter ratio of specimen is less than 2.0, while the CEB-FIP provision specifically mentions the ratio of 150 x 300mm cylinder strength to 150 mm cube strength. However, both provisions requirements do not specifically clarify the applicability and/or modification of the correction factors for the compressive strength of foamcrete. This proposed laboratory work is intended to study the effect of different dimensions and profiles on the axial compressive strength of concrete. Specimens of various dimensions and profiles are cast with square and circular cross-sections i.e., cubes, prisms and cylinders, and to investigate their behavior in compression strength at 7 and 28 days. Hypothetically, compressive strength will decrease with the increase of concrete specimen dimension and concrete specimen with cube profile would yield comparable compressive strength to cylinder (100 x 100 x 100mm cube to 100dia x 200mm cylinder.

  11. Empirical Correlation of the Morphology of Coiled Carbon Nanotubes with Their Response to Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani R. Barber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of thirteen different helical multi-walled carbon nanocoils to axial compression is reported. Each nanocoil was attached to the apex of a cantilever probe tip; its dimensions and orientation relative to the tip apex were determined with scanning electron microscopy. The atomic force microscope was employed to apply a cyclic axial load on the nanocoil. Its mechanical response was determined by simultaneous collection of the thermal resonance frequency, displacement, and oscillation amplitude of the cantilever-nanotube system in real time. Depending upon compression parameters, each coil underwent buckling, bending, and slip-stick motion. Characteristic features in the thermal resonance spectrum and in the force and oscillation amplitude curves for each of these responses to induced stress are presented. Following compression studies, the structure and morphology of each nanocoil were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The compression stiffness of each nanocoil was estimated from the resonant frequency of the cantilever at the point of contact with the substrate surface. From this value, the elastic modulus of the nanocoil was computed and correlated with the coiled carbon nanotube’s morphology.

  12. Cyclic Pure Greedy Algorithms for Recovering Compressively Sampled Sparse Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Gribonval, Remi

    2011-01-01

    The pure greedy algorithms matching pursuit (MP) and complementary MP (CompMP) are extremely computationally simple, but can perform poorly in solving the linear inverse problems posed by the recovery of compressively sampled sparse signals. We show that by applying a cyclic minimization principl...

  13. Failure processes in embedded monolayer graphene under axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Frank, Otakar; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Sfyris, Dimitris; Parthenios, John; Pugno, Nicola; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Novoselov, Kostya S; Galiotis, Costas

    2014-06-12

    Exfoliated monolayer graphene flakes were embedded in a polymer matrix and loaded under axial compression. By monitoring the shifts of the 2D Raman phonons of rectangular flakes of various sizes under load, the critical strain to failure was determined. Prior to loading care was taken for the examined area of the flake to be free of residual stresses. The critical strain values for first failure were found to be independent of flake size at a mean value of -0.60% corresponding to a yield stress up to -6 GPa. By combining Euler mechanics with a Winkler approach, we show that unlike buckling in air, the presence of the polymer constraint results in graphene buckling at a fixed value of strain with an estimated wrinkle wavelength of the order of 1-2 nm. These results were compared with DFT computations performed on analogue coronene/PMMA oligomers and a reasonable agreement was obtained.

  14. Experimental - theoretical study of axially compressed cold formed steel profiles

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    Bešević Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of axially compressed steel members made of cold formed profiles presented in this paper was conducted through both experimental and numerical methods. Numerical analysis was conducted by means of "PAK" finite element software designed for nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of structures. Results of numerical analysis included ultimate bearing capacity with corresponding middle section force-deflection graphs and buckling curves. Extensive experimental investigation were also concentrated on determination of bearing capacity and buckling curves. Experiments were conducted on five series with six specimens each for slenderness values of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 120. Compressed simply supported members were analyzed on Amsler Spherical pin support with unique electronical equipment and software. Besides determination of forcedeflection curves, strains were measured in 18 or 12 cross sections along the height of the members. Analysis included comparisons with results obtained by different authors in this field recently published in international journals. Special attention was dedicated to experiments conducted on high strength and stainless steel members.

  15. Effects of Acoustic Emission and Energy Evolution of Rock Specimens Under the Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingbin; Zhang, Mingwei; Han, Lijun; Pu, Hai; Nie, Taoyi

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics of energy accumulation, evolution, and dissipation in uniaxial cyclic loading and unloading compression of 30 sandstone rock specimens under six different loading rates were explored. Stress-strain relations and acoustic emission characteristics of the deformation and failure of rock specimens were analyzed. The densities and rates of stored energy, elastic energy, and dissipated energy under different loading rates were confirmed, and an effective approach for the equivalent energy surface was presented. The energy evolution of rock deformation and failure were revealed. It turns out that the rock deformation behavior under uniaxial cyclic loading and unloading compression remained almost unchanged compared with that of uniaxial compression. The degree of match between reloading stress-strain curves and previous unloading curves was high, thereby demonstrating the memory function of rock masses. The intensity of acoustic emission fluctuated continually during the entire cyclic process. Emissions significantly increased as the stress exceeded the unloading level. The peak of acoustic emission increased with increasing loading stress level. Relationships between energy density and axial load indicate that the rock mass possesses a certain energy storage limitation. The energy evolution of rock masses is closely related to the axial loading stress, rather than to the axial loading rate. With increasing axial loading stress, stored energy varied most rapidly, followed by that of the elastic energy, then dissipated energy. Energy accumulation dominates prior to the axial load reaching peak strength; thereafter, energy dissipation becomes dominant. The input energy causes the irreversible initiation and extension of microcracks in the rock body. Elastic energy release leads to sudden instability of rock bodies and drives rock damage.

  16. Axial compression physical testing of traditional and bird beak SHS T-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈誉; 王江

    2015-01-01

    The static tests of nine traditional and bird beak square hollow structure (SHS) T-joints with differentβ values and connection types under axial compression at brace end were carried out. Experimental test schemes, failure modes of specimens, jack load−vertical displacement curves, jack load−deformation of chord and strain intensity distribution curves of joints were presented. The effects ofβ and connection types on axial compression property of joints were studied. The results show that the ultimate axial compression capacity of common bird beak SHS T-joints and diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is larger than that of traditional SHS T-joint specimens with big values ofβ. The ultimate axial compression capacity of diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is larger than that of common bird beak SHS T-joints. Asβ increases, the increase of the ultimate axial compression capacity of diamond bird beak SHS T-joints over that of common bird beak joints grows. The ultimate axial compression capacity and the initial axial stiffness of all kinds of joints increase asβincreases, and the initial axial stiffness of the diamond bird beak SHS T-joints is the largest. The ductilities of common bird beak and diamond bird beak SHS T-joints increase asβ increases, but the ductility of the traditional SHS T-joints decreases asβ increases.

  17. Investigations on friction to cyclic axial shifted buried pipelines; Untersuchung zur Reibung an zyklisch axial verschobenen erdverlegten Rohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, I.

    2008-07-01

    The presented thesis is about the investigation of soil-pipe interaction in district heating pipes. District heating pipes are often subjected to large displacements due to considerable temperature differences during operation and exhibit intensive soil-pipe interaction. The acting forces on the pipe depend on this interaction and should be known as exactly as possible for an economic design. The friction forces, which limit the temperature dependent strain, are in this case of particular interest. From the investigations of other authors, the reduction of friction to a constant remaining minimum value due to cyclic loading is already known. However, significant parameters that control the reduction of the friction forces have so far not been well investigated. This is reflected in the existing German design regulations on district heating pipes where friction reduction is inadequately or poorly estimated. In order to get a better insight in the process of friction reduction due to cyclic loading on buried pipes, experimental and numerical investigations were carried out. A special testing box was developed for cyclic axial displacement of district heating pipes in sand. The required forces for the movement of the pipe were measured. The effects of the box geometry and its variation were investigated using Finite-Element-Modelling. The evaluation of the results in a cross section of the model made the visualization of changes in compaction due to cyclic displacement possible. Based on cycle constant normal stiffness shear tests with sand and polyethylene, which is the material of the coating of a district heating pipe, the soil-pipe interface was also examined. Due to the variation of the boundary conditions in the different tests, the relative density of the sand and the normal pressure acting on the pipe were identified as the main parameters that influence friction reduction. For the used testing pipes with the nominal widths DN40, DN65 and DN80 and dense sand

  18. Behavior of sandwich panels subjected to bending fatigue, axial compression loading and in-plane bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Haley Aaron

    This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels

  19. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  20. Stability of perfect and imperfect cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁喆; 霍世慧; 耿小亮

    2014-01-01

    Stability analyses of perfect and imperfect cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsion were presented. Finite element method for the stability analysis of perfect cylindrical shells was put forward through comparing critical loads and the first buckling modes with those obtained through theoretical analysis. Two typical initial defects, non-circularity and uneven thickness distribution, were studied. Critical loads decline with the increase of non-circularity, which exist in imperfect cylindrical shells under both axial compression and torsion. Non-circularity defect has no effect on the first buckling mode when cylindrical shell is under torsion. Unfortunately, it has a completely different buckling mode when cylindrical shell is under axial compression. Critical loads decline with the increase of thickness defect amplitude, which exist in imperfect cylindrical shells under both axial compression and torsion, too. A greater wave number is conducive to the stability of cylindrical shells. The first buckling mode of imperfect cylindrical shells under torsion maintains its original shape, but it changes with wave number when the cylindrical shell is under axial compression.

  1. Nonlinear Constitutive Equation for Green Sand Considering the Tri-axial Compression Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾攀; 孔劲

    2004-01-01

    The compression characteristics of green sand were investigated experimentally, including the squeezing and yielding during deformation. An expression was developed for the transient compression modulus of sand during compression. Based on the hypothesis put forward of the compression state, the differential equation for the nonlinear constitutive equation was deduced by introducing a move-yield potential function. The state constitutive equation under the tri-axial experiment is further studied according to the sand attributes, considering the differential form of Hooke's law and the Mohr-Coulomb condition. The related experiment data are applied to verify the proposed constitutive model of sand.

  2. A survey of buckling of conical shells subjected to axial compression and external pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ifayefunmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews literature on buckling of conical shells subjected to three loading conditions: (i axial compression only, (ii external pressure only and (iii combined loading. The review is from the theoretical as well as experimental points of view. This review covers known experiments on cones from (1958 – 2012. The literature review is split thematically into the following categories: theoretical prediction of axially compressed cones, theoretical prediction of externally pressurized cones, theoretical prediction of cones under combined loading, buckling experiments on axially compressed cones, buckling experiments on externally pressurized cones, buckling experiments on cones subjected to combined loading, buckling experiments on composite conical shells, equivalent cylinder approach, effect of initial geometric imperfection on the buckling behaviour of cones and effect of imperfect boundary conditions on the buckling behaviour of cones.

  3. Random vibration analysis of axially compressed cylindrical shells under turbulent boundary layer in a symplectic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyin; Zhang, Yahui; Kennedy, David

    2017-10-01

    A random vibration analysis of an axially compressed cylindrical shell under a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is presented in the symplectic duality system. By expressing the cross power spectral density (PSD) of the TBL as a Fourier series in the axial and circumferential directions, the problem of structures excited by a random distributed pressure due to the TBL is reduced to solving the harmonic response function, which is the response of structures to a spatial and temporal harmonic pressure of unit magnitude. The governing differential equations of the axially compressed cylindrical shell are derived in the symplectic duality system, and then a symplectic eigenproblem is formed by using the method of separation of variables. Expanding the excitation vector and unknown state vector in symplectic space, decoupled governing equations are derived, and then the analytical solution can be obtained. In contrast to the modal decomposition method (MDM), the present method is formulated in the symplectic duality system and does not need modal truncation, and hence the computations are of high precision and efficiency. In numerical examples, harmonic response functions for the axially compressed cylindrical shell are studied, and a comparison is made with the MDM to verify the present method. Then, the random responses of the shell to the TBL are obtained by the present method, and the convergence problems induced by Fourier series expansion are discussed. Finally, influences of the axial compression on random responses are investigated.

  4. Consideration of critical axial properties of pristine and defected carbon nanotubes under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbartoreh, A R; Su, D; Wang, G

    2012-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are hexagonally configured carbon atoms in cylindrical structures. Exceptionally high mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, surface area, thermal stability and optical transparency of carbon nanotubes outperformed other known materials in numerous advanced applications. However, their mechanical behaviors under practical loading conditions remain to be demonstrated. This study investigates the critical axial properties of pristine and defected single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression. Molecular dynamics simulation method has been employed to consider the destructive effects of Stone-Wales and atom vacancy defects on mechanical properties of armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes under compressive loading condition. Armchair carbon nanotube shows higher axial stability than zigzag type. Increase in wall number leads to less susceptibility of multi-walled carbon nanotubes to defects and higher stability of them under axial compression. Atom vacancy defect reveals higher destructive effect than Stone-Wales defect on mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. Critical axial strain of single-walled carbon nanotube declines by 67% and 26% due to atom vacancy and Stone-Wales defects.

  5. Modeling particulate self-healing materials and application to uni-axial compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, Olaf; Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Using an advanced history dependent contact model for DEM simulations, including elasto-plasticity, viscosity, adhesion, and friction, pressure-sintered tablets are formed from primary particles. These tablets are subjected to unconfined uni-axial compression until and beyond failure. For fast and s

  6. Derivation of the Bi-axial Bending, Compression and Shear Strengths of Timber Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The derivation is given of the combined bi-axial bending, compression and shear strength of timber beams. As for other materials the elastic–full plastic limit design approach applies, which is known to precisely explain and predict uniaxial bending strength behaviour. The derivation is based on cho

  7. Study on one-dimensional consolidation of soil under cyclic loading and with varied compressibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Ying-chun; XIE Kang-he

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method to solve one dimensional consolidation problem by taking consideration of varied compressibility of soil under cyclic loading. In the method, soil stratum is divided equally into n layers while load and consolidation time are also divided into small parts and time intervals accordingly. The problem of one-dimensional consolidation of soil stratum under cyclic loading can then be dealt with at each time interval as one-dimensional linear consolidation of multi-layered soils under constant loading. The compression or rebounding of each soil layer can be judged by the effective stress of the layer. When the effective stress is larger than that in the last time interval, the soil layer is compressed, and when it is smaller, the soil layer rebounds. Thus, appropriate compressibility can be chosen and the consolidation of the layered system can be analyzed by the available analytical linear consolidation theory. Based on the semi-analytical method, a computer program was developed and the behavior of one-dimensional consolidation of soil with varied compressibility under cyclic loading was investigated, and compared with the available consolidation theory which takes no consideration of varied compressibility of soil under cyclic loading. The results showed that by taking the variable compressibility into account, the rate of consolidation of soil was greater than the one predicted by conventional consolidation theory.

  8. Axisymmetric compressible flow in a rotating cylinder with axial convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungarish, M.; Israeli, M.

    1985-05-01

    The steady compressible flow of an ideal gas in a rotating annulus with thermally conducting walls is considered for small Rossby number epsilon and Ekman number E and moderate rotational Mach numbers M. Attention is focused on nonlinear effects which show up when sigma and epsilon M-squared are not small (sigma = epsilon/H square root of E, H is the dimensionless height of the container). These effects are not properly predicted by the classical linear perturbation analysis, and are treated here by quasi-linear extensions. The extra work required by these extensions is only the numerical solution of one ordinary differential equation for the pressure. Numerical solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations in the nonlinear range are presented, and the validity of the present approach is confirmed.

  9. Subjected to Axial Compressive Load and Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Feng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive behaviors between transverse magnetic fields and axial loads of a magnetoelastic (ME beam subjected to general boundary conditions are investigated. In particular, the instability criterion for the magneto-mechanical buckling problem is intricately discussed based on the structure characteristics and the initial conditions. The equation of motion for the proposed physical model is introduced according to the Hamilton's principle, and the stability criterion is obtained by using the method of multiple scales implemented on both spatial and time domains. Eventually a so-called Schrodinger equation with cubic nonlinearity (NLS can be generated by suitably changing the variables; as a result, the stable criterion for the magnetoelastic beam can be acquired after dissecting the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and requiring the imaginary part of the time domain solution to be vanished. Stability criterion curve for the dispersion equation of the ME beam is firstly depicted in order to reveal the magnificent influence of the structure characteristic itself, followed by the instability constraint due to the variation of initial conditions and the observation locations. The results indicate that the prior one actually denotes a parabola, whereas the latter one is sometimes a diamond-like or ellipse-like region spotting along the prior one.

  10. Spatially resolved streaming potentials of human intervertebral disk motion segments under dynamic axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatridis, James C; Furukawa, Masaru; Stokes, Ian A F; Gardner-Morse, Mack G; Laible, Jeffrey P

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral disk degeneration results in alterations in the mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties of the disk tissue. The purpose of this study is to record spatially resolved streaming potential measurements across intervertebral disks exposed to cyclic compressive loading. We hypothesize that the streaming potential profile across the disk will vary with radial position and frequency and is proportional to applied load amplitude, according to the presumed fluid-solid relative velocity and measured glycosaminoglycan content. Needle electrodes were fabricated using a linear array of AgAgCl micro-electrodes and inserted into human motion segments in the midline from anterior to posterior. They were connected to an amplifier to measure electrode potentials relative to the saline bath ground. Motion segments were loaded in axial compression under a preload of 500 N, sinusoidal amplitudes of +/-200 N and +/-400 N, and frequencies of 0.01 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and 1 Hz. Streaming potential data were normalized by applied force amplitude, and also compared with paired experimental measurements of glycosaminoglycans in each disk. Normalized streaming potentials varied significantly with sagittal position and there was a significant location difference at the different frequencies. Normalized streaming potential was largest in the central nucleus region at frequencies of 0.1 Hz and 1.0 Hz with values of approximately 3.5 microVN. Under 0.01 Hz loading, normalized streaming potential was largest in the outer annulus regions with a maximum value of 3.0 microVN. Correlations between streaming potential and glycosaminoglycan content were significant, with R(2) ranging from 0.5 to 0.8. Phasic relationships between applied force and electrical potential did not differ significantly by disk region or frequency, although the largest phase angles were observed at the outermost electrodes. Normalized streaming potentials were associated with glycosaminoglycan content, fluid, and

  11. Three dimensional inviscid compressible calculations around axial flow turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux, Antoine; Petot, Bertrand

    1991-12-01

    The application of a three dimensional (3D) method to the prediction of steady inviscid compressible flows in highly loaded stator bladings is presented. The complete set of Euler equations is solved by a finite difference method using a time marching two step Lax-Wendorff algorithm. The treatment of the boundary conditions is based on the use of the characteristic relations. This technique offers a great versatility and allows to prescribe conditions close to the physics of flows encountered in turbomachines. The code was adapted in order to build a 3D design tool able to run in different types of turbine blade geometries. Two types of multidomain structured meshes were tested (H+0+H and H+C). The H+C type of grid was finally choosen for industrial applications. Two applications to turbine nozzles are presented. The first is a low pressure turbine vane with evolutive flow path outer diameter. The results demonstrate the ability to predict flow features that cannot be computed via the classical two dimensional approach. The second is a high pressure inlet guide vane at transonic conditions. The strong radial evolution of pressure distribution and the trailing edge flow pattern are correctly predicted.

  12. [Biomechanical properties (compressive strength and compressive pressure at break) of hyaline cartilage under axial load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, G; Wittig, R

    2003-01-01

    Explanations concerning the physical properties of hyaline cartilage are different. It was the intention of this study to determine the material parameters of hyaline cartilage under axial load (elasticity, plasticity, elasticity and module pressure stress to break). Specimens from the medial femoral condyle (chondro-cortical ships) from adult female domestic pigs (n=28) were used for the experiments. The specimens were completely embedded in plaster to minimize shearing. Axial load was carried out by an universal mechanical testing machine (Zwick Z2.5/TS1S, Ulm, Germany) to determine elastic and plastic deformation and pressure stress to break. Axial load up to 5 MPa produces an almost elastic deformation, an increasing axial load results in a plastic deformation. In the range of 3 to 5 MPa the principle of Hooke is valid. The elasticity module amounted to 39.2 +/- 11.9 N/mm(2), determined under 3.8 MPa axial load. An axial load of 25.8 +/- 5.2 MPa (sigma max ) causes a break of cartilage. A strong correlation between break resistance and thickness of the chondral slice (r=0.71; p .05) was observed. The low module of chondral elasticity characterizes this tissue as "soft". Moderate axial load causes an ideal elastic, higher axial load a plastic deformation. The medium pressure to break to amounted 25.8 MPa. The medium pressure to break of 25.8 MPa is comparable with the forces produced by an unrestrained limited downfall from a height of 4.3 m. It must be concluded that isolated chondral fractures are rare consequences of a trauma as long as accompanying ligamentous or osseous damages are not found.

  13. Analyses of axial, lateral and circumferential deformations of rock specimen in triaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2008-01-01

    The axial, lateral and circumferential strains were analyzed for a rock specimen subjected to shear failure in the form of a shear band bisecting the specimen in triaxial compression. Plastic deformation of the specimen stemmed from shear strain localization initiated at the peak shear stress. Beyond the onset of strain localization, the axial, lateral and circumferential strains were decomposed into two parts, respectively. One is the elas-tic strain described by general Hooke's law. The other is attributable to the plastic shear slips along shear band with a certain thickness dependent on the internal length of rock.The post-peak circumferential strain-axial strain curve of longer specimen is steeper than that of shorter specimen, as is consistent with the previous experiments. In elastic stage,the circumferential strain-axial strain curve exhibits nonlinear characteristic, as is in agreement with the previous experiment since confining pressure is loaded progressively until a certain value is reached. When the confining pressure is loaded completely, the circumferential strain-axial strain curve is linear in elastic and strain-softening stages. The predicted circumferential strain-axial strain curve in elastic and strain- softening stages agrees with the previous experiment.

  14. LOAD CARRYING CAPABILITY OF LIQUID FILLED CYLINDRICAL SHELL STRUCTURES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM H. SHAH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Empty and water filled cylindrical Tin (Sn coated steel cans were loaded under axial compression at varying loading rates to study their resistance to withstand accidental loads. Compared to empty cans the water filled cans exhibit greater resistance to axially applied compression loads before a complete collapse. The time and load or stroke and load plots showed three significant load peaks related to three stages during loading until the cylinder collapse. First peak corresponds to the initial structural buckling of can. Second peak occurs when cylindrical can walls gradually come into full contact with water. The third peak shows the maximum load carrying capability of the structure where pressurized water deforms the can walls into curved shape until can walls fail under peak pressure. The collapse process of water filled cylindrical shell was further studied using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH technique in LSDYNA. Load peaks observed in the experimental work were successfully simulated which substantiated the experimental work.

  15. Axial compression behavior of concrete masonry wallettes strengthened with cement mortar overlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. De Oliveira

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a series of axial compression tests on concrete block wallettes coated with cement mortar overlays. Different types of mortars and combinations with steel welded meshes and fibers were tested. The experimental results were discussed based on different theoretical approaches: analytical and Finite Element Method models. The main conclusions are: a the application of mortar overlays increases the wall strength, but not in a uniform manner; b the strengthening efficiency of wallettes loaded in axial compression is not proportional to the overlay mortar strength because it can be affected by the failure mechanisms of the wall; c steel mesh reinforced overlays in combination with high strength mortar show better efficiency, because the steel mesh mitigates the damage effects in the block wall and in the overlays themselves; d simplified theoretical methods of analysis as described in this paper can give satisfactory predictions of masonry wall behavior up to a certain level.

  16. Behaviour of M30 Grade concrete with confinement under axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Vinil Babu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength and durability of concrete have undergone continuous improvement. Over the years and these improved materials are now commonly used. In the present experimental investigation the behaviour of M30 grade concrete with and without confinement for different percentages of replacement of silica fume is studied under axial compression as per IS mix design. The 150mm x 300mm cylindrical specimens were cast with and without confinement and investigating the mechanical properties like axial compressive strength and stress – strain behaviour. It was observed that the confinement of concrete has increased the 28days strength for different percentages of confinement and that the peak stress and corresponding strain at peak stress increased with increase in percentages of confinement

  17. Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Omar I. Abdelkarim; Mohamed A. ElGawady

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT) polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS) FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite...

  18. Direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-01-19

    Anterior tibial loading is a major factor involved in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanism during ski impact landing. We sought to investigate the direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact of intact knee joints without quadriceps activation. Twelve porcine knee specimens were procured. Four specimens were used as non-impact control while the remaining eight were mounted onto a material-testing system at 70 degrees flexion and subjected to simulated landing impact, which was successively repeated with incremental actuator displacement. Four specimens from the impacted group underwent pre-impact MRI for tibial plateau angle measurements while the other four were subjected to histology and microCT for cartilage morphology and volume assessment. The tibial plateau angles ranged from 29.4 to 38.8 degrees . There was a moderate linear relationship (Y=0.16X; R(2)=0.64; p<0.001) between peak axial impact compressive load (Y) and peak anterior tibial load (X). The anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group sustained surface cartilage fraying, superficial clefts and tidemark disruption, compared to the control group. MicroCT scans displayed visible cartilage deformation for both anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group. Due to the tibial plateau angle, increased axial impact compressive load can directly elevate anterior tibial load and hence contribute to ACL failure during simulated landing impact. Axial impact compressive load resulted in shear cartilage damage along anterior-posterior tibial plateau regions, due to its contribution to anterior tibial loading. This mechanism plays an important role in elevating ACL stress and cartilage deformation during impact landing.

  19. Bearing Capacities of Different-Diameter Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bearing capacities of concrete-filled steel tubes are normally derived through experiments with small-scale specimens, but it is uncertain whether such derivations are appropriate for the much larger components used in practical engineering. This study therefore investigates the effect of different diameters (219, 426, 630, and 820 mm on the axial compression of short concrete columns in steel (Q235 tubes. It is found that the peak nominal stress decreases with increasing specimen size and that the axial bearing capacity is determined by three separate components: the cylinder compressive strength of the concrete, the improvement in strength due to the confining effect of the steel tube, and the longitudinal strength of the steel tube. At peak load, increases in the specimen diameter reduce the hoop stresses in the steel tube, thereby reducing the strengthening effect of confinement. Vertical stress in the steel tube is increased with diameter; therefore, the axial bearing capacity of the steel tube is directly related to the specimen size. Size effect coefficients for these three aspects of bearing capacity are defined and used to develop a size-dependent model for predicting the axial bearing capacity of large, concrete-filled steel tubes. The model is then validated against experimental data.

  20. The impact of posture and prolonged cyclic compressive loading on vertebral joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooyers, Chad E; McMillan, Robert D; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2012-08-01

    An in vitro biomechanics investigation exposing porcine functional spinal units (FSUs) to submaximal cyclic or static compressive forces while in a flexed, neutral, or extended posture. To investigate the combined effect of cyclically applied compressive force (e.g., vibration) and postural deviation on intervertebral joint mechanics. Independently, prolonged vibration exposure and non-neutral postures are known risk factors for development of low back pain and injury. However, there is limited basic scientific evidence to explain how the risk of low back injury from vibration exposure is modified by other mechanical factors. This work examined the influence of static postural deviation on vertebral joint height loss and compressive stiffness under cyclically applied compressive force. Forty-eight FSUs, consisting of 2 adjacent vertebrae, ligaments, and the intervening intervertebral disc were included in the study. Each specimen was randomized to 1 of 3 experimental posture conditions (neutral, flexed, or extended) and assigned to 1 of 2 loading protocols, consisting of (1) cyclic (1500 ± 1200 N applied at 5 Hz using a sinusoidal waveform, resulting in 0.2 g rms acceleration) or (2) 1500 N of static compressive force. RESULTS.: As expected, FSU height loss followed a typical first-order response in both the static and cyclic loading protocols, with the majority (~50%) of the loss occurring in the first 20 minutes of testing. A significant interaction between posture and loading protocol (P posture (P Posture is an important mechanical factor to consider when assessing the risk of injury from cyclic loading to the lumbar spine.

  1. Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Abdelkarim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite element (FE analysis using LS-DYNA software to conduct an extensive parametric study on CFFT. The effects of the FRP confinement ratio, the unconfined concrete compressive strength ( , column size, and column aspect ratio on the behavior of the CFFT under axial compressive loading were investigated during this study. A comparison between the behavior of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP and those with traditional FRP (carbon and glass with a high range of confinement ratios was conducted as well. A new hybrid FRP system combined with traditional and LRS-FRP is proposed. Generally, the CFFTs with LRS-FRP showed remarkable behavior under axial loading in strength and ultimate strain. Equations to estimate the concrete dilation parameter and dilation angle of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP tubes and hybrid FRP tubes are suggested.

  2. Behavior of concrete cylinders confined by a ferro-geopolymer jacket in axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothay Heng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is beneficial to utilize geopolymers for their potential properties to rehabilitate concrete structures. These properties include high adhesion to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete even at low degrees of interfacial roughness, high durability and good fire resistance. This paper introduces use of a ferro-geopolymer jacket to strengthen concrete columns. It is a kind of jacket constructed with a geopolymer mortar reinforced with a wire mesh. This study was conducted to investigate the behavior of concrete cylinders confined with a ferro-geopolymer jacket in axial compression. OPC concrete cylinders with 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height were fabricated. High calcium fly ash-based geopolymer mortar, activated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, cured at a temperature of 25 ºC was used. Ferro-geopolymer jackets with a25 mm thickness, were reinforced with 1, 2 and 3 layers of expanded metal mesh and cast around concrete cylinders. The study results revealed that the compressive load carrying capacity and axial stiffness of concrete cylinders were improved. A monolithic failure mode was obtained as a result of a strong adhesion between the geopolymer and the concrete core. Enhancement of compressive load carrying capacity of the jacketed concrete cylinders was caused by a combination of a confinement effect and the compressive load resistance of the jacket transferred from concrete core through bonding.

  3. Dynamic cyclic compression modulates the chondrogenic phenotype in human chondrocytes from late stage osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Hua Jia; Fung, Hon Sing; Yeung, Pan; Lam, K L; Yan, Chun Hoi; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2017-02-16

    Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes (hOACs) are characterized by their "dedifferentiated" and catabolic phenotype and lack the ability for restoring their inherent functions by themselves. Here we investigated whether extrinsically supplemented mechanical signal via compression loading would affect the phenotype of hOACs. Specifically, we applied cyclic compression loading on cultured hOACs-collagen constructs and measured the expression of the major chondrogenic factors, cell-matrix interaction molecules and matrix degradation enzymes. Dynamic compression loading stimulates the expression and nuclear localization of sox9 in hOACs and reduces the catabolic events via downregulated expression of collagenases. These results contribute to better understanding towards mechanoregulation of hOACs.

  4. The effects of compressive sensing on extracted features from tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Movahedi, Faezeh; Zhang, Zhenwei; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L.

    2016-05-01

    Acquiring swallowing accelerometry signals using a comprehensive sensing scheme may be a desirable approach for monitoring swallowing safety for longer periods of time. However, it needs to be insured that signal characteristics can be recovered accurately from compressed samples. In this paper, we considered this issue by examining the effects of the number of acquired compressed samples on the calculated swallowing accelerometry signal features. We used tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals acquired from seventeen stroke patients (106 swallows in total). From acquired signals, we extracted typically considered signal features from time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Next, we compared these features from the original signals (sampled using traditional sampling schemes) and compressively sampled signals. Our results have shown we can obtain accurate estimates of signal features even by using only a third of original samples.

  5. The effects of compressive sensing on extracted features from tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Movahedi, Faezeh; Zhang, Zhenwei; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L

    2016-04-17

    Acquiring swallowing accelerometry signals using a comprehensive sensing scheme may be a desirable approach for monitoring swallowing safety for longer periods of time. However, it needs to be insured that signal characteristics can be recovered accurately from compressed samples. In this paper, we considered this issue by examining the effects of the number of acquired compressed samples on the calculated swallowing accelerometry signal features. We used tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals acquired from seventeen stroke patients (106 swallows in total). From acquired signals, we extracted typically considered signal features from time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Next, we compared these features from the original signals (sampled using traditional sampling schemes) and compressively sampled signals. Our results have shown we can obtain accurate estimates of signal features even by using only a third of original samples.

  6. Characterization of ultrafine-grained aluminum tubes processed by Tube Cyclic Extrusion–Compression (TCEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, A., E-mail: A_babaei@ut.ac.ir; Mashhadi, M.M.

    2014-09-15

    Tube Cyclic Extrusion–Compression as a novel severe plastic deformation technique for tubes was utilized for processing ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy for the first time. In this method, aluminum tube is fully constrained and deformed between mandrel and chamber with a small neck zone. The material deformation during Tube Cyclic Extrusion–Compression processing analyzed and the grain refinement mechanism were described. The capability of Tube Cyclic Extrusion–Compression in grain refinement of the aluminum alloy was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction line profile analysis. The micrographs of the evolved microstructure show grain size of 850 nm and 550 nm after the first and second processing cycles of Tube Cyclic Extrusion–Compression, respectively. Mechanical properties of the initial and processed specimens were extracted from ring-hoop tensile tests. The documented results confirm grain refinement by showing remarkable increase in the yield and ultimate strengths. The main increase in strength and decrease in elongation take place after the first cycle. The microhardness assessments illustrate increase from the initial value of 29 Hv to 44 and 49 Hv respectively after the first and second cycles of Tube Cyclic Extrusion–Compression. There is a good homogeneity in peripheral microhardness and microhardness across the tube thickness. - Highlights: • Tubes of AA1050 for the first time were successfully SPD processed by TCEC. • The grain size was refined to 550 nm after two cycles of TCEC. • Notable increase in the strength and decrease in the elongation were documented. • The microhardness increased to 49 Hv from the initial value of 29 Hv. • Good homogeneity in the microhardness distribution was recorded.

  7. Experimental investigations on buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression and transverse shear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Athiannan; R Palaninathan

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents experimental studies on buckling of cylindrical shell models under axial and transverse shear loads. Tests are carried out using an experimental facility specially designed, fabricated and installed, with provision for in-situ measurement of the initial geometric imperfections. The shell models are made by rolling and seam welding process and hence are expected to have imperfections more or less of a kind similar to that of real shell structures. The present work thus differs from most of the earlier investigations. The measured maximum imperfections $\\delta_{\\text{max}}$ are of the order of $\\pm 3t$ (t = thickness). The buckling loads obtained experimentally are compared with the numerical buckling values obtained through finite element method (FEM). In the case of axial buckling, the imperfect geometry is obtained in four ways and in the case of transverse shear buckling, the FE modelling of imperfect geometry is done in two ways. The initial geometric imperfections affect the load carrying capacity. The load reduction is considerable in the case of axial compression and is marginal in the case of transverse shear buckling. Comparisons between experimental buckling loads under axial compression, reveal that the extent of imperfection, rather than its maximum value, in a specimen influences the failure load. Buckling tests under transverse shear are conducted with and without axial constraints. While differences in experimental loads are seen to exist between the two conditions, the numerical values are almost equal. The buckling modes are different, and the experimentally observed and numerically predicted values are in complete disagreement.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF FRACTURE DESIGN FOR MEDIUM CARBON STEEL UNDER EXTRA-LOW CYCLIC FATIGUE IN AXIAL LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youtang Li; Shuai Tan; Hongyan Duan

    2008-01-01

    The extra-low cyclic fracture problem of medium carbon steel under axial fatigue loading was investigated.Several problems,such as the relations of the cycle times to the depth and tip radius of the notch,loading frequency,loading range and the parameters of fracture design for medium carbon steel on condition of extra-low axial fatigue loading were discussed based on the experiments.Experimental results indicated that the tension-pressure fatigue loading mode was suitable for extra-low cyclic fatigue fracture design of medium carbon steel and it resulted in low energy consumption,fracture surface with high quality,low cycle times,and high efficiency.The appropriate parameters were as follows:loading frequency 3-5 Hz,notch tip radius r=(0.2-0.3)mm,opening angle α=60°,and notch depth t=(0.14-0.17)D.

  9. Deformation and failure mechanisms of 18650 battery cells under axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juner; Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    An important deformation mode during ground impacts of battery packs made of cylindrical battery cells is axial compression. This type of loading subjects the cell to a complex deformation pattern and failure mechanism. The design of endcaps plays an important role in such deformations. To explore the sequence of deformation and the underlying failure mechanisms, a combined experimental/numerical study was carried out. Tests were conducted on 18650 cells, and the deformation of each component was carefully investigated and documented. There are four different stages in the force-displacement curve, corresponding with deformation of various components in the endcap assembly. A short circuit happens at a displacement of 4 mm. To clarify these observations, a detailed Finite Element model was set up, covering the geometry and the mechanical property of almost all the components of the cell. Using the simulation results, the sequence of the axial compression was revealed, which was subsequently validated by Micro CT scans as well as analytical solutions. Based on the precise analysis of the mechanical behavior, the cause of the short circuit during axial loading was clarified. Two failure mechanisms in the separator at the top section of the cell explain the possible causes of short circuit.

  10. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load under axial compression and torsion, single cycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  11. Micro-mechanical behavior of porous tungsten/Zr-based metallic glass composite under cyclic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xue, Y.F., E-mail: xueyunfei@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, L.; Fan, Q.B.; Nie, Z.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, H.F.; Fu, H.M. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-09-03

    The micro-mechanical behavior of porous tungsten/Zr-based metallic glass composites with different tungsten volume fraction was investigated under cyclic compression by synchrotron-based in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) and finite element modeling (FEM). During cyclic compression, the dislocation in the tungsten phase tangled near the interfaces, indicating that the elastic metallic glass phase restricted dislocation motion and obstructed the deformation of the tungsten phase because of the heterogeneity in stress. After the metallic glass phase yielded, the dislocation tended to propagate away from the interfaces, showing the decrease of the interphase stress affected the direction of motion in the dislocations. The tungsten phase exhibited increased yield strength with the increase of cyclic loading number. Yield stress of the tungsten phase decreased with increasing the tungsten volume fraction during cyclic compression, which was influenced by the elastic strain mismatch between the two phases. The stress heterogeneity and the stress distribution difference between the two phases resulted in that the yield strength of the metallic glass phase decreased with the increase of tungsten volume fraction, and accelerated the formation of shear bands in the metallic glass phase as well as cracks in the tungsten phase. The heterogeneity in stress also excessed the interface bonding strength, inducing interface fracture near interfaces.

  12. Prediction of the critical buckling load of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timesli, Abdelaziz; Braikat, Bouazza; Jamal, Mohammad; Damil, Noureddine

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new explicit analytical formula of the critical buckling load of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) under axial compression. This formula takes into account van der Waals interactions between adjacent tubes and the effect of terms involving tube radii differences generally neglected in the derived expressions of the critical buckling load published in the literature. The elastic multiple Donnell shells continuum approach is employed for modelling the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The validation of the proposed formula is made by comparison with a numerical solution. The influence of the neglected terms is also studied.

  13. Buckling of un—stiffened cylindrical shell under non—uniform axial compressive stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌永

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent research advances and trends in the area of stability of unstiffened circular cylindrical shells subjected to general non-uniform axial compressive stresses.Only the more important and interesting aspects of the research,judged from a personal viewpoint,are discussed.They can be crudely classified into four categories:(1) shells subjected to non-uniform loads;(2) shells on discrete supports;(3) shells with intended cutouts/holes;and (4) shells with non-uniform settlements.

  14. The Effect of Cyclic Loading on the Compressive Strength of Core Build-Up Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankuli, Muayed A; Silikas, Nick; Devlin, Hugh

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the effect of cyclic loading on compressive strength of core build-up materials. Four dual-cured composites (Core.X Flow, Grandio Core, Bright Flow Core, Spee-Dee) and one light-cured reinforced resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC) were tested. One hundred cylindrical specimens (4 mm × 6 mm) were prepared. Each material had two groups (ten specimens to be tested under static loading and ten specimens to be tested after cyclic loading). The specimens were stored wet, and after 30 days, one group of each material was cyclically loaded (for 250,000 cycles with a frequency of 1.6 Hz under stress load of 68.6 N) in a chewing simulator CS-4.2. Then specimens were subjected to static compressive loading until failure in a universal testing machine. Mean compressive strength values before cycling ranged from 144 MPa (15.8) for Fuji II LC to 277 MPa (23.2) for Grandio Core. Independent t-test showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the compressive strength of each material before and after cycling (p = 0.7 Grandio Core, p = 0.3 Core.X Flow, p = 0.6 Bright Flow Core, p = 0.2 Spee-Dee, p = 0.6 Fuji II LC); however, there was a statistically significant difference between the materials when comparing before and after cycling. All tested materials showed no reduction in the compressive strength after cycling. Therefore, the tested materials can survive 1 year in service without a reduction in compressive strength. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Large-diameter compression arteries as a possible facilitating factor for trigeminal neuralgia: analysis of axial and radial diffusivity

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurovascular compression (NVC) of the trigeminal nerve is associated with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Some arteries that compress the trigeminal nerve are large, while others are small. This study evaluated the influence of diameter of compression arteries (DCA) on NVC with and without TN using axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Methods Fifty TN patients with unilateral NVC, 50 asymptomatic patients with unilateral NVC, and 50 hea...

  16. Nonlocal shear deformable shell model for postbuckling of axially compressed microtubules embedded in an elastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-Shen

    2010-06-01

    Buckling and postbuckling analysis is presented for axially compressed microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic matrix of cytoplasm. The microtubule is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell which contains small scale effects. The surrounding elastic medium is modeled as a Pasternak foundation. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include the extension-twist and flexural-twist couplings. The thermal effects are also included and the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The small scale parameter e (0) a is estimated by matching the buckling load from their vibrational behavior of MTs with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical results show that buckling load and postbuckling behavior of MTs are very sensitive to the small scale parameter e (0) a. The results reveal that the MTs under axial compressive loading condition have an unstable postbuckling path, and the lateral constraint has a significant effect on the postbuckling response of a microtubule when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large.

  17. Three-dimensional bending, torsion and axial compression of the femoropopliteal artery during limb flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Jason N; Phillips, Nicholas Y; Lomneth, Carol S; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Bowen, Robert; Baxter, B Timothy; Johanning, Jason; Longo, G Matthew; Desyatova, Anastasia S; Moulton, Michael J; Dzenis, Yuris A; Kamenskiy, Alexey V

    2014-07-18

    High failure rates of femoropopliteal artery reconstruction are commonly attributed to complex 3D arterial deformations that occur with limb movement. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for accurate assessment of these deformations. Custom-made stainless-steel markers were deployed into 5 in situ cadaveric femoropopliteal arteries using fluoroscopy. Thin-section CT images were acquired with each limb in the straight and acutely bent states. Image segmentation and 3D reconstruction allowed comparison of the relative locations of each intra-arterial marker position for determination of the artery's bending, torsion and axial compression. After imaging, each artery was excised for histological analysis using Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining. Femoropopliteal arteries deformed non-uniformly with highly localized deformations in the proximal superficial femoral artery, and between the adductor hiatus and distal popliteal artery. The largest bending (11±3-6±1 mm radius of curvature), twisting (28±9-77±27°/cm) and axial compression (19±10-30±8%) were registered at the adductor hiatus and the below knee popliteal artery. These deformations were 3.7, 19 and 2.5 fold more severe than values currently reported in the literature. Histology demonstrated a distinct sub-adventitial layer of longitudinally oriented elastin fibers with intimal thickening in the segments with the largest deformations. This endovascular intra-arterial marker technique can quantify the non-uniform 3D deformations of the femoropopliteal artery during knee flexion without disturbing surrounding structures. We demonstrate that 3D arterial bending, torsion and compression in the flexed lower limb are highly localized and are substantially more severe than previously reported.

  18. A New Simplified Model of Post Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunHu; LeonhardFottner

    1999-01-01

    Based on the theory developed by Moore and Greitzer,a new simplifying approximation,which takes into account the influence of higher harmonics of rotating waves,is proposed in this paper of get a simplified model of post stall transients in axial compression systems.This approximation leads to a set of three simultaneous nonlinear first order partial differential equations.The further investigation of post stall behavior for different response modes of instabilities(rotating stall and /or surge) recoverability,prestall period during stall inception,and the effect of compression system parameters on them can be carried out by this model and has been discussed in detail in the present paper,It has been found that stall inception exhibits a large prestall period in the region with small slope of compressor characteristic,and in this region,final throttle stting,compressor characteristic and time-lag parameters have a strong influence on the period.The inertia parameters of blade rows have a strong influence on the recoverability of compression systems and the blockage of stall cell at recovery point Some qualitative comparisons with available experimental results and experience are made ,and it shows that the proposed model is very simple and reliable.

  19. Cyclic compressive creep-elastoplastic behaviors of in situ TiB{sub 2}/Al-reinforced composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 (China); Zhang, Weizheng, E-mail: zhangwz@bit.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 (China); Liu, Youyi [School of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11790 (United States); Guo, BingBin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 (China)

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study on the cyclic compressive creep-elastoplastic behaviors of a TiB{sub 2}-reinforced aluminum matrix composite (ZL109) at 350 °C and 200 °C. According to the experimental results, under cyclic elastoplasticity and cyclic coupled compressive creep-elastoplasticity, the coupled creep will cause changes in isotropic stress and kinematic stress. Isotropic stress decreases with coupled creep, leading to cyclic softening. Positive kinematic stress, however, increases with coupled creep, leading to cyclic hardening. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of samples under cyclic compressive creep-elastoplasticity with different temperatures and strain amplitudes indicate that more coupled creep contributes to more subgrain boundaries but fewer intracrystalline dislocations. Based on the macro tests and micro observations, the micro mechanism of compressive creep's influence on cyclic elastoplasticity is elucidated. Dislocations recovering with coupled creep leads to isotropic softening, whereas subgrain structures created by coupled creep lead to kinematic hardening during cyclic deformation.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of the Effect of Axial and Transverse Compression on the Residual Tensile Properties of Ballistic Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib C. Chowdhury

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic impact induces multiaxial loading on Kevlar® and polyethylene fibers used in protective armor systems. The influence of multiaxial loading on fiber failure is not well understood. Experiments show reduction in the tensile strength of these fibers after axial and transverse compression. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD simulations to explain and develop a fundamental understanding of this experimental observation since the property reduction mechanism evolves from the atomistic level. An all-atom MD method is used where bonded and non-bonded atomic interactions are described through a state-of-the-art reactive force field. Monotonic tension simulations in three principal directions of the models are conducted to determine the anisotropic elastic and strength properties. Then the models are subjected to multi-axial loads—axial compression, followed by axial tension and transverse compression, followed by axial tension. MD simulation results indicate that pre-compression distorts the crystal structure, inducing preloading of the covalent bonds and resulting in lower tensile properties.

  1. Fatigue Properties of Plain Concrete under Triaxial Constant-Amplitude Tension-Compression Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉普; 曹伟; 孟宪宏

    2005-01-01

    Fatigue tests were conducted on tapered plain concrete prism specimens under triaxial constant-amplitude tension-compression cyclic loading. The low stress of the cyclic loading was taken as 0.2fc and the upper stress ranged from 0.20ft to 0.65ft. Three constant lateral pressures were 0.1fc, 0.2fc and 0.3fc respectively. Based on the results, the three-stage evolution nile of the fatigue stiffness, maximttm(minimum) longitudinal strain and damage were analyzed, and a unified S-N curve to calculate fatigue strength factors was worked out. The results show that the fatigue strength and fatigue life under triaxial constant-amplitude tension-compression cyclic loading are smaller than those under uniaxial fatigue condition. Moreover, the secondary strain creep rate is related to the fatigue life, a formula for describing their relation was derived. The investigation of this paper can provide information for the fatigue design of concrete structures.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Active Suppression of Rotating Stall in Axial Compression Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunHu; LeonhardFottner

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper,a theoretical model is proposed to analyze the transient behavior of suppression of rotating stall in axial compression systems through the use of an additional distubance,The governing equations of the model are a set of simultaneous nonlinear first order partial differential equations,and for numerical calculations,a simple explicit time marching method can be used.The influence of system parameters on the suppression effectiveness and the interaction between rotating stall and surge have been discussed initially.The anslysis of the influence of system parameters presents that both the B parameter and axisymmetric comprssor characteristic have significant effect on the stabilization effectiveness of a control strategy.The effectiveness decreases as the value of B and the number of stages or stage loading of the compressor increase,It has been found that the onset flow rate of rotating stall and surge in a compression system may be different,and there is a strong interaction between these two kinds of instabilities.The onset flow rate of pure one dimensional surge depends on the value of B and axisymmetric compressor characteristic,besides the slope of the compressor characteristic.In some cases,when rotating stall which is the natural mode of instability in a compression system is suppressed one dimensional surge can occur,It often limits the effectiveness of a control strategy to suppress rotating stall.But when surge is intiated by ratating stall,it is also possible to inhibit the occurrence of surge by suppressing rotating stall in a compression system.

  3. Design, fabrication and test of lightweight shell structure. [axial compression loads and torsion stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A cylindrical shell structure 3.66 m (144 in.) high by 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter was designed using a wide variety of materials and structural concepts to withstand design ultimate combined loading 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion. The overall cylinder geometry and design loading are representative of that expected on a high performance space tug vehicle. The relatively low design load level results in designs that use thin gage metals and fibrous-composite laminates. Fabrication and structural tests of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods. Three of the designs evaluated, honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiber-glass meteoroid protection layers, were selected for further evaluation.

  4. Effect of Deformation Condition on Axial CompressivePrecision Forming Process of Tube with Curling Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the deformation condition on the axial compressive precision forming process of tube with curling die was investigated by using a rigid-plastic FEM. The results show that the forming accuracy depends mainly on geometric condition rρ/d0, little on tube material properties and friction condition; the relative gap Δ/2rρ of double-walled tubes obtained decreases with increasing rρ/d0, and there is a parameter k for a given t0/d0 or rρ/t0, when rρ,/d0>k, Δ/2rρ<1,otherwise Δ/2rρ>1.

  5. Numerical simulations on the flow fields of dynamic axial compression columns in chromatography processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien Liang, Ru; Che Liu, Cheng; Tsai Liang, Ming; Chen, Jiann Lin

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic axial compression (DAC) columns are key elements in Simulated Moving Bed, which is a chromatography process in drug industry and chemical engineering. In this study, we apply the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique to analyze the flow fields in the DAC column and propose rules for distributor design based on mass conservation in fluid dynamics. Computer aided design (CAD) is used in constructing the numerical 3D modelling for the mesh system. The laminar flow fields with Darcy’s law to model the porous zone are governed by the Navier-Stokes equations and employed to describe the porous flow fields. Experimental works have been conducted as the benchmark for us to choose feasible porous parameters for CFD. Besides, numerical treatments are elaborated to avoid calculation divergence resulting from large source terms. Results show that CFD combined with CAD is a good approach to investigate detailed flow fields in DAC columns and the design for distributors is straightforward.

  6. Dynamic responses of concrete-filled steel tubular member under axial compression considering creep effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. T.; Wang, Y. D.; Dai, C. H.; Ding, M.

    2017-08-01

    The finite element model of concrete-filled steel tubular member was established by the numerical analysis software considering material nonlinearity to analyze concrete creep effect on the dynamic responses of the member under axial compression and lateral impact. In the model, the constitutive model of core concrete is the plastic damage model, that of steel is the Von Mises yield criterion and kinematic hardening model, and the creep effect at different ages is equivalent to the change of concrete elastic modulus. Then the dynamic responses of concrete-filled steel tubular member considering creep effects was simulated, and the effects of creep on contact time, impact load, deflection, stress and strain were discussed. The fruits provide a scientific basis for the design of the impact resistance of concrete filled steel tubular members.

  7. Ultrasonic Measurement of Strain Distribution Inside Object Cyclically Compressed by Dual Acoustic Radiation Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    One possible way to evaluate acupuncture therapy quantitatively is to measure the change in the elastic property of muscle after application of the therapy. Many studies have been conducted to measure mechanical properties of tissues using ultrasound-induced acoustic radiation force. To assess mechanical properties, strain must be generated in an object. However, a single radiation force is not effective because it mainly generates translational motion when the object is much harder than the surrounding medium. In this study, two cyclic radiation forces are simultaneously applied to a muscle phantom from two opposite horizontal directions so that the object is cyclically compressed in the horizontal direction. By the horizontal compression, the object is expanded vertically based on its incompressibility. The resultant vertical displacement is measured using another ultrasound pulse. Two ultrasonic transducers for actuation were both driven by the sum of two continuous sinusoidal signals at two slightly different frequencies [1 MHz and (1 M + 5) Hz]. The displacement of several micrometers in amplitude, which fluctuated at 5 Hz, was measured by the ultrasonic phased tracking method. Increase in thickness inside the object was observed just when acoustic radiation forces increased. Such changes in thickness correspond to vertical expansion due to horizontal compression.

  8. Preclinical mouse models for assessing axial compression of long bones during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Brun, Julia; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory method is to describe two approaches for the investigation of bone responses to mechanical loading in mice in vivo. The first is running exercise, because it is easily translatable clinically, and the second is axial compression of the tibia, because it is precisely controllable. The effects of running exercise, and in general physical activity, on bone tissue have been shown to be both direct through mechanical loading (ground impact and muscle tension) and indirect through metabolic changes. Therefore, running exercise has been considered the most convenient preclinical model for demonstrating the general idea that exercise is good for bone health, either early in age for increasing peak bone mass or later in age by slowing down bone loss. However, numerous combinations of protocols have been reported, which makes it difficult to formulate a simple take-home message. This laboratory method also provides a detailed description of in vivo direct mechanical axial compression of the mouse tibia. The effects of mechanical loading depend on the force (strain), frequency, waveform and duration of application, and they range from bone anabolism with low bone remodeling, inducing lamellar bone accumulation, to bone catabolism with high bone remodeling, leading to microdamage, woven bone formation and bone loss. Direct in vivo loading models are extensively used to study mechanotransduction pathways, and contribute by this way to the development of new bone anabolism treatments. Although it is particularly difficult to assemble an internationally adopted protocol description, which would give reproducible bone responses, here we have attempted to provide a comprehensive guide for best practice in performing running exercise and direct in vivo mechanical loading in the laboratory.

  9. Axially compressed buckling of an embedded boron nitride nanotube subjected to thermo-electro-mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Jalili, Nader

    2007-04-01

    Unlike widely-used carbon nanotubes, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have shown to possess stable semiconducting behavior and strong piezoelectricity. Such properties along with their outstanding mechanical properties and thermal conductivity, make BNNTs promising candidate reinforcement materials for a verity of applications especially nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. Motivated by these abilities, we aim to study the buckling behavior of BNNT-reinforced piezoelectric polymeric composites when subjected to combined electro-thermo-mechanical loadings. For this, the multi-walled structure of BNNT is considered as elastic media and a set of concentric cylindrical shell with van der Waals interaction between them. Using three-dimensional equilibrium equations, Donnell shell theory is utilized to show that the axially compressive resistance of BNNT varies with applying thermal and electrical loads. The effect of BNNT piezoelectric property on the buckling behavior of the composites is demonstrated. More specifically, it is shown that applying direct and reverse voltages to BNNT changes the buckling loads for any axial and circumferential wavenumbers. Such capability could be uniquely utilized when designing BNNT-reinforced composites.

  10. Compressive cyclic ratcheting and fatigue of synthetic, soft biomedical polymers in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew T; Safranski, David L; Smith, Kathryn E; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2016-02-01

    The use of soft, synthetic materials for the replacement of soft, load-bearing tissues has been largely unsuccessful due to a lack of materials with sufficient fatigue and wear properties, as well as a lack of fundamental understanding on the relationship between material structure and behavior under cyclic loads. In this study, we investigated the response of several soft, biomedical polymers to cyclic compressive stresses under aqueous conditions and utilized dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry to evaluate the role of thermo-mechanical transitions on such behavior. Studied materials include: polycarbonate urethane, polydimethylsiloxane, four acrylate copolymers with systematically varied thermo-mechanical transitions, as well as bovine meniscal tissue for comparison. Materials showed compressive moduli between 2.3 and 1900MPa, with polycarbonate urethane (27.3MPa) matching closest to meniscal tissue (37.0MPa), and also demonstrated a variety of thermo-mechanical transition behaviors. Cyclic testing resulted in distinct fatigue-life curves, with failure defined as either classic fatigue fracture or a defined increased in maximum strain due to ratcheting. Our study found that polymers with sufficient dissipation mechanisms at the testing temperature, as evidenced by tan delta values, were generally tougher than those with less dissipation and exhibited ratcheting rather than fatigue fracture much like meniscal tissue. Strain recovery tests indicated that, for some toughened polymers, the residual strain following our cyclic loading protocol could be fully recovered. The similarity in ratcheting behavior, and lack of fatigue fracture, between the meniscal tissue and toughened polymers indicates that such polymers may have potential as artificial soft tissue.

  11. Strength and fatigue limit of fabric base composites under combined static shear and cyclic compressive stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limonov, V.A.; Razin, A.F.; Mikel`sons, M.Ya. [Central Research Institute of Special Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-11-01

    Under real operating conditions, assemblies and products made of composites are subjected to combined static and cyclic loads. At the planning stage, an important problem is the selection of the materials to be used and an estimate of the load-bearing capacity by complex investigation of their physicomechanical properties. In the present work, the authors studied experimentally the characteristics of strength under static uniaxial and combined loading and the effect of static shear stresses on the compressive fatigue limit of glass-fabric reinforced plastic. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Responses of intramembranous bone and sutures upon in vivo cyclic tensile and compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptan, Alexandra I; Lopez, Aurora; Kopher, Ross A; Mao, Jeremy J

    2008-02-01

    Cranial vault and facial sutures interpose between mineralized bones of the skull, and may function analogously to appendicular and cranial base growth plates. However, unlike growth plates that are composed of chondrocyte lineage, cranial and facial sutures possess heterogeneous cell lineages such as mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, and osteoblasts, in addition to vascular-derived cells. Despite recently intensified effort, the biological responses of intramembranous bone and sutures to mechanical loading are not well understood. This study was designed to investigate whether brief doses of tensile or compressive forces induce modeling and growth responses of intramembranous bone and sutures. In different groups of growing rabbits in vivo, cyclic tensile or compressive forces at 1 N and 8 Hz were applied to the maxilla for 20 min/day over 12 consecutive days. Computerized histomorphometric analyses revealed that the average sutural widths of both the premaxillomaxillary suture (PMS) and nasofrontal suture (NFS) loaded in either tension or compression were significantly higher than age- and sex-matched sham controls (P<0.01). The average cell densities of tension- or compression-loaded PMS and NFS were significantly higher than sham controls (P<0.01). The average osteoblast occupied sutural bone surface loaded under tension was significantly higher than that of sham control (P<0.05). Interestingly, tensile loading significantly reduced the average osteoclast surface, in comparison to sham control (P<0.05). For the NFS, tensile loading significantly increased the average osteoblast occupied sutural bone surface, in comparison with that of sham control (P<0.05). Also for the NFS suture, compression significantly reduced the average sutural osteoclast surface in comparison with sham control (P<0.05). Taken together, the present data suggest that high-frequency cyclic forces in either tension or compression induce modeling and growth changes in cranial sutures. Due to

  13. Stiffness Characteristics of Joshi’s External Stabilization System under Axial Compression: a Finite Element Method Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model of fractured tibia with Joshi’s External Stabilizing System (JESS mounted on it was developed using 3D beam elements in the ANSYS software. The model was loaded in axial compression and the average axial stiffness of the model was calculated. The analytical value of axial stiffness was compared with reported experimental value to validate the finite element model. The validated model was used to carry out parametric studies on the model to determine the axial properties of JESS. It was observed that axial stiffness of JESS increased by 58% when k-wire diameter was varied from 2 mm to 4 mm while keeping other geometric configurations of the device constant; however, the axial stiffness of the device does not show any significant improvement when the diameter of medio-lateral pins in diaphyseal hold were increased. The findings should help in understanding the axial properties of JESS so that it can be used judiciously in clinical applications.

  14. Haptic Evaluation of the Prickle of Fabrics:Axial Compression Bending Tests On Ramie Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇清; 韩露; 于伟东

    2004-01-01

    Although smoothness, softness, and stiffness determine the physical and mechanical behavior of a fabric and the subjective assessment of quality when it is handled, the perceived comfort of clothing is more important to consumers. The sensations perceived from the contact of clothing with the skin can greatly influence our over-all state of comfort and one aspect of this is the unpleasant skin sensation of prickle. Surface prickle of fabrics can be a factor limiting the use of the coarser types of ramie in apparel. And the mechanical stimulus of fabric-evoked prickle underlies our discomfort to fabrics independent in the majority of cases of any chemical or the atopic status of the individual. It is known that the prickle of fabric can be reduced by fabric-finishing treatments, but the assessment of fabric prickle is often done subjectively. This is time consuming, and it is difficult to obtain reliable and reproducible results, since variability between subjects in their sensitivity to prickle, such as skin mechanical properties, effective density of nociceptors and the mood state of the individual. In order to find an objective method of measuring the physical properties of the stiff fiber ends protruding from the fabrics to predict prickle, axial compression bending tests were examined by using single ramie fiber. By comparing analysis, it is found that the critical compressing load (Pcr), the bending modulus (E) are the important parameters. The relationship of the critical load (Pcr) with the length of fiber (L) and the fineness of fiber (Nt) has been investigated.

  15. Intradiscal pressure measurements in normal discs, compressed discs and compressed discs treated with axial posterior disc distraction: an experimental study on the rabbit lumbar spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehring, Thorsten; Unglaub, Frank; Lorenz, Helga; Omlor, Georg; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Kroeber, Markus W

    2006-05-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) pressure measurement is an appropriate method for characterizing spinal loading conditions. However, there is no human or animal model that provides sufficient IVD pressure data. The aim of our study was to establish physiological pressure values in the rabbit lumbar spine and to determine whether temporary external disc compression and distraction were associated with pressure changes. Measurements were done using a microstructure-based fibreoptic sensor. Data were collected in five control rabbits (N, measurement lying prone at segment L3/4 at day 28), five rabbits with 28 days of axial compression (C, measurement at day 28) and three rabbits with 28 days of axial compression and following 28 days of axial distraction (D, measurement at day 56). Disc compression and distraction was verified by disc height in lateral radiographs. The controls (N) showed a level-related range between 0.25 MPa-0.45 MPa. The IVD pressure was highest at level L3/4 (0.42 MPa; range 0.38-0.45) with a decrease in both cranial and caudal adjacent segments. The result for C was a significant decrease in IVD pressure (0.31 MPa) when compared with controls (P=0.009). D showed slightly higher median IVD pressure (0.32 MPa) compared to C, but significantly lower levels when compared with N (P=0.037). Our results indicate a high range of physiological IVD pressure at different levels of the lumbar rabbit spine. Temporary disc compression reduces pressure when compared with controls. These data support the hypothesis that temporary external compression leads to moderate disc degeneration as a result of degradation of water-binding disc matrix or affected active pumping mechanisms of nutrients into the disc. A stabilization of IVD pressure in discs treated with temporary distraction was observed.

  16. Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alvarez-Arenal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI, resin composite (RC, glass ionomer (GI, resin urethane-based (RUB, and compomer cement (CC. Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%. GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N. The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC for a specific clinical situation.

  17. Effects of Wavenumber and Chirality on the Axial Compressive Behavior of Wavy Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Mechanics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kawachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wavenumber and chirality on the axial compressive behavior and properties of wavy carbon nanotubes (CNTs with multiple Stone-Wales defects are investigated using molecular mechanics simulations with the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond-order potential. The wavy CNTs are assumed to be point-symmetric with respect to their axial centers. It is found that the wavy CNT models, respectively, exhibit a buckling point and long wavelength buckling mode regardless of the wavenumbers and chiralities examined. It is also found that the wavy CNTs have nearly the same buckling stresses as their pristine straight counterparts.

  18. The effect of calibrated nonlocal constant on the modal parameters and stability of axially compressed CNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Reza; Lotfan, Saeed

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays investigating the vibration behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has drawn considerable attention due to the superior mechanical properties of the CNTs. One of the powerful theoretical methods to study the vibration behavior of CNTs is implementing the nonlocal theory. Most of studies on the vibration behavior of CNTs have assumed a fixed value for small scale parameter for all vibration modes, however, this value is mode-dependent. Therefore, in this paper, the small scale parameter is calibrated for a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with respect to each vibration mode. For this propose, the governing equation of motion based on the nonlocal beam theory is extracted by applying the Hamilton's principle. Then, by using the power series method, an eigenvalue problem is defined to derive the calibrated value of small scale constant and nonlocal mode shapes of the CNT. By using the expansion theory, the equation of motion is discretized, and the effect of nonlocality on the modal parameters and stability of the CNT under compressive force is investigated. Finally, the possibility of estimating nonlocal parameter based on simulated frequency domain response of the system by using modal analysis methods is studied. The results show that the calibration of small scale constant is important and the critical axial force is highly sensitive to this value.

  19. Mechanical properties of double-stranded DNA biolayers immobilized on microcantilever under axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Neng-Hui; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2009-07-22

    In label-free biodetections based on microcantilever technology, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) structures form through the linkage between probe single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules immobilized on solid substrates and target ssDNA molecules in solutions. Mechanical/electrical properties of these biolayers are important factors for nanomechanical deflections of microcantilevers. In this paper, the biolayer immobilized on microcantilever is treated as a bar with a macroscopic elastic modulus on the basis of continuum mechanics viewpoints. In consideration of hydration force, screened electrostatic repulsion and conformational fluctuation in biolayers, load-deformation curves of dsDNA biolayers under axial compression are depicted with the help of the energy conservation law and a mesoscopic free energy presented by Strey et al. (1997, 1999) [Strey, H.H., Parsegian, V.A., Podgornik, R., 1997. Equation of state for DNA liquid crystals: fluctuation enhanced electrostatic double layer repulsion. Physical Review Letters 78, 895-898; Strey, H.H., Parsegian, V.A., Podgornik, R., 1999. Equation of state for polymer liquid crystals: theory and experiment. Physical Review E 59, 999-1008] from a liquid crystal theory. And the analytical relation between macroscopic Young's modulus of biolayers and nanoscopic geometrical properties of dsDNA, packing density, buffer salt solution concentration, etc. is also formulated.

  20. Failure analysis of porcupine quills under axial compression reveals their mechanical response during buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fernando G; Troncoso, Omar P; Diaz, John; Arce, Diego

    2014-11-01

    Porcupine quills are natural structures formed by a thin walled conical shell and an inner foam core. Axial compression tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were all used to compare the characteristics and mechanical properties of porcupine quills with and without core. The failure mechanisms that occur during buckling were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that delamination buckling is mostly responsible for the decrease in the measured buckling stress of the quills with regard to predicted theoretical values. Our analysis also confirmed that the foam core works as an energy dissipater improving the mechanical response of an empty cylindrical shell, retarding the onset of buckling as well as producing a step wise decrease in force after buckling, instead of an instantaneous decrease in force typical for specimens without core. Cell collapse and cell densification in the inner foam core were identified as the key mechanisms that allow for energy absorption during buckling.

  1. [The deformation behavior of human lumbar intervertebral discs subjected to long term axial dynamic compressive forces (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köller, W; Funke, F; Hartmann, F

    1981-04-01

    49 specimens were studied in 67 axial compression tests; the duration test varied between 2 and 6 hours. All discs showed marked creep; after a big decrease in the first minutes the rate of creep decreases still slightly. Additional the results reveal a decreasing axial deformability with time. In the beginning of a test quickly the viscoelastic behavior alters to such a steady state that the disc behaves more like an elastic body. Loss of mass normally observed after compression tests is due to loss of liquid, but liquid absorption during mechanical load is possible too. The long term biochmechanical behavior is reproducible very well; a second experiment done with the same disc yields nearly the same results.

  2. Cyclic tension compression testing of AHSS flat specimens with digital image correlation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerr, Lay; Sever, Nimet; McKune, Paul; Faath, Timo

    2013-12-01

    A cyclic tension-compression testing program was conducted on flat specimens of TPN-W®780 (Three Phase Nano) and DP980 (Dual Phase) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). This experimental method was enabled utilizing an anti-buckling clamping device performed in a test machine, and the surface strains along the thickness edge are measured with a three-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system. The in-plane pre-strain and reversed strain values, at specified strain rates, are investigated to observe the potential plastic flow and the nonlinear strain hardening behavior of the materials. The validity of the test results is established with the monotonic tension tests, to substantiate the true stress-strain curves corrected for the frictional and biaxial stresses induced by the clamping device. A process method for analyzing the correction using a macro script is shown to simplify the output of the true stress-strain results for material model calibration. An in progress study to validate the forming and spring-back predictive capabilities of a calibrated TPN-W®780 complex material model to an actual stamping of an automotive component will demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental cyclic test method. Suggestions to improve the testing, strain analysis and calibration of the model parameters are proposed for augmented use of this test method.

  3. Temperature effect on buckling properties of ultra-thin-walled lenticular collapsible composite tube subjected to axial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jiangbo; Xiong Junjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline the temperature effect on the buckling properties of ultra-thin-walled lenticular collapsible composite tube (LCCT) subjected to axial compression. The buckling tests of the LCCT specimens subjected to axial compression were carried out on INSTRON-500N servo-hydraulic machine in dry state and at the temperatures of 25 ?C, 100 ?C and ?80 ?C. The load-displacement curves and buckling initiation loads were measured and the buckling initiation mechanism was discussed from experimental observations. Experiments show that the buckling initiation load, on average, is only about 2.2% greater at the low temperature of ?80 ?C than at the room temperature of 25 ?C due to the material hardening, demonstrating an insignificant increase in the buckling initiation load, whereas it is about 19.5%lower at the high temperature of 100 ?C than at the room temperature owing to the material softening, implying a significant decrease in the buckling initiation load. The failure mode of the LCCT in axial compres-sion tests at three different temperatures can be reckoned to be characteristic of the buckling initi-ation and propagation around the central region until rupture. The finite element (FE) model is presented to simulate the buckling initiation mechanism based on the eigenvalue-based methodol-ogy. Good correlation between experimental and numerical results is achieved.

  4. On the self-pinning character of synchro-Shockley dislocations in a Laves phase during strain rate cyclical compressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazantzis, A. V.; Aindow, M.; Triantafyllidis, G. K.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Strain rate cyclical tests in compression, between 1350 and 1500 degrees C, have been employed to study the self-pinning character of thermally activated synchro-Shockley dislocations in the C15 Cr2Nb Laves phase. An average minimum effective (pinning) stress was calculated to be necessary for their

  5. Innovative design of composite structures: Axisymmetric deformations of unsymmetrically laminated cylinders loaded in axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Paraska, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The study focuses on the axisymmetric deformation response of unsymmetrically laminate cylinders loaded in axial compression by known loads. A geometrically nonlinear analysis is used. Though buckling is not studied, the deformations can be considered to be the prebuckling response. Attention is directed at three 16 layer laminates: a (90 sub 8/0 sub 8) sub T; a (0 sub 8/90 sub 8) sub T and a (0/90) sub 4s. The symmetric laminate is used as a basis for comparison, while the two unsymmetric laminates were chosen because they have equal but opposite bending-stretching effects. Particular attention is given to the influence of the thermally-induced preloading deformations that accompany the cool-down of any unsymmetric laminate from the consolidation temperature. Simple support and clamped boundary conditions are considered. It is concluded that: (1) The radial deformations of an unsymmetric laminate are significantly larger than the radial deformations of a symmetric laminate, although for both symmetric and unsymmetric laminates the large deformations are confined to a boundary layer near the ends of the cylinder; (2) For this nonlinear problem the length of the boundary layer is a function of the applied load; (3) The sign of the radial deformations near the supported end of the cylinder depends strongly on the sense (sign) of the laminate asymmetry; (4) For unsymmetric laminates, ignoring the thermally-induced preloading deformations that accompany cool-down results in load-induced deformations that are under predicted; and (5) The support conditions strongly influence the response but the influence of the sense of asymmetry and the influence of the thermally-induced preloading deformations are independent of the support conditions.

  6. Avaliação ultrassonométrica da osteossíntese de compressão axial: estudo experimental Ultrasonometric evaluation of axial compression osteosinthesis: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Takey Bezuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir a velocidade de propagação do ultrassom (VU através de uma osteotomia transversal em tíbias de ovelha, antes e após a fixação com uma placa DCP. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas dez montagens de uma placa DCP com o segmento diafisário das tíbias, no qual era feita uma osteotomia transversal. Foi realizada a medida subaquática transversal, nos planos coronal e sagital, e axial da VU, no osso íntegro, nas montagens sem osteotomia e, depois, com osteotomia sem e com a compressão axial pela placa DCP; comparações estatísticas foram feitas ao nível de significância de 1% (pOBJECTIVE: To measure the ultrasound propagation velocity (UV through a tibial transverse osteotomy in sheep, before and after the fixation with a DCP plate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten assemblies of a DCP plate with the diaphyseal segment of tibiae, in which a transverse osteotomy was made, were used. Both coronal and sagittal transverse and the axial UV were measured, first with the intact bone assembled with the plate and then with the uncompressed and compressed osteotomy; statistical comparisons were made at the 1% (p<0.01 level of significance. RESULTS: Compared with the intact bone assembly, axial UV significantly decreased with the addition of the osteotomy and significantly increased with compression, presenting the same behavior for the other modalities, although not significantly. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In accordance with the literature data on the ultrasonometric evaluation of fracture healing, underwater UV measurement was able to demonstrate the efficiency of DCP plate fixation. The authors conclude that the method has a potential for clinical application in the postoperative follow-up of DCP plate osteosinthesis, with a capability to demonstrate when it becomes ineffective. Laboratory investigation.

  7. Changes in nuclear composition following cyclic compression of the intervertebral disc in an in vivo rat-tail model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Congo T S; Chow, Daniel H K; Yao, Fiona Y D; Holmes, Andrew D

    2004-09-01

    While in vitro studies have shown that mechanical loading can result in changes in the composition of intervertebral disc matrix, the effects of cyclic loading in vivo have not been considered. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of static and cyclic compression of different frequencies on the nuclear composition of the intervertebral disc. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (no pin insertion, no loading), a sham group (pins inserted in sixth and seventh caudal vertebrae, no loading), a static loading group (compression applied via pins) and cyclic loading groups (loading at 0.5, 1.5 or 2.5 Hz). Loading was applied for 1 h each day from the third to 17th day following pin insertion, and the caudal 5-6, 6-7 and 7-8 discs harvested to quantify proteoglycan content, collagen content and chondrocyte density in the nucleus pulposus. Static compression resulted in a significant reduction in total proteoglycan content as compared with the adjacent control disc, but this effect was not seen in any of the cyclic loading groups. However, comparison with the sham group appears to indicate an overall decrease in total proteoglycan content at the targeted and adjacent levels following cyclic loading. The 0.5 Hz loading group showed a significantly greater total proteoglycan content than all other compression groups, and also showed a lower total collagen content than the sham group. Results suggest that frequency dependent changes in composition occur in response to cyclic loading, but are not limited to the directly loaded disc alone. Further studies are required to verify this, but the choice of control appears to need careful consideration in all studies of this nature.

  8. Axial Compression Properties Nonlinear Analysis on Square Double Skin Steel Stub Short Columns Filled with Recycled Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mixing amount of diatomite calcined and vitrified micro bubbles(VMB as the main changing parameters, experiment studies the properties of the vitrified micro bubbles recycled concrete blocks; then this paper adopts the finite element software ANSYS to analyze the square double skin steel stub short columns filled with recycled concrete under axial compression. According to the vertical stress distribution, strain and bearing capacity of the steel tube and core concrete, we make a contrastive axial compression properties analysis on the different hollow ratio χ(0,0.35and the VMB content(0%,100%,130% of square double skin steel stub short columns filled with recycled concrete. The result shows that: Compressive strength of VMB recycled concrete increases with the increase of diatomite calcined content, when mixing amount of diatomite calcined is 3%,the compressive strength of 130% VMB content test specimen can reach 32.45 MPa;Because of the inner circular steel tube is setted which strengthening component buckling capacity and improving the ductility of the component, stress distribution of hollow components is more balance than solid components, and their axial displacements decrease by 5.6% compared with the solid components when they reach ultimate bearing capacity; When the hollow ratio is same, ultimate bearing capacity of 130% VMB content test specimen compared with the content is 0% only reduces by about 3.5%; When the VMB content is same, ultimate bearing capacity of hollow components compared with solid components increases by about 2.5%, which reducing weight as well as improving the anti-seismic performance.

  9. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  10. Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Stability, and Lattice Defect Evolution During Cyclic Channel Die Compression of OFHC Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh Kumar, S. S.; Raghu, T.

    2015-02-01

    Oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper samples are severe plastically deformed by cyclic channel die compression (CCDC) technique at room temperature up to an effective plastic strain of 7.2. Effect of straining on variation in electrical conductivity, evolution of deformation stored energy, and recrystallization onset temperatures are studied. Deformation-induced lattice defects are quantified using three different methodologies including x-ray diffraction profile analysis employing Williamson-Hall technique, stored energy based method, and electrical resistivity-based techniques. Compared to other severe plastic deformation techniques, electrical conductivity degrades marginally from 100.6% to 96.6% IACS after three cycles of CCDC. Decrease in recrystallization onset and peak temperatures is noticed, whereas stored energy increases and saturates at around 0.95-1.1J/g after three cycles of CCDC. Although drop in recrystallization activation energy is observed with the increasing strain, superior thermal stability is revealed, which is attributed to CCDC process mechanics. Low activation energy observed in CCDC-processed OFHC copper is corroborated to synergistic influence of grain boundary characteristics and lattice defects distribution. Estimated defects concentration indicated continuous increase in dislocation density and vacancy with strain. Deformation-induced vacancy concentration is found to be significantly higher than equilibrium vacancy concentration ascribed to hydrostatic stress states experienced during CCDC.

  11. Fatigue behavior and cumulative damage rule of concrete under cyclic compression with constant confined stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-song; GAO Chang-e; SONG Yu-pu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of different lateral confinement stress on the fatigue behavior and cumulative damage of plain concrete were investigated experimentally. Eighty 100mm × 100mm × 100mm specimens of ordinary strength concrete were tested with constant-or variable-amplitude cyclic compression and lateral confinement pressure in two orthogonal directions. A fatigue equation was gained by modifying the classical Aas-Jakobsen SN equation and used for taking into account the effect of the confined stress on fatigue strength of plain concrete. The present study indicates that the fatigue failure is greatly influenced by the sequence of applied variable-amplitude fatigue loading, and Miner's rule is inapplicable to predict the residual fatigue life, especially in the sequence of low to high. The present research also shows that the exponent d of the Corten-Dolan's damage formula is a constant depending on the materials and the levels of load spectrum, and d can be determined through the two-stage fatigue tests. The residual fatigue lives predicted by Corten-Dolan' s damage formula are found to be in good agreement with the results of the experiments.

  12. Influence of the waste glass in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete; Influencia dos residuos vitreos na resistencia a compressao axial do concreto de cimento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Junior, E.J.P.; Paiva, A.E.M., E-mail: edson.jansen@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao (PPGEM/IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In this work, was studied the influence of the incorporation of waste glass, coming from the stage of thinning and polishing of a company of thermal glass treatments, in the axial compressive strength of Portland cement concrete. The coarse and ground aggregates used was crushed stone and sand, respectively. For production of the concrete, percentages of glass residues of 5%, 10% and 20% had been used in substitution to the sand, and relations water/cement (a/c) 0,50, 0,55 and 0,58. The cure of the test bodies was carried through in 7, 14 and 28 days. The statistics analysis of the results was carried out through of the analysis of variance for each one of the cure times. From the results of the compressive strength of the concrete, it could be observed that the concrete has structural application for the relation a/c 0,5, independently of waste glass percentage used, and for the relation a/c 0,55 with 20% of waste glass. (author)

  13. Examination of a lumbar spine biomechanical model for assessing axial compression, shear, and bending moment using selected Olympic lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Travascio, Francesco; Asfour, Shihab; Elmasry, Shady; Heredia-Vargas, Hector; Signorile, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Loading during concurrent bending and compression associated with deadlift, hang clean and hang snatch lifts carries the potential for injury to the intervertebral discs, muscles and ligaments. This study examined the capacity of a newly developed spinal model to compute shear and compressive forces, and bending moments in lumbar spine for each lift. Five male subjects participated in the study. The spine was modeled as a chain of rigid bodies (vertebrae) connected via the intervertebral discs. Each vertebral reference frame was centered in the center of mass of the vertebral body, and its principal directions were axial, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral. The results demonstrated the capacity of this spinal model to assess forces and bending moments at and about the lumbar vertebrae by showing the variations among these variables with different lifting techniques. These results show the model's potential as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Quasi-static compression of electric resistance welded mild steel tubes with axial gradient-distributed microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shengjie; Sun, Lei; Ma, Xudong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai (China)

    2016-05-15

    This paper presents the deformation behavior and crash worthiness of electric resistance welded mild steel tubes with axial gradient microstructures in quasi-static compression. Three sets of tubes were prepared, and regions of each tube were Induction heated and directly quenched (IH-DQ). The effect of the length to diameter (L/D) ratio, and length of the IH-DQ region on crushing characteristics was investigated, and compared with untreated tubes. The compression tests revealed that improved energy absorption can be obtained in IHDQ tubes if the collapse is controlled by the formation of a concertina buckling mode. However, there was a tendency to produce mixed or Euler buckling modes as the ratio of L/D increased. Meanwhile, the results of the crush experiments and the FEM models showed that the heat-treatment process should be precisely controlled to produce the correct type of microstructure, and circumferential uniformity of microstructure distribution.

  15. Cortical and trabecular bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherholt, Alyssa M; Fuchs, Robyn K; Warden, Stuart J

    2013-01-01

    The mouse tibial axial compression loading model has recently been described to allow simultaneous exploration of cortical and trabecular bone adaptation within the same loaded element. However, the model frequently induces cortical woven bone formation and has produced inconsistent results with regards to trabecular bone adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model, with the ultimate goal of revealing a load that simultaneously induced lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation. Adult (16 weeks old) female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three load magnitude groups (5, 7 and 9N), and had their right tibia axially loaded using a continuous 2-Hz haversine waveform for 360 cycles/day, 3 days/week for 4 consecutive weeks. In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to longitudinally assess midshaft tibia cortical bone adaptation, while ex vivo micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to assess both midshaft tibia cortical and proximal tibia trabecular bone adaptation. A dose response to loading magnitude was observed within cortical bone, with increasing load magnitude inducing increasing levels of lamellar cortical bone adaptation within the upper two thirds of the tibial diaphysis. Greatest cortical bone adaptation was observed at the midshaft where there was a 42% increase in estimated mechanical properties (polar moment of inertia) in the highest (9N) load group. A dose response to load magnitude was not clearly evident within trabecular bone, with only the highest load (9N) being able to induce measureable adaptation (31% increase in trabecular bone volume fraction at the proximal tibia). The ultimate finding was that a load of 9N (engendering a tensile strain of 1833 με on medial surface of the midshaft tibia) was able to simultaneously induce measurable lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation

  16. Cyclic compressive stress-induced scinderin regulates progress of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Long; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chuan-Dong; Hu, Guo-Li; Zhu, Jun-Feng; Shen, Chao; Zuo, Bin; Cui, Yi-Min; Li, De; Yuan-Gao; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-14

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by a mismatch between acetabulum and femoral head. Mechanical force plays an important role during the occurrence and development of abnormities in acetabulum and femoral head. In this study, we established a mechanical force model named cyclic compressive stress (Ccs). To analyze the effect of Ccs on DDH, we detected special genes in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Results showed that Ccs downregulated chondrogenesis of ADTC5 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the mRNA level of Scinderin (Scin) considerably increased. We established lentivirus-SCIN(GV144-SCIN) to transfect hBMSCs, which were treated with different Ccs levels (0.25 Hz*5 cm, 0.5 Hz*5 cm, and 1 Hz*10 cm); the result showed that overexpression of Scin upregulated osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. By contrast, expression of chondrocyte-specific genes, including ACAN, COL-2A, and Sox9, decreased. Further molecular investigation demonstrated that Scin promoted osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis through activation of the p-Smad1/5/8, NF-κB, and MAPK P38 signaling pathways, as well as stimulated the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Moreover, Scin-induced osteogenesis outweighed osteoclastogenesis in defective femur in vivo. The results of the analysis of Micro-CT confirmed these findings. Overall, Ccs influenced the development of DDH by promoting osteogenesis and cartilage degradation. In addition, Scin played a vital role in the development of DDH.

  17. Analysis and Calculation of Axial Stiffness of Tubular X-joints under Compression on Braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Guo-zhi; ZHAO Jin-cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the influence factors of axial stiffness of tubular X-joints. The analysis model of tubular joints using plate and shell finite element method is also made. Systematic single-parameter analysis of tubular X-joints is performed using Ansys program. The influences of those factors, including ratio of brace diameter to chord diameter (β), ratio of chord diameter to twice chord thickness (γ), ratio of brace wall thickness to that of chord (τ), brace-to-chord intersection angle (θ), and chord stress ratio, ratio of another brace diameter to chord diameter, in-plane and out-of-plane moment of braces, etc., on stiffness of tubular X-joints are analyzed.Two non-dimensional parameters-joint axial stiffness factor ηN and axial force capacity factor ωN are proposed,and the relationship curve of the two factors is determined. Computational formulas of tubular X-joint axial stiffness are obtained by multi-element regression technology. The formulas can be used in design and analysis of steel tubular structures.

  18. Work of Fracture of Composites in Axial Compression - Measurement and Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) indicates that theories based on the Rosen model do not adequately explain variations in compressive strength with... reinforced plastic (GRP) composites, and looks at failure initiation and propagation modes and the amounts of energy involved. Figures of between 5 and...tension, Chaplin attempts to investigate the variation in compressive strength with notch depth for high strength carbon fibre (CFRP) and E-glass fibre

  19. Axial-Compressive Behavior, Including Kink-Band Formation and Propagation, of Single p-Phenylene Terephthalamide (PPTA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grujicic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA single fibers when subjected to uniaxial compression is investigated computationally using coarse-grained molecular statics/dynamics methods. In order to construct the coarse-grained PPTA model (specifically, in order to define the nature of the coarse-grained particles/beads and to parameterize various components of the bead/bead force-field functions, the results of an all-atom molecular-level computational investigation are used. In addition, the microstructure/topology of the fiber core, consisting of a number of coaxial crystalline fibrils, is taken into account. Also, following our prior work, various PPTA crystallographic/topological defects are introduced into the model (at concentrations consistent with the prototypical PPTA synthesis/processing conditions. The analysis carried out clearly revealed (a formation of the kink bands during axial compression; (b the role of defects in promoting the formation of kink bands; (c the stimulating effects of some defects on the fiber-fibrillation process; and (d the detrimental effect of the prior compression, associated with fiber fibrillation, on the residual longitudinal-tensile strength of the PPTA fibers.

  20. Understanding differences between healthy swallows and penetration-aspiration swallows via compressive sensing of tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Dudik, Joshua M; Kurosu, Atsuko; Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L

    2014-05-23

    Swallowing accelerometry is a promising tool for non-invasive assessment of swallowing difficulties. A recent contribution showed that swallowing accelerometry signals for healthy swallows and swallows indicating laryngeal penetration or tracheal aspiration have different time-frequency structures, which may be problematic for compressive sensing schemes based on time-frequency dictionaries. In this paper, we examined the effects of different swallows on the accuracy of a compressive sensing scheme based on modulated discrete prolate spheroidal sequences. We utilized tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals recorded from four patients during routinely schedule videofluoroscopy exams. In particular, we considered 77 swallows approximately equally distributed between healthy swallows and swallows presenting with some penetration/aspiration. Our results indicated that the swallow type does not affect the accuracy of a considered compressive sensing scheme. Also, the results confirmed previous findings that each individual axis contributes different information. Our findings are important for further developments of a device which is to be used for long-term monitoring of swallowing difficulties.

  1. Strength and stability analysis of a single-walled black phosphorus tube under axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qing H.

    2016-07-01

    Few-layered black phosphorus materials currently attract much attention due to their special electronic properties. As a consequence, a single-layer black phosphorus (SLBP) nanotube has been theoretically built. The corresponding electronic properties of such a black phosphorus nanotube (BPNT) were also evaluated numerically. However, unlike graphene formed with 2sp2 covalent carbon atoms, SLBP is formed with 3sp3 bonded atoms. It means that the structure from SLBP will possess lower Young’s modulus and mechanical strength than those of carbon nanotubes. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to investigate the strength and stability of BPNTs affected by the factors of diameter, length, loading speed and temperature. Results are fundamental for investigating the other physical properties of a BPNT acting as a component in a nanodevice. For example, buckling of the BPNT happens earlier than fracture, before which the nanostructure has very small axial strain. For the same BPNT, a higher load speed results in lower critical axial strain and a nanotube with lower axial strain can still be stable at a higher temperature.

  2. Structural strength of cancellous specimens from bovine femur under cyclic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Endo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporotic fractures was estimated as nine million worldwide in 2000, with particular occurrence at the proximity of joints rich in cancellous bone. Although most of these fractures spontaneously heal, some fractures progressively collapse during the early post-fracture period. Prediction of bone fragility during progressive collapse following initial fracture is clinically important. However, the mechanism of collapse, especially the gradual loss of the height in the cancellous bone region, is not clearly proved. The strength of cancellous bone after yield stress is difficult to predict since structural and mechanical strength cannot be determined a priori. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the baseline structure and volume of cancellous bone contributed to the change in cancellous bone strength under cyclic loading. A total of fifteen cubic cancellous bone specimens were obtained from two 2-year-old bovines and divided into three groups by collection regions: femoral head, neck, and proximal metaphysis. Structural indices of each 5-mm cubic specimen were determined using micro-computed tomography. Specimens were then subjected to five cycles of uniaxial compressive loading at 0.05 mm/min with initial 20 N loading, 0.3 mm displacement, and then unloading to 0.2 mm with 0.1 mm displacement for five successive cycles. Elastic modulus and yield stress of cancellous bone decreased exponentially during five loading cycles. The decrease ratio of yield stress from baseline to fifth cycle was strongly correlated with bone volume fraction (BV/TV, r = 0.96, p < 0.01 and structural model index (SMI, r = − 0.81, p < 0.01. The decrease ratio of elastic modulus from baseline to fifth cycle was also correlated with BV/TV (r = 0.80, p < 0.01 and SMI (r = − 0.78, p < 0.01. These data indicate that structural deterioration of cancellous bone is associated with bone strength after yield stress. This study suggests that

  3. Effect of Two Interacting Localized Defects on the Critical Load for Thin Cylindrical Shells Under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Khamlichi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many modern structures are made from thin shells. Design of these elements depends to a large extent on their buckling behavior which is hugely affected by the initial geometric imperfections. Approach: For axially compressed isotropic circular cylindrical shells, axisymmetric localized geometric imperfections were found to reduce severely the buckling strength. Among various axisymmetric shapes of localized defects that were investigated, the entering triangular form was recognized to yield the most adverse case. Since multiple localized defects may be present in the same shell structure and interact, studying their mutual effect on the buckling load is of great importance for shell design. Results: In this study, the effect of two interacting entering triangular localized axisymmetric initial geometric imperfections on shell buckling strength under uniform axial compression was modeled by means of the finite element method. A special software package which was dedicated to buckling analysis of quasi axisymmetric shells was used in order to compute the buckling load either via the linear Euler buckling analysis or through the full non linear iterative procedure. A set of five factors including shell aspect ratios, defect characteristics and the distance separating the localized initial geometric imperfections had been found to govern the buckling problem. A statistical approach based on the Taguchi method was used then to study their relative influence on the buckling load reduction. It was shown by comparison with the single imperfection case that further diminution of the critical load was obtained. Conclusion/Recommendations: In the range of investigated parameters, the distance separating the localized geometric imperfections and imperfection wavelength were found to yield major influences on the critical load. Further studies must be performed in order to assess shell buckling strength in the presence of more than two

  4. Review of design codes of concrete encased steel short columns under axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Z. Soliman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of encased steel concrete columns has been increased significantly in medium-rise or high-rise buildings. The aim of the present investigation is to assess experimentally the current methods and codes for evaluating the ultimate load behavior of concrete encased steel short columns. The current state of design provisions for composite columns from the Egyptian codes ECP203-2007 and ECP-SC-LRFD-2012, as well as, American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC-LRFD-2010, American Concrete Institute, ACI-318-2008, and British Standard BS-5400-5 was reviewed. The axial capacity portion of both the encased steel section and the concrete section was also studied according to the previously mentioned codes. Ten encased steel concrete columns have been investigated experimentally to study the effect of concrete confinement and different types of encased steel sections. The measured axial capacity of the tested ten composite columns was compared with the values calculated by the above mentioned codes. It is concluded that non-negligible discrepancies exist between codes and the experimental results as the confinement effect was not considered in predicting both the strength and ductility of concrete. The confining effect was obviously influenced by the shape of the encased steel section. The tube-shaped steel section leads to better confinement than the SIB section. Among the used codes, the ECP-SC-LRFD-2012 led to the most conservative results.

  5. The buckling of FGM truncated conical shells subjected to axial compressive load and resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofiyev, A.H., E-mail: asofiyev@mmf.sdu.edu.t [Department of Civil Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the buckling analysis of the simply supported truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is presented. The FGM truncated conical shell subjected to an axial compressive load and resting on Winkler-Pasternak type elastic foundations. The material properties of functionally graded shells are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness. The modified Donnell type stability and compatibility equations are solved by Galerkin's method and the critical axial load of FGM truncated conical shells with and without elastic foundations have been found analytically. The appropriate formulas for homogenous and FGM cylindrical shells with and without elastic foundations are found as a special case. Several examples are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the formulation. Finally, parametric studies on the buckling of FGM truncated conical and cylindrical shells on elastic foundations are being investigated. These parameters include; power-law and exponential distributions of FGM, Winkler foundation modulus, Pasternak foundation modulus and aspect ratios of shells.

  6. [Stimulation of degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc through axial compression. Radiologic, histologic and biomechanical research in an animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglaub, F; Lorenz, H; Nerlich, A; Richter, W; Kroeber, M W

    2003-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is a common disease in the adults, especially at advanced age. A causal therapy is not known, but the progress in new therapeutic strategies, for example in tissue engineering, shows new possibilities. The goal of our study was to develop a new animal model that stimulates a load induced degeneration of the disc. We used the New Zealand rabbit, because morphology is similar to the human intervertebral disc. The degeneration was induced by axial compression of the disc L4 - L5 with an external fixateur. After different loading intervals, the animals were sacrified and the discs examined by radiology, histology, apoptosis and biomechanical testing. Radiography showed a significant decrease of the disc thickness in all loaded groups. Morphologically the intervertebral discs of loaded rabbits showed degenerative changes which were comparable to those in humans. A significantly increased number of dead cells in the annulus occurred after 14 and 28 days loading compared to the controls. The bending stress measured as the load to failure was not significantly different between the unloaded discs and the 28 days loaded discs. The results show that our animal modell can create degeneration. Four weeks compression leads to significant degeneration. Degeneration of the discs persisted in animals that were allowed a recovery time of 28 days after 28 days of loading.

  7. Local axial compressive mechanical properties of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques-characterisation by indentation test and inverse finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chen-Ket; Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H; Oomens, Cees W J; van Sambeek, Marc R H M; van der Lugt, Aad; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2013-06-21

    The fibrous cap of an atherosclerotic plaque may be prone to rupture if the occurring stresses exceed the strength of the cap. Rupture can cause acute thrombosis and subsequent ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction. A reliable prediction of the rupture probability is essential for the appropriate treatment of atherosclerosis. Biomechanical models, which compute stresses and strain, are promising to provide a more reliable rupture risk prediction. However, these models require knowledge of the local biomechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaque tissue. For this purpose, we examined human carotid plaques using indentation experiments. The test set-up was mounted on an inverted confocal microscope to visualise the collagen fibre structure during the tests. By using an inverse finite element (FE) approach, and assuming isotropic neo-Hookean behaviour, the corresponding Young's moduli were found in the range from 6 to 891kPa (median 30kPa). The results correspond to the values obtained by other research groups who analysed the compressive Young's modulus of atherosclerotic plaques. Collagen rich locations showed to be stiffer than collagen poor locations. No significant differences were found between the Young's moduli of structured and unstructured collagen architectures as specified from confocal collagen data. Insignificant differences between the middle of the fibrous cap, the shoulder regions, and remaining plaque tissue locations indicate that axial, compressive mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques are independent of location within the plaque. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  9. Buckling of Thin Pressurized Cylinders Under Pure Bending or Axial Compression: Rocket Launcher Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Andre; Limam, Ali; Lorioux, Fabien; Radulovic, Serge; Taponier, Vincent; Leudiere, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    The results of an experimental study on the buckling of thin cylindrical shells (R/t = 450, 675, 1350) subjected to combined loads are presented here. The aim of the present study is to improve the design of shells in the aerospace industry, which mainly uses the NASA SP8007 rule, established in the late 1960s. Two load cases are examined: combined internal pressure and bending; and combined internal pressure and compression. The tests point out the two main flaws of the NASA SP8007. First, it is obviously over- conservative for low values of internal pressure, which has been widely acknowledged. Then, the experiments show the effect of plasticity for higher internal pressures, which is not well accounted for in the SP8007 design rule, and leads to a drop in the load-bearing capacity of the structure.

  10. Performance Analysis of CFRP Composite Strips Confined RC Columns under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raja Murugadoss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to mitigate the high cost of FRP composite strengthening, an experimental investigation was carried out that sought to achieve efficient and most favorable FRP strengthening using CFRP composite strips. 50 mm wide CFRP composite strips were used in two different spacings (20 mm and 40 mm to confine columns. The test results of the column confined with smaller spacing (20 mm showed significant restraint of axial deformation of the column and enhanced the strength capacity to a maximum of 99.20% compared to that of reference column. In contrast, the column confined by strips with larger spacing (40 mm failed by crushing of concrete alone, which occurred even before the CFRP strips reached their ultimate strain. In addition, the embodied energy that exists in the CFRP strips could not be utilized effectively. The stress and strength enhancement ratio of this present study was compared with the previous research that has been conducted on columns confined with full wrapping. From the obtained results, it is recommended that CFRP strips with a spacing of 20 mm be used to improve the strength capacity of the RC column; in addition, this wrapping technique provides economic benefits compared to a column confined with full wrapping.

  11. Lumbar spine disc height and curvature responses to an axial load generated by a compression device compatible with magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S.; Steinbach, G. C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Axial load-dependent changes in the lumbar spine of supine healthy volunteers were examined using a compression device compatible with magnetic resonance imaging. OBJECTIVE: To test two hypotheses: Axial loading of 50% body weight from shoulder to feet in supine posture 1) simulates the upright lumbar spine alignment and 2) decreases disc height significantly. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Axial compression on the lumbar spine has significantly narrowed the lumbar dural sac in patients with sciatica, neurogenic claudication or both. METHODS: Using a device compatible with magnetic resonance imaging, the lumbar spine of eight young volunteers, ages 22 to 36 years, was axially compressed with a force equivalent to 50% of body weight, approximating the normal load on the lumbar spine in upright posture. Sagittal lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed to measure intervertebral angle and disc height before and during compression. RESULTS: Each intervertebral angle before and during compression was as follows: T12-L1 (-0.8 degrees +/- 2.5 degrees and -1.5 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees ), L1-L2 (0.7 degrees +/- 1.4 degrees and 3.3 degrees +/- 2.9 degrees ), L2-L3 (4.7 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees and 7.3 degrees +/- 6 degrees ), L3-L4 (7.9 degrees +/- 2.4 degrees and 11.1 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees ), L4-L5 (14.3 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees and 14.9 degrees +/- 1.7 degrees ), L5-S1 (25.8 degrees +/- 5.2 degrees and 20.8 degrees +/- 6 degrees ), and L1-S1 (53.4 degrees +/- 11.9 degrees and 57.3 degrees +/- 16.7 degrees ). Negative values reflect kyphosis, and positive values reflect lordosis. A significant difference between values before and during compression was obtained at L3-L4 and L5-S1. There was a significant decrease in disc height only at L4-L5 during compression. CONCLUSIONS: The axial force of 50% body weight in supine posture simulates the upright lumbar spine morphologically. No change in intervertebral angle occurred at L4-L5. However, disc height at L4-L

  12. Strength of Tubular Joints Made by Electromagnetic Compression at Quasistatic and Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro, P.; Beerwald, C.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.; Löhe, D.; Marré, M.; Schulze, V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic compression of tubular profiles with high electrical conductivity is an innovative joining process for lightweight structures. The components are joined using pulsed magnetic fields which apply radial pressures of up to 200 MPa to tubular workpieces, causing a symmetric reduction of the diameter with typical strain rates of up to 10^4 sec^(-1). This process avoids any surface damage of the workpiece because there is no contact between component and forming tool. The strength o...

  13. Research on the Influence of Size Effect for the mechanical Performance of GFRP tube concrete steel tube composite column under axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Tong; Na, Yu

    2017-08-01

    FRP tube-concrete-steel tube composite column (DSTC) was a new type of composite structures. The column consists of FRP outer tube and steel tube and concrete. Concrete was filled between FRP outer tube and steel tube. This column has the character of light and high strength and corrosion resistance. In this paper, properties of DSTC axial compression were studied in depth. The properties were studied by two groups DSTC short columns under axial compression performance experiment. The different size of DSTC short columns was importantly considered. According to results of the experiment, we can conclude that with the size of the column increases the ability of it to resist deformation drops. On the other hand, the size effect influences on properties of different concrete strength DSTC was different. The influence of size effect on high concrete strength was less than that of low concrete.

  14. Delamination growth behavior in cross-ply composites under compressive cyclic (fatigue) loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegri, Assimina A.

    A mode dependent fatigue delamination growth law for anisotropic composite plates is presented in this thesis. The novelty of the presented law lies in the mode dependency of the material and laminate constants m(Psi) and C(Psi). The model describing the mode dependent delamination growth law consists of an initial postbuckling solution accounting for general delaminated composites, i.e. with no restrictive assumptions on the delamination dimensions, and a fracture mechanics solution. A numerical code was developed for the implementation of the closed form solution which gives the loading and geometrical quantities as well as the energy release rates and the mode mixities. The computer code was especially designed for parametric studies. Parameters assigned in this particular investigation were: end conditions, delamination position (h/T), and applied strain. The effect of the end conditions, i.e. clamped-clamped versus simply-supported ends on the initial postbuckling and growth behavior of delaminated plates was also investigated. In conjunction with the previous analysis, a detailed experimental study was designed and carried out in order to validate the proposed model. The tests were designed so that the effect of certain parameters on the delamination growth behavior could be evaluated. The parameters included in the investigation were: initial delamination length, applied strain and delamination position (h/T). Compressive static, compressive fatigue (constant displacement amplitude), and double cantilever beam (DCB) tests were conducted. Data acquisition and analysis for these tests were performed. By comparing analytical and experimental results it is shown that a very good correlation exists, and the presented mode dependent fatigue delamination growth law can accurately predict fatigue lives of delaminated composite structures.

  15. Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial-Tensile Strength of PPTA Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    strength and appre- ciable changes in the associated probability density function. Keywords effect of compression and torsion, Kevlar , PPTA, tensile...properties 1. Introduction The work described in the present manuscript concerns p- phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) polymeric fibers such as Kevlar ...Engineering Innovation Building, Clemson, SC 29634-0921; and C.-F. Yen and B.A. Cheeseman, Army Research Laboratory—Weapons & Materials Research Directorate

  16. Design for limit stresses of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis under axial and radial compression as related to transportation and storage design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.

  17. Analysis of Comparison between Unconfined and Confined Condition of Foamed Concrete Under Uni-Axial Compressive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zairul A. Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Foamed concrete has become most commercial material in construction industry. People in industries were come out with the new mix design of foamed concrete to meet the specification and the requirements needed. Approach: This is because foamed concrete has the possibility as alternative of lightweight concrete for producing intermediate strength capabilities with excellent thermal insulation, freeze-thaw resistance, high-impact resistance and good shock absorption. Results: Currently Standard test to measure the compressive strength of foamed concrete is using standard unconfined compressive test. Several research has been conduct but the compressive strength using standard unconfined compressive test not capture true behavior of foamed concrete because it just achieved only low compressive strength and sample under compression failed due to brittle collapse of the sample. This paper was analyses the comparison between standard compressive test and confined compressive test. The confinement test introduced to prevent sample from brittle collapse. Foamed concrete cylindrical sample has been investigated under the standard compressive test for hard concrete (ASTM-C39. Based on the research, samples are produced under unconfined and confined condition. Analysis has been done and the result show that under standard compressive test, the sample failed due to early crack initiation and failed. Confinement condition was increase the compressive strength but this condition influence the result. Conclusion/Recommendations: Standard test is not suitable to capture the true behavior of foamed concrete, and to prevent the sample from brittle collapse during the test, new testing method was introduced to capture the true behavior of foamed concrete which is using Quasi Static Indentation Test. This test can be used to study about the behaviour of foamed concrete before it can be implemented to its final application.

  18. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  19. Magnetic moment collapse induced axial alternative compressibility of Cr2TiAlC2 at 420 GPa from first principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze-Jin, Yang; Rong-Feng, Linghu; Qing-He, Gao; Heng-Na, Xiong; Zhi-Jun, Xu; Ling, Tang; Guo-Zhu, Jia; Yun-Dong, Guo

    2016-09-26

    The electronic structure and thermodynamical properties of Cr2TiAlC2 are studied by first principles under pressure. The obtained results observed that the ferromagnetic order is the most stable ground state and the magnetic moment will collapse at about 50 GPa. As a result, the lattice a axis becomes stiffer above about 420 GPa, ultimately presenting the same axial compressibility trends with those of nonmagnetic compounds Mo2TiAlC2 and hypothetical Cr2TiAlC2. The elastic constants and phonon dispersion curves demonstrate the structural stability during the disappearance of magnetic moment and occurrence of axial alternative compressibility. The density of states and energy band calculations confirmed the existence of magnetic moment of Cr2TiAlC2 at 0 GPa and disappearance at high pressures above 50 GPa. Evolutions of magnetic moment collapse with pressure are confirmed by a variety of properties. The obtained grüneisen parameter and thermal expansion coefficients show the maximum value among the known MAX phases, to date and to the author's knowledge.

  20. Magnetic moment collapse induced axial alternative compressibility of Cr2TiAlC2 at 420 GPa from first principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze-Jin, Yang; Rong-Feng, Linghu; Qing-He, Gao; Heng-Na, Xiong; Zhi-Jun, Xu; Ling, Tang; Guo-Zhu, Jia; Yun-Dong, Guo

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structure and thermodynamical properties of Cr2TiAlC2 are studied by first principles under pressure. The obtained results observed that the ferromagnetic order is the most stable ground state and the magnetic moment will collapse at about 50 GPa. As a result, the lattice a axis becomes stiffer above about 420 GPa, ultimately presenting the same axial compressibility trends with those of nonmagnetic compounds Mo2TiAlC2 and hypothetical Cr2TiAlC2. The elastic constants and phonon dispersion curves demonstrate the structural stability during the disappearance of magnetic moment and occurrence of axial alternative compressibility. The density of states and energy band calculations confirmed the existence of magnetic moment of Cr2TiAlC2 at 0 GPa and disappearance at high pressures above 50 GPa. Evolutions of magnetic moment collapse with pressure are confirmed by a variety of properties. The obtained grüneisen parameter and thermal expansion coefficients show the maximum value among the known MAX phases, to date and to the author’s knowledge. PMID:27666292

  1. Computational Study of Axial Fatigue for Peripheral Nitinol Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoli, Alessio; Dordoni, Elena; Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2014-07-01

    Despite their success as primary treatment for vascular diseases, Nitinol peripheral stents are still affected by complications related to fatigue failure. Hip and knee movements during daily activities produce large and cyclic deformations of the superficial femoral artery, that concomitant to the effects of pulsatile blood pressure, may cause fatigue failure in the stent. Fatigue failure typically occurs in cases of very extended lesions, which often require the use of two or more overlapping stents. In this study, finite element models were used to study the fatigue behavior of Nitinol stents when subjected to cyclic axial compression in different conditions. A specific commercial Nitinol stent was chosen for the analysis and subjected to cyclic axial compression typical of the femoral vascular region. Three different configurations were investigated: stent alone, stent deployed in a tube, and two overlapping stents deployed in a tube. Results confirm that stent oversizing has an influence in determining both the mean and amplitude strains induced in the stent and plays an important role in determining the fatigue response of Nitinol stents. In case of overlapping stents, numerical results suggest higher amplitude strains concentrate in the region close to the overlapping portion where the abrupt change in stiffness causes higher cyclic compression. These findings help to explain the high incidence of stent fractures observed in various clinical trials located close to the overlapping portion.

  2. Shear Performance of Horizontal Joints in Short Precast Concrete Columns with Sleeve Grouted Connections under Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bo; Xiong, Feng; Liu, Bingyu; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two short precast concrete columns and two cast-in-situ concrete columns were tested under cyclic loads. It was shown that the sleeve grouted connection was equivalent to the cast-in-situ connections for short columns when the axial compression ratio was 0.6. In order to determine the influence of the axial compression ratio and the shear-span ratio on the shear capacity of the horizontal joint, a FE model was established and verified. The analysis showed that the axial compres...

  3. Vibration mitigation by the reversible fcc/hcp martensitic transformation during cyclic tension-compression loading of an Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaguchi, Takahiro [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: sawaguchi.takahiro@nims.go.jp; Sahu, Puspendu [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Kikuchi, Takehiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kajiwara, Setsuo [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kushibe, Atsumichi [Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Otsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395 (Japan); Higashino, Masahiko [Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Otsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395 (Japan); Ogawa, Takatoshi [Takenaka Corporation, 1-5-1, Otsuka, Inzai, Chiba 270-1395 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The present work concerns the damping behavior of an Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr-0.5NbC (mass%) shape memory alloy determined by low cycle fatigue tests, and the corresponding deformation mechanism under cyclic tension-compression loading. The specific damping capacity increases with increasing strain amplitude and reaches saturation at {approx}80%, above the strain amplitude of 0.4%. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analyses and microstructural observations using atomic force microscopy revealed that a significant amount of the tensile stress-induced {epsilon} martensite is reversely transformed into the austenite by subsequent compression; in other words, the stress-induced 'reverse' martensitic transformation takes place in the alloy.

  4. Development of an accurate molecular mechanics model for buckling behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, B; Naseradinmousavi, P; Rahmani, A

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, an analytical solution based on a molecular mechanics model is developed to evaluate the elastic critical axial buckling strain of chiral multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To this end, the total potential energy of the system is calculated with the consideration of the both bond stretching and bond angular variations. Density functional theory (DFT) in the form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is implemented to evaluate force constants used in the molecular mechanics model. After that, based on the principle of molecular mechanics, explicit expressions are proposed to obtain elastic surface Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the single-walled carbon nanotubes corresponding to different types of chirality. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the influence of the type of chirality, tube diameter, and number of tube walls in detailed. An excellent agreement is found between the present numerical results and those found in the literature which confirms the validity as well as the accuracy of the present closed-form solution. It is found that the value of critical axial buckling strain exhibit significant dependency on the type of chirality and number of tube walls. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  6. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  7. 高轴压比CFRP约束钢筋混凝土圆柱抗震性能试验与有限元分析%Experiment and finite element analysis of the seismic behavior of CFRP-confined RC circular columns with high axial compression ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震宇; 王代玉; 吕大刚

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the seismic behavior of FRP-confined circular RC columns with high axial compression ratio, six columns confined with Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) at plastic hinge region and two control columns were tested under constant axial load and cyclic lateral force. Test results demonstrated marked improvement in the ductility and energy dissipation of the columns due to CFRP wrapping in the plastic hinge region and the contribution of hoops to the confining effect should not be ignored under the condition of high axial compression ratio. A nonlinear analytical procedure was developed using fiber model method based on OpenSees (Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation). The simulation results agree well with the experimental results for axial compression ratios less than O. 45. Inclusion of the confining effects of both the hoop~ and CFRP results in better simulation of the test results if the .axial compression ratio exceeds 0.45. Finally, influences of axial compression ratio and length of CFRP in the plastic hinge region on the seismic performance of FRP-confined columns were analyzed. The results indicate that the lateral loading capacity of columns begins to decrease when axial compression in the plastic hinge region exceeds 1.2 times the column diameter, the wrapped columns. ratio exceeds 0.6. If the length of wrapped CFRP performance could be equivalent to that with fully%为研究高轴压比下FRP约束钢筋混凝土圆柱的抗震性能,对6根碳纤维约束钢筋混凝土圆柱及2根对比柱进行伪静力试验。结果表明:塑性铰区包裹碳纤维可显著改善高轴压比柱的抗震性能,轴压比较高时不应忽略箍筋对核心混凝土的约束贡献。基于OpenSees中的纤维模型,对柱水平力.位移滞回曲线进行有限元模拟。轴压比小于0.45时,数值模拟与试验结果吻合较好;轴压比大于0.45时,考虑核心混凝土受箍筋及FRP双重约束的计

  8. Experimental study of columns partially filled with concrete under compressive axial loads Etude expérimentale des colonnes partiellement remplis par le béton sous charge axiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoura D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on présente les résultats expérimentaux obtenus sur des poteaux mixtes béton-acier mince réalisés par soudures. Un total de 24 profilés en acier, et en forme de I a été testé sous charge de compression uni-axiale à l’âge de 28 jours. les spécimens ont été réparties comme suit: 4 à vides, 4 partiellement remplies avec un béton ordinaire sans l’addition des connecteurs, 4 renforcés par des connecteurs de cisaillements de type cornière en U, 4 autres l’ont été avec des connecteurs de cisaillements type goujons et 8 restants ont été renforcés avec des liens transversaux d’espacement 100mm, 50mm, soudés aux bouts des ailes opposées. Les principaux paramètres étudiés sont: l’élancement du profilé, le type de connecteur de renforcement. A partir des résultats d’essais obtenus, il est confirmé que les parois minces sont plus sensibles de l’apparition au voilement et la longueur des profilés a un effet considérable sur la capacité portante et le mode de rupture. L’addition des connecteurs de renforcement a confirmé l’augmentation de la charge ultime par rapport aux profilés sans connecteurs. In the present work, results of tests conducted on thin welded steel-concrete stubs are presented. A total of 24 stubs an I steel section were tested under axial compression at 28 days after the date of casting, 4 were empty, 4 filled with normal concrete, 8 columns had shear connecters welded along the centreline of the web, and 8 columns had steel rods welded between the tips of opposing flanges on both sides of the spacing of the transverse link 100 mm and 50 mm. The main parameters studied were: the heel height, and type of connector strengthening. From the test results, it is confirmed that the thin walls are more sensitive to the appearance local buckling and the length of the profiles has a significant effect on the bearing capacity and failure mode. The bearing capacity was increased

  9. Effects of dividing the transverse carpal ligament on the mechanical behavior of the carpal bones under axial compressive load: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zong-Ming

    2009-03-01

    Transecting the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) is a routine procedure to surgically treat carpal tunnel syndrome; yet, its mechanical consequences on carpal bones are unclear. In this study, our intent was to perform a computational analysis of carpal biomechanics resulting from TCL release. A three-dimensional finite element model of the wrist was constructed, which included all the carpal bones, the distal ulna and radius, the proximal metacarpals and the interosseous ligaments. Cartilage layers of each bone were modeled manually according to anatomic visualization software. The TCL was also modeled in three dimensions and added to the bone model. A 100-Newton axial load was applied to the upper section of the second and third metacarpals. The effects of dividing the TCL on the displacements of the carpal bones and the contact stress distribution in the midcarpal joints were studied using a finite element analysis method. When the TCL was divided, the axial compressive load resulted in the carpal bones deviating more radially. More specifically, the carpal bones on the radial side of the capitate and lunate (i.e. the trapezium, trapezoid, and scaphoid) moved further toward the radius, and the carpal bones on the ulnar side of the capitate and lunate (i.e. hamate, triquetrum, and pisiform) moved further toward the metacarpals. The contact stresses and contact locations in the midcarpal joints changed as a result of dividing the TCL. The changes in displacements of carpal bones and the contact stress distributions in the midcarpal joints due to TCL release may be implicated for some of the postoperative complications associated with carpal tunnel release.

  10. 铝合金方管开孔柱轴压性能研究%RESEARCH ON BEHAVIOR OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY SHS COLUMNS WITH HOLES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯然; 马义红; 张长锐

    2016-01-01

    采用试验研究和有限元数值分析方法,对6061-T6系列的铝合金方管开孔柱的轴心受压性能进行研究,建立了同时考虑材料非线性和几何非线性的有限元数值模型,对短柱和中长柱的屈曲模式进行模拟,并通过数值模拟结果提出了开孔柱极限承载力的计算方法。利用该有限元模型针对孔洞的存在、大小、数目、位置对铝合金开孔柱的承载力和屈曲模式的影响进行了全面的分析,并通过对比铝合金未开孔轴心受压构件的计算方法与冷弯薄壁型钢开孔轴心受压构件的计算方法,结合数值模拟结果,提出了铝合金开孔轴心受压构件的计算公式。%The experimental study and FE numerical analysis were conducted on 6061-T6 aluminium alloy square hollow section ( SHS) columns with hole under axial compression. Both material and geometrical nonlinearities were considered in the finite element analysis. The accurate finite element models were developed for the buckling analysis of aluminium alloy stub and intermediate columns. Based on the numerical results, the design rules were proposed for the load carrying capacity of aluminium alloy SHS columns with holes. The effects of the existence, size, amount and location of the holes on the load carrying capacity and buckling modes of aluminium alloy SHS columns were evaluated. The design formulas were derived for the aluminium alloy axially compressed members with holes based on the design rules of aluminium alloy structural members and cold-formed steel thin-walled perforated members.

  11. Centrifuge investigation of the axial cyclic behaviour of a single pile used for the foundation of a jacket type offshore wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    BLANC, Matthieu; Thorel, Luc; ISORNA, Rocio; Dano, Christophe; Kotronis, Panagiotis; PHILIPPE, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The jacket type offshore wind turbine transfers efficiently the horizontal load applied on the wind turbine to an axial load on the four piles of its foundation. The axial behaviour of one single pile of the foundation is investigated in a geotechnical centrifuge. The model pile, tested under a 100 g centrifuge acceleration, is designed to represent a cast-in-place pile with a 1.8 m diameter and a 40 m embedded length. The pile, installed in dense Fontainebleau sand, i...

  12. Accuracy of finite element analyses of CT scans in predictions of vertebral failure patterns under axial compression and anterior flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Timothy M; DelMonaco, Alex M; Morgan, Elise F

    2016-01-25

    Finite element (FE) models built from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans can provide patient-specific estimates of bone strength and fracture risk in the spine. While prior studies demonstrate accurate QCT-based FE predictions of vertebral stiffness and strength, the accuracy of the predicted failure patterns, i.e., the locations where failure occurs within the vertebra and the way in which the vertebra deforms as failure progresses, is less clear. This study used digital volume correlation (DVC) analyses of time-lapse micro-computed tomography (μCT) images acquired during mechanical testing (compression and anterior flexion) of thoracic spine segments (T7-T9, n=28) to measure displacements occurring throughout the T8 vertebral body at the ultimate point. These displacements were compared to those simulated by QCT-based FE analyses of T8. We hypothesized that the FE predictions would be more accurate when the boundary conditions are based on measurements of pressure distributions within intervertebral discs of similar level of disc degeneration vs. boundary conditions representing rigid platens. The FE simulations captured some of the general, qualitative features of the failure patterns; however, displacement errors ranged 12-279%. Contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in displacement errors were found when using boundary conditions representing measurements of disc pressure vs. rigid platens. The smallest displacement errors were obtained using boundary conditions that were measured directly by DVC at the T8 endplates. These findings indicate that further work is needed to develop methods of identifying physiological loading conditions for the vertebral body, for the purpose of achieving robust, patient-specific FE analyses of failure mechanisms.

  13. A influência do número de barras na resistência à compressão axial dos fixadores externos monoplanares em modelos de tíbias de poliuretano The influence of the number of bars on the axial compressive strength of uniplanar external fixators in polyurethane tibia models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Hiroaki Kume

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a resistência (rigidez do sistema de fixação externa tubular uniplanar, com hastes de conexão única e dupla, com traços de fraturas estáveis e instáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 48 modelos semelhantes à tíbia. Em todos foi deixado um intervalo de 0,5 cm entre os fragmentos e realizados cortes com angulações de 15º e 45º para simular fraturas estáveis e instáveis, respectivamente. Os modelos foram divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o traço fraturário (15º e 45º e o número de barras metálicas na montagem (1 e 2 barras. Os modelos de prova foram adaptados à uma máquina de testes Instron®, pelas suas extremidades, e submetidos à compressão axial até que os fragmentos tiveram contato total. Avaliou-se a força necessária para efetuar o completo contato dos fragmentos do modelo. RESULTADOS: As forças instabilizadoras na montagem do fixador com barra dupla foram bastante superiores às com barra única. Observou-se ainda que o grupo com barra única instável apresentou variabilidade muito menor que os demais grupos, ou seja, apresenta resultados mais homogêneos, além de ter apresentado a menor média. CONCLUSÃO: A montagem do fixador externo com uma haste longitudinal dupla nos modelos estudados é mais estável que as demais quando submetidas à uma força de compressão axial.OBJECTIVE: This is an experimental study with the objective of analyses the increase of rigidity in synthetic tibia bones with external fixators, with single and double connecting rods and with stable and unstable fracture patterns. METHODS: The external fixators were used in the monoplanar, half pin configuration submitted to an axial compression load using the connecting bar in different patterns. Forty-eight similar models to the human tibia had been used. In all the models were left an interval of 0,5 cm between the fragments and were made cuts of 15º and 45º to simulate stable and unstable fracture patterns

  14. 轴压比对Y型偏心支撑RC框架抗震性能的影响%The effect of axial compression ratio on seismic property of Y-type eccentrically braced RC frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军良; 赵宝成

    2012-01-01

    针对Y型支撑加固多高层混凝土框架工程中框架轴压比的不同,对不同轴压比的Y型偏心支撑砼框架的滞回性能进行了非线性有限元分析。结果表明,随着轴压比的增大,结构的承载力呈先上升后下降的趋势;轴压比的增大能提高结构初始刚度,同时使结构后期刚度下降加快。最后,对Y型支撑加固混凝土框架工程中关于轴压比提出设计建议。%As to the different axis pressures of column in high-level RC frames retrofitted with Y-steel bracings, this paper presents the nonlinear finite element analysis on the hysteresis behavior of the Y-eccentrically braced RC frames under the different axial compression ratio. The analysis indicates that the bearing capacity of the structure tends to fall after rising along with the increase of the axial compressive ratio; the increase of the axial compressive ratio can improve the initial stiffness of structures but also make the later stiffness drop speed up. Finally, this paper suggests the axial compression ratio in the design of the Y-eccentrically braced RC frames.

  15. Comparison of limited-contact dynamic compression plate and locking compression plate constructs for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in the horse

    OpenAIRE

    Rocconi, Richard A.; Carmalt, James L.; Sampson, Sarah N.; Elder, Steve H.; Gilbert, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared in vitro monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodeses stabilized using an open or closed technique combined with axial 4.5 mm narrow limited-contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) or 4.5 mm narrow locking compression plate (LCP). Ten forelimb pairs were randomly assigned to LCP or LC-DCP groups. One limb in each pair was assigned to either open or closed technique. Limbs were tested for cyclic fatigue at 20 000 cycles ...

  16. 欧特克发布基于BIM的概念设计软件--Autodesk Infrastructure Modeler 2012%Investigation of Stability of Axial Compressed Member of High Strength Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    One of the research emphases of application and investigation of high strength steel are laid on stability of axial compressed member. After analyzing stability of high strength steel and limitations of design method for stability of high strength steel analyzed, combined with the function of stability analysis of large finite element analysis software ANSYS and model test, stability for axial compressed members of high strength steel are researched, and formulae which parameter includes yield strength of material and slenderness ratio of member is put forward for calculation stability coefficient of axial compressed member of high strength steel. Some important conclusions are arrived at. The research is significant for application and investigation of high strength steel in future.%欧特克有限公司宣布,欧特克建筑信息模型(BIM)基础设施产品组合新增面向概念设计的Autodesk Infrastructure Modeler 2012软件。基于BIM的基础设施产品组合主要用于规划、设计、建设和管理更具可持续性的基础设施。新产品将与2012版欧特克基础设施设计套件配套,可帮助业内专业人士提高效率,并消除工作过程中产生的浪费。

  17. 钢管约束再生混凝土轴压试验研究%Experimental study on recycled concrete confined by steel tube under axial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建庄; 杨洁; 黄一杰; 王正平

    2011-01-01

    以再生粗骨料取代率为试验主要研究参数,完成了15个钢管约束再生混凝土圆柱试件的轴压试验,分析了试件的受压破坏特性、轴向荷载-轴向应变关系以及约束再生混凝土的横向变形系数变化规律.试验和分析结果表明:钢管约束再生混凝土主要破坏形态为试件中部鼓曲,核心再生混凝土发生斜剪破坏;钢管约束再生混凝土与约束普通混凝土的受力过程基本相同,分为弹性和塑性发展阶段;钢管约束使核心再生混凝土强度得到明显提高,变形性能得到改善;再生粗骨料取代率变化对钢管约束再生混凝土的横向变形系数影响不大;钢管再生混凝土轴压极限荷载随着再生粗骨料取代率的增加而降低.最后根据试验数据拟合了钢管约束再生混凝土应力-应变关系表达式.%Based on the tests of 15 recycled concrete specimens confined by steel tube with different recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentages under axial compression, this paper investigates the failure feature, axial force-longitudinal deformation relationship and variation rule of lateral deformation ratio of the test specimens.It is found that the bulge in the middle of the specimen is the main failure phenomenon.The core concrete shows diagonal shearing failure.Similar to the normal concrete filled steel tube, the bearing process of recycled concrete confined by steel tube shows two stages: elastic stage and plastic stage.The strength and deformation capacity of core concrete is much higher than those under unconfined condition.The variation of recycled aggregate replacement percentage of the test specimen does not affect the lateral deformation ratio.The compressive strength of the test specimens decreases with the increase of recycled aggregate replacement percentage.Finally, the stress-strain relationship of the recycled concrete confined by steel tube is proposed based on the test data.

  18. Engineering the periodontal ligament in hyaluronan-gelatin-type I collagen constructs: upregulation of apoptosis and alterations in gene expression by cyclic compressive strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Aarthi; Sriram, Gopu; Vinoth, Jayasaleen Kumar; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

    2015-02-01

    To engineer constructs of the periodontal ligament (PDL), human PDL cells were incorporated into a matrix of hyaluronan, gelatin, and type I collagen (COLI) in sample holders (13×1 mm) of six-well Biopress culture plates. The loading dynamics of the PDL were mimicked by applying a cyclic compressive strain of 33.4 kPa (340.6 gm/cm(2)) to the constructs for 1.0 s every 60 s, for 6, 12, and 24 h in a Flexercell FX-4000C Strain Unit. Compression significantly increased the number of nonviable cells and increased the expression of several apoptosis-related genes, including initiator and executioner caspases. Of the 15 extracellular matrix genes screened, most were upregulated at some point after 6-12 h deformation, but all were downregulated at 24 h, except for MMPs1-3 and CTGF. In culture supernatants, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) protein levels were upregulated at 24 h; receptor activator of nuclear kappa factor B (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were unchanged; and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) not detected. The low modulus of elasticity of the constructs was a disadvantage-future mechanobiology studies and tissue engineering applications will require constructs with much higher stiffness. Since the major structural protein of the PDL is COLI, a more rational approach would be to permeabilize preformed COLI scaffolds with PDL-populated matrices.

  19. Compression-bending of multi-component semi-rigid columns in response to axial loads and conjugate reciprocal extension-prediction of mechanical behaviours and implications for structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ernest W

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of column buckling or beam bending under an axial or transverse load is well established. However, the existent models generally assume a high degree of symmetry in the structure of the column and minor longitudinal and transverse displacements. The situation when the column is made of several components with different mechanical properties asymmetrically distributed in the transverse section, semi-rigid, and subjected to multiple axial loads with significant longitudinal and transverse displacements through compression and bending has not been well characterised. A more comprehensive theoretical model allowing for these possibilities and assuming a circular arc contour for the bend is developed, and used to establish the bending axes, balance between compression and bending, and equivalent stiffness of the column. In certain situations, such as with pull cable catheters commonly used for minimally invasive surgical procedures, the compression loads are applied via cables running through channels inside a semi-rigid column. The model predicts the mathematical relationships between the radius of curvature of the bend and the tension in and normal force exerted by such cables. Conjugate extension with reciprocal compression-bending is a special structural arrangement for a semi-rigid column such that extension of one segment is linked to compression-bending of another by inextensible cables running between them. Leads are cords containing insulated electrical conductor coil and cables between the heart muscle and cardiac implantable electronic devices. Leads can behave like pull cable catheters through differential component pulling, providing a possible mechanism for inside-out abrasion and conductor cable externalisation. Certain design features may predispose to this mode of structural failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Stachiv

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.

  1. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachiv, Ivo, E-mail: stachiv@fzu.cz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Tao-Hsing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.

  2. Loading and Boundary Condition Influences in a Poroelastic Finite Element Model of Cartilage Stresses in a Triaxial Compression Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallemeyn, Nicole A; Grosland, Nicole M; Pedersen, Doug R; Martin, James A; Brown, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    Background: We developed a poroelastic finite element (FE) model of cartilage in dynamic triaxial compression to parametrically analyze the effects of loading and boundary conditions on a baseline model. Conventional mechanical tests on articular cartilage such as confined and unconfined compression, indentation, etc., do not fully allow for modulation of compression and shear at physiological levels whereas triaxial compression does. A Triaxial Compression Bioreactor, or TRIAX, has been developed to study chondrocyte responses to multi-axial stress conditions under cyclic loading. In the triaxial setting, however, a cartilage explant's physical testing environment departs from the ideal homogeneous stress state that would occur from strict linear superposition of the applied axial and transverse pressure. Method of Approach: An axisymmetric poroelastic FE model of a cartilage explant (4 mm diameter, 1.5 mm thick) in cyclic triaxial compression was created. Axial and transverse loads (2 MPa at 1 Hz.) were applied via a platen and containment sheath. Parameters of interest included the rise time and magnitude of the applied load, in addition to the containment sheath modulus and the friction coefficient at the cartilage/platen interfaces. Metrics of interest in addition to whole explant axial strain included axial (surface normal) stress, shear stress, pore pressure, and the fluid load carriage fraction within the explant. Results: Strain results were compared to experimental data from explants tested in the TRIAX under conditions similar to the baseline model. Explant biomechanics varied considerably over numbers of load cycles and parameter values. Cyclic loading caused an increase in accumulated strain for the various loading and boundary conditions. Conclusions: Unlike what would be expected from linear superposition of the homogeneous stresses from the applied axial and transverse pressure, we have shown that the stress state within the TRIAX is considerably

  3. In vivo axial loading of the mouse tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Katherine M; Robling, Alexander G; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as anabolic procedures to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days.

  4. 混凝土三轴等幅拉-压疲劳性能试验研究%Fatigue Properties of Plain Concrete under Triaxial Constant-Amplitude Tension-Compression Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉普; 曹伟; 孟宪宏

    2005-01-01

    Fatigue tests were conducted on tapered plain concrete prism specimens under triaxial constant-amplitude tension-compression cyclic loading. The low stress of the cyclic loading was taken as 0.2fc and the upper stress ranged from 0.20ft to 0.65ft. Three constant lateral pressures were 0.1fc, 0.2fc and 0.3fc respectively. Based on the results, the three-stage evolution rule of the fatigue stiffness, maximum(minimum) longitudinal strain and damage were analyzed, and a unified S-N curve to calculate fatigue strength factors was worked out. The results show that the fatigue strength and fatigue life under triaxial constant-amplitude tension-compression cyclic loading are smaller than those under uniaxial fatigue condition. Moreover, the secondary strain creep rate is related to the fatigue life, a formula for describing their relation was derived. The investigation of this paper can provide information for the fatigue design of concrete structures.

  5. 热成型不锈钢圆管混凝土轴压短柱受力性能试验研究%Experimental study on axial compressive behavior of concrete-filled thermoforming stainless steel tubular stub columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈誉; 李凤霞; 王江

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on axial compressive behavior of concrete-filled thermoforming stainless steel tubular ( CFTSST) stub columns. Seventeen specimens of CFTSST stub columns with different parameters were tested under axial compression. The parameters in the study included the compressive strength of concrete ( C30 and C40) ,wall thickness of thermoforming stainless steel t (0. 9 mm,l. 0 mm,l. 2 mm) and height-diameter ratio of specimens A (3.0, 3.5 and 4.0). This paper presents test procedure, specimens failure phenomena, load-axial displacement curves, load-circular strain curves and load-axial strain curves. Based on the failure phenomena, all specimens were divided into 5 failure modes. The effects of t and A on compressive ultimate capacity, ductility and stiffness were investigated. The results of tests show that the stress of specimens increases greatly at the end of the yield stage; as value of t increases, compressive ultimate capacity, ductility and stiffness of specimens increase; as value of A increases, ductility increases, stiffness decreases; the value of compressive ultimate capacity gets maximum when the value of λ is 3. 5, it is lower when A is 4. 0,gets minimum when A is 3. 0; according to the comparisons between CFTSS tubular stub columns and concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns, the results show that the restraint amplification coefficient of CFTSS tubular stub columns is higher.%对热成型不锈钢圆管混凝土短柱在轴向压力作用下的承载性能进行试验研究,试验主要参数为混凝土强度(C30和C40)、不锈钢管壁厚t(0.9 mm、1.0 mm和1.2mm)和试件的高径比λ(3.0、3.5、4.0),试验观测了不锈钢圆管混凝土短柱在轴向压力作用下的破坏现象、试件荷载-轴向变形曲线、荷载-环向应变曲线、荷载-轴向应变曲线等.根据试验的破坏现象,将试件分为5种破坏模式,并分析了不锈钢管壁厚t和试件的高径比λ对试件的承载

  6. 蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压性能试验研究%AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE AXIAL COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF AUTOCLAVED FLY ASH BRICK MASONRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斐; 何晓雁; 乔建新

    2011-01-01

    36 autoclaved fly ash brick masonries are built for axial compressive tests.An experiment is carried out with the strength of both masonry and mortar serving as the basic parameters and the dial indicator used for measuring the deformation of masonries.Based on the experiment, the development features of cracks and the deformation patterns of masonries under compressure are analyzed.In light of the results of axial compressive tests of all the 36 masonries, a calculative formula of the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash brick is established, which will supply experimental data for compiling regional technical codes.And, thus, the application of autoclaved fly ash brick will be extended.%试验以块体和砂浆强度为基本参数,砌筑36个蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体试件进行轴心受压试验,并配合百分表量测砌体变形.通过蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压试验,分析了砌体受压时裂缝的发展特点和变形规律,根据36个试件的抗压试验结果,建立了蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体抗压强度的计算公式,为相关规范的编制提供试验数据,以利于蒸压粉煤灰砖的推广应用.

  7. Axial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    musculature involvement in the majority of myopathies in which paraspinal musculature was examined. Even in diseases named after a certain pattern of non-axial muscle affection, such as facioscapulohumeral and limb girdle muscular dystrophies, affection of the axial musculature was often severe and early...

  8. Comparison of limited-contact dynamic compression plate and locking compression plate constructs for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocconi, Richard A; Carmalt, James L; Sampson, Sarah N; Elder, Steve H; Gilbert, Eric E

    2015-06-01

    This study compared in vitro monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodeses stabilized using an open or closed technique combined with axial 4.5 mm narrow limited-contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) or 4.5 mm narrow locking compression plate (LCP). Ten forelimb pairs were randomly assigned to LCP or LC-DCP groups. One limb in each pair was assigned to either open or closed technique. Limbs were tested for cyclic fatigue at 20 000 cycles and then single-cycle to failure under 3-point dorsopalmar bending. There was no significant difference in stiffness of constructs during cyclic fatigue testing or on force or stiffness at failure in single cycle to failure testing between open and closed techniques or between plate types. Both implants, surgical technique, or combinations thereof are suitable for clinical use. More work is necessary to define the interaction between implant type and surgical technique.

  9. Axial compression behavior of square thin-walled steel tube-laminated bamboo composite hollow columns%薄壁方型钢管/竹胶板组合空芯柱轴心抗压性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫锋; 张武东; 周靖; 曹勇龙; 龙志林

    2014-01-01

    mechanical properties. Multi-layered high-strength bamboo plywood forms the primary body in the SBCC that is subjected to compressive forces, and the square thin-walled steel tube only serves as a liner. Large numbers of bamboo are used, which reduce the manufacturing cost of the composite columns and result in a relatively high load-bearing capacity. A steel tube section is used in the column core to increase the cross-sectional size of the column, thereby reducing the slenderness ratio and effectively regulating the instability and failure of the columns under pressure. The composite has a simple cross-section, can be manufactured and processed simply, and is suitable for industrial production. This study aimed to study the axial compression performance of SBCCs, and explore its failure mechanism under axial loads in order to provide valuable information for its engineering applications. The influence of factors including bamboo-plywood net sectional dimension area, hollow ratio, and slenderness ratio on the mechanical performance and axial compression properties was investigated using 15 composite column specimens. The failure modes and deformation behavior of specimens were also analyzed in an axial compression test. Results showed that the compressive failure for SBCCs was principally characterized by interior damage of the bamboo plywood material, damage from glue failure at the matrix interface, and global buckling failure due to the large deformation in the middle of the column. The failure mode was mainly determined by the overall adhesive strength between the matrixes. The compressive bearing-capacity of SBCC increased with increasing net sectional dimension area and the hollow ratio of the bamboo, and decreased with increasing slenderness ratio. A calculating model for the axial compressive bearing-capacity of SBCCs, which can serve as a guideline for engineering applications, was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis of the test data, and the maximum error

  10. POSTBUCKLING OF CARBON NANOTUBES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangLifeng; HuHaiyan; GuoWanlin

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the postbuckling and the nonlinear behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes subject to a cyclic axial compressive load through the use of molecular dynamic simulation based on the Tersoff-Brenner potential. It reveals the bifurcation behavior in the buckling process simulated with very fine time steps. In the whole cycle of nonlinear deformation, the carbon nanotubes exhibit the profound hysteretic behavior and the energy absorption ability. The molecular dynamics simulation indicates that the carbon nanotube behaves approximately as an ideal plastic spring when the cyclic strain is applied within the same postbuckling mode. In comparison, the theory of continuum mechanics gives a good prediction about the critical buckling strength, but only provides a rough estimation for the post-buckling behaviors.

  11. Comparative Study of the Energy Absorption Capacities of XPS and XPE Foam Filled Aluminium Square Tubes under Quasi-Static Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bargav. R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available :Quasi-static compression tests were performed on empty and foam filled Aluminium square tubes. Two different foam types: Extended Polystyrene (XPS and Extended Polyethylene (XPE were used to fill the empty tubes. In this paper experimental and numerical simulations were performed to investigate the effect of foam filling on crashworthiness parameters

  12. Exploring interactions between force, repetition and posture on intervertebral disc height loss and bulging in isolated porcine cervical functional spinal units from sub-acute-failure magnitudes of cyclic compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooyers, Chad E; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-10-15

    Most in vitro studies are limited in the ability to partition intervertebral disc (IVD) height loss from total specimen height loss since the net changes in the actuator position of the materials testing system simply reflect net changes to functional spinal units (FSUs) used for testing. Three levels of peak compressive force, three cycle rates and two dynamic postural conditions were examined using a full-factorial design. Cyclic compressive force was applied using a time-varying waveform with synchronous flexion/extension for 5000 cycles. Surface scans from the anterior aspect of the IVD were recorded in a neutral and flexed posture before and after the cyclic loading protocol using a 3D laser scanner to characterise changes in IVD height loss and bulging. A significant three-way interaction (p=0.0092) between the magnitude of peak compressive force, cycle rate and degree of postural deviation was observed in cycle-varying specimen height loss data. A significant main effect of peak compressive force (p=0.0003) was also observed in IVD height loss calculated from the surface profiles of the IVD. The relative contribution of IVD height loss (measured on the anterior surface) to total specimen height loss across experimental conditions varied considerably, ranging from 19% to 58%. Postural deviation was the only factor that significantly affected the magnitude of peak AF bulge (p=0.0016). This investigation provides evidence that total specimen height loss is not an accurate depiction of cycle-varying changes in the IVD across a range of in vivo scenarios that were replicated with in vitro testing.

  13. 加劲肋对轴心受压圆管柱脚应力的影响%The Influence of Stiffening Rib on Axial Compression Round String Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向红

    2014-01-01

    Exposed column base is applied most frequently in al forms of column foot, and the calculation of column foot motherboard has become a critical problem. According to the different forms of stif ening rib, this paper compares the stress of axial compression string round feet, analyzes the effect of stif eners on the heel stress.%外露式柱脚是在所有柱脚形式中应用得最多的一种,柱脚底板的计算就成为一个至关重要的问题。本文针对不同的加劲肋形式,对轴心受压圆管柱脚的应力进行对比,分析加劲肋对柱脚应力的影响。

  14. 轴压比对带施工缝框架延性影响的试验研究∗%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF AXIAL COMPRESSION RATIO ON THE DUCTILITY OF FRAME WITH CONSTRUCTION JOINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎西康; 陈育苏; 常璐平; 陈培

    2016-01-01

    Ductility is one of a most important parameters to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure, in order to study the impact of axial compression ratio on the ductility of frame with construction joints, skeleton curve, displacement ductility factor and the hysteresis curves of the frames with construction joint were got by a low-cycle loading experiment,whose results were compared to the results of the experiments of the four frame columns under the same conditions. The results showed that with the increase of axial compression ratio,frame ductility decreased,and so did the impact of construction joints on the frame ductility.%延性是评价结构抗震性能的最主要的参数之一,为了研究轴压比对带有施工缝框架结构的延性的影响,通过对带有施工缝框架进行低周反复荷载试验,得到骨架曲线,位移延性系数和滞回曲线,并与相同条件下4根框架柱的试验得到的结果进行对比分析,得到随着轴压比的提高,框架延性有所降低,且施工缝的存在对框架延性降低的影响减小。

  15. Cyclic Testing on Rectangular Hollow Bridge Piers Under Axial Load and Biaxial Bending%双向压弯状态下矩形空心桥墩循环试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩强; 杜修力; 赵彦; 王利辉

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) rectangular hollow bridge piers, cyclic testing on five well-confined specimens was performed under constant axial load and biaxial bending. The test variables included axial load ratio, longitudinal reinforcement ratio and lateral reinforcement ratio. The results show that these specimens are flexural failure modes; biaxial force and displacement hysteretic loops show significant stiffness and strength degradation, pinching effect and coupling interaction of the structural seismic resistances in both directions; the ductility coefficient, varying from 3. 5 to 5. 7, and the equivalent viscous damping ratio, varying from 0. 19 to 0. 26, can meet the requirements of seismic design; RC rectangular hollow bridge piers with configurations of lateral reinforcement subject to bi-directional earthquake components have excellent earthquake resistance, and can substitute for current hollow RC rectangular section configurations described in the Chinese Guideline for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges (JTG/T B02-01-2008); and the length of the plastic hinge region is found to approach one sixth of the the hollow RC rectangular bridge pier height for all specimen piers, which is far less than the currently specified minimum value in Chinese Guideline, so the length of plastic hinge region is more concentrated for RC rectangular hollow bridge piers.%为了研究水平双向地震作用下矩形空心桥墩的抗震性能,对约束良好但轴压比和纵向、横向配筋率不同的5个钢筋混凝土(RC)矩形空心桥墩在轴力和双向弯曲作用下的性能进行了循环试验研究.结果表明:试件破坏形态为桥墩底部形成塑性铰的弯曲形破坏,桥墩双向力-位移滞回曲线显示了双向压弯状态下RC矩形空心桥墩刚度和强度退化、捏拢效应以及2个水平方向抗震性能的相互影响;试件桥墩的延性系数在3.5~5.7之间,等效粘滞阻尼系数在0

  16. 开口冷弯厚壁型钢轴压构件抗震性能研究%Research on the seismic behaviors of opening cold-formed thick-walled steel under the axial cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小超; 李元齐; 沈祖炎

    2016-01-01

    为研究开口冷弯厚壁型钢构件在轴向滞回荷载作用下的抗震性能,首先选取了3根壁厚t>6 mm的冷弯内卷边槽钢进行轴向滞回试验,然后建立相关的ANSYS有限元模型进行模拟计算,在与试验结果对比的基础上,选取了不同的腹板宽厚比(h/t=25~90)、绕弱轴长细比(λy=30~90)的构件进行参数化分析计算.研究结果表明:宽厚比、长细比是影响冷弯型钢抗震性能的两个主要因素,宽厚比(h/t)越大抗震性能越差,长细比(λy)越大抗震性能同样也越差,设计时应尽量避免选择长细比和宽厚比均较大的构件.%In order to investigate the hysteretic behaviors of opening cold-formed thick-walled steel members under the axial cyclic loading, three cold-formed steel columns were tested. On the basis of compared with the test results, a finite element method ( FEM) in ANSYS was established. The in-fluence of width-thickness ratio ( h/t) rang from 25 to 90 for web and slenderness ratio about the weak axis y (λy ) rang from 30 to 90 of such members were investigated by FEM. Analysis results in-dicated that the width-thickness ratio and the slenderness ratio about the weak axis y are the most important factors to affect the hysteretic behaviors. So, the cold-formed steels which with great width-thickness ratio ( h/t) and great slenderness ratio (λy ) should be avoided in designing, because they will lead to poor seismic performance.

  17. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Compressive Behaviors of CA Mortar Due to Cyclic Loading History%循环荷载历史下 CA 砂浆的动态受压试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 王彪; 徐浩

    2015-01-01

    研究目的:为研究历经不同循环荷载历史和不同应变速率对铁路轨道系统 CRTSⅠ型板式无砟轨道水泥乳化沥青砂浆(CA 砂浆)的抗压强度、弹性模量和峰值应变的影响规律,进行 CA 砂浆圆柱体试件历经循环加载历史后,在应变速率为1×10-5~1×10-2 s -1时的单轴受压特性试验。  研究结论:(1)应变速率和循环荷载历史对 CA 砂浆的力学性能影响显著;(2)CA 砂浆的抗压强度、弹性模量和峰值应变均随应变速率的增大而提高;(3)在相同的应变速率下,CA 砂浆的抗压强度随循环荷载次数和循环荷载幅值的增加而降低,最大降低幅度为8.34%;(4)当循环荷载幅值较小时,CA 砂浆的弹性模量随循环荷载次数的增加而增大,最大增加幅度为59.17%;(5)在相同的应变速率下,CA 砂浆的峰值应变随循环荷载次数及循环荷载幅值的增大呈降低趋势,且应变速率对峰值应变的影响小于循环荷载历史的影响;(6)该研究成果为进一步了解历经循环加载历史后板式无砟轨道的力学性能提供必要的试验依据,进而应用于指导 CA 砂浆材料优化设计中。%Research purposes:In order to analyze the influence on the change rule of compressive strength,elastic modulus and peak strain of China railway track system(CRTS)Ⅰslab track cement asphalt mortar(CA mortar)by different cyclic loading histories and strain rates.The uniaxial compression characteristic test of CA mortar cylinder specimens due to cyclic loading histories with the strain rates ranging from 1 ×10 -5 s -1 to 1 ×10 -2 s -1 was carried out. Research conclusions:(1)The mechanical property of CA mortar is affected obviously by strain rates and cyclic loading histories.(2)The compressive strength,elastic modulus and peak strain of CA mortar are increase with the strain rate. (3)The compressive strength of CA mortar

  18. Influence of Axial Compression Loads on the Strength of Helical Buckling Tubing String%轴向压力对螺旋屈曲管柱强度安全性影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟大虎; 夏辉; 窦益华; 曹银萍

    2014-01-01

    为校核螺旋屈曲管柱的强度安全性,基于弹簧理论与第四强度理论,推导出螺旋屈曲状态下管柱内、外侧相当应力的计算公式,并以油田常用规格油套管为例,探讨了轴向压力对管柱内、外侧最大相当应力的影响。算例结果表明,螺旋屈曲管柱内侧最大相当应力恒大于外侧;管柱内、外侧最大相当应力随轴向压力的增大而增大。轴向压力由200KN 增大至800KN 时,管柱内、外侧最大相当应力分别增大170%和413.8%。研究弥补了传统管柱力学分析的不足,提供了螺旋屈曲管柱安全性研究新方法,同时也可为现场安全施工提供参考。%To make clear stress distribution and variation of helical buckling tubing string, the formulas of equivalent stresses inside and outside of the tubing string were deduced based on the spring theory and the fourth strength theory. Taking tubing string and casing commonly used in oilfield as object, stress calculation programs were compiled to explore the influence of axial compression load on equivalent VonMises stress. From the analysis, we can see that the equivalent VonMises stresses inside of the helical buckling tubing string were higher than that outside. The equivalent VonMises stress increased with the axial compression load, and the increase is 170 percent and 413.8 percent respectively for stress inside and outside of the tubing string with compression load increased from 200KN to 800KN. The proposed method used for the helical buckling tubing string covered the shortage of traditional tubular mechanics effectively and can also provide reference for the field application.

  19. 钢管再生混凝土长柱轴压受力性能试验研究%Experimental research on mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled circular steel tubular long columns under axial compression loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炎海; 方映平; 冯文贤; 蔡杨

    2015-01-01

    Axial static loading test was carried out on 6 recycled aggregate concrete filled circular steel tubular long columns. The whole loading process and failure modes were observed,and the curves of specimens about load-deformation and load-strain were plotted. The influences of the test parameters namely slenderness ratio and confine-ment index on deformation and the bearing capacities of specimens were analyzed. By domestic and foreign relevant specifications,the ultimate bearing capacity of the specimens were calculated and compared with the measured val-ues. The results indicated that the failure process of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular long columns un-der axial compression includes elastic stage,elastic-plastic stage and plastic stage,and all the failure modes are elas-tic-plastic instability;Both the slenderness ratio and confinement index affect the mechanical performance of recy-cled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular long columns under axial loading,and the confinement index is more ob-vious;Finally,the calculation and design method of recycled aggregate filled steel tubular long columns under axial loading were proposed.%进行6根圆钢管再生混凝土长柱轴压的静力加载试验,观察试件受力的全过程和破坏形态,绘制出各试件的荷载-变形和荷载-应变关系曲线,分析长径比和套箍系数2个变化参数对试件变形和承载力的影响规律,采用国内外相关规程计算各试件的极限承载力并与实测值进行对比。结果表明:钢管再生混凝土轴压长柱受力过程经历了弹性阶段、弹塑性阶段和塑性下降阶段,均为弹塑性失稳破坏;长径比和套箍系数对钢管再生混凝土轴压长柱的受力性能均有影响,其中套箍系数影响较大;最后对于钢管再生混凝土长柱轴压的承载力计算及构件的设计提出建议。

  20. The influence of axial compressive stresses on the formability and scattering of process parameters in micro-hydroforming processes of tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartl Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible product geometries manufactured with micro-hydroforming, as well as process stability are crucially influenced by the microstructure of the used tube material. The higher ratio of grain size to tube wall thickness dk/t0 in micro-hydroforming, compared to conventional tube hydroforming, leads to an increase of scattering of process parameters and instabilities. This paper presents experimental and theoretical results for the micro-hydroforming of tubes made from stainless steel and from platinum with a focus on the correlations between the microstructure of the workpiece material, the stress state during forming and the resulting stability of the forming process. Investigated tube dimensions were 800 µm outer diameter and 40 µm wall thickness of the steel tubes, respectively 1650 µm and 76 µm of the platinum tubes. The average ratio dk/t0 was about 0.3 for the steel material and about 0.9 for the platinum alloy. It has been shown that superimposed axial stresses are suitable to reduce the restricting influence of an increased ratio dk/t0 and to improve the forming result as well as the process stability.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu

    2017-06-01

    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  2. 轴心受压钢套管构件加固理论及应用%THE REINFORCEMENT THEORY AND APPLICATION OF AXIAL COMPRESSION STEEL SLEEVED MEMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇胜; 钱栋; 黄嵩; 胡波

    2013-01-01

    套管构件由内管及外管组成,外管能为内管提供侧向支撑,控制内管失稳,从而提高内管的受压承载力.套管构件是一种新型的钢压杆稳定加固形式,可应用于对受压钢构件失稳比较敏感的一类空间结构.本文首先利用典型的套管构件构造模型,阐述了轴心受压套管加固法的基本原理;然后以一网架工程为例,分析套管加固法对提高结构承载能力的效果.结果表明:套管构件能够有效改善网架结构的局部应力状况,解决了受压钢管的失稳问题,提高了网架结构的极限承载力.%Sleeved members consist of inner and sleeved tubes.The sleeved tube provides lateral support for the inner tube,and controls its instability,thereby enhancing its load-carrying capacity.As a new form for stability improving of compressive steel members,sleeved members can been applied to spatial structures,whose steel members are sensitive to buckling.This paper used a typical detail model of sleeved members to explain the basic principle of the reinforcement method of sleeved members; then taking a bridge of grid structure for example,analyzed this method for increasing the load-carrying capacity of the structure.The result shows that sleeved members can effectively improve the local stress conditions of grid structure,solve the problem of compression steel tubes prone to buckling,and enhance the ultimate load-carrying capacity of grid structure.

  3. 冷弯薄壁型钢拼合截面柱轴压承载力计算%Calculation Method for Bearing Capacity of Cold-formed Steel Built-up Columns Under Axial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周绪红; 李喆; 刘永健; 石宇

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate bearing capacity of cold-formed steel built-up columns under axial compression, authors used ANSYS finite element program to analyze the cold-formed steel built-up columns at home and abroad. Compared with experimental results, the validity of the finite element method (FEM) was verified. Furthermore, a detailed parametric study by FEM was carried out to mainly determine the influence of cross-section form, cross-section dimension and slenderness ratio of component for the built-up effect. The simplified calculation method to the bearing capacity of cold-formed steel built-up columns under axial compression was extracted. The analytical results show that with the increase of the slenderness ratio, the built-up effect improves. As for these columns connected with screws through web, when width-thickness ratio of flange is certain, with the increase of width-height ratio of cross-section, the integrity of the built-up web increases, which leads the built-up effect to strengthen. But the influences of different areas of cross-sections are not so obvious.%为了研究冷弯薄壁型钢拼合截面柱的轴压承载力,对各国有关冷弯薄壁型钢拼合截面柱的轴压试验进行了ANSYS有限元模拟分析,有限元计算结果与试验结果吻合良好,从而验证了有限元方法的正确性.采用有限元方法分析了构件截面形式、截面尺寸以及长细比对冷弯薄壁型钢拼合截面柱拼合效应的影响,提出了冷弯薄壁型钢拼合截面柱轴压承载力的简化计算方法.分析结果表明:随着长细比的增大,拼合截面柱的拼合效应随之增大.对于主要通过螺钉将腹板进行拼合的构件,当翼缘宽厚比一定时,随着截面宽高比的增大,腹板拼合的整体性增强,从而使拼合效应增大,而截面面积的改变对拼合效应的影响则不是很明显.

  4. Dynamic performance of angle-steel concrete columns under low cyclic loading-I: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenzhong; Ji, Jing

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes low cyclic loading testing of nine angle-steel concrete column (ASCC) specimens. In the tests, the influence of the shear-span ratio, axial compression ratio and shear steel plate ratio on the hysteretic behavior, energy dissipation, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, skeleton curve and ductility of the ASCCs is studied. Based on the test results, some conclusions are presented. The P- Δ and sectional M — ϕ hysteretic models for the ASCCs are presented in a companion paper (Zheng and Ji, 2008).

  5. Dynamic performance of angle-steel concrete columns under low cyclic loading-I: Experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wenzhong; Ji Jing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes low cyclic loading testing of nine angle-steel concrete column (ASCC) specimens. In the tests, the influence of the shear-span ratio, axial compression ratio and shear steel plate ratio on the hysteretic behavior, energy dissipation, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, skeleton curve and ductility of the ASCCs is studied. Based on the test results, some conclusions are presented. The P-Δ and sectional M-(Φ) hysteretic models for the ASCCs are presented in a companion paper (Zheng and Ji, 2008).

  6. Comportamento de cilindros de carbono/epóxi submetidos a cargas compressivas axiais Mechanical behavior of carbon/epoxy cylinders under axial compressive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gonçalves

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estruturas utilizadas no setor aeroespacial, os requisitos de baixo peso, alta resistência e rigidez, além de estabilidade dimensional, têm propiciado o aumento da utilização de materiais compósitos nas suas manufaturas. Em particular, cascas cilíndricas ou estruturas construídas pela junção de cilindros de paredes finas, confeccionadas em fibra de carbono e resina epóxi, são amplamente utilizadas neste tipo de aplicação. Neste trabalho, um programa experimental foi desenvolvido para determinar as tensões de falha, os módulos de elasticidade e o modo de falha de 47 cilindros com diâmetro interno de 40 mm e espessura nominal de 0,6 mm (com exceção de 2 corpos de prova, fabricados em carbono/epóxi, quando submetidos a cargas compressivas uniaxiais. Os espécimes testados possuíam diferentes razões entre comprimento e diâmetro (variando de 2,50 a 11,25 e seqüências de laminação variadas (orientações de camadas. Os resultados dos ensaios foram comparados aos obtidos em análises realizadas com programas de elementos finitos e os fatores que influenciaram o comportamento mecânico destes cilindros foram analisados.The requirements of low weight and dimensional stability, combined with high strength and stiffness, for aerospace structures has prompted an increasing use of fiber reinforced materials in manufacturing such structures. In particular, carbon/epoxy cylinders have been widely used in aerospace applications. In this work, an experimental program was developed to determine failure loads, modulus of elasticity and failure modes of 47 carbon/epoxy cylinders shells under compressive loads. The specimens tested had several different length/diameter (from 2.50 to 11.25 ratios and laminate lay-up. These results were compared to the analytical results from finite element code and the most important factors influencing the mechanical behavior of this type of structure were analyzed.

  7. System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

  8. 拉挤型CFRP管轴压性能%Buckling behavior of pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer pipes under axially compressive load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南波; 武岳; 孙浩田

    2015-01-01

    The spacecraft skeletal structure is usually made of lightweight, high strength composite CFRP material, whose stability capacity is an important indicator of the structural safety performance. Firstly, pultruded CFRP short pipe compression test was done in this paper, focusing on the stiffness, ultimate strength and microscopic failure mode of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix. Secondly, based on the Hashin failure criteria and using ANSYS finite element software to do numerical simulation showed that the numerical results from Hashin failure criterion can bet⁃ter predict the ultimate bearing capacity in the failure mode of CFRP composites. Next, the Hashin failure criteria are further compared with experiment by using the arc-length method to do numerical simulation for five types of CFRP slender pipes, rendering the load mid⁃span deflection curve of the whole process, summarizing the character⁃istics of its destruction, and deformation characteristics. The simulation results are in good agreement with experi⁃ment. Based on this, a large number of parameter analyses are evaluated and the experimental results are compared with the numerical analysis result. The relationship curve between stability factor Φ and slenderness ratio λ of the pultruded slender CFRP pipe was derived by the least squares fitting calculation. This research is convenient for the application in engineering practice.%航天器骨架结构通常由轻质高强CFRP(carbon fiber reinforced polymer)复合材料管制成,其稳定承载力成为结构安全性能的一项重要指标。对CFRP短管进行轴压试验,重点研究碳纤维增强复合材料的刚度、极限强度以及细观破坏模式。基于Hashin破坏准则进行二次开发,采用ANSYS有限元软件对试验过程进行了数值模拟,数值结果表明,Hashin破坏准则可以较好地预测CFRP复合材料破坏时的极限承载力。基于Hashin破坏准则,采用

  9. Region specific response of intervertebral disc cells to complex dynamic loading: an organ culture study using a dynamic torsion-compression bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha C W Chan

    Full Text Available The spine is routinely subjected to repetitive complex loading consisting of axial compression, torsion, flexion and extension. Mechanical loading is one of the important causes of spinal diseases, including disc herniation and disc degeneration. It is known that static and dynamic compression can lead to progressive disc degeneration, but little is known about the mechanobiology of the disc subjected to combined dynamic compression and torsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc when subjected to combined dynamic compression and axial torsion or pure dynamic compression or axial torsion using organ culture. We applied four different loading modalities [1. control: no loading (NL, 2. cyclic compression (CC, 3. cyclic torsion (CT, and 4. combined cyclic compression and torsion (CCT] on bovine caudal disc explants using our custom made dynamic loading bioreactor for disc organ culture. Loads were applied for 8 h/day and continued for 14 days, all at a physiological magnitude and frequency. Our results provided strong evidence that complex loading induced a stronger degree of disc degeneration compared to one degree of freedom loading. In the CCT group, less than 10% nucleus pulposus (NP cells survived the 14 days of loading, while cell viabilities were maintained above 70% in the NP of all the other three groups and in the annulus fibrosus (AF of all the groups. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong up-regulation in matrix genes and matrix remodeling genes in the AF of the CCT group. Cell apoptotic activity and glycosaminoglycan content were also quantified but there were no statistically significant differences found. Cell morphology in the NP of the CCT was changed, as shown by histological evaluation. Our results stress the importance of complex loading on the initiation and progression of disc degeneration.

  10. On integration of a cyclic soil plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzari, Majid T.; Prachathananukit, Rung

    2001-05-01

    Performance of three classes of explicit and implicit time-stepping integrators is assessed for a cyclic plasticity constitutive model for sands. The model is representative of an important class of cyclic plasticity models for soils and includes both isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening. The implicit algorithm is based on the closest point projection method and the explicit algorithm follows a cutting-plane integration procedure. A sub-stepping technique was also implemented. The performance of these algorithms is assessed through a series of numerical simulations ranging from simulations of laboratory tests (such as triaxial and bi-axial compression, direct shear, and cyclic triaxial tests) to the analysis of a typical boundary value problem of geotechnical earthquake engineering. These simulations show that the closest point projection algorithm remains stable and accurate for relatively large strain increments and for cases where the mean effective stress in a soil element reaches very small values leading to a liquefaction state. It is also shown that while the cutting plane (CP) and sub-stepping (SS) algorithms provide high efficiency and good accuracy for small to medium size strain increments, their accuracy and efficiency deteriorate faster than the closest point projection method for large strain increments. The CP and SS algorithms also face convergence difficulties in the liquefaction analysis when the soil approaches very small mean effective stresses.

  11. Cyclic derangements

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami H

    2010-01-01

    A classic problem in enumerative combinatorics is to count the number of derangements, that is, permutations with no fixed point. Inspired by a recent generalization to facet derangements of the hypercube by Gordon and McMahon, we generalize this problem to enumerating derangements in the wreath product of any finite cyclic group with the symmetric group. We also give q- and (q, t)-analogs for cyclic derangements, generalizing results of Brenti and Gessel.

  12. Testing of Axially Loaded Bucket Foundation with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    This report analyses laboratory testing data performed with a bucket foundation model subjected to axial loading. The examinations were conducted at the Geotechnical laboratory of Aalborg University. The report aims at showing and discussing the results of the static and cyclic axial loading tests...

  13. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  14. Experimental study on modified recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tube columns under axial compression%改性钢管全再生粗骨料混凝土短柱的轴压试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 许成祥; 邓曦

    2015-01-01

    In order to make full use of recycled aggregate, 20 specimens with circular and square cross sections were designed to be tested, and the dosage of silica powder and content of steel fiber were regarded as the major variable parameters. Through the experiment, the entire compress process and failure modes of all specimens were observed, and load-strain curves of the specimens were obtained. The test results indicate that the ultimate axial load and corresponding strain of the concrete-filled steel tube columns would decrease after the replacement of natural coarse aggregate with 100% recycled coarse aggregate. The filling effect and pozzolanic action of silica powder and the confinement effect of steel fiber could be used to improve the performance of concrete-filled steel tube columns with 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and the performance of modified columns was i- dentical to that of common columns. The column with 10% cement replaced by silica powder and 1. 5%volume fraction of steel fiber has a higher ultimate axial load than that of common columns. In addition, the applicability of present theory and formula from different codes to calculate the bearing capacity of the specimens was obtained based on the comparison of calculated results. The results obtained by EC4 are more close to the experimental results.%为了最大化利用再生骨料,以硅粉和钢纤维掺量为主要变化参数设计了20个圆形和方形截面钢管全再生粗骨料混凝土短柱构件进行轴压试验,观察了短柱的受力全过程和破坏形态,获取了构件的荷载―变形全过程曲线,分析了硅粉和钢纤维掺量对其承载性能的影响,试验结果表明:混凝土中的粗骨料全部采用再生骨料会降低钢管再生混凝土柱的峰值承载力及峰值应变,可以采用硅粉的填充效应及活性和钢纤维对裂缝的内部约束来改善钢管全再生骨料混凝土柱的性能,经改性后的钢管全再生骨料混

  15. Experimental study on ultimate bearing capacity of axially compressed high strength steel columns%高强钢焊接箱形柱轴心受压极限承载力试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 王彦博,; 陈素文

    2012-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was presented on ultimate bearing capacity of axially compressed high strength steel columns. The experimental program included 7 welded box columns of 3 different cross sections which were welded with 11 mm-thick Q460 high strength steel plates made in China. The FEA models were built up according to measured sizes of members and tension coupon test results. And initial geometric imperfections and residual stress were taken into account in the FEA models. The experimental result shows that the stability coefficients of welded box columns of high strength steel are higher than the values of type c column curve in GB 50017--2003, and even higher than the values of type b curve for most of the specimens. However, due to the limited test result, the adoption of type b curve needs further verification. The FEA result agrees well with experimental result and could be a valid supplement of test data.%为了研究高强钢中厚板焊接箱形柱的极限承载力,以11 mm厚国产Q460高强钢中厚板制作了7个焊接箱形柱进行轴心受压试验。试件共包含宽厚比8、12、18三种截面,长细比分别为35、50、70。根据试件的实测尺寸、钢材的力学性能建立有限元模型,以初始缺陷的形式考虑了试件的初始挠度、初始偏心及焊接残余应力,分析预测了试件的极限承载力。试验结果表明,高强钢焊接箱形柱稳定系数采用GB 50017—2003《钢结构设计规范》中的c类截面柱子曲线偏保守,试验结果平均曲线更接近b类截面曲线,但仍需进一步验证。分析结果表明,考虑了初始缺陷的有限元模型可准确预测柱的极限承载力,可以作为试验数据的补充。

  16. Shear Performance of Horizontal Joints in Short Precast Concrete Columns with Sleeve Grouted Connections under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Xiong, Feng; Liu, Bingyu; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two short precast concrete columns and two cast-in-situ concrete columns were tested under cyclic loads. It was shown that the sleeve grouted connection was equivalent to the cast-in-situ connections for short columns when the axial compression ratio was 0.6. In order to determine the influence of the axial compression ratio and the shear-span ratio on the shear capacity of the horizontal joint, a FE model was established and verified. The analysis showed that the axial compression ratio is advantageous to the joint and the shear capacity of the horizontal joint increases with increase of the shear-span ratio. Based on the results, the methods used to estimate the shear capacity of horizontal joints in the Chinese Specification and the Japanese Guidelines are discussed and it was found that both overestimated the shear capacity of the horizontal joint. In addition, the Chinese Specification failed to consider the influence of the shear-span ratio.

  17. Experimental Investigation into Axial Compressive Behavior of Cold Formed Thin-Walled Steel Columns with Lipped Channel and Openings%开孔冷弯薄壁卷边槽钢柱轴压性能的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永红; 武振宇; 成博; 邓君宝

    2011-01-01

    为研究腹板开孔具中间加劲肋的冷弯薄壁卷边槽钢构件的受压性能,对两种截面形式的短柱和中长柱共计16根轴压构件的承载力和屈曲模式进行了试验分析.结果表明:所有试件均发生畸变屈曲失效,中长柱试件还伴随有绕弱轴的整体弯曲;腹板孔洞导致构件屈曲模式发生变化,孔洞周边板件有局部屈曲产生;孔洞的存在使试件承载力降低,短柱试件承载力的减小幅度比中长柱试件的大;同组试件中畸变初始缺陷大的,一般承载力较小,畸变变形偏大;极限承载力下开孔构件的畸变变形一般大于未开孔构件.文中还对所有试件进行了有限元模拟,发现有限元分析结果与试验值吻合较好.%In order to investigate the compression behavior of the cold-formed thin-walled steel columns with lipped channel, intermediate stiffener and openings in the web, 16 axial compressive members, including the short and the medium-length columns in two section forms, were experimentally analyzed in the aspects of bearing capacity and buckling mode. The results show that all of the specimens fail due to the distortional buckling and the medium-length columns have additional overall bending around the weak axis, that the openings in the web result in the changes of buckling modes of the members and the local bucklings of the plates occur around the openings, and that, due to the effects of the openings, the bearing capacities of the specimens decrease and the decrement of the bearing capacity of the short column is greater than that of the medium-length one. Moreover, it is found that, for the specimens in the same test group, the columns with larger initial distortional imperfections are of lower bearing capacities and greater deformations induced by the distortional bucklings, and that the openings generally enhance the deformations corresponding to the ultimate bearing capacity. In addition, all of the tested specimens

  18. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  19. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  20. A new compression design that increases proximal locking screw bending resistance in femur compression nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Karakaşli, Ahmet; Karci, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Yildirim, Serhat; Sesli, Erhan

    2015-06-01

    The aim is to present our new method of compression, a compression tube instead of conventional compression screw and to investigate the difference of proximal locking screw bending resistance between compression screw application (6 mm wide contact) and compression tube (two contact points with 13 mm gap) application. We formed six groups each consisting of 10 proximal locking screws. On metal cylinder representing lesser trochanter level, we performed 3-point bending tests with compression screw and with compression tube. We determined the yield points of the screws in 3-point bending tests using an axial compression testing machine. We determined the yield point of 5 mm screws as 1963±53 N (mean±SD) with compression screw, and as 2929±140 N with compression tubes. We found 51% more locking screw bending resistance with compression tube than with compression screw (p=0,000). Therefore compression tubes instead of compression screw must be preferred at femur compression nails.

  1. 冷弯薄壁型钢开口三肢拼合立柱轴压性能有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Cold-formed Thin-walled Steel Three Open Limbs Built-up Columns Under Axial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向斌; 周天华; 聂少锋; 吴函恒

    2011-01-01

    The finite element model involving materials nonlinearity, geometric nonlinearity and contact nonlinearity was established, the influences of slenderness ratios, screw connection spacings, maximum width-thickness ratios on cold-formed thin-walled steel three open limbs built-up columns under axial compression were analyzed by using ANSYS finite element program. Results show that the slenderness ratio has great influence on the bearing capacity of axial compression and the axial compression performance for class A, B section built-up columns, with the increase of the column slenderness ratio, the ultimate bearing capacity gradually decreases. For two class section built-up columns, when screw connection spacing has arranged 450,300,150 mm, the ultimate bearing capacity of axial compression and the rigidity are little affected. For the three different lengths to the two class section built-up columns, as different thicknesses of the basic component plates cause different width-thickness ratios of the section, the ultimate bearing capacity of axial compression and the rigidity are obviously affected. When length and thickness of class A, B section built-up columns are same, and the basic component web height is increasedfrom 89 mm to 140 mm, the ultimate bearing capacity of axial compression is not obviously improved.%建立了考虑材料、几何和接触非线性的有限元模型,利用ANSYS有限元程序分析了长细比、螺钉连接间距、截面板件最大宽厚比对冷弯薄壁型钢开口三肢拼合立柱轴压性能的影响.结果表明:立柱长细比对A、B两类截面拼合立柱轴压承载力和轴压性能有很大影响,随着立柱长细比的增大,立柱轴压极限承载力逐渐降低;当螺钉连接间距为450、300、150 mm时,A、B两类截面拼合立柱轴压极限承载力和刚度变化均不大;由于基本构件板材厚度不同引起截面板件最大宽厚比的不同,对A、B两类截面3种长度的拼合立柱的承

  2. Cyclic multiverses

    CERN Document Server

    Marosek, Konrad; Balcerzak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we first study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating mass density and pressure regularized by varying gravitational constant $G$. Then, we extend this idea onto the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two "parallel" universes with their physical evolution (physical coupling constants $c(t)$ and $G(t)$) being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion -- the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory.

  3. Light axial vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial vector states, we study whether the observed axial vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial vector meson family. In this paper we carry out analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial vector mesons, which are valuable to further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial vector mesons.

  4. Elastic and inelastic stability capacity of single angle under axial compression%单角钢轴压杆件弹性和非弹性稳定承载力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍蕃

    2012-01-01

    Hot rolled angles are classified into two categories: equal-leg and unequal-leg. Owing to the difference in cross sectional symmetry, these two kinds of angles, when subjected to axial compression, behave differently. Whether the flexural buckling about the minor axis or the flexural-torsional buckling about the major axis predominates in the inelastic range for equal-leg angle struts is a controversial issue. Analysis in this regard ascertains that, in the inelastic as well as in the elastic range, angles fail by flexural buckling. But for angles of high-strength steel, with large width-thickness ratios, it is necessary to take into account the effect of leg local buckling. Unequal-leg angles always fail by flexural-torsional buckling. The calculation of the critical load of these members is rather complicated. Through analytical calculations, an equivalent slenderness ratio is derived to transform the problem into a flexural buckling one. This approach applies to both elastic and inelastic ranges. Comparison with available test data shows that suggested approaches for the equal-leg and unequal-leg angles are both qualified for design use.%热轧角钢有等边和不等边两种类型。由于截面对称性方面的差异,两类角钢在承受轴压力时,性能有明显差别。针对等边角钢在非弹性范围的受压承载力由弱轴弯曲屈曲控制还是强轴弯扭屈曲控制这一问题进行了分析,结果表明:在非弹性范围和弹性范围一样,杆件失效时呈弯曲屈曲,对于宽厚比较大的高强度角钢,需要计及局部屈曲效应。不等边角钢压杆失效时总是呈弯扭屈曲,其临界力计算比较复杂。通过计算分析,得出了把问题转化为按弯曲屈曲分析的等效长细比的方法。此法既适用于弹性范围,也适用于非弹性范围。和现有试验资料对比表明,文中的等边和不等边角钢轴压杆件的计算方法,都可用于设计工作。

  5. Experiment on Behavior of Concrete Columns Confined by High Elastic Module Polyethylene Fiber Sheet Under Axial Compression%高模量聚乙烯纤维布约束混凝土柱轴压特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗才; 徐永朝; 曹炜

    2013-01-01

    Based on the experiment on concrete columns confined with polyethylene fiber reinforced polymer ( PEFRP) sheets under axial compression, the authors emphasized on analyzing failure configuration, bearing capacity, stress-strain curve and ductility. It is shown that; 1 ) comparing with the specimen without being confined, bearing capacity of concrete quadrate columns confined by PEA-L-2, PEA-L-3, PEB-L-2 and PEB-L-3 improves 10%, 35%, 27% and 30% respectively, peak strain improves 195% , 80% , 207% and 182% respectively; 2) bearing capacity of concrete circular columns confined by PEA-C-2, PEA-C-3, PEB-C-2 and PEB-C-3 improves 11%, 21%, 37% and 53% respectively,peak strain improves 112% , 150% , 159% and 142% respectively. Toughness index could be adopted to evaluate the ductility of constraint column, and the result shows that PEA is better than PEB in improving column toughness index I1 ,but PEB which has high elongation rate improve column late ductility effect more apparent.%试验研究了聚乙烯纤维布增强聚合物(PEFRP)约束混凝土柱体的轴心抗压性能,重点分析了其破坏形态、应力-应变全曲线、峰值应力、峰值应变、变形性能等.试验结果表明:1)相对于未约束混凝土试件,PEA-L-2、PEA-L-3、PEB-L-2、PEB-L-3约束混凝土棱柱体的抗压强度分别提高了10%、35%、27%和30%,峰值应变分别提高了195%、80%、207%和182%;2)PEA-C-2、PEA-C-3、PEB-C-2和PEB-C-3约束混凝土圆柱体的抗压强度分别提高了11%、21%、37%和53%,峰值应变提高了112%、150%、159%和142%.压缩韧性指数方法能评价PEFRP约束柱的变形能力,计算结果表明:PEA对提高柱韧性指数I1效果比PEB显著,而延伸率高的PEB对改善柱后期延性效果更好.

  6. 钢筋硅砂混凝土短柱轴心受压试验%Experimental Study on Reinforced Dune Sand Based Concrete Stub Columns Subject to Axial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫华

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究混凝土配制中添加沙漠特细砂(硅砂)后的力学性能.方法 采用沙漠特细砂替代传统混凝土配比中的细骨料形成沙漠硅砂混凝土.配制C50和C80强度等级的硅砂混凝土,开展方形和圆形截面钢筋硅砂混凝土轴心受压短柱的试验研究,并采用ABAQUS有限元软件对试验结果进行数值模拟.结果 添加沙漠风积沙后,配制C80强度混凝土时,浆体的塌落度和流动性明显降低,硬化后混凝土强度可以满足工程应用的要求;采用普通混凝土的材料模型进行数值分析时,计算承载力与试验承载力相比略高,荷载-位移曲线总体吻合较好.结论 在沙漠地区采用沙漠硅砂替代混凝土中的细骨料,可有效解决中(粗)砂资源匮乏的问题,钢筋硅砂混凝土试件的力学性能可基本满足工程应用的要求.%In order to study the mechanical behavior of dune sand based concrete when super-fine dune sand was used in concrete mixture.The dune sand in desert area was used as the substitution of fine aggregate in the mixture of concrete,and the concrete strength of C50 and C80 were prepared.A series of tests of square and circular sectional specimens of reinforced dune sand based concrete stub columns subject to axial compression were carried out.Based on ABAQUS software,the FEA models of testing specimens were built up for simulation.The slump and workability of fresh concrete became lower after the dune sand was added to the concrete mixture,however,the strength of the dune sand based concrete could be used in general engineering.Comparison between the calculated results and the measured results shows that,the calculated bearing capacities were a little higher than the measured results,the calculated load vs.deformation curves agree well with the measured curves.The lack of resources of river sand could be well resolved with the substitution of dune sand in place of river sand,and the mechanical behavior of reinforced

  7. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    an enthusiastic worshipping of life, one that holds youth, health, strength and beauty as its primary attributes, and which was prevalent in all aspects of cultural life around 1900. But even the post war founders of the Vitalist re-conceptualisation of this era, Wolfdietrich Rasch and Gunter Martens, warned...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...

  8. Cyclic multiverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  9. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of taking such a unilateral view of what constituted a Vitalist concept of life. It could lead to a misunderstanding of Vitalist way of thinking, Rasch said, if the focus were only set upon the enthusiastic surplus, the worshipping of youth and health. To Vitalists, life is more than that. It is a totality...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...... of the era. The analyses include a further sub-categorisation to capture the different types of Life Force dealt with in the texts. By way of an introduction, Vitalism is discussed within the context of the scientific and social developments of the 19th Century....

  10. Experimental study on cold-formed steel three limbs built-up section members under axial compression%冷弯薄壁型钢开口三肢拼合立柱轴压性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天华; 聂少锋; 刘向斌

    2012-01-01

    18 specimens of cold-formed steel three-limb built-up section members were tested under axial compression load. The section forms are divided into A and B categories. A category section is built-up with 3 C section cold- formed steel members. B category section is built-up with 2 C section and 1 U section cold-formed steel members. Load-displacement curves and failure characteristics of specimens were obtained. The test results were compared with the results by effective width method and direct strength method which were calculated according to the specification of China and USA. The results show that the dominant failure characteristics of A and B categories section LC (long column) series columns are flexural-torsional buckling and bending buckling respectively. MC (middle length column) series columns of A categories section are distortional buckling and B categories section are distortionalbuckling and bending buckling. All SC (short column) series columns are local buckling and distortional buckling. The results calculated by AISI effective width method are conservative for LC series column of A and B categories section, while non-conservative for the SC series columns. The calculated results are close to test results as for MC series columns. The results calculated by AISI direct strength method are conservative for LC and MC series columns of A category section, while non-conservative for the SC series columns. As for B category section columns, the errors between direct strength method results and test results are between -16.5% and 11.2%. The results calculated according to ' Technical code of cold-formed thin-wall steel structures' are conservative as for LC series columns. The calculated result are close to test results as for MC and SC series columns, with the error between -8.7% - 4.7% and -7.3% - 13.7% , respectively%对18根冷弯薄壁型钢开口三肢拼合立柱的轴压性能进行了试验研究,试件分为A

  11. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  12. Experimental study and numerical analysis of the behavior of cold-formed steel quadruple-C built-up section members under axial compression%四肢拼合冷弯薄壁型钢截面立柱轴压性能试验研究及数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天华; 杨东华; 聂少锋; 吴函恒

    2012-01-01

    对不同长细比的8根四肢拼合冷弯薄壁型钢截面立柱的轴压性能进行试验研究,在试验研究的基础上建立考虑材料、几何和接触非线性的有限元模型,并通过对试验试件的数值模拟,验证有限元方法的正确性。采用数值方法分析长细比、连接螺钉间距、截面翼缘宽厚比对四肢拼合冷弯薄壁型钢截面立柱轴压性能的影响。结果表明:试件最终破坏均呈现局部屈曲和畸变屈曲的破坏模式;四肢拼合冷弯薄壁型钢截面立柱的轴压性能具有“1×4≥4”的拼合效应;随着长细比的增大,四肢拼合立柱的最大承载力和刚度逐渐降低;当螺钉间距在150—450mm之间变化时,四肢拼合立柱的最大承载力和刚度变化不大;减小四肢拼合立柱截面的翼缘宽厚比,可以显著提高其最大承载力。%Eight specimens of quadruple-C built-up section cold-formed steel columns with different slenderness ratios were tested under axial compression load. The load bearing capacity of the specimens was analyzed. The finite element models involving geometric nonlinearity, materials nonlinearity and contact mechanics were presented. The results of finite element method (FEM) are close to those from the tests, proving that the FEM is reasonable. Factors that influence the behavior of members under axial compression, including slenderness ratio, spacing of screws and the width- thickness ratio, were studied. The results show that the failure modes of all specimens are local buckling and distortional buckling, and the axial bearing capacity of quadruple-C built-up section members is four times more than that of single C-section ones. The axial bearing capacity and stiffness of the quadrnple-C built-up section members decrease as the slenderness ratio increases. The effect of the spacing of screws from 150mm to 450mm on the axial bearing capacity and stiffness of quadrnple-C built-up section members

  13. Buckling analysis of functionally graded sandwich cylindrical panels under axial compression%轴向压力下功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板的屈曲分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华东; 朱锡; 梅志远; 张颖军

    2012-01-01

    基于Reissner假设,研究了四边简支的功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板在轴向载荷作用下的屈曲问题.首先,根据功能梯度材料的本构方程,得出了芯材和表层的应力、位移及内力表达式;然后,根据曲板的平衡方程和协调方程,引用应力函数,得到了功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板的方程式;最后,将挠度、横向剪力及应力函数用双三角级数展开,给出了功能梯度夹层圆柱曲板轴向屈曲载荷的计算式.在算例中,通过与经典解及有限元解进行比较,证明了本文方法的正确性,并且分析了芯材上下表层弹性模量比及体积分数指数对功能梯度夹层板轴向屈曲载荷的影响.%Based on the Reissner assumptions, the buckling of simply supported functionally graded sandwich cylindrical panels under axial loads was studied. First, according to the constitutive equa- tions of functionally graded materials, the expressions of stresses, displacements and internal forces of the core and surface sheets were presented. Then, according to the equilibrium and compatibility e quations of cylindrical panels, with the introduction of stress function, the equation expressions for functionally graded sandwich cylindrical panels were obtained. Finally, the calculation formula of axial buckling load of functionally graded sanwich cylindrical panels were derived by expanding the deflec- tionw, transverse shearing force and stress functionwith double trigonometric series that satisfy the simply supported boundary conditions. The proposed solution is validated by comparing the results with the classical and finite element solutions, And the effects of the core's top-bottom Youngrs mod- ulus ratio and volume fraction exponent on the axial buckling loads of the functionally graded sandwich panels are examined.

  14. Multiaxial elastoplastic cyclic loading of austenitic 316L steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mazánová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic stress-strain response and fatigue damage character has been investigated in austenitic stainless steel 316L. Hollow cylindrical specimens have been cyclically deformed in combined tension-compression and torsion under constant strain rate condition and different constant strain and shear strain amplitudes. In-phase and 90° out-of-phase cyclic straining was applied and the stress response has been monitored. Cyclic hardening/softening curves were assessed in both channels. Cyclic softening followed for higher strain amplitudes by long-term cyclic hardening was observed. Cyclic stress-strain curves were determined. Study of the surface damage in fractured specimens revealed the types and directions of principal cracks and the sources of fatigue crack initiation in slip bands.

  15. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Huffer

    2004-09-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I.

  16. Constitutive Model for Multiaxial Ratcheting Predictions of Cyclic Softening Weld Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; CHEN Xu; JIAO Rong

    2005-01-01

    A series of fully reversed axial, torsional strain-controlled cyclic tests and two multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted on weld metal specimens using an Instron8521 tension-torsional servo-controlled testing machine. The weld metal showed clear cyclic softening under axial, torsional and multiaxial loading. A modified kinematic hardening rule was proposed in which a multiaxial-loading-dependent parameter incorporated the radial evanescence term of the Burlet-Cailletaud mode with the Ohno-Wang kinematic hardening rule to predict the multiaxial ratcheting effects. The introduction of yield stress evolved with accumulated plasticity strain enables the model to predict cyclic plasticity behavior of cyclic softening or cyclic hardening materials. Thus modified model considers the isotropic hardening as well as kinematic hardening of yield surface, and it can present description of plasticity behavior and ratcheting of cyclic softening and cyclic hardening materials well under multiaxial loading.

  17. [Management of axial spondyloarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2016-11-01

    The term spondyloarthritis (SpA) is now increasingly used to classify and diagnose patients who are characterized by inflammation in the axial skeleton and peripheral manifestations (arthritis and enthesitis). The management of SpA should be tailored according to the current manifestations of the disease, the disease activity and functional impairment. The current article focuses on diagnosis and therapy in patients with axial SpA. Diagnostic procedures are discussed in light of diagnostic utility and feasibility in daily routine care. Cornerstones of treatment in patients with axial SpA are a combination of regular exercise and pharmacological treatment options aiming at anti-inflammatory strategies.

  18. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  19. Magnetic compression of an FRC plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Kitano, K.; Matsumoto, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (JP)] [and others

    1999-04-01

    Confinement of a plasma with field-reversed configuration (FRC) is predicted to be improved if it is compressed only axially, keeping the magnetic flux between the separatrix and the confining chamber (flux conserver) wall unchanged, while allowing the plasma to expand radially. The prediction is based on an empirical scaling law of FRC confinement and on the assumption that the compression is done adiabatically. The apparatus for this axial compression was developed and the axial compression experiment was actually carried out by decreasing the distance of the mirror fields between which the FRC plasma is confined by 30% and the plasma life time of about 500 {mu}s was increased by about 50 {mu}s. (author)

  20. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the flu eating certain foods, such as chocolate or cheese, or additives such as caffeine, nitrites— ... people with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition During the prodrome and vomiting phases of cyclic ...

  1. Superextensions of cyclic semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gavrylkiv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a cyclic semigroup $S$ we study right and left zeros,singleton left ideals, the minimal ideal, left cancelable andright cancelable elements of superextensions $lambda(S$ andcharacterize cyclic semigroups whose superextensions arecommutative.

  2. Transverse Compression of Tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, S T Samuel; Buckley, C Paul; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    A study was made of the deformation of tendons when compressed transverse to the fiber-aligned axis. Bovine digital extensor tendons were compression tested between flat rigid plates. The methods included: in situ image-based measurement of tendon cross-sectional shapes, after preconditioning but immediately prior to testing; multiple constant-load creep/recovery tests applied to each tendon at increasing loads; and measurements of the resulting tendon displacements in both transverse directions. In these tests, friction resisted axial stretch of the tendon during compression, giving approximately plane-strain conditions. This, together with the assumption of a form of anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model proposed previously for tendon, justified modeling the isochronal response of tendon as that of an isotropic, slightly compressible, neo-Hookean solid. Inverse analysis, using finite-element (FE) simulations of the experiments and 10 s isochronal creep displacement data, gave values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this solid of 0.31 MPa and 0.49, respectively, for an idealized tendon shape and averaged data for all the tendons and E = 0.14 and 0.10 MPa for two specific tendons using their actual measured geometry. The compression load versus displacement curves, as measured and as simulated, showed varying degrees of stiffening with increasing load. This can be attributed mostly to geometrical changes in tendon cross section under load, varying according to the initial 3D shape of the tendon.

  3. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  4. 钢管混凝土轴压构件徐变有限元研究%Finite Element Analysis on the Creep Behavior of Axially-Compressed Concrete Filled Steel Tube Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟; 查晓雄

    2011-01-01

    The use of concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structures in high-rise building can well solve the conflict between the long time of concrete hardening and the requirement of fast construction speed, and make full use of the strength and stiffness of the hollow steel tube. But it also brings such problems, during the construction process of the structure, the CFST members suffered gradually increased long-term load, which makes concrete creep sustainably developing, concrete unloading. internal forces re-distributing, resulting in lower load-carrying capacity of the CFST members. By adopting DirichLet series in the concrete creep model, this paper applied the nonlinear FEM software ABAQUS in simulating the creep process of CFST members and testing their load-carrying capacity; the FEM results are validated to be reliable and accurate. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the creep behavior of CFST members. It is concluded that the initial stress can be introduced to roughly estimate the effect of creep on axially load-carrying capacity.%在高层和超高层建筑中采用钢管混凝土结构,可充分利用空钢管所具有的强度和刚度,并能较好地解决混凝土硬化时间较长与施工速度之间的矛盾.但由此也会带来这样的问题,即在结构施工过程中,构件所受长期荷载随施工过程逐渐增加,徐变持续发展,混凝土卸载,内力重新分布,导致构件稳定承载力降低.本文运用DirichLet级数建立管内混凝土徐变模型,并应用非线性有限元软件ABAQUS对钢管混凝土徐变以及承载力进行了有限元计算,较好地模拟了钢管混凝土的徐变过程.本文回归分析了钢管混凝土的徐变性质,并认为可以用初应力的方法粗略估计徐变构件对承载力的影响.

  5. Cyclic Strain Enhances Cellular Uptake of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have gained increasing interest in recent years due to their potential use as drug carrier, imaging, and diagnostic agents in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. While many cells in vivo experience mechanical forces, little is known about the correlation of the mechanical stimulation and the internalization of NPs into cells. This paper investigates the effects of applied cyclic strain on NP uptake by cells. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs were cultured on collagen-coated culture plates and placed under cyclic equal-axial strains. NPs of sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm were loaded at a concentration of 0.02 mg/mL and cyclic strains from 5 to 15% were applied to the cells for one hour. The cyclic strain results in a significant enhancement in NP uptake, which increases almost linearly with strain level. The enhanced uptake also depends on size of the NPs with the highest uptake observed on 100 nm NP. The effect of enhanced NP uptake lasts around 13 hours after cyclic stretch. Such in vitro cell stretch systems mimic physiological conditions of the endothelial cells in vivo and could potentially serve as a biomimetic platform for drug therapeutic evaluation.

  6. "Compressed" Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The field of compressed sensing has shown that a sparse but otherwise arbitrary vector can be recovered exactly from a small number of randomly constructed linear projections (or samples). The question addressed in this paper is whether an even smaller number of samples is sufficient when there exists prior knowledge about the distribution of the unknown vector, or when only partial recovery is needed. An information-theoretic lower bound with connections to free probability theory and an upper bound corresponding to a computationally simple thresholding estimator are derived. It is shown that in certain cases (e.g. discrete valued vectors or large distortions) the number of samples can be decreased. Interestingly though, it is also shown that in many cases no reduction is possible.

  7. 轴压加筋壁板承载能力计算方法探讨%Investigation of the Computing Methods to Calculate Load-carrying Capacity of Stiffened Panels under Axial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 童贤鑫

    2012-01-01

    Currently, engineering method is usually used to compute the load carrying capacity of the panels in a design process. In this paper, three major engineering methods are briefly described and investigated. These methods are evaluated through the comparison of calculated results and test data, for the stiffed panels of the central wing and fuselage of an aircraft. It is shown that the results from ultimate load method are safer and more consistent with the experimental data. The reasonable allowable stress for central wing of the aircraft is specified according to the previous comparisons and analysis. Finally, eleven types of stiffened panels under axi- al compression of the aircraft fuselage are calculated by using ultimate load method. The results agree well with the experimental data. It is approved that this method can meet the requirement more accurately and utility in engineering design.%目前飞机设计中主要采用工程方法计算加筋壁板的承载能力。本文介绍并评述了分段处理法、John-son法和极限载荷法三种常用的工程方法,为了探讨哪种方法能更加满足工程需要,采用这三种方法对某型飞机中央翼加筋壁板及其试验件分别进行计算,表明其中极限载荷法的计算结果偏于安全,与试验结果吻合较好,并采用此法确定了中央翼加筋壁板的承载能力。最后采用极限载荷法进一步计算该型飞机机身11种构型加筋壁板轴压试验件,破坏载荷计算值与试验结果相当吻合,从而证实了极限载荷法是一种计算轴压加筋壁板承载能力更准确、实用的工程方法。

  8. Altered Axial Skeletal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The axial skeleton is routinely examined in standard developmental toxicity bioassays and has proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of chemical agents. Dysmorphogenesis in the skull, vertebral column and ribs has been described in both human populations and in laboratory anima...

  9. Experimental study and mechanical behavior analysis of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular long columns under axial compression%钢管再生混凝土轴压长柱试验研究及力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向冈; 陈宗平; 薛建阳; 苏益声; 范杰

    2012-01-01

    Axial static monotonic loading test was carried out on 5 recycled aggregate concrete filled cycled steel tubular long columns and 5 recycled aggregate concrete filled square steel tubular tong columns. The test parameters include section form, replacement rate of recycled coarse aggregate and slenderness ratio. The whole loading process and failure modes were observed. The important characteristic data were captured such as the yield strain, the peak deformation, the bearing capacity and so on. A series of important curves about load-deformation, load-strain and axial stiffness- deformation were plotted. The influences of the test parameters on the bearing capacity were analyzed. The bearing capacity and axial stiffness of two section types under the serviceability limit state were calculated by some related procedures. It is shown that the loading process of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular long columns under axial compression is made up of elastic stage, yield stage and failure stage. The failure modes are mainly strength failure and failure of elasto-plastic instability. The influence of replacement rate on the bearing capacity is little. The influence of slenderness ratio on the bearing capacity of recycled aggregate concrete filled cycled steel circular tubular long columns is great. When the slenderness ratio increases, the bearing capacity will decrease. However, the influence of slenderness ratio on the bearing capacity of recycled aggregate concrete filled square steeltubular long columns is little. Based on the calculation resuh, the design suggestion is provided about the bearing capacity and axial stiffness of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular long columns under axial compression. The research results can provide reference for further research and application of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular structure.%设计5个圆钢管再生混凝土长柱和5个方钢管再生混凝土长柱,对其进行轴压静力

  10. Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon I. Lall-Ramnarine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylamide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners.

  11. Durability of Modified Expanded Polystyrene Concrete after Dynamic Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available EPS concrete was produced by mixing the expanded polystyrene spheres (EPS and polymer emulsion and thickener to the matrix concrete, and this concrete had good vibration energy absorption characteristics. Based on the experimental data obtained on EPS volume ratio of 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by replacing matrix or coarse aggregate, the two design styles had nearly the same compressive strength. By applying frequency of 5 Hz, 50000 or 100000 times, 40 KN, 50 KN, and 60 KN cyclic loading, it is shown that the higher the inclusion size was, the lower the compressive strength of the EPS concrete would be; the larger the applying dynamic cyclic load was, the more obvious the compressive strength changing would be. Meanwhile, the strength of EPS concrete had no evident change after durability test. The results of this research had practical significance on using EPS concrete in some long-term cyclic dynamic load engineering.

  12. Surface nanoscale axial photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2011-01-01

    Dense photonic integration promises to revolutionize optical computing and communications. However, efforts towards this goal face unacceptable attenuation of light caused by surface roughness in microscopic devices. Here we address this problem by introducing Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP). The SNAP platform is based on whispering gallery modes circulating around the optical fiber surface and undergoing slow axial propagation readily described by the one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equation. These modes can be steered with dramatically small nanoscale variation of the fiber radius, which is quite simple to introduce in practice. The extremely low loss of SNAP devices is achieved due to the fantastically low surface roughness inherent in a drawn fiber surface. In excellent agreement with the developed theory, we experimentally demonstrate localization of light in quantum wells, halting light by a point source, tunneling through potential barriers, dark states, etc. This demonstration, prototyping basi...

  13. The effects of initial rise and axial loads on MEMS arches

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif A.

    2017-04-07

    Arch microbeams have been utilized and proposed for many uses over the past few years due to their large tunability and bistability. However, recent experimental data have shown different mechanical behavior of arches when subjected to axial loads. This paper aims to investigate in depth the influence of the competing effects of initial rise and axial loads on the mechanical behavior of micromachined arches; mainly their static deflection and resonant frequencies. Based on analytical solutions, the static response and eigenvalue problems are analyzed for various values of initial rises and axial loads. Universal curves showing the variation of the first three resonance frequencies of the arch are generated for various values of initial rise under both tensile and compressive axial loads. This study shows that increasing the tensile or compressive axial loads for different values of initial rise may lead to either increase in the stiffness of the beam or initial decrease in the stiffness, which later increases as the axial load is increased depending on the dominant effect of the initial rise of the arch and the axial load. The obtained universal curves represent useful design tools to predict the tunability of arches under axial loads for various values of initial rises. The use of the universal curves is demonstrated with an experimental case study. Analytical formulation is developed to predict the point of minimum where the trend of the resonance frequency versus axial loads changes qualitatively due to the competing effects of axial loads and initial curvature.

  14. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  15. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  16. Ex vivo biomechanical comparison of a 3.5 mm locking compression plate applied cranially and a 2.7 mm locking compression plate applied medially in a gap model of the distal aspect of the canine radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Justin M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Garcia, Tanya C; Stover, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    To compare a medially applied 2.7 mm locking compression plate (LCP) to a cranially applied 3.5 mm LCP in a cadaveric distal radial fracture gap model. In vitro mechanical testing of paired cadaveric limbs Paired radii (n = 8) stabilized with either a 2.7 mm LCP medially or a 3.5 mm LCP cranially. Simulated distal radial comminuted fractures were created and stabilized with an LCP plate on the cranial surface in 1 limb, and on the medial surface in the contralateral limb. Gap stiffness, gap strain, and failure properties were compared between cranial and medial plate positions. Limb constructs were axially loaded, cyclically through 4 conditions that allowed mediolateral or craniocaudal bending at walk and trot loads, before monotonic failure loading. The effects of plate position on mechanical variables were assessed using paired t-tests. Gap stiffness was greater for cranial plate constructs than medial plate constructs for axial loading with mediolateral bending, but lower with craniocaudal bending. However, in loading that facilitated craniocaudal bending the medial plate construct also had bending apparent in the mediolateral direction. Gap strains for the different conditions followed similar trends as stiffness. Cranial plate constructs had significantly higher monotonic stiffness, yield, and failure loads. The larger, cranially applied LCP was biomechanically superior to the smaller, medially applied LCP in our distal radial fracture gap model, however the medial plate was superior to the cranial plate in cyclic loading allowing craniocaudal bending. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Cyclic anamorphic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the only known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  18. Regulated expressions of Sox9 and type Ⅱ collagen by cyclic compressive stress in growth plate chondrocytes via calcium channel%短周期动态压应力通过Ca2+通道调控生长板软骨细胞Sox9及Ⅱ型胶原表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张津铭; 陈安民; 吕正涛; 李兴艳; 郭风劲; 祁军

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究短周期动态压应力对体外培养的大鼠生长板软骨细胞Sox9、Ⅱ型胶原mRNA及蛋白表达水平的影响,探讨L-型钙离子通道是否参与该力学信号转导过程.方法 分离并体外培养两周龄SD大鼠生长板软骨细胞,传代后的生长板软骨细胞分为4组:对照组、单纯压应力组、硝苯地平组及压应力联合硝苯地平组.其中对照组不施加力学及药物干预,单纯压应力组通过四点弯曲力学加载仪予以周期性压应力(2 000με,1.0 Hz)干预,硝苯地平组添加L-型钙离子拮抗剂硝苯地平(10 μmol/L)但不施加力学干预,压应力联合硝苯地平组添加硝苯地平(10 μmol/L)并施加周期性压应力干预(2000με,1.0 Hz).实验处理6h,运用荧光定量PCR及Western blot方法检测各组细胞的Sox9、Ⅱ型胶原mRNA和蛋白表达情况.各组细胞行Fluo-3/AM染色,激光共聚焦显微镜观察并分析细胞内钙离子的荧光强度.使用SPSS17.0软件对数据进行统计学分析.结果 单纯压应力组生长板软骨细胞的Sox9的mRNA与蛋白表达水平较对照组分别增加(82.97±24.95)%和(79.67±26.03)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);Ⅱ型胶原的mRNA与蛋白表达水平较对照组分别增加(118.93±34.40)%和(95.93±29.87)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).压应力联合硝苯地平组生长板软骨细胞的Sox9、Ⅱ型胶原的mRNA与蛋白表达水平低于单纯压应力组(P<0.05),但高于硝苯地平组(P<0.05).激光共聚焦显微镜能清晰观察到细胞内钙离子染色后产生的荧光,但各组平均荧光强度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 适当的短时间周期性压应力能上调生长板软骨细胞Sox9及Ⅱ型胶原mRNA与蛋白的表达水平,钙离子通道可能参与该力学信号转导过程.%Objective To explore the effect of short-term cyclic compressive stress on the mRNA and protein expressions of Sox9 and type Ⅱ collagen in growth plate

  19. Experimental investigation of axial plasma injection into a magnetic dipole field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1968-01-01

    A high-density helium plasma, accelerated from a conical pinch, is injected axially into a magnetic dipole field. Magnetic probe measurements show that, near the axis, a compression of the field is super-imposed on the standard diamagnetic depression. The compression starts downstream and moves...

  20. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method of measuring axial residual stresses in boron fibers is presented. With this method, the axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius is determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diam fibers are similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25% of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 MN sq m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data are presented for 203-micron diam B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102-micron diam B/W and boron on carbon (B/C) show that the residual stresses are similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core are observed. Fracture of boron fibers is discussed.

  1. Multi-axial mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered cartilage: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Waldman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tissue engineered cartilage is a promising new approach for the repair of damaged or diseased tissue. Since it has proven difficult to generate cartilaginous tissue with properties similar to that of native articular cartilage, several studies have used mechanical stimuli as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the developed tissue. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multi-axial loading applied during in vitro tissue formation to better reflect the physiological forces that chondrocytes are subjected to in vivo. Dynamic combined compression-shear stimulation (5% compression and 5% shear strain amplitudes increased both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis (76 ± 8% and 73 ± 5%, respectively over the static (unstimulated controls. When this multi-axial loading condition was applied to the chondrocyte cultures over a four week period, there were significant improvements in both extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation and the mechanical properties of the in vitro-formed tissue (3-fold increase in compressive modulus and 1.75-fold increase in shear modulus. Stimulated tissues were also significantly thinner than the static controls (19% reduction suggesting that there was a degree of ECM consolidation as a result of long-term multi-axial loading. This study demonstrated that stimulation by multi-axial forces can improve the quality of the in vitro-formed tissue, but additional studies are required to further optimize the conditions to favour improved biochemical and mechanical properties of the developed tissue.

  2. Relationship between streaming potential and compressive stress in bovine intervertebral tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Tadano, Shigeru; Asano, Nozomu

    2011-09-02

    The intervertebral disc is formed by the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF), and intervertebral tissue contains a large amount of negatively charged proteoglycan. When this tissue becomes deformed, a streaming potential is induced by liquid flow with positive ions. The anisotropic property of the AF tissue is caused by the structural anisotropy of the solid phase and the liquid phase flowing into the tissue with the streaming potential. This study investigated the relationship between the streaming potential and applied stress in bovine intervertebral tissue while focusing on the anisotropy and loading location. Column-shaped specimens, 5.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were prepared from the tissue of the AF, NP and the annulus-nucleus transition region (AN). The loading direction of each specimen was oriented in the spinal axial direction, as well as in the circumferential and radial directions of the spine considering the anisotropic properties of the AF tissue. The streaming potential changed linearly with stress in all specimens. The linear coefficients k(e) of the relationship between stress and streaming potential depended on the extracted positions. These coefficients were not affected by the anisotropy of the AF tissue. In addition, these coefficients were lower in AF than in NP specimens. Except in the NP specimen, the k(e) values were higher under faster compression rate conditions. In cyclic compression loading the streaming potential changed linearly with compressive stress, regardless of differences in the tissue and load frequency.

  3. Axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection evaluated by linear mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Hyon-Woo; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kim, Shin-Koo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection after cyclic loading. Three groups of external abutments (Ext group), an internal tapered one-piece-type abutment (Int-1 group), and an internal tapered two-piece-type abutment (Int-2 group) were prepared. Cyclic loading was applied to implant-abutment assemblies at 150 N with a frequency of 3 Hz. The amount of axial displacement, the Periotest values (PTVs), and the removal torque values(RTVs) were measured. Both a repeated measures analysis of variance and pattern analysis based on the linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface of the implant-abutment connection. The mean axial displacements after 1,000,000 cycles were 0.6 μm in the Ext group, 3.7 μm in the Int-1 group, and 9.0 μm in the Int-2 group. Pattern analysis revealed a breakpoint at 171 cycles. The Ext group showed no declining pattern, and the Int-1 group showed no declining pattern after the breakpoint (171 cycles). However, the Int-2 group experienced continuous axial displacement. After cyclic loading, the PTV decreased in the Int-2 group, and the RTV decreased in all groups. SEM imaging revealed surface wear in all groups. Axial displacement and surface wear occurred in all groups. The PTVs remained stable, but the RTVs decreased after cyclic loading. Based on linear mixed model analysis, the Ext and Int-1 groups' axial displacements plateaued after little cyclic loading. The Int-2 group's rate of axial displacement slowed after 100,000 cycles.

  4. Distortional buckling experiments on cold-formed thin-walled steel lipped channel columns with circle holes under axial compression%腹板开孔冷弯薄壁钢轴压构件畸变屈曲承载力试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭政; 姚行友; 汪洋; 石梦婷; 刘忠勇; 朱丽芳; 曾罗兰

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to research the distortional buckling mode and load-carrying capacity of cold-formed thin-walled steel members with holes. Compression tests were conducted on 26 intermediate length columns with and without web holes. The comparison of ultimate strength between test results and calcu-lated results using Chinese code Technical code of cold-formed thin-wall steel structures GB50018-2002 and nonlinear finite element method are made. The calculated method for cold-formed thin-walled steel columns with web holes is proposed. The results show that the distortional buckling mode would usually occur for the intermediate length axial compression. The web holes have a little influence on the distortion-al buckling ultimate strength of columns. The ultimate strength can be predicted using a reduced effective area.%对26根屈服强度235MPa腹板开圆孔冷弯薄壁型卷边槽钢截面轴压构件进行畸变屈曲承载力试验研究,分析了构件屈曲模式和极限承载力,采用国家规范GB50018—2002《冷弯薄壁型钢结构技术规范》计算构件承载力、非线性有限元数值模拟结果与试验结果进行分析比较。在此基础上,对腹板开孔冷弯薄壁型钢截面轴压构件的承载力合理计算模式进行研究。结果表明,对于中等长度腹板开孔冷弯薄壁型钢截面轴压构件主要出现畸变屈曲模式;腹板开孔在对构件畸变屈曲稳定承载力有一定的降低作用,采用折减构件有效截面面积的方法可计算开孔构件的畸变屈曲稳定承载力。

  5. 腔内带钢筋笼多腔钢管混凝土巨型柱轴压性能试验研究%Experimental Study on Axial Compression Performance of Multi-Cell CFST Mega-Columns with Steel Reinforcement Cage Inside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 王智慧; 彭斌; 董宏英; 武海鹏; 殷超; 陈利民

    2012-01-01

    以某超高层巨型框架结构巨型柱为原型,进行了3个多腔钢管混凝土巨型柱模型试件的轴压性能试验研究,模型按1/12缩尺.3个试件的几何尺寸和腔体钢板均一致,各试件主要参数:试件1腔内加设钢筋笼,混凝土强度等级为C30;试件2腔内不加设钢筋笼,混凝土强度等级为C40;试件3腔内加设钢筋笼,混凝土强度等级为C40.试验分析了各试件的承载力、刚度及退化过程、残余变形、破坏特征等.研究表明:腔内设置钢筋笼的多腔钢管混凝土巨型柱具有良好的延性和抗压工作性能,可用于工程设计.%According to a mega-column from a super high-rise mega-frame structure, three 1/12 scaled multi-cell CFST mega-column models were tested under axial compression. All the geometric dimensions and the steel plates of the three specimens were same with eachother. Specimen 1 was made from concrete C30 with steel reinforcement cage inside; specimen 2 was made from concrete C40 without steel reinforcement cage; specimen 3 was made from concrete C40 with steel reinforcement cage inside. The load-bearing capacity, stiffness and its degeneration, residual deformation and failure characteristic of models have been compared and analyzed. The study shows that the multi-cell CFST mega-column with steel reinforcement cage inside has good ductility and good compression work performance. And it can be used in the design practical of engineering.

  6. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  7. 反复镦压工艺制备超细晶铜的组织与性能%Microstructure and property of ultra-fine grained copper produced by cyclic channel die compression process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石凤健; 王雷刚; 许涛; 芦笙

    2011-01-01

    The principle,processing routes and characteristics of cyclic channel die compression(CCDC) process were introduced.Microstructure,microhardness and tensile property of pure copper subjected to CCDC process were investigated.The results show that large strain can be accumulated through CCDC process without changing the size and shape of the specimen.The grains of as-annealed copper are refined obviously after multi-pass CCDC.The average Vickers microhardness increases rapidly before 3 passes CCDC and then becomes stable with further increasing passes of CCDC.Ultimate tensile strength of the pure copper by CCDC is improved from initial 198.5 MPa to the maximum value of 488.8 MPa.However,its elongation to failure decreases after CCDC,but the elongation is still over 15%.Fracture mechanism of pure copper after CCDC belongs to ductile fracture.The investigation shows that CCDC is a promising method for producing bulk ultra-fine grained materials.%介绍了反复镦压工艺的原理、路线及特点,并研究了纯铜反复镦压后的组织、硬度及拉伸性能。结果表明,反复镦压可在不改变试样形状和尺寸的情况下累积很大的应变。退火态纯铜经多道次镦压后晶粒明显细化。3道次镦压前,纯铜的平均显微硬度随应变的增加快速增加,随镦压次数的进一步增加,硬度上升的幅度下降。多道次镦压后纯铜的抗拉强度明显提高,从退火态的198.5 MPa提高到最高约488.8 MPa。镦压后纯铜的断后伸长率明显下降,但仍在15%以上,其断裂性质仍属韧性断裂。研究结果说明反复镦压是一种有应用前景的制备块体细晶材料的方法。

  8. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  9. Compressive strength of fiber reinforced composite materials. [composed of boron and epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes, and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed, delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  10. Fracture Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Columns Under Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, A.; Avilés, F.; Berggreen, Christian

    A sandwich structure consists of two strong and stiff face sheets bonded to a weak low density core. The large separation between the face sheets provides increased bending rigidity and strength at low weight cost. Thus, sandwich structures frequently present better mechanical properties than mon...

  11. Axial dynamic tensile strength of concrete under static lateral compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.

    2006-01-01

    The rate effect on concrete tensile strength can be modeled by the description of crack extension in a fictitious fracture plane [1,2].The plane represents the initial, internal damage and the geometry of the final fracture plane. In the paper, the same approach is applied to model the failure envel

  12. Optimum design of laminated composite under axial compressive load

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N G R Iyengar; Nilesh Vyas

    2011-02-01

    In the present study optimal design of composite laminates, with and without rectangular cut-out, is carried out for maximizing the buckling load. Optimization study is carried out for obtaining the maximum buckling load with design variables as ply thickness, cut-out size and orientation of cut-out with respect to laminate. Buckling load is evaluated using a ‘simple higher order shear deformation theory’ based on four unknown displacements $u,v,w_b$ and $w_s$. A C1 continuous shear flexible finite element based on HSDT model is developed using Hermite cubic polynomial. It is observed that for thick anti-symmetric laminates, the non-dimensional buckling load decreases with increase in aspect ratio and increase in fibre orientation angle. There is a decrease in the non-dimensional buckling load of symmetric laminate in the presence of cut-out.

  13. Fracture Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Columns Under Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, A.; Avilés, F.; Berggreen, Christian

    A sandwich structure consists of two strong and stiff face sheets bonded to a weak low density core. The large separation between the face sheets provides increased bending rigidity and strength at low weight cost. Thus, sandwich structures frequently present better mechanical properties than mon...

  14. Failure mechanism and forming limit of tube axial compressive process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-chao; YANG He

    2006-01-01

    Based on minimum energy principle for plastic forming,tearing and buckling failures mechanisms are explored and criteria for them are developed by theoretical analysis and experiment. Combined with finite element software developed forming limit and effects of process parameters on failures are investigated and proper parameters for stable forming are determined. The results show that: 1) The failures and forming limit are mainly determined by geometry and materials parameters of tube blank,fillet radius or half conical angle of die. For the process under fillet die,there exists a maximum fillet radius within which no tearing failure happens,and a maximum radius and a minimum radius range within which no buckling failure happens. For the process under conical die,there exists a maximum and minimum half conical angle range within which no tearing and buckling failures occur. 2) For both forming processes,the higher the value of material strain hardening exponent or the lower the value of relative thickness,the more impossible for tearing and buckling failures to occur,and the larger the ranges of fillet radius and half conical angle. The experiment results verify the reliability and practicability of this research.

  15. An Alternative to the Conventional Tri-Axial Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A new test for measurement of the mechanical properties of granular powders is proposed, consisting of upsetting the powder inside a metal tube. The radial pressure is found by correlating measurements of radial bulging of the tube with numerical analysis of tube bulging. Estimates of the error...... on the determination of the radial pressure are given along with an evaluation of the coefficient of friction for a specific case. New data for the yield surfaces for BSCCO are given and found to be in good agreement with previously published data....

  16. An Alternative to the Conventional Tri-Axial Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A new test for measurement of the mechanical properties of granular powders is proposed, consisting of upsetting the powder inside a metal tube. The radial pressure is found by correlating measurements of radial bulging of the tube with numerical analysis of tube bulging. Estimates of the error o...

  17. Elastic analysis of thermal gradient bowing in rod-type fuel elements subjected to axial thrust (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    Thermal radient bowing of rod type fuel elements can be analyzed in terms of the deflections of a precurved beam. The fundamental aspects of an analysis of axially compressed multispan beams are given. Elasticity of supports in both axial and transverse directions is considered; the technique is applicable to problems in which the axial thrust depends on the transverse deflection as well as problems with prescribed axial thrust. The formulas presented constitute the theory for a computer program of broad applicability, not only in the analysis of fuel rod bowing, but also to almost any multispan beam, particularly when the effects of axial loads cannot be neglected. 17 references. (NSA 22: 22866)

  18. Real Topological Cyclic Homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Amalie

    The main topics of this thesis are real topological Hochschild homology and real topological cyclic homology. If a ring or a ring spectrum is equipped with an anti-involution, then it induces additional structure on the topological Hochschild homology spectrum. The group O(2) acts on the spectrum......, where O(2) is the semi-direct product of T, the multiplicative group of complex number of modulus 1, by the group G=Gal(C/R). We refer to this O(2)-spectrum as the real topological Hochschild homology. This generalization leads to a G-equivariant version of topological cyclic homology, which we call...... real topological cyclic homology. The first part of the thesis computes the G-equivariant homotopy type of the real topological cyclic homology of spherical group rings at a prime p with anti-involution induced by taking inverses in the group. The second part of the thesis investigates the derived G...

  19. Cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology via cyclic modules I

    CERN Document Server

    Rangipour, Bahram

    2007-01-01

    This is the first one in a series of two papers on the continuation of our study in cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology. In this note we construct cyclic cocycles of algebras out of Hopf cyclic cocycles of algebras and coalgebras. In the next paper we consider producing Hopf cyclic cocycle from "equivariant" Hopf cyclic cocycles. Our approach in both situations is based on (co)cyclic modules and bi(co)cyclic modules together with Eilenberg-Zilber theorem which is different from the old definition of cup products defined via traces and cotraces on DG algebras and coalgebras.

  20. Cyclic polymers from alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christopher D.; Li, Hong; Abboud, Khalil A.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Veige, Adam S.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic polymers have dramatically different physical properties compared with those of their equivalent linear counterparts. However, the exploration of cyclic polymers is limited because of the inherent challenges associated with their synthesis. Conjugated linear polyacetylenes are important materials for electrical conductivity, paramagnetic susceptibility, optical nonlinearity, photoconductivity, gas permeability, liquid crystallinity and chain helicity. However, their cyclic analogues are unknown, and therefore the ability to examine how a cyclic topology influences their properties is currently not possible. We have solved this challenge and now report a tungsten catalyst supported by a tetraanionic pincer ligand that can rapidly polymerize alkynes to form conjugated macrocycles in high yield. The catalyst works by tethering the ends of the polymer to the metal centre to overcome the inherent entropic penalty of cyclization. Gel-permeation chromatography, dynamic and static light scattering, viscometry and chemical tests are all consistent with theoretical predictions and provide unambiguous confirmation of a cyclic topology. Access to a wide variety of new cyclic polymers is now possible by simply choosing the appropriate alkyne monomer.

  1. Effect of weld reinforcement on axial plastic buckling of welded steel cylindrical shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu-lin YU; Zhi-ping CHEN; Ji WANG; Shun-juan YAN; Li-cai YANG

    2012-01-01

    The effect of weld reinforcement on axial plastic buckling of welded steel cylindrical shells is investigated through experimental and numerical buckling analysis using six welded steel cylindrical shell specimens.The relationship between the amplitude of weld reinforcement and the axial plastic buckling critical load is explored.The effect of the material yield strength and the number of circumferential welds on the axial plastic buckling is studied.Results show that circumferential weld reinforcement represents a severe imperfect form of axially compressed welded steel cylindrical shells and the axial plastic buckling critical load decreases with the increment of the mean amplitude of circumferential weld reinforcement.The material yield strength and the number of circumferential welds are found to have no significant effect on buckling waveforms; however,the axial plastic buckling critical load can be decreased to some extent with the increase of the number of circumferential welds.

  2. Simulated performance results of the OMV video compression telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Frank; Parker, Glenn; Thomas, Lee Ann

    The control system of NASA's Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will employ range/range-rate radar, a forward command link, and a compressed video return link. The video data is compressed by sampling every sixth frame of data; a rate of 5 frames/sec is adequate for the OMV docking speeds. Further axial compression is obtained, albeit at the expense of spatial resolution, by averaging adjacent pixels. The remaining compression is achieved on the basis of differential pulse-code modulation and Huffman run-length encoding. A concatenated error-correction coding system is used to protect the compressed video data stream from channel errors.

  3. Experimental Study on the Compressive Behavior of CFRP/ECCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wen-bin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, nine square concrete columns, including six CFRP/ECCs and three plain concrete control specimen columns, were prepared. The CFRP tubes with fibers oriented in the hoop direction were manufactured with 10, 20, or 40 mm rounded corner radii at vertical edges. A 100 mm overlap in the direction of fibers was provided to ensure a proper bond. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted to investigate the compressive behaviors including the axial strength, stress-strain response, and ductility. It is evident that the CFRP tube confinement can improve the compressive behavior of concrete core, in terms of axial compressive strength or axial deformability. Based on the experimental results and some existing test database attained by other researchers, a design-oriented model is developed. The predictions of the model for CFRP/ECCs show good agreement with test results.

  4. 复材布约束有预压荷载的型钢混凝土矩形短柱轴压性能试验研究∗%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE AXIAL COMPRESSIVE PERFORMANCE OF PRELOADED STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETE RECTANGULAR SHORT COLUMNS CONFINED BY CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER LAMINATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 殷强; 王健; 宗文; 洪丽

    2016-01-01

    为研究碳纤维布约束型钢混凝土矩形短柱的轴心受压破坏机理和受力性能,对15个试件进行了轴向静力加载试验,考虑了碳纤维布层数和预压荷载水平两个参数。试验结果表明:所有的约束型钢混凝土柱均以碳纤维布断裂为破坏标志,破坏前有明显的预兆。施加在约束柱上的峰值荷载随碳纤维布层数增加而提高,包裹2层布提高了58�36%,3层提高了64�51%;预压荷载的存在会减弱碳纤维布对短柱的约束效果,且随着预压荷载水平的提高,布的有效拉应变不断减小,柱承载能力不断降低。最后建立了碳纤维布有效拉应变与预压荷载水平的关系式,提出了构件轴压承载能力计算式,计算结果与试验结果吻合良好。%In order to study the axial compressive behavior of preloaded steel reinforced concrete ( SRC) rectangular short columns confined by carbon fiber reinforced polymer ( CFRP) laminates, a total of 15 specimens were designed to conduct the experiment that considered two variables including preload level and CFRP layers. The experimental results indicated that all of the confined columns failed directly in the fracture of CFRP laminates, in which there was an obvious sign before the ultimate state. Compared with the unconfined SRC column, the peak load of the confined column with 2 layers of CFRP increased by 58�36%, while by 64�51% with 3 layers. In addition, the preload decreased the effectiveness of confinement, both of the working strain of CFRP and the peak load of columns decreased with the increasing of the preload level. The relationship between the effective circumferential strain of CFRP and preload level was proposed. The theoretical formula of the axial bearing capacities of preloaded SRC rectangular columns confined by CFRP was proposed, and the calculation results agreed well with the test results.

  5. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems...... are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through...

  6. Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.

  7. Build Axial Gradient Field by Using Axial Magnetized Permanent Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Axial magnetic field produced by an axial magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent rings, if they are magnetized in the same directions, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced. If they are magnetized in opposite direction,an axial gradient magnetic field can be generated, with the field range changing from -B0 to B0. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field was fabricated, the measured results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. For wider usage,it is desirable for the field gradient to be changed. Some methods to produce the variable gradient field are presented. These kinds of axial gradient magnetic field can also be used as a beam focusing for linear accelerator if the periodic field can be produced along the beam trajectory. The axial magnetic field is something like a solenoid, large stray field will leak to the outside environment if no method is taken to control them. In this paper, one method is illustrated to shield off the outside leakage field.

  8. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  9. The cyclic reduction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Dario; Meini, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    Cyclic reduction is an algorithm invented by G.H. Golub and R. W. Hockney in the mid 1960s for solving linear systems related to the finite differences discretization of the Poisson equation over a rectangle. Among the algorithms of Gene Golub, it is one of the most versatile and powerful ever created. Recently, it has been applied to solve different problems from different applicative areas. In this paper we survey the main features of cyclic reduction, relate it to properties of analytic functions, recall its extension to solving more general finite and infinite linear systems, and different kinds of nonlinear matrix equations, including algebraic Riccati equations, with applications to Markov chains, queueing models and transport theory. Some new results concerning the convergence properties of cyclic reduction and its applicability are proved under very weak assumptions. New formulae for overcoming breakdown are provided.

  10. DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING TEST AND CALCULATION METHOD OF LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF COLD-FORMED THIN-WALLED STEEL LIPPED CHANNEL COLUMNS WITH CIRCLE HOLES IN WEB UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION%腹板开圆孔冷弯卷边槽钢轴压构件畸变屈曲承载力试验及计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚行友; 郭彦利

    2016-01-01

    对26根屈服强度为235 MPa的腹板开孔和未开孔冷弯薄壁型钢截面轴压构件进行畸变屈曲承载力试验研究,分析构件的屈曲模式和极限承载力.将我国及北美相关规范计算的构件承载力以及非线性有限元数值模拟结果与试验结果进行分析比较,并对腹板开孔冷弯薄壁型钢截面轴压构件的承载力合理计算模式进行研究.结果表明:对于中等长度腹板开孔冷弯薄壁型钢截面轴压构件主要出现局部、畸变和整体屈曲的相关作用;腹板开孔对构件畸变屈曲稳定承载力有一定的降低作用;采用折减构件有效截面面积的修正方法可计算开孔构件的畸变屈曲稳定承载力;非线性有限元方法可用于腹板开孔冷弯薄壁型钢构件的屈曲模式和极限承载力的分析.%In order to research the distortional buckling mode and load-carrying capacity of cold-formed thin-walled steel members with holes, compression tests were conducted on 26 intermediate length columns with and without web holes.For each specimen, a shell finite element eigenbuckling analysis and nonlinear analysis were also conducted such that the influence of the hole on local, distortional, and global elastic buckling responses could also be got.The comparison of ultimate strength between test results and calculated results using relevant codes was made.The calculated method for cold-formed thin-walled steel columns with web holes was proposed.The results showed that the interaction of local buckling, distortional buckling, and overall buckling usually would occur in the intermediate length member under axial compression, and the web holes had a little influence on the elastic buckling strength and the distortional buckling ultimate strength of columns, the ultimate strength of the members with holes in web could be predicted using a reduced effective area, and the nonlinear finite element method could be used to analyse the buckling mode and

  11. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  12. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  13. Compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex...

  14. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  15. Method for preventing jamming conditions in a compression device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2002-06-18

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  16. Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, T.A.

    1987-03-31

    A method is described for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies, each body presenting an annular abutment surface. The respective bodies are arranged so that their respective annular abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another, defining a space therebetween, wherein a deformable gasket is disposed within the space. The method comprises: providing one of the bodies with an annular projection; providing the other body with threads for receiving an annular locknut which can be tightened to bear against the annular projection of the one body; applying an external axial forced to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies; immobilizing the bodies relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies by hand-tightening an annular locknut via the threads of the other body until the locknut abuts the annular projection of the one body, substantially preventing relative axial movement between the bodies when the external axial force is withdrawn; and withdrawing the external axial force applied to the bodies, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal.

  17. Numerical investigation on the axial interaction between buried district heating pipes and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Ingo; Achmus, Martin

    2008-09-15

    Pipe-soil interaction has to be taken into account in the design of district heating (DH) pipes. The investigation presented here focuses on the effect of the reduction of axial friction forces due to cyclic axial displacements and the corresponding stress redistribution. Calculations with a three-dimensional finite element model were carried out in which a standard situation of a buried DH pipe was studied. A significant reduction of friction with cyclic axial displacements was obtained, although no temperature loading and thus no radial expansion of the pipe was considered. The reason for the friction force decrease is a densification of the soil beneath the pipe, which leads to a decrease of the normal stress acting between pipe and soil.

  18. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digestive diseases specialist (gastroenterologist). If you or your child is in the middle of a severe vomiting episode, the doctor may ... system disorders There's no cure for cyclic vomiting syndrome, so treatment ... may be prescribed: Anti-nausea drugs Sedatives Medications ...

  19. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  20. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  1. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  2. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  3. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  4. Dissipative axial inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Alessio; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term phi/fγ F ~F, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρR, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff fγ, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if fγ is smaller than the field excursion phi0 by about a factor of at least Script O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4-5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with fγ. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρR rather than dot phi2/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/fγ to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/fG to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed phi0~ fG.

  5. Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental tool for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Whereas cyclic voltammetry is widely used within the field of electrochemistry, a way to quantitatively and directly relate the cyclic voltammogram to ab initio calculations has been lacking, even f...

  6. Cutaneous sensory impairment in rheumatoid atlanto-axial subluxation assessed quantitatively by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolanen, G

    1987-01-01

    Thresholds for cutaneous perception and pain in 27 rheumatoid patients were investigated by electrical stimulation. Patients with atlanto-axial subluxation showed impaired sensibility over the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Patients with vertical atlanto-axial subluxation showed in addition to a pronounced decrease in the sensibility over the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, also sensory disturbances over cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels. The mandibular division was never affected. The trigeminal sensibility seems to be affected early in the rheumatoid atlanto-axial subluxation and progresses with the severity of the subluxation, possibly due to bony compression of the trigeminal spinal tract at C 1 level.

  7. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  8. The Cyclic Model Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, P J; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The Cyclic Model attempts to resolve the homogeneity, isotropy, and flatness problems and generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations during a period of slow contraction that precedes a bounce to an expanding phase. Here we describe at a conceptual level the recent developments that have greatly simplified our understanding of the contraction phase and the Cyclic Model overall. The answers to many past questions and criticisms are now understood. In particular, we show that the contraction phase has equation of state w>1 and that contraction with w>1 has a surprisingly similar properties to inflation with w < -1/3. At one stroke, this shows how the model is different from inflation and why it may work just as well as inflation in resolving cosmological problems.

  9. Diagnosis of Cyclic Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study at Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, and Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, designed primarily to compare cost-effectiveness of three methods of management of cyclic vomiting cases, one group of patients received an extensive diagnostic evaluation, a second was treated with empiric antimigraine drugs for 2 months, and a third an upper GI series with small-bowel follow-through (UGI-SBFT plus empiric therapy.

  10. Geometry of Cyclic Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    analysis of the equilibria based on linearization of the shape dynamics. In [10], the authors extend their analysis to incorporate feedback control...differentiable curves in R2, deriving our dynamics from the natural Frenet frame equations (see, e.g., [5] for details). (A three- dimensional analysis of...cyclic pursuit formulated in terms of the natural Frenet frame equations is a topic of ongoing work.) As is depicted in figure 1, we let ri denote the

  11. 高强度钢材工字形截面轴心受压短柱局部稳定试验研究%Experimental study on local buckling of high strength steel I-section stub columns under axial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施刚; 林错错; 王元清; 石永久

    2012-01-01

    针对高强度钢材焊接工字形截面轴心受压短柱的局部稳定性能,对9个Q460C工字形截面短柱进行轴心受压试验,分析试件局部屈曲应力、极限应力随板件宽厚比的变化规律,研究翼缘、腹板嵌固系数的取值。此外,将屈曲应力、极限应力试验结果与我国、美国和欧洲钢结构设计规范的相应设计计算结果进行对比分析,研究相应规范对于高强度钢材的适用性。结果表明:翼缘的嵌固系数可取为定值1.0,腹板的嵌固系数不宜取为定值;GB 50017—2003《钢结构设计规范》中关于高强度钢材工字形截面短柱的局部屈曲应力的计算结果是不合理的;AISC 360-05规范的极限应力计算值误差较大,但偏于保守;Eurocode 3规范的极限应力计算值与试验值较为接近,但大部分计算结果较试验值偏大。为此,建议提出新的公式计算工字形截面短柱的局部屈曲应力,而对Eurocode 3规范关于工字形截面短柱的极限应力计算公式进行修正,使其能适用于Q460C高强度钢材。%Aiming at the local buckling behavior of high strength steel welded I-section columns,9 axial compression tests of Q460C I-section stub columns were conducted.Based on the test results,the relation of buckling stress and ultimate stress of specimens with different width-to-thickness ratios were studied,and the clamping coefficients of flange and web were proposed.Besides,test results were compared with the corresponding design methods in Chinese,American and European steel structures design codes,to confirm whether the design methods can be used to calculate buckling stress and ultimate stress of Q460C I-section stub columns.The research work shows that the clamping coefficient of the flange is a fixed value 1.0,but web isn't a fixed value.The buckling stress of I-section stub columns achieved by the design method in the Chinese code is unreasonable.The ultimate stress achieved by the design method

  12. Overall buckling behavior of Q460 high strength steel welded box section columns under axial compression%Q460高强钢焊接箱形截面轴压构件整体稳定性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班慧勇; 施刚; 石永久; 王元清

    2013-01-01

    为研究高强度钢材轴心受压钢柱的整体稳定性能,对5个国产Q460钢材焊接箱形截面柱进行了轴心受压试验研究.试验对试件的几何初弯曲、荷载初偏心以及截面的纵向残余应力分布均进行了测量.基于试验结果,分析了该类钢柱的失稳破坏形态和整体稳定承载力,建立了有限元分析模型并对试验结果进行模拟计算.研究结果表明:试件破坏模态均为整体弯曲失稳形态,大部分试件稳定承载力高于规范设计值;有限元分析模型能够准确地考虑几何初始缺陷和残余应力的影响,计算结果与试验结果吻合良好;通过与国内外钢结构设计规范的对比,提出了国产Q460高强钢焊接箱形截面轴压构件整体稳定设计的建议方法,即可以统一采用我国或欧洲规范的b类曲线进行设计,而不需要按板件宽厚比大小进行分类.%In order to investigate the overall buckling behavior of Q460 high strength steel columns under axial compression, 5 full-scale specimens were tested and the initial bending, loading eccentricity and sectional residual stress were also measured. Based on the experimental results, the failure mode and buckling capacity were clarified, and a finite element model was established to simulate the overall buckling behavior of such columns. It is found that the finite element model can well describe the effects caused by both initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses, and the calculated results through finite element analysis have a good agreement with experimental results. The validated model was further implemented for a large number of parametric analysis, and the calculated results were compared with different steel structure design codes. The design method for the overall buckling behavior of Q460 high strength steel welded box section columns was suggested, i. e. the column curve b in both GB 50017-2003 and Eurocode 3 can be employed to design such structural

  13. 冷弯薄壁型钢拼合箱形截面立柱轴压性能试验研究%Experimental Analysis on Behavior of Cold-formed Steel Box Built-up Section Columns under Axial Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂少锋; 周天华; 袁涛涛; 高婷婷; 吴函恒

    2012-01-01

    17 specimens of cold-formed steel box built-up setion columns were tested under axial compression load. The section forms were divided into two categories: A and B. Load-displacement curves and failure characteristics of specimens were obtained. The test results are compared with the caculated results according to "effective ratio of width to thickness" in code of "Technical code of cold-formed thin-wall steel structures" (GB 50018 - 2002), "effective section method" and "direct strength method" in AISI specification. The results show that: the failure characteristics of LC and MC series columns are overall flexural buckling, while SC series columns are local buckling and ends confined damage. The ultimate bearing capacity of B categories section columns is three times as great as that of A categories section columns, so it has the effect of "1 + 1>2". The results calculated according to "GB50018" and AISI specification are much conservative for LC series columns of A categories section, while in agreement with test results for MC and SC series columns. For B categories section columns, the calculated results are non-conservative for LC and MC series columns, while conservative for SC series columns.%对17根冷弯薄壁型钢拼合箱形截面立柱的轴压性能进行试验研究,截面分为A、B两类,得到了各试件荷载-位移曲线和破坏特征,并将试验结果与《冷弯薄壁型钢结构技术规范》(GB 50018-2002)“有效宽厚比法”和美国相关规范中“直接强度法”、“有效截面法”计算结果进行对比分析.结果表明:LC和MC系列立柱的破坏模式为整体弯曲屈曲,SC系列立柱则为局部屈曲和端部承压破坏;B类试件的最大承载力大于A类截面试件的最大承载力的2倍,即有“1+1>2”的拼合效应;对于A类截面LC系列立柱,GB 50018和AISI规范公式计算结果过于保守,而对于MC和SC系列试件,公式计算结果与试验结果比较吻合;对于B类截面LC和MC

  14. RESEARCH ON THE STATIC STRENGTH OF SQUARE TUBULAR T-JOINTS REINFORCED WITH COLLAR PLATE UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION%环口板加固T型方钢管节点在轴压作用下极限承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文杰; 邵永波; 夏辉

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental research work on the square tubular T-joints reinforced with collar plate is carried out incluing theoretical analysis, experimental tests and finite element simulation. Firstly, the equation for predicting the static strength of a collar plate reinforced square tubular T-joint under axial compression loading is deduced based on the yield line model. Thereafter, two collar plate reinforced square tubular T-joints and two corresponding unreinforced T-joints are analyzed through experimental tests and finite element simulation, it is found that the collar plate can improve the bearing capacity of the T-joints significantly. Additionally, a total of 18 square tubular T-joints are analyzed by using the finite element method. The results show that the static strength of collar plate reinforced T-joints, compared with the corresponding unreinforced T-joints, has a significant improvement, and the equation for predicting the static strength of a collar plate reinforced square tubular T-joint is reasonably accurate when the collar plate has enough stiffness and the failure mode is mainly local buckling.%从理论分析、试验测试及有限元模拟三个方面对环口板加固T型方钢管节点的极限承载力进行了初步的研究工作。首先基于塑性铰线模型推导出了环口板加固T型方钢管节的极限承载力计算公式。然后对2个环口板加吲T璎方钢管节点试件及2个对应的未加固节点试件进行了在轴压作用下的承载力试验测试,结果表明环口板可以明显提高管节点的极限承载力。通过有限元法对试验试件进行了数值模拟,其结果与试验结果吻合较好,冈而使用有限几法对9个不同节点尺寸的加固模型及对应的9个未加固节点模型进行了模拟,结果发现加固后节点的承载力均大于未加崮节点的承载力。环口板加固T型方钢管节点的极限承载力计算公式在环口板仃足够刚度,节点破坏模

  15. Post-buckling and mode jumping analysis of clamped supported composite laminates with antisymmetric angle-ply under bi-axial compressive load%双轴受压反对称角铺设复合材料层合板在固支边界下的后屈曲和模态跃迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟轶峰; 张亮亮

    2011-01-01

    The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) were deduced from the asymptotically correct geometrically nonlinear theory to research the buckling and mode jumping behavior of clamped supported composite laminates with antisymmetric angle- ply under bi - axial compressive load. The two coupled fourth - order partial differential equations (PDEs), namely, the compatibility equation and the dynamic governing equation were transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Then a relatively simpler solution method was developed. The generalized Galerkin method was used to solve boundary value problems corresponding to antisymmetric angle-ply composite plates. The post-buckling patterns with different complexity before and after mode jumping were analyzed. An numerical example of 4- layers clamped composite laminates shows that the numerical results in the primary post-buckling region from the present method agree well with the finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA may lose its convergence when solution comes close the secondary point, while the analytic method can explore deeply into the post-buckling realm and accuratty capture the mode jumping phenomenon. Only the pure symmetric modes may be used to qualitatively predict the primary post- buckling branch, the secondary bifurcation load and the remote jumped branch of the composite laminates with antisymmetric angle-ply.%为有效分析双轴受压反对称角铺设复合材料层压板在固支边界下的后屈曲性能,由渐近修正几何非线性理论推导其双耦合四阶偏微分方程(即应变协调方程和稳定性控制方程),通过双Fourier级数将耦合非线性控制偏微分方程转换为系列非线性常微分方程,从而获得相对简单的求解方法。使用广义Galerkin方法求解与角交铺设复合层合板相关的边界值问题,研究了模态跃迁前后不同复杂程度的后屈曲模式。对四层固支边界

  16. Cyclic deformation behaviour of naturalK0-consolidated soft clay under different stress paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 蔡袁强; 谷川; 王军; 郭林

    2015-01-01

    Characteristic of cyclic loading due to passing wheels is associated with one-way loading without stress reversal, which includes a simultaneous cyclic variation of vertical normal stress and horizontal normal stress lasting for a long period of time and generally takes place in partially-drained conditions. Therefore, it is of great practical relevance to study the deformation behaviour according to the characteristic of traffic loading. In this work, a series of one-way stress-controlled cyclic triaxial tests with a simultaneous variation of the vertical and horizontal stress components during cyclic loading were conducted to investigate the deformation behaviour of naturalK0-consolidated soft clay in partially-drained conditions. Test results demonstrate that not only the deviator part of the stress rules accumulation but also the volumetric part significantly contributes. While the deviator part of the stress amplitude is held constant, the increase amplitude of cyclic confining pressure will promote the development of both permanent volumetric strain and axial strain significantly. Furthermore, the effects of cyclic confining pressure on the deformation of naturalK0-consolidated soft clay was quantified. Finally, an empirical formula for permanent axial strain considering the effects of cyclic confining pressure was proposed which can be used for feasibility studies or for the preliminary design of foundations on K0-consolidated soft clay subjected to traffic loading.

  17. Process and apparatus for recovery from rotating stall in axial flow fans and compressors

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Active recovery from a rotating stall operating condition in an axial flow compression system is accomplished by altering the temperature and/or density of the working fluid flowing in the inlet of the compression system once rotating stall is detected. A burner is used to increase the compressor inlet flow temperature and concomitantly reduce the inlet flow density. Alternatively, a low density gas such as helium is injected into the compressor inlet. The ingestion of high temperature gases ...

  18. CYCLIC HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF POLYCRYSTALS WITH PENETRABLE GRAIN BOUNDARIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE DISLOCATION DYNAMICS SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuantao Hou; Zhenhuan Li; Minsheng Huang; Chaojun Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) technology by Giessen and Needleman (1995), which has been extended by integrating a dislocation-grain boundary interaction model, is used to computationally analyze the micro-cyclic plastic response of polycrystals containing micron-sized grains, with special attentions to significant influence of dislocationpenetrable grain boundaries (GBs) on the micro-plastic cyclic responses of polycrystals and underlying dislocation mechanism. Toward this end, a typical polycrystalline rectangular specimen under simple tension-compression loading is considered. Results show that, with the increase of cycle accumulative strain, continual dislocation accumulation and enhanced dislocation-dislocation interactions induce the cyclic hardening behavior; however, when a dynamic balance among dislocation nucleation, penetration through GB and dislocation annihilation is approximately established, cyclic stress gradually tends to saturate. In addition, other factors, including the grain size, cyclic strain amplitude and its history, also have considerable influences on the cyclic hardening and saturation.

  19. Axial stress localization facilitates pressure propagation in gelled pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Jens; Skjæraasen, Olaf; Oschmann, Hans-Jörg; Paso, Kristofer; Sjöblom, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Paraffin wax-oil gels are unique rheological fluids which undergo shear degradation starting at a deformation (shear strain level) of approximately 1%. Flow commencement in pipelines filled with wax-oil gels is a complex hydrodynamic process involving propagation of acoustic, diffusive, and rheological degradation pressure wave fronts. Dynamic simulation informed by qualified rheological relations provides useful insight into the physical nature of these flow processes. Eulerian simulations are presented which emulate known physical phenomena and essential characteristics of wax-gel flow dynamics. A constitutive rheological equation set accounts for deformation-driven reduction in yield stress and viscosity terms. No explicit time-dependent rheological parameters are utilized in the equations. Rheological yielding alters the nature of the dominant pressure wave from inherently diffusive towards self-sharpening. Axial stress localization effectively sequentializes the gel breakage process, quantified by reduced length of the pressure wave-front zone. Ultimately, axial stress localization allows flow in longer pipe segments, albeit with a concomitant time delay. Viscous behavior and yielding degradation behavior are shown to account for upward and downward concavity in transient axial pressure profiles, respectively. Overall, a unique synergy between gel compressibility and gel degradation is revealed. Deformation-coupled interaction between compressibility and degradation allows pressure propagation and subsequent sustained flow through a gel material which is otherwise immobile in the incompressible case.

  20. Study on conversion relationships of compressive strength indexes for recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-gang; Yang, Jian-hui; Kuang, Xiao-mei

    2017-01-01

    In order to study cube compressive strength and axial compressive strength of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete(RLAC), and conversion relationship between the two, with the replacement rate of recycled lightweight coarse aggregate as change parameters, 15 standard cube test specimens and 15 standard prism test specimens were produced to carry out the test. Then compressive strength of test specimens were measured, and the law of different replacement rate of recycled lightweight coarse aggregate influencing compressive strength of RLAC was analyzed, as the method of statistical regression adopted, the conversion relationships between of cube compressive strength and axial compressive strength of RLAC was obtained. It is shown that compressive strength of RLAC are lower than compressive strength of ordinary concrete; and that compressive strength of RLAC gradually decreases as replacement rate of recycled lightweight coarse aggregate increases; as well as, the conversion relationship between axial compressive strength and cube compressive strength of RLAC is different from ordinary concrete; based on the experimental data, conversion relationship formula between compressive strength indexes of RLAC was established. It is suggested that the replacement rate of recycled lightweight aggregate should be controlled within 25%.

  1. Cervical Spine Functional Anatomy and the Biomechanics of Injury Due to Compressive Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Erik E; Floyd, R. T; Cendoma, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a foundation of knowledge concerning the functional anatomy, kinematic response, and mechanisms involved in axial-compression cervical spine injury as they relate to sport injury.

  2. Relativistic RPA in axial symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, D Pena; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034317

    2009-01-01

    Covariant density functional theory, in the framework of self-consistent Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) and Relativistic Random Phase approximation (RPA), is for the first time applied to axially deformed nuclei. The fully self-consistent RMF+RRPA equations are posed for the case of axial symmetry and non-linear energy functionals, and solved with the help of a new parallel code. Formal properties of RPA theory are studied and special care is taken in order to validate the proper decoupling of spurious modes and their influence on the physical response. Sample applications to the magnetic and electric dipole transitions in $^{20}$Ne are presented and analyzed.

  3. Axial Current and Noether Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Mahato, Prasanta

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, a Lagrangian density has been proposed by the author where only the local symmetries of the Lorentz subgroup of (A)ds group is retained. This formalism has been found to produce some results encompassing that of standard Einstein-Hilbert formalism. In the present article, the conserved axial vector matter currents, constructed in some earlier paper, have been found to be a result of Noether's theorem. PACS: 04.20.Fy, 04.20.Cv, 11.40.-q Keywords: Torsion, Axial Current, Noether's Theorem

  4. Axial-Plane Biomechanical Evaluation of 2 Suspensory Cortical Button Fixation Constructs for Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhl, Steven; Wolfson, Theodore S.; Kummer, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although numerous suture-button fixation techniques for acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction have been validated with biomechanical testing in the superior direction, clinical reports continue to demonstrate high rates of construct slippage and breakage. Purpose: To compare the stability of a novel closed-loop double Endobutton construct with a commercially available cortical button system in both the axial and superior directions. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Six matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric upper extremities were anatomically dissected and prepared to simulate a complete AC joint dislocation. One side of each pair was reconstructed with the double Endobutton (DE) construct and other side with the dog bone button (DB) construct. The specimens were then tested using a materials testing machine, determining initial superior and axial displacements with a preload, and then cyclically loaded in the axial direction with 70 N for 5000 cycles. Displacement was again measured with the same preloads at fixed cycle intervals. The specimens were then loaded superiorly to failure. Results: At 5000 cycles, the mean axial displacement was 1.7 mm for the DB group and 1.2 mm for the DE group (P = .19), and the mean superior displacement was 1.1 mm for the DB group and 0.7 mm for the DE group (P = .32). Load at failure was similar (558 N for DE, 552 N for DB; P = .96). There was no statistically significant difference in the modes of failure. Conclusion: Biomechanical testing of both constructs showed similar fixation stability after cyclical axial loading and similar loads to failure. Clinical Relevance: The strength of both constructs after cyclical loading in the axial plane and load-to-failure testing in the superior plane validate their continued clinical use for achieving stability in AC joint reconstruction procedures. PMID:28210644

  5. Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/rho >> 1 (where P is the average pressure and rho the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, thei...

  6. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: jlehners@princeton.edu

    2008-09-15

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/({rho}) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and {rho} the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures.

  7. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  8. Axially Symmetric, Spatially Homothetic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M; Wagh, Sanjay M.; Govinder, Keshlan S.

    2002-01-01

    We show that the existence of appropriate spatial homothetic Killing vectors is directly related to the separability of the metric functions for axially symmetric spacetimes. The density profile for such spacetimes is (spatially) arbitrary and admits any equation of state for the matter in the spacetime. When used for studying axisymmetric gravitational collapse, such solutions do not result in a locally naked singularity.

  9. Thermophoresis of Axially Symmetric Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Sweden Abstract. Thermophoresis of axially symmetric bodies is investigated to first order in the Knudsen-mimber, Kn. The study is made in the limit...derived. Asymptotic solutions are studied. INTRODUCTION Thermophoresis as a phenomenon has been known for a long time, and several authors have approached

  10. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

    2002-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  11. Comparison of design methods for axially loaded buckets in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study of the present knowledge about the bucket resistance for axial loading was performed considering analytical and numerical design methods as well as physical models. A case study was performed with two bucket foundations of equal diameter, but different skirt lengths installed in dense sand....... Itwas found that bearing capacity from the surcharge increases approximately twice if the foundation skirt is two times longer. However, the predicted compressive soil capacity can differ by 3.6 times depending on the chosen bearing capacity parameters. Few methods are available for the estimation...

  12. Compressive Sensing Over Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi, Soheil; Effros, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. Our results provide an explicit trade-off between the rate and the decoding complexity. The key difference of compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic approaches is at their decoding side. Although optimal decoders to recover the original signal, compressed by source coding have high complexity, the compressive sensing decoder is a linear or convex optimization. First, we investigate applications of compressive sensing on distributed compression of correlated sources. Here, by using compressive sensing, we propose a compression scheme for a family of correlated sources with a modularized decoder, providing a trade-off between the compression rate and the decoding complexity. We call this scheme Sparse Distributed Compression. We use this compression scheme for a general multi...

  13. Electromechanical behavior of carbon nanotube fibers under transverse compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Weibang; Sockalingam, Subramani; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Gillespie, John W.; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Although in most cases carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers experience axial stretch or compression, they can also be subjected to transverse compression, for example, under impact loading. In this paper, the electromechanical properties of both aerogel-spun and dry-spun CNT fibers under quasi-static transverse compressive loading are investigated for the first time. Transverse compression shows a nonlinear and inelastic behavior. The compressive modulus/strength of the aerogel-spun and dry-spun CNT fibers are about 0.21 GPa/0.796 GPa and 1.73 GPa/1.036 GPa, respectively. The electrical resistance goes through three stages during transverse compressive loading/unloading: initially it decreases, then it increases during the loading, and finally it decreases upon unloading. This study extends our knowledge of the overall properties of CNT fibers, and will be helpful in promoting their engineering applications.

  14. Fragmentations of protonated cyclic-glycylglycine and cyclic-alanylalanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shek, P. Y. I.; Lau, J. K. C.; Zhao, J. F.; Grzetic, J.; Verkerk, U. H.; Oomens, J.; Hopkinson, A. C.; Siu, K. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation has been used to study the fragmentations of two protonated diketopiperazines, protonated cyclic-glycylglycine and cyclic-alanylalanine. Protonated cyclo-AA lost CO and (CO + NH3) at low collision energies, channels attributed to dissociation of the O-protonated

  15. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  16. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  17. Optimization of axial blowers. Optimierung von Axial-Ventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, W.

    1992-08-01

    For the optimum possible design of axial blowers, trials are evaluated in the article, which are based on the grid profile examined by N. Scholz. The computation for the pressure number and the primary degree of efficiency are shown as well as the evaluation of the effect of the Reynolds and mach number on the degree of efficiency and determination of the secondary losses. In a final example, the dimensions of a blower are computed from the data determined during the trials. (orig.).

  18. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  19. Cyclic cohomology of Hopf algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2001-01-01

    We give a construction of ConnesMoscovicis cyclic cohomology for any Hopf algebra equipped with a character Furthermore we introduce a noncommutative Weil complex which connects the work of Gelfand and Smirnov with cyclic cohomology We show how the Weil complex arises naturally when looking at Hopf

  20. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  1. Three-Dimensional Models for Analyzing the Cyclic Variations in a Lean Burn CNG Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-xiu; YU Yu-song; LIU Jian-ying

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional models, consisting of the flame kernel formation model, flame kernel development model and natural gas single step reaction model, are used to analyze the contribution of cyclic equivalence ratio variations to cyclic variations in the compressed natural gas (CNG) lean burn spark ignition engine. Computational results including the contributions of equivalence ratio cyclic variations to each combustion stage and effects of engine speed to the extent of combustion variations are discussed. It is concluded that the equivalence ratio variations affect mostly the main stage of combustion and hardly influence initial kernel development stage.

  2. [Axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Dan; Kauppi, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Current classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis do not allow diagnosis before radiographic changes are visible in sacroiliacal joints. The the new axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) criteria include axial SpA without radiographic changes as well as established ankylosing spondylitis, recognizing them as a continuum of the same disease. This is of major importance as the burden of early SpA is comparable to that of later stage disease. Diagnosis relies on inflammatory MRI findings which is the most significant change compared to earlier criteria. Emerging data on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blocking therapies already in early but also in established disease have given new promising alternatives for treatment of this often very cumbersome disease, that rarely responds to classic DMARDs.

  3. Axial Spondyloarthritis: An Evolving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ziadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA is the prototype of a family of inter-related yet heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical and genetic manifestations: the spondyloarthritides (SpAs. The condition mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton, and has a clear classification scheme, wider epidemiological data, and distinct therapeutic guidelines when compared with other SpAs. However, the concept of AxSpA has not been immutable over time and has evolved tremendously on many levels over the past decades. This review identifies the evolution of the AxSpA concept at two levels. First, at the level of classification, the old classifications and rationales leading to the current Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification are reviewed, and the advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Second, at the therapeutic level, current and future treatments are described and treatment strategies are discussed.

  4. Compressive damage mechanism of GFRP composites under off-axis loading: Experimental and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H.W.; Li, H.Y.; Gui, L.L.;

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies of the microscale mechanisms of damage formation and evolution in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer composites (GFRP) under axial and off-axis compressive loading are carried out. A series of compressive testing of the composites with different a...

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Hysteretic Behavior of Wide-Flange Steel Columns under High Axial Load and Lateral Drift Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Lignos, Dimitrios; Cravero, Julien; Elkady, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings from a large-scale experimental program that characterized the hysteretic behavior of typical steel wide-flange columns in steel moment-resisting frames (MRFs). The test specimens were tested in a cantilever configuration with a fixed point of inflection. The main testing parameters included various lateral and axial loading histories, the applied axial compressive load and the local slenderness of the cross-section. It is shown that (a) steel columns subject...

  6. Uni-axial compaction of a granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, L. W.; Sawicki, A.; Milne, P. C.

    1993-11-01

    S HEARING OF GRANULAR materials causes rearrangement of the granular structure which induces irreversible volume decrease and shear strain, in addition to reversible strain. The model adopted describes the reversible compression and shear by hypoelastic laws, and the irreversible compaction and shear by evolutionary laws. The latter are differential relations defining the progress of irreversible strain as an appropriate time-independent monotonie loading parameter increases, which incorporate dependence on the current state, and which prescribe a direction for the irreversible shear strain increment. The model is described by four material functions and two material constants, and has been shown to determine valid initial response to applied shear stress. We apply the model to the compaction of a granular material in uni-axial strain, which is described by two simultaneous differential equations for the axial stress and compaction with the axial strain as independent variable, together with algebraic relations for the pressure and lateral stress. The equation forms for loading-increasing axial stress—and unloading—decreasing axial stress-are distinct. Reformulation as differential equations for the pressure and the principal stress difference shows that the pressure derivative depends only on two of the material functions and one constant. The axial strain and lateral stress measured during a complete load-unload cycle on a sand determine the pressure and stress difference derivatives which are correlated directly with the model differential relations. Two material functions and one constant are determined by an optimization procedure from the complete loadunload ressure data, then the remaining two functions and constant from the stress difference data. Solution of the resulting model differential equations reproduces accurately the axial strain and lateral stress variations during the experimental loading cycle. In addition, model predictions for load

  7. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    is discussed. Possible reasons for the observed differences between the computed and observed summations of cycle fractions are rationalized in terms of the observed ever lutions of cyclic axial and shear stress ranges in the cumulative fatigue tests.

  8. Golimumab for treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis comprises two forms: nonradiographic (nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) and radiographic (better known as ankylosing spondylitis), which are often considered as two stages of one disease. Historically, all currently available TNF-α inhibitors were first investigated in ankylosing spondylitis and later on in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This year, EMA has granted golimumab approval for the treatment of active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis based on the recently published data from the GO-AHEAD study. This article summarizes recent data on efficacy and safety of golimumab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

  9. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  10. Application of size effect to compressive strength of concrete members

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin-Keun Kim; Seong-Tae Yi

    2002-08-01

    It is important to consider the effect of size when estimating the ultimate strength of a concrete member under various loading conditions. Well known as the size effect, the strength of a member tends to decrease when its size increases. Therefore, in view of recent increased interest in the size effect of concrete this research focuses on the size effect of two main classes of compressive strength of concrete: pure axial compressive strength and flexural compressive strength. First, fracture mechanics type size effect on the compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens was studied, with the diameter, and the height/diameter ratio considered as the main parameters. Theoretical and statistical analyses were conducted, and a size effect equation was proposed to predict the compressive strength specimens. The proposed equation showed good agreement with the existing test results for concrete cylinders. Second, the size, length, and depth variations of a flexural compressive member have been studied experimentally. A series of -shaped specimens subjected to axial compressive load and bending moment were tested. The shape of specimens and the test procedures used were similar to those by Hognestad and others. The test results are curve-fitted using Levenberg-Marquardt’s least squares method (LSM) to obtain parameters for the modified size effect law (MSEL) by Kim and co workers. The results of the analysis show that the effect of specimen size, length, and depth on ultimate strength is significant. Finally, more general parameters for MSEL are suggested.

  11. Cyclic $n$-gonal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, S Allen

    2010-01-01

    A cyclic $n$-gonal surface is a compact Riemann surface $X$ of genus $g\\geq 2$ admitting a cyclic group of conformal automorphisms $C$ of order $n$ such that the quotient space $X/C$ has genus 0. In this paper, we provide an overview of ongoing research into automorphism groups of cyclic $n$-gonal surfaces. Much of the paper is expository or will appear in forthcoming papers, so proofs are usually omitted. Numerous explicit examples are presented illustrating the computational methods currently being used to study these surfaces.

  12. A damage-coupled multi-axial time-dependent low cycle fatigue failure model for SS304 stainless steel at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie LIU; Qing GAO; Guozheng KANG

    2011-01-01

    Based on the time-dependent strain cyclic characteristics and fatigue behaviors of SS304 stainless steel under multi-axial cyclic loading at 700℃, and in the frameof unified visoco-plastic cyclic constitutive model and continuum damage mechanics theory, the damage-coupled multi-axial time-dependent constitutive model and fatigue failure model were proposed. In the model, the evolution equation of damage was introduced in and the time-dependent effects, e.g. holding time, loading rate, were taken into account. The model was applied to the simulation of whole-life cyclic deformation behaviors and prediction of LCF life for SS304 stainless steel in multiaxial time-dependent low cycle fatigue tests. It is shown that the simulated results agree well with experimental ones.

  13. Antiproton cloud compression in the ALPHA apparatus at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, A.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Burrows, C.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Dunlop, R.; Eriksson, S.; Evetts, N.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; K. McKenna, J. T.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sacramento, R. L.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tarlton, J.; Tharp, T. D.; Thompson, R. I.; Tooley, P.; Turner, M.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed a new mechanism for compression of a non-neutral plasma, where antiprotons embedded in an electron plasma are compressed by a rotating wall drive at a frequency close to the sum of the axial bounce and rotation frequencies. The radius of the antiproton cloud is reduced by up to a factor of 20 and the smallest radius measured is ˜ 0.2 mm. When the rotating wall drive is applied to either a pure electron or pure antiproton plasma, no compression is observed in the frequency range of interest. The frequency range over which compression is evident is compared to the sum of the antiproton bounce frequency and the system's rotation frequency. It is suggested that bounce resonant transport is a likely explanation for the compression of antiproton clouds in this regime.

  14. Antiproton cloud compression in the ALPHA apparatus at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A., E-mail: andrea.gutierrez@triumf.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Burrows, C. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [Centre for Cold Matter, Imperial College (United Kingdom); Capra, A. [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Charlton, M. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Dunlop, R. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Evetts, N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Fajans, J. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Isaac, C. A. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-11-15

    We have observed a new mechanism for compression of a non-neutral plasma, where antiprotons embedded in an electron plasma are compressed by a rotating wall drive at a frequency close to the sum of the axial bounce and rotation frequencies. The radius of the antiproton cloud is reduced by up to a factor of 20 and the smallest radius measured is ∼ 0.2 mm. When the rotating wall drive is applied to either a pure electron or pure antiproton plasma, no compression is observed in the frequency range of interest. The frequency range over which compression is evident is compared to the sum of the antiproton bounce frequency and the system’s rotation frequency. It is suggested that bounce resonant transport is a likely explanation for the compression of antiproton clouds in this regime.

  15. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  16. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piao, Yun-Song

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle...

  17. Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.

  18. Comparison of Design Methods for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines on deeper waters, a jacket sub-structure supported by axially loaded piles is thought to be the most suitable solution. The design method recommended by API and two CPT-based design methods are compared for two uniform sand profiles. The analysis show great difference...... in the predictions of bearing capacities calculated by means of the three methods for piles loaded in both tension and compression. This implies that further analysis of the bearing capacity of axially loaded piles in sand should be conducted....

  19. Analysis of the cyclic behavior and fatigue damage of extruded AA2017 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, A., E-mail: abdelghani1980@yahoo.fr [INSA/GPM, CNRS UMR 6634, BP 08 avenue de l' université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Laboratoire Génie des Matériaux, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, BP 17 Bordj El-Bahri Algiers (Algeria); Taleb, L., E-mail: lakhdar.taleb@insa-rouen.fr [INSA/GPM, CNRS UMR 6634, BP 08 avenue de l' université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Belouchrani, M.A., E-mail: nbelouch@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Génie des Matériaux, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, BP 17 Bordj El-Bahri Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-06-01

    The present work is devoted to study the anisotropic behavior of an extruded aluminum alloy under cyclic loading in axial and shear directions. In first, we have studied its elastoplastic behavior through the evolution of stress–strain loops, isotropic and kinematic hardening and we have associated this behavior with the evolution of its elastic adaptation (shakedown). In second, we have studied the behavior of the material in fatigue damage using the evolution of stiffness. Finally, microstructural investigations were performed on fractured surfaces using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to understand the evolution of fatigue damage during cyclic loading.

  20. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiger, Nora Maria Elvira; Scaroni, Carla M; Mantero, Franco

    2007-11-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a disorder in which glucocorticoid levels are alternately normal and high, the latter occurring in episodes that can last from a few days to several months. It is more common in children than in adults. Cyclic CS may be either of the two different forms of CS (ACTH-dependent or -independent CS). Clinically, it may present with one or many symptoms, depending on the duration of disease activity and the timing of the fluctuations. A serotoninergic influence, cyclic changes in central dopaminergic tone, spontaneous episodic hemorrhage in the tumor, and the action of inflammatory cytokines with antitumor properties are some of the mechanisms suggested to explain the physiopathology of this phenomenon but the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The cyclic pattern of hypercortisolism can delay the final diagnosis of CS and make it difficult to interpret the results of dynamic tests. Patients may have paradoxical responses to dexamethasone that can reflect increasing or decreasing levels of endogenous activity. Hormone assessments have to be repeated periodically when a diagnosis of CS is suspected. The cyclic pattern can also interfere with medical treatment because patients may show unexpected clinical and biochemical signs of hypocortisolism when cortisol secretion cyclically returns to normal, so an accurate follow-up is mandatory in these patients.

  1. Magnetic Compression Experiment at General Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlea, Carl; Howard, Stephen; Epp, Kelly; Zawalski, Wade; Kim, Charlson; Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic compression experiment at General Fusion was designed as a repetitive non-destructive test to study plasma physics applicable to Magnetic Target Fusion compression. A spheromak compact torus (CT) is formed with a co-axial gun into a containment region with an hour-glass shaped inner flux conserver, and an insulating outer wall. The experiment has external coils to keep the CT off the outer wall (levitation) and then rapidly compress it inwards. Experiments used a variety of levitation/compression field profiles. The optimal configuration was seen to improve levitated CT lifetime by around 50% over that with the original design field. Suppression of impurity influx to the plasma is thought to be a significant factor in the improvement, as supported by spectrometer data. Improved levitation field may reduce the amount of edge plasma and current that intersects the insulating outer wall during the formation process. Higher formation current and stuffing field, and correspondingly higher CT flux, was possible with the improved configuration. Significant field and density compression factors were routinely observed. The level of MHD activity was reduced, and lifetime was increased further by matching the decay rate of the levitation field to that of the CT fields. Details of experimental results and comparisons to equilibrium models and MHD simulations will be presented.

  2. Axial Globe Length in Congenital Ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kang, Hyera; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    To compare axial globe length between affected and unaffected sides in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. This prospective observational study included 37 patients (age range: 7 months to 58 years). The axial globe length, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD-1), and refractive power were measured. The axial globe length difference was calculated by subtracting the axial globe length on the unaffected side from that of the affected side. The relationships among axial globe length differences, MRD-1 on the affected sides, and patient ages were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. No significant differences were found in the axial globe length between sides (P = .677). The axial globe length difference was 0.17 ± 0.30 mm (mean ± standard deviation), and two patients (5.4%), aged 32 to 57 years, showed axial globe length more than 0.67 mm longer (corresponding to a refractive power of 2 diopters) on the affected side compared to the unaffected side. The multiple regression model between axial globe length difference, patient age, and MRD-1 on the affected sides was less appropriate (YAGL = 0.003XAGE-0.048XMRD-1 +0.112; r = 0.338; adjusted r2 = 0.062; P = .127). The cylindrical power was greater on the affected side (P = .046), although the spherical power was not different between sides (P = .657). No significant difference was identified in the axial globe length between sides, and only 5% of non-pediatric patients showed an axial globe length more than 0.67 mm longer on the affected side. Congenital ptosis may have little effect on axial globe length elongation, and the risk of axial myopia-induced anisometropic amblyopia may be low in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Carbon composites based on multiaxial multiply stitched preforms. Part 3: Biaxial tension, picture frame and compression tests of the preforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomov, S.V.; Barburski, M.; Stoilova, Tz.; Verpoest, I.; Akkerman, R.; Loendersloot, R.; Thije, ten R.H.W.

    2005-01-01

    Deformability of bi- and quadri-axial multi-axial multiply stitched preforms is studied in biaxial tension, shear (picture frame test) and compression. The results complement KES-F measurements in the low load range, reported in the Part 2 of the series (Compos A, 34, 2003, 359–70). The biaxial tens

  4. Transitive oriented 3-Hypergraphs of cyclic orders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the definition of transitivity for oriented 3-hypergraphs in order to study partial and complete cyclic orders. This definition allow us to give sufficient conditions on a partial cyclic order to be totally extendable. Furthermore, we introduce the 3-hypergraph associated to a cyclic permutation and characterize it in terms of cyclic comparability 3-hypergraphs.

  5. Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  6. Axial vector Z‧ and anomaly cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2017-05-01

    Whilst the prospect of new Z‧ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that in a large class of models masses of these new states are expected to be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  7. Focus on Compression Stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stocking every other day with a mild soap. Do not use Woolite™ detergent. Use warm water ... compression clothing will lose its elasticity and its effectiveness. Compression stockings last for about 4-6 months ...

  8. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...

  10. Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

  11. Microbunching and RF Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-23

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  12. Moment Contribution Capacity of Tendon Prestressed Partial on Concrete Beam-column Joint Interior According to Provisions ACI 318-2008 Chapter 21.5.2.5(c Due to Cyclic Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astawa Made Dharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research designed a partial prestressed concrete beam-column with reinforced concrete interior joint, using square columns of 400/400 mm, reinforcement 6 D16 + 4D13, section beam 250/400 mm, tensile reinforcement 5 D13, compression reinforcement 3 D13 + 2 strand tendon D12,7 mm , and joint without plastic hinge, then tested in laboratory with lateral cyclic loads on peak column, static axial load 1120 kN on the centre column, to get the tendon capacity to assume positive and negative bending moments due to lateral load, according to provisions of ACI 318-2008 part 21.5.2.5 (c. Test results showed that the moment tendon contribution on beam section, in the tensile area, the positive and negative moment both on the left side or the right side column are all qualified ( 25 %. As for the negative moment, either left or right side column are all qualified (4.0. Although the contribution of positive moment capacity tendon in compression areas does not qualify, in overall, the reliability and ductility of the structure qualify.

  13. Hyperspectral data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  14. Compressed gas manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  15. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  16. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  17. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  18. Unsteady Flows in Axial Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, F. E.; Rannie, W. D.

    1957-01-01

    Of the various unsteady flows that occur in axial turbomachines certain asymmetric disturbances, of wave length large in comparison with blade spacing, have become understood to a certain extent. These disturbances divide themselves into two categories: self-induced oscillations and force disturbances. A special type of propagating stall appears as a self-induced disturbance; an asymmetric velocity profile introduced at the compressor inlet constitutes a forced disturbance. Both phenomena have been treated from a unified theoretical point of view in which the asymmetric disturbances are linearized and the blade characteristics are assumed quasi-steady. Experimental results are in essential agreement with this theory wherever the limitations of the theory are satisfied. For the self-induced disturbances and the more interesting examples of the forced disturbances, the dominant blade characteristic is the dependence of total pressure loss, rather than the turning angle, upon the local blade inlet angle.

  19. The Emergence of Axial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Svenonius

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many languages have specialized locative words or morphemes translating roughly into words like ‘front,’ ‘back,’ ‘top,’ ‘bottom,’ ‘side,’ and so on. Often, these words are used instead of more specialized adpositions to express spatial meanings corresponding to ‘behind,’ ‘above,’ and so on. I argue, on the basis of a cross-linguistic survey of such expressions, that in many cases they motivate a syntactic category which is distinct from both N and P, which I call AxPart for ‘Axial Part’; I show how the category relates to the words which instantiate it, and how the meaning of the construction is derived from the combination of P[lace] elements, AxParts, and the lexical material which expresses them.

  20. An Elastoplastic Damage Constitutive Model for Cementitious Materials under Wet-Dry Cyclic Sulfate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of cement mortars subjected to wet-dry cyclic sulfate attack were studied by the compression strength test. The results showed that the ultimate compressive strength increased with number of cycles at the initial stage. However, after a certain time, it started to decrease with further increases in the number of cycles. Moreover, the concentration of the sodium sulfate solution proved to be an important factor affecting the ultimate compressive strength. Based on continuum damage mechanics theory, an elastoplastic damage constitutive model is presented to describe the mechanical behavior of cementitious materials under compressive stress. The results obtained agree well with the experimentally observed elastic, plastic, and damage characteristics of cement mortars under compressive stress.

  1. Ni(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Mao; Tang, Liang; Shen, Jiaqi; Yang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2017-01-03

    A Ni(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic aldimines and ketimines is reported. Our tropos phosphine-oxazoline biphenyl ligand is crucial for the high catalytic activity, which coordinates to Ni(ii) to form a complex with a single axial configuration. The desired chiral amine products could be prepared with excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99.8%) under mild reaction conditions.

  2. Finite element modelling of the cyclic behaviour of CLT connectors and walls

    OpenAIRE

    Aranha, Chrysl Assumpta; Jorge M. Branco; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Flatscher, George; Schickhofer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of the behaviour of connectors used in Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) structures is an important aspect that needs to be considered in their seismic design. In this paper, the data from shear and axial tests conducted on connectors have been used to define their force-displacement curves under cyclic loads using the SAWS model in OpenSees. The component curves were then incorporated into the corresponding wall models and the results were compared with their experimental ...

  3. Experimental Study on Uniaxial and Multiaxial Strain Cyclic Characteristics and Ratcheting of 316L Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on the strain cycliccharacteristics and ratcheting of 316Lstainless steel subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial cyclic loading. The strain cyclic characteristics were researched under the strain-controlled uniaxial tension-compression and multiaxial circular paths of loading. The ratcheting tests were conducted for the stress-controlled uniaxial tensioncompression and multiaxial circular, rhombic and linear paths of loading with different mean stresses, stress amplitudes and histories. The experiment results show that 316L stainless steel features the cyclic hardening, and its strain cyclic characteristics depend on the strain amplitude and its history apparently. The ratcheting of 316L stainless steel depends greatly on the values of mean stress, stress amplitude and their histories. In the meantime, the shape of load path and its history also apparently influence the ratcheting.

  4. Calculation of flow distribution in large radius ratio stages of axial flow turbines and comparison of theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of calculating stage parameters and flow distribution of axial turbines is described. The governing equations apply to space between the blade rows and are based on the assumption of rotationally symmetrical, compressible, adiabatic flow conditions. Results are presented for stage design and flow analysis calculations. Theoretical results from the calculation system are compared with experimental data from low pressure steam turbine tests.

  5. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    /dynamic triaxial cell is overall constructed in the same way as the static triaxial cell at Aalborg University, but with the ability to apply any kind of load sequence to the test sample. When conducting cyclic triaxial tests, it is recommended that the manual is followed very tediously since there are many steps...... and if they are done improperly or in the wrong order there is a risk of destroying the test sample or obtaining invalid results.......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...

  6. Suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor instability by gyroviscosity and sheared axial flow in imploding plasma pinches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lin; JIAN Guang-de; QIU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    The synergistic stabilizing effect of gyroviscosity and sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions is studied by means of the incompressible viscid magneto-hydrodynamic equations. The gyroviscosity (or finite Larmor radius) effects are introduced in the momentum equation through an anisotropic ion stress tensor. Dispersion relation with the effect of a density discontinuity is derived. The results indicate that the short-wavelength modes of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are easily stabilized by the gyroviscosity effects. The long wavelength modes are stabilized by the sufficient sheared axial flow. However, the synergistic effects of the finite Larmor radius and sheared axial flow can heavily mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This synergistic effect can compress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to a narrow wave number region. Even with a sufficient gyroviscosity and large enough flow velocity, the synergistic effect can completely suppressed the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in whole wave number region.

  7. Prediction of Axial Capacity of Concrete-Filled Square Steel Tubes Using Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Meichun; Wang Qingxiang; Feng Xiufeng

    2005-01-01

    The application of artificial neural network to predict the ultimate beating capacity of CFST ( concrete-filled square steel tubes)short columns under axial loading is explored. Input parameters consiste of concrete compressive strength, yield strength of steel tube, confinement index, sectional dimension and width-to-thickness ratio. The ultimate bearing capacity is the only output parameter. A multilayer feedforward neural network is used to describe the nonlinear relationships between the input and output variables.Fifty-five experimental data of CFST short columns under axial loading are used to train and test the neural network. A comparison between the neural network model and three parameter models shows that the neural network model possesses good accuracy and could be a practical method for predicting the ultimate strength of axially loaded CFST short columns.

  8. Hopf cyclic cohomology and transverse characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Moscovici, Henri

    2010-01-01

    By refining the cyclic cohomological apparatus for computing the Hopf cyclic cohomology of the Hopf algebras associated to infinite primitive Cartan-Lie pseudogroup, we explicitly identify, as a Hopf cyclic complex, the image of the canonical homomorphism from the Gelfand-Fuks complex to the Bott complex for equivariant cohomology. Distinct from the original realization due to A. Connes and the first named author of the cyclic cohomology of such Hopf algebras as differentiable cyclic cohomology, this construction provides a convenient front-end model for their Hopf cyclic cohomology. Relying on it, we produce characteristic homomorphisms from newly developed models for Hopf cyclic characteristic classes to the cyclic cohomology of the convolution algebras of \\'etale holonomy groupoids, which in particular work in the relative case with no compactness restriction. As an illustration, we apply the latter feature to transfer the universal Hopf cyclic Chern classes found by us in a previous paper, and produce in ...

  9. 铁基非晶合金整体磁芯轴向拉压型测力传感器的研究与设计%Research and Desing on a Axial Tensile and Compression Force Sensor With a Fe-base Amorphous Alloy Magnetic Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石延平; 范书华; 侯金柱

    2013-01-01

    By wrapping Fe-based amorphous alloy strip into a cylindrical stress-sensitive magnetic a force sensor was made based on magneto-elastic effect,it can measure the tension,but also to measure the compression.The principle and structure of the sensor were presented,and its output characteristic equation was derived.By making a tensile and compression measuring experiment,the best excitation magnetic field strength,static characteristics and temperature characteristics of the sensor were analyzed.The experimental result shows when the sensor measure tensile and compression force,its the maximum linearity error is respectively 0.41% F.S and1.12% F.S,repetitive error 0.86% F.S and 0.85% F.S,and the average sensitivity is respectively 0.71 mV/kN and 1.16 mV/kN.%将铁基非晶态合金薄带缠绕成圆柱型应力敏感磁芯,基于压磁效应,使同一传感器实现既能测量拉力,又能测量压力.介绍了传感器的结构和原理,推导出传感器的输出特性方程.通过拉伸和压缩试验,分析了传感器的最佳激磁磁场强度、静态特性以及温度特性.试验数据显示,传感器测量拉伸和压缩载荷时,最大非线性误差分别为0.41%F.S和1.12%F.S,重复性误差分别为0.86%F.S和0.85%F.S,平均灵敏度为0.71 mV/kN和1.16 mV/kN.

  10. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong, E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-08-09

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.

  11. Recursive processing of cyclic graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Monica; Gori, Marco; Sarti, Lorenzo; Scarselli, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Recursive neural networks are a powerful tool for processing structured data. According to the recursive learning paradigm, the input information consists of directed positional acyclic graphs (DPAGs). In fact, recursive networks are fed following the partial order defined by the links of the graph. Unfortunately, the hypothesis of processing DPAGs is sometimes too restrictive, being the nature of some real-world problems intrinsically cyclic. In this paper, a methodology is proposed, which allows us to process any cyclic directed graph. Therefore, the computational power of recursive networks is definitely established, also clarifying the underlying limitations of the model.

  12. Nonlinear vibrations and imperfection sensitivity of a cylindrical shell containing axial fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Prado, Z.; Gonçalves, P. B.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2009-10-01

    The high imperfection sensitivity of cylindrical shells under static compressive axial loads is a well-known phenomenon in structural stability. On the other hand, less is known of the influence of imperfections on the nonlinear vibrations of these shells under harmonic axial loads. The aim of this work is to study the simultaneous influence of geometric imperfections and an axial fluid flow on the nonlinear vibrations and instabilities of simply supported circular cylindrical shells under axial load. The fluid is assumed to be non-viscous and incompressible and the flow to be isentropic and irrotational. The behavior of the thin-walled shell is modeled by Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell equations. It is subjected to a static uniform compressive axial pre-load plus a harmonic axial load. A low-dimensional modal expansion, which satisfies the relevant boundary and continuity conditions, and takes into account all relevant nonlinear modal interactions observed in the past in the nonlinear vibrations of cylindrical shells with and without flow is used together with the Galerkin method to derive a set of eight coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations of motion which are, in turn, solved by the Runge-Kutta method. The shell is considered to be initially at rest, in a position corresponding to a pre-buckling configuration. Then, a harmonic excitation is applied and conditions for parametric instability and dynamic snap-through are sought. The results clarify the marked influence of geometric imperfections and fluid flow on the dynamic stability boundaries, bifurcations and basins of attraction.

  13. Axial buckling and transverse vibration of ultrathin nanowires: low symmetry and surface elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao; Narsu, B.; Yun, Guohong; Li, Jiangang; Yao, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Surface effects play a deterministic role in the physical and mechanical properties of nanosized materials and structures. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elasticity of nanowires. The natural frequency and the critical compression force of axial buckling are obtained analytically, taking into consideration the influences of lower symmetry, additional elastic parameters, surface reconstruction, surface elasticity, and residual surface stress. Applications of the present theory to elastic systems for the    axially oriented Si and Cu nanowires and Ag    axially oriented nanowires yield good agreement with experimental data and calculated results. The larger positive value of the new elastic parameter c12α taken into account for Si    oriented nanowires drives the curves of natural frequency and critical compression force versus thickness towards the results obtained from density functional theory simulation. Negative surface stress decreases the critical load for axial buckling, thus making the nanowires very easy to bend into various structures. The present study is envisaged to provide useful insights for the design and application of nanowire-based devices.

  14. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

  15. Effect of Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Loads on Fatigue Reliability in Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. R.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1996-01-01

    A methodology to compute probabilistic fatigue life of polymer matrix laminated composites has been developed and demonstrated. Matrix degradation effects caused by long term environmental exposure and mechanical/thermal cyclic loads are accounted for in the simulation process. A unified time-temperature-stress dependent multi-factor interaction relationship developed at NASA Lewis Research Center has been used to model the degradation/aging of material properties due to cyclic loads. The fast probability integration method is used to compute probabilistic distribution of response. Sensitivities of fatigue life reliability to uncertainties in the primitive random variables (e.g., constituent properties, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio, ply thickness, etc.) computed and their significance in the reliability- based design for maximum life is discussed. The effect of variation in the thermal cyclic loads on the fatigue reliability for a (0/+/- 45/90)(sub s) graphite/epoxy laminate with a ply thickness of 0.127 mm, with respect to impending failure modes has been studied. The results show that, at low mechanical cyclic loads and low thermal cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life for 0.999 reliability is most sensitive to matrix compressive strength, matrix modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, and ply thickness. Whereas at high mechanical cyclic loads and high thermal cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life at 0.999 reliability is more sensitive to the shear strength of matrix, longitudinal fiber modulus, matrix modulus, and ply thickness.

  16. Probabilistic Simulation of Combined Thermo-Mechanical Cyclic Fatigue in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology to compute probabilistically-combined thermo-mechanical fatigue life of polymer matrix laminated composites has been developed and is demonstrated. Matrix degradation effects caused by long-term environmental exposure and mechanical/thermal cyclic loads are accounted for in the simulation process. A unified time-temperature-stress-dependent multifactor-interaction relationship developed at NASA Glenn Research Center has been used to model the degradation/aging of material properties due to cyclic loads. The fast probability-integration method is used to compute probabilistic distribution of response. Sensitivities of fatigue life reliability to uncertainties in the primitive random variables (e.g., constituent properties, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio, ply thickness, etc.) computed and their significance in the reliability-based design for maximum life is discussed. The effect of variation in the thermal cyclic loads on the fatigue reliability for a (0/+/-45/90)s graphite/epoxy laminate with a ply thickness of 0.127 mm, with respect to impending failure modes has been studied. The results show that, at low mechanical-cyclic loads and low thermal-cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life for 0.999 reliability is most sensitive to matrix compressive strength, matrix modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, and ply thickness. Whereas at high mechanical-cyclic loads and high thermal-cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life at 0.999 reliability is more sensitive to the shear strength of matrix, longitudinal fiber modulus, matrix modulus, and ply thickness.

  17. Undrained dynamical behavior of Nanjing flake-shaped fine sand under cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国兴; 刘雪珠; 战吉艳

    2008-01-01

    A series of dynamic behavior tests on Nanjing flake-shaped fine sand were performed by using the WFI cyclic triaxial apparatus made in England. The dynamic behaviors of Nanjing flake-shaped fine sand under different static deviator stress levels and cyclic stress ratios were studied. Through comparing the effective stress path under cyclic loading with static loading, the processes of liquefaction of saturated Nanjing flake-shaped fine sand with development of dynamic pore-water pressure, including the initial compact state, compression state and dilative state, were investigated. The variation of the shear stiffness with the number of cycles and cyclic strain was investigated by analyzing the secant shear modulus in each unload-reload loop of dynamic stress-strain relationship. And by means of the exponential function, the empirical equations of the relationship between secant shear modulus Gsec, shear modulus ratio Gsec/Gmax and cyclic strain ε were established based on series of test results. The results show that according to different combinations of static deviator stress and cyclic stress, two kinds of failure patterns with deviator stress reversal or no deviator stress reversal are observed in the samples tested in this series, including cyclic mobility and the failure of accumulation residual strain. In addition, the degradation of dynamic shear modulus is due to the development of vibration pore-water pressure and it is observed that the shear modulus reduces with the progressive number of cycles.

  18. Axial-torsional fatigue: A study of tubular specimen thickness effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature experimental program was conducted on AISI type 316 stainless steel to determine the effect of wall thickness on the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life of thin-wall, tubular, axial-torsional fatigue specimens. The following experimental variables were examined in this study: the depth of the surface work-hardened layer produced in specimen machining, and the effects of strain range and axial-torsional strain phasing. Tubular fatigue specimens were fabricated with wall thicknesses of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. One as-fabricated specimen from each wall thickness was sectioned for microstructural examination and microhardness measurement. A specimen of each wall thickness was tested at each of three conditions - high strain range in-phase, low strain range in-phase, and low strain range out-of-phase - for a total of nine axial-torsional fatigue experiments. The machining-induced work-hardened zone, as a percentage of the gage section material, was found to have a minimal effect on both deformation behavior and fatigue life. Also, little or no variation in fatigue life or deformation behavior as a function of wall thickness was observed. Out-of-phase fatigue tests displayed shorter fatigue lives and more cyclic hardening than in-phase tests.

  19. Axial-torsional fatigue - A study of tubular specimen thickness effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out at room temperature on AISI type 316 stainless steel to determine the effect of wall thickness on the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life of thin-wall tubular axial-torsional fatigue specimens. The experimental variables examined included the depth of the surface work-hardened layer produced in specimen machining, and the effects of strain range and axial-torsional strain phasing. Tubular fatigue specimens had wall thicknesses of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. One as-fabricated specimen from each wall thickness was sectioned for microstructural examination and microhardness measurement. A specimen of each wall thickness was tested in axial-torsional fatigue experiments for each of the three conditions: high strain range in-phase, low strain range in-phase, and low strain range out-of-phase. The machining-induced work-hardened zone, as a percentage of the gage section material, was found to have a minimal effect on both deformation behavior and fatigue life. Out-of-phase fatigue tests displayed shorter fatigue lives and more cyclic hardening than in-phase tests.

  20. Universal Axial Fluctuations in Optical Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, Marco; Ritort, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers allow the measurement of fluctuations at the nano-scale, in particular fluctuations in the end-to-end distance in single molecules. Fluctuation spectra can yield valuable information, but they can easily be contaminated by instrumental effects. We identify axial fluctuations, i.e. fluctuations of the trapped beads in the direction of light propagation, as one of these instrumental effects. Remarkably, axial fluctuations occur on a characteristic timescale similar to that of conformational (folding) transitions, which may lead to misinterpretation of the experimental results. We show that a precise measurement of the effect of force on both axial and conformational fluctuations is crucial to disentangle them. Our results on axial fluctuations are captured by a simple and general formula valid for all optical tweezers setups and provide experimentalists with a general strategy to distinguish axial fluctuations from conformational transitions.

  1. A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L

    1997-01-01

    CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

  2. Operational Experience with a Cryogenic Axial-Centrifugal Compressor

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Löhlein, K; Purtschert, W; Ziegler, B L; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Brunovsky, I; Tucek, L

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires large refrigeration capacity at 1.8 K. Compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures is therefore inevitable. Together with subcontractors, Linde Kryotechnik has developed a prototype machine. This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating at ambient temperature. Integrated in a test facility for superconducting magnets the machine has been commissioned without major problems and successfully gone through the acceptance test in autumn 1995. Subsequent steps were initiated to improve efficiency of this prototype. This paper describes operating experience gained so far and reports on measured performance prior to and after constructional modifications.

  3. Crack buckling in soft gels under compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Long; Chung-Yuen Hui

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in designing soft gels with high fracture toughness has called for simple and robust methods to test fracture behavior.The conventional method of applying tension to a gel sample suffers from a difficulty of sample gripping.In this paper,we study a possible fracture mechanism of soft gels under uni-axial compression.We show that the surfaces of a pre-existing crack,oriented parallel to the loading axis,can buckle at a critical compressive stress.This buckling instability can open the crack surfaces and create highly concentrated stress fields near the crack tip,which can lead to crack growth.We show that the onset of crack buckling can be deduced by a dimensional argument combined with an analysis to determine the critical compression needed to induce surface instabilities of an elastic half space.The critical compression for buckling was verified for a neoHookean material model using finite element simulations.

  4. Negative linear compressibility in common materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.; Evans, K. E.; Marmier, A., E-mail: A.S.H.Marmier@exeter.ac.uk [College of Engineering Mathematics and Physical Science, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-08

    Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is still considered an exotic property, only observed in a few obscure crystals. The vast majority of materials compress axially in all directions when loaded in hydrostatic compression. However, a few materials have been observed which expand in one or two directions under hydrostatic compression. At present, the list of materials demonstrating this unusual behaviour is confined to a small number of relatively rare crystal phases, biological materials, and designed structures, and the lack of widespread availability hinders promising technological applications. Using improved representations of elastic properties, this study revisits existing databases of elastic constants and identifies several crystals missed by previous reviews. More importantly, several common materials-drawn polymers, certain types of paper and wood, and carbon fibre laminates-are found to display NLC. We show that NLC in these materials originates from the misalignment of polymers/fibres. Using a beam model, we propose that maximum NLC is obtained for misalignment of 26°. The existence of such widely available materials increases significantly the prospects for applications of NLC.

  5. Novel Integration Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth; Brown, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics; separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and magnetic field modeling results will be presented.

  6. Novel Integrated Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Brown, Gary L.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics, separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and analysis results will be presented.

  7. Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression. PMID:28072850

  8. Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usama, Muhammad; Zakaria, Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression.

  9. Study of the stress-strain state of compressed concrete elements with composite reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yurii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency analysis of the application of glass composite reinforcement in compressed concrete elements as a load-carrying component has been performed. The results of experimental studies of the deformation-strength characteristics of this reinforcement on compression and compressed concrete cylinders reinforced by this reinforcement are presented. The results of tests and mechanisms of sample destruction have been analyzed. The numerical analysis of the stress-strain state has been performed for axial compression of concrete elements with glasscomposite reinforcement. The influence of the reinforcement percentage on the stressed state of a concrete compressed element with the noted reinforcement is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, it is established that the glass-composite reinforcement has positive effect on the strength of the compressed concrete elements. That is, when calculating the load-bearing capacity of such structures, the function of composite reinforcement on compression should not be neglected.

  10. Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupiñán, Viviana

    2014-02-01

    We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

  11. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SPHERICAL, CYLINDRICAL AND AXIAL BUBBLE CLOUDS COLLAPSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHDI Miralam; EBRAHIMI Reza; SHAMS Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a spherical,cylindrical and axial cloud of cavitation bubbles were numerically simulated in order to learn more about the physical phenomena occurring in the cloud cavitation.The simulations employed the fully nonlinear continuum mixture equations coupled with the Gilmore equation for the dynamics of bubbles by considering the compressibility of liquid.A set of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved for the gas inside a spherical bubble,considering heat transfer through the gas inside the bubble and the liquid layer.The flow field around the cylindrical and axial cloud was obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using a finite volume method and a dynamic layering mesh scheme.The calculated strength of shock wave in the liquid around the cloud was of the order of 1 × 106 Pa and the propagation of this shock wave lasted for 10 μs.The conducted investigations illustrate that the shock wave propagates before the cloud has completely collapsed.A good agreement with experimental data was observed.

  13. Assembling Stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability by the Effects of Finite Larmor Radius and Sheared Axial Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guangde; Huang Lin; Qiu Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    The assembling stabilizing effect of the finite Larmor radius (FLR) and the sheared axial flow (SAF) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions is studied by means of the incompressible finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The finite Larmor radius effects are introduced in the momentum equation with the sheared axial flow through an anisotropic ion stress tensor. In this paper a linear mode equation is derived that is valid for arbitrary kL, where k is the wave number and L is the plasma shell thickness. Numerical solutions are presented. The results indicate that the short-wavelength modes of the RayleighTaylor instability are easily stabilized by the individual effect of the finite Larmor radius or the sheared axial flow. The assembling effects of the finite Larmor radius and sheared axial flow can heavily mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and the unstable region can be compressed considerably.

  14. Lossless Medical Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashree G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Image compression has become an important process in today‟s world of information exchange. Image compression helps in effective utilization of high speed network resources. Medical Image Compression is very important in the present world for efficient archiving and transmission of images. In this paper two different approaches for lossless image compression is proposed. One uses the combination of 2D-DWT & FELICS algorithm for lossy to lossless Image Compression and another uses combination of prediction algorithm and Integer wavelet Transform (IWT. To show the effectiveness of the methodology used, different image quality parameters are measured and shown the comparison of both the approaches. We observed the increased compression ratio and higher PSNR values.

  15. Cyclic Behavior of Mortarless Brick Joints with Different Interlocking Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The framed structure infilled with a mortarless brick (MB panel exhibits considerable in-plane energy dissipation because of the relative sliding between bricks and good out-of-plane stability resulting from the use of interlocking mechanisms. The cyclic behaviors of MB are investigated experimentally in this study. Two different types of bricks, namely non-interlocking mortarless brick (N-IMB and interlocking mortarless brick (IMB, are examined experimentally. The cyclic behavior of all of the joints (N-IMB and IMB are investigated in consideration of the effects of interlocking shapes, loading compression stress levels and loading cycles. The hysteretic loops of N-IMB and IMB joints are obtained, according to which a mechanical model is developed. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is employed to describe the shear failure modes of all of the investigated joints. A typical frictional behavior is observed for the N-IMB joints, and a significant stiffening effect is observed for the IMB joints during their sliding stage. The friction coefficients of all of the researched joints increase with the augmentation of the compression stress level and improvement of the smoothness of the interlocking surfaces. An increase in the loading cycle results in a decrease in the friction coefficients of all of the joints. The degradation rate (DR of the friction coefficients increases with the reduction in the smoothness of the interlocking surface.

  16. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flemming H Gravesen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  17. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-14

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method.

  18. Growth-induced axial buckling of a slender elastic filament embedded in an isotropic elastic matrix

    KAUST Repository

    O'Keeffe, Stephen G.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the problem of an axially loaded, isotropic, slender cylinder embedded in a soft, isotropic, outer elastic matrix. The cylinder undergoes uniform axial growth, whilst both the cylinder and the surrounding elastic matrix are confined between two rigid plates, so that this growth results in axial compression of the cylinder. We use two different modelling approaches to estimate the critical axial growth (that is, the amount of axial growth the cylinder is able to sustain before it buckles) and buckling wavelength of the cylinder. The first approach treats the filament and surrounding matrix as a single 3-dimensional elastic body undergoing large deformations, whilst the second approach treats the filament as a planar, elastic rod embedded in an infinite elastic foundation. By comparing the results of these two approaches, we obtain an estimate of the foundation modulus parameter, which characterises the strength of the foundation, in terms of the geometric and material properties of the system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  20. Pneumatic pressure bioreactor for cyclic hydrostatic stress application: mechanobiology effects on periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Karl H; El-Awady, Ahmed R; Messer, Regina L W; Sharawy, Mohamed M; White, Greg; Lapp, Carol A

    2011-10-01

    A bioreactor system was developed to provide high-amplitude cyclic hydrostatic compressive stress (cHSC) using compressed air mixed commercially as needed to create partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide appropriate for the cells under investigation. Operating pressures as high as 300 psi are achievable in this system at cyclic speeds of up to 0.2 Hz. In this study, ligamentous fibroblasts from human periodontal ligaments (n = 6) were compressed on two consecutive days at 150 psi for 3 h each day, and the mRNA for families of extracellular matrix protein and protease isoforms was evaluated by real-time PCR array. Several integrins were significantly upregulated, most notably alpha-3 (6.4-fold), as was SPG7 (12.1-fold). Among the collagens, Col8a1 was highly upregulated at 53.5-fold, with Col6a1, Col6a2, and Col7a1 also significantly upregulated 4.4- to 8.5-fold. MMP-1 was the most affected at 122.9-fold upregulation. MMP-14 likewise increased 17.8-fold with slight reductions for the gelatinases and a significant increase of TIMP-2 at 5.8-fold. The development of this bioreactor system and its utility in characterizing periodontal ligament fibroblast mechanobiology in intermediate-term testing hold promise for better simulating the conditions of the musculoskeletal system and the large cyclic compressive stresses joints may experience in gait, exertion, and mastication.

  1. Powers of Convex-Cyclic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando León-Saavedra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bounded operator T on a Banach space X is convex cyclic if there exists a vector x such that the convex hull generated by the orbit Tnxn≥0 is dense in X. In this note we study some questions concerned with convex-cyclic operators. We provide an example of a convex-cyclic operator T such that the power Tn fails to be convex cyclic. Using this result we solve three questions posed by Rezaei (2013.

  2. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  3. APPLICATION OF BP NEURAL NETWORK IN DATA FITTING OF SQUARE CONCRETE-FILLED STEEL TUBE UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION%BP神经网络在方钢管混凝土轴心受压试验数据拟合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 李四平; 赵社戌

    2012-01-01

    本文使用BP神经网络对方钢管混凝土轴心受压试验的数据进行拟合,并将BP神经网络的拟合曲线与10次多项式的拟合曲线进行了对比。结果表明,建立的BP神经网络模型能够准确拟合方钢管混凝土轴心受压的试验数据,具有较好的非线性拟合效果,拟合精度高。%By creating a model based on BP neural network, data fitting of square concrete-filled steel tube concentrically loaded in compression was carried out in the article. The fitting result based on BP neural network was compared with the ten - order polynomial fitting result. The BP neural network model could accurately fit the data of square concrete-filled steel tube. The performance of BP neural network model in nonlinear fitting was excellent and the fitting precision was high.

  4. New Anomaly of the Axial-Vector Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Han-Xin

    2001-01-01

    By computing the axial-vector current operator equation, we find the anomalous axial-vector curl equation besides the well-known anomalous axial-vector divergence equation (the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly) and discuss its implication.``

  5. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  6. Wavelet image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pearlman, William A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the stages necessary to create a wavelet compression system for images and describes state-of-the-art systems used in image compression standards and current research. It starts with a high level discussion of the properties of the wavelet transform, especially the decomposition into multi-resolution subbands. It continues with an exposition of the null-zone, uniform quantization used in most subband coding systems and the optimal allocation of bitrate to the different subbands. Then the image compression systems of the FBI Fingerprint Compression Standard and the JPEG2000 S

  7. Stiffness of compression devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mosti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Veins and Lymphatics collects papers coming from the International Compression Club (ICC Meeting on Stiffness of Compression Devices, which took place in Vienna on May 2012. Several studies have demonstrated that the stiffness of compression products plays a major role for their hemodynamic efficacy. According to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, stiffness is defined as the pressure increase produced by medical compression hosiery (MCH per 1 cm of increase in leg circumference.1 In other words stiffness could be defined as the ability of the bandage/stockings to oppose the muscle expansion during contraction.

  8. Disc associating axial pain were indicated by PLL resection in ACDF surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi; Sun, Chao; Pei, Bo; Wang, Pei

    2017-04-01

    The generation and tissue origination of disc-associated axial pain is still under exploration. This study was performed to evaluate disc-associated axial pain and to explore whether it originates in the disc or its surrounding components. A 6-year series of 88 single-level Smith-Robinson disc and posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) resections performed to treat single-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy was retrospectively examined. All single-level anterior disc decompressions were performed under local infiltration anesthesia; the PLL was not anesthetized to avoid cervical cord block. The patients were grouped by disc level. The centered foci of the pain localization were subjectively recorded before, during, and after the operation. Radiological examinations (plain X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) were performed before and after the operation to diagnose the compression and evaluate the decompression. All 88 patients who underwent single-level PLL resection had no intraoperative pain responses except during resection of the PLL. Their provoked pain responses were similar to their familiar pain responses. The axial pain disappeared postoperatively. Complications developed in six patients (6.8 %). All patients recovered well, and the absence of the axial pain was maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Preoperative axial pain due to single-level disc protrusion was triggered and aggravated only during PLL resection and disappeared postoperatively. This implies that the intervertebral PLL could be the site of origination of axial pain. Axial pain from the PLL at different disc levels had different distributions.

  9. 40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. The cyclic theory of Hopf algebroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Posthuma, H.

    2011-01-01

    We give a systematic description of the cyclic cohomology theory of Hopf alge\\-broids in terms of its associated category of modules. Then we introduce a dual cyclic homology theory by applying cyclic duality to the underlying cocyclic object. We derive general structure theorems for these theories

  11. The Cyclic Graph of a Finite Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Long Ma

    2013-01-01

    and characterize certain finite groups whose cyclic graphs have some properties. Then, we present some properties of the cyclic graphs of the dihedral groups D2n and the generalized quaternion groups Q4n for some n. Finally, we present some parameters about the cyclic graphs of finite noncyclic groups of order up to 14.

  12. Nonlinear analytical solution for one-dimensional consolidation of soft soil under cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kang-he; QI Tian; DONG Ya-qin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for one-dimensional consolidation of soft soil under some common types of cyclic loading such as trapezoidal cyclic loading, based on the assumptions proposed by Davis and Raymond (1965) that the decrease in permeability is proportional to the decrease in compressibility during the consolidation process of the soil and that the distribution of initial effective stress is constant with depth. It is verified by the existing analytical solutions in special cases. Using the solution obtained, some diagrams are prepared and the relevant consolidation behavior is investigated.

  13. Effects of compression on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans and proteins from cartilage explants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, R.L.; Doong, J.Y.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Plaas, A.H.; Sandy, J.D. (Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Harvard-M.I.T., Cambridge (United States))

    1991-04-01

    The effects of mechanical compression of calf cartilage explants on the catabolism and loss into the medium of proteoglycans and proteins radiolabeled with (35S)sulfate and (3H)proline were examined. A single 2- or 12-h compression of 3-mm diameter cartilage disks from a thickness of 1.25 to 0.50 mm, or slow cyclic compression (2 h on/2 h off) from 1.25 mm to 1.00, 0.75, or 0.50 mm for 24 h led to transient alterations and/or sustained increases in loss of radiolabeled macromolecules. The effects of imposing or removing loads were consistent with several compression-induced physical mediators including fluid flow, diffusion, and matrix disruption. Cyclic compression induced convective fluid flow and enhanced the loss of 35S- and 3H-labeled macromolecules from tissue into medium. In contrast, prolonged static compression induced matrix consolidation and appeared to hinder the diffusional transport and loss of 35S- and 3H-labeled macromolecules. Since high amplitude cyclic compression led to a sustained increase in the rate of loss of 3H- and 35S-labeled macromolecules that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of loss of (3H)hydroxyproline residues and an increase in tissue hydration, such compression may have caused disruption of the collagen meshwork. The 35S-labeled proteoglycans lost during such cyclic compression were of smaller average size than those from controls, but contained a similarly low proportion (approximately 15%) that could form aggregates with excess hyaluronate and link protein. The size distribution and aggregability of the remaining tissue proteoglycans and 35S-labeled proteoglycans were not markedly affected. The loss of tissue proteoglycan paralleled the loss of 35S-labeled macromolecules.

  14. 冷弯薄壁复杂卷边槽钢轴压固支构件稳定性能分析%STABILITY BEHAVIOR OF COLD-FORMED THIN-WALLED STEEL FIXED-ENDED CHANNELS WITH COMPLEX EDGE STIFFENERS UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSIVE LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春刚; 宋代军; 张壮南

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability behavior of channels with complex edge stiffeners under axial load between fixed-ends, a total of 292 members with different parameters such as width-to-thickness ratio of flanges, section shapes, length of column, stiffener length were selected to be studied by nonlinear finite element analysis. The influence of the above parameters on stability behavior of channels with complex edge stiffeners were studied. It is shown that fixed-ended columns are more prone to distortional buckling. When width-to-thickness ratio of flanges is big, the overall instability mode tends to perform the flexural-torsional buckling. The ultimate load-carrying capacity of members decreases with the increase in the flange width-to-thickness ratio and slenderness ratio. With differences of width-to-thickness ratio of flanges, two different rules were shown about the influence of edge stiffeners on the loadcarrying efficiency of members.%为研究复杂卷边槽钢轴压固支构件的稳定性能,选取不同的翼缘宽厚比、截面形式、构件长度、卷边长度等几何参数,对共计292个构件进行非线性有限元分析,研究上述参数对复杂卷边槽钢固支构件稳定性能的影响。结果表明:固支构件较易发生畸变屈曲,翼缘宽厚比较大时,构件的整体失稳模式多为弯扭屈曲。构件的极限承载力随着翼缘宽厚比、构件长细比的增大而减小,卷边对构件承载效率的影响随翼缘宽厚比的不同而呈现两种不同的规律。

  15. Compressive Strength of a Longitudinally Stiffened FRP Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic FRP panel subjected to uni-axial compressive load is crarried out. Analytical Calculations of the strength of the panel are presented and compared to finite element analysis performed by different authors. Both analytica and finite element ap...... approaches confirm an identical failrue scenario. In the present case, the load carrying capacity of the stiffened panel is limited by the plate stiffener debonding stress....

  16. A novel microcarrier bead model to investigate bone cell responses to mechanical compression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R M; el Haj, A J

    1992-12-01

    Periosteal cells grown in macroporous microcarrier bead columns were cyclically loaded with compressive force using a newly developed model. In response to 1/2 h of cyclic compression, RNA synthesis increased significantly by twofold, from 113.4 +/- 19.6 to 260.7 +/- 363 (p < 0.01) after 16 h, whereas DNA synthesis did not increase significantly after 24 h. The microcarrier bead model was calibrated using a linear volume displacement transducer with a range of strain magnitudes applied across the column of 1000-6000 microstrain.

  17. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Bucket Foundations in Sand (Large Yellow Box)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina

    This is a practical guide for preparing the soil, running a CPT test, installing a scaled bucket foundation model and running a test in the large yellow sand box cos(Kristina) in the geotechnical laboratory at Aalborg University. The test procedure is used for the examination of statically...... and cyclically axially loaded bucket foundation model In dense sand. The foundation model in scale of approximately 1:10 compared to the prototype size. The guide describes the step-by-step procedure for tests with and without surface pressure. A detailed description of test setup using the large yellow sand box...

  18. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  19. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  20. How to diagnose axial spondyloarthritis early

    OpenAIRE

    Rudwaleit, M.; van der Heijde, D.; Khan, M.; Braun, J.; Sieper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP), the leading symptom of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), precedes the development of radiographic sacroiliitis, sometimes by many years.

  1. Axial thermal rotation of slender rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dichuan; Fakhri, Nikta; Pasquali, Matteo; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2011-05-06

    Axial rotational diffusion of rodlike polymers is important in processes such as microtubule filament sliding and flagella beating. By imaging the motion of small kinks along the backbone of chains of DNA-linked colloids, we produce a direct and systematic measurement of axial rotational diffusivity of rods both in bulk solution and near a wall. The measured diffusivities decrease linearly with the chain length, irrespective of the distance from a wall, in agreement with slender-body hydrodynamics theory. Moreover, the presence of small kinks does not affect the chain's axial diffusivity. Our system and measurements provide insights into fundamental axial diffusion processes of slender objects, which encompass a wide range of entities including biological filaments and linear polymer chains.

  2. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  3. Toward a robust model of packing and scale-up for chromatographic beds. 1. Mechanical compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Ronald N; Maneval, James E; Fernandez, Erik J

    2004-01-01

    The packing of compressible biochromatographic resins at large scale suffers from a poor understanding of how column packing method, resin properties, and column geometry impact column performance. To improve understanding, we develop and evaluate a one-dimensional, continuum mechanics model of column packing by mechanical compression. We show that the model can quantitatively predict the change in bed height, applied stress, and internal axial porosity profile without adjustable parameters when the modulus and wall friction coefficients are determined independently. The model possesses theoretical relationships for wall support and resin rigidity that should enable it to describe the mechanical compression of any biochromatographic resin for any column diameter. Moreover, this framework could provide a path to analogous models for flow packing and dynamic axial compression.

  4. Comminuted supracondylar femoral fractures: a biomechanical analysis comparing the stability of medial versus lateral plating in axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Briffa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and lateral plating of a medially comminuted supracondylar femoral fracture. A supracondylar femoral fracture model comparing two fixation methods was tested cyclically in axial loading. One-centimetre supracondylar gap osteotomies were created in six synthetic femurs approximately 6 cm proximal to the knee joint. There were two constructs investigated: group 1 and group 2 were stabilized with an 8-hole LC-DCP, medially and laterally, respectively. Both construct groups were axially loaded. Global displacement (total length, wedge displacement, bending moment and strain were measured. Medial plating showed a significantly decreased displacement, bending moment and strain at the fracture site in axial loading. Medial plating of a comminuted supracondylar femur fracture is more stable than lateral plating.

  5. Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Perdigão, Luís M A; Esmail, Ayad M S; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Anderson, Harry L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in template-directed synthesis make it possible to create artificial molecules with protein-like dimensions, directly from simple components. These synthetic macromolecules have a proclivity for self-organization that is reminiscent of biopolymers. Here, we report the synthesis of monodisperse cyclic porphyrin polymers, with diameters of up to 21 nm (750 C–C bonds). The ratio of the intrinsic viscosities for cyclic and linear topologies is 0.72, indicating that these polymers behave as almost ideal flexible chains in solution. When deposited on gold surfaces, the cyclic polymers display a new mode of two-dimensional supramolecular organization, combining encapsulation and nesting; one nanoring adopts a near-circular conformation, thus allowing a second nanoring to be captured within its perimeter, in a tightly folded conformation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that nesting occurs in combination with stacking when nanorings are deposited under vacuum, whereas when they are deposited directly from solution under ambient conditions there is stacking or nesting, but not a combination of both.

  6. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.

  7. Numerical simulation of axial flow compressors.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesuino Takachi Tomita

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the numerical simulation of axial flow compressors, from design to performance prediction. The stage performance prediction uses the meanline flow properties. Stage-stacking is used to analyse a multi-stage compressor. A computer program, written in FORTRAN, was developed and is able to design an axial flow compressor given air mass flow, total pressure ratio, overall efficiency and design speed. All geometrical data relevant to the compressor performance prediction is ca...

  8. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  9. The influence of impact direction and axial loading on the bone fracture pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Haim; Kugel, Chen; May, Hila; Medlej, Bahaa; Stein, Dan; Slon, Viviane; Brosh, Tamar; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2017-08-01

    The effect of the direction of the impact and the presence of axial loading on fracture patterns have not yet been established in experimental 3-point bending studies. To reveal the association between the direction of the force and the fracture pattern, with and without axial loading. A Dynatup Model POE 2000 (Instron Co.) low energy pendulum impact machine was utilized to apply impact loading on fresh pig femoral bones (n=50). The bone clamp shaft was adjusted to position the bone for three-point bending with and without additional bone compression. Four different directions of the force were applied: anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial. The impacted aspect can be distinguished from the non-impacted aspects based on the fracture pattern alone (the most fractured one); the impact point can be identified on bare bones (the area from which all oblique lines radiate and/or the presence of a chip fragment). None of our experiments (with and without compression) yielded a "true" butterfly fracture, but instead, oblique radiating lines emerged from the point of impact (also known as "false" butterfly). Impacts on the lateral and anterior aspects of the bones produce more and longer fracture lines than impacts on the contralateral side; bones subjected to an impact with axial loading are significantly more comminuted and fragmented. Under axial loading, the number of fracture lines is independent of the impact direction. Our study presents an experimental model for fracture analysis and shows that the impact direction and the presence of axial loading during impact significantly affect the fracture pattern obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drives for diesel engines by capturing both their spatial periodicity and axial motion. The Method of Varying Amplitudes is employed in the analysis. It is shown that the compound wave traveling in the axially moving periodic string comprises many components with different frequencies and wavenumbers. This is in contrast to non-moving periodic structures, for which all components of the corresponding compound wave feature the same frequency. Due to this "multi-frequency" character of the wave motion, the conventional notion of frequency band-gaps appears to be not applicable for the moving periodic strings. Thus, for such structures, by frequency band-gaps it is proposed to understand frequency ranges in which the primary component of the compound wave attenuates. Such frequency band-gaps can be present for a moving periodic string, but only if its axial velocity is lower than the transverse wave speed, and, the higher the axial velocity, the narrower the frequency band-gaps. The revealed effects could be of potential importance for applications, e.g. they indicate that due to spatial inhomogeneity, oscillations of axially moving periodic chains always involve a multitude of frequencies.

  11. An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2015-01-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...

  12. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  13. Spontaneous development of bilateral subdural hematomas in an infant with benign infantile hydrocephalus: color Doppler assessment of vessels traversing extra-axial spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, John; Spektor, Vadim; Pramanik, Bidyut; Rivera, Rafael; Pinkney, Lynne; Fefferman, Nancy [New York University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We present an infant with macrocrania, who initially demonstrated prominent extra-axial fluid collections on sonography of the brain, compatible with benign infantile hydrocephalus (BIH). Because of increasing macrocrania, a follow-up sonogram of the brain was performed; it revealed progressive enlargement of the extra-axial spaces, which now had echogenic debris. Color Doppler US showed bridging veins traversing these extra-axial spaces, so it was initially thought that these spaces were subarachnoid in nature (positive cortical vein sign). However, an arachnoid membrane was identified superior to the cortex, and there was compression of true cortical vessels beneath this dural membrane. An MRI of the brain showed the extra-axial spaces to represent bilateral subdural hematomas. The pathogenesis of spontaneous development of the subdural hematomas, in the setting of BIH, is discussed. We also emphasize that visualizing traversing bridging veins through extra-axial spaces does not necessarily imply that these spaces are subarachnoid in origin. (orig.)

  14. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  15. Synthesis and characterization of an iron complex bearing a cyclic tetra-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: An artifical heme analogue?

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.

    2015-04-20

    An iron(II) complex with a cyclic tetradentate ligand containing four N-heterocyclic carbenes was synthesized and characterized by means of NMR and IR spectroscopies, as well as by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The iron center exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry with two acetonitrile ligands in axial positions, showing structural analogies with porphyrine-ligated iron complexes. The acetonitrile ligands can readily be substituted by other ligands, for instance, dimethyl sulfoxide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the electronic properties of the synthesized compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  16. Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Hubler, Mija H.

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations prompted by a disaster in Palau revealed that worldwide there are 69 long-span segmental prestressed-concrete box-girder bridges that suffered excessive multi-decade deflections, while many more surely exist. Although the excessive deflections were shown to be caused mainly by obsolescence of design recommendations or codes for static creep, some engineers suspect that cyclic creep might have been a significant additional cause. Many investigators explored the cyclic creep of concrete experimentally, but a rational mathematical model that would be anchored in the microstructure and would allow extrapolation to a 100-year lifetime is lacking. Here it is assumed that the cause of cyclic creep is the fatigue growth of pre-existing microcracks in hydrated cement. The resulting macroscopic strain is calculated by applying fracture mechanics to the microcracks considered as either tensile or, in the form of a crushing band, as compressive. This leads to a mathematical model for cyclic creep in compression, which is verified and calibrated by laboratory test data from the literature. The cyclic creep is shown to be proportional to the time average of stress and to the 4th power of the ratio of the stress amplitude to material strength. The power of 4 is supported by the recent finding that, on the atomistic scale, the Paris law should have the exponent of 2 and that the exponent must increase due to scale bridging. Exponent 4 implies that cyclic creep deflections are enormously sensitive to the relative amplitude of the applied cyclic stress. Calculations of the effects of cyclic creep in six segmental prestressed concrete box girders indicate that, because of self-weight dominance, the effect on deflections absolutely negligible for large spans (>150m). For small spans (<40m) the cyclic creep deflections are not negligible but do not matter since the static creep causes in such bridges upward deflections. However, the cyclic creep is shown to cause

  17. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND COMPUTER SIMULATION ON DYNAMIC BUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-FILLED CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER AXIAL IMPACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shanyuan; Lei Jianping; Zhao Longmao; Cheng Guoqiang; Lu Guoyun

    2000-01-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation on the axial impact buckling of thin metallic cylindrical shells fully filled with water. Low velocity impact tests are carried out by DHR-9401 drop hammer rig. The whole process of dynamic buckling is simulated using LS-DYNA computer code. The consistency between experimental observation and numerical simulation is quite satisfactory. The investigation indicates that quite high internal hydrodynamic pressure occurs inside the shell during the impact process. Under the combined action of the high internal pressure and axial compression plastic buckling occurs easily in the thin walled shells and buckling modes take on regular and axisymmetric wrinkles.

  19. Vascular compression syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czihal, Michael; Banafsche, Ramin; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Koeppel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Dealing with vascular compression syndromes is one of the most challenging tasks in Vascular Medicine practice. This heterogeneous group of disorders is characterised by external compression of primarily healthy arteries and/or veins as well as accompanying nerval structures, carrying the risk of subsequent structural vessel wall and nerve damage. Vascular compression syndromes may severely impair health-related quality of life in affected individuals who are typically young and otherwise healthy. The diagnostic approach has not been standardised for any of the vascular compression syndromes. Moreover, some degree of positional external compression of blood vessels such as the subclavian and popliteal vessels or the celiac trunk can be found in a significant proportion of healthy individuals. This implies important difficulties in differentiating physiological from pathological findings of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging with provocative manoeuvres. The level of evidence on which treatment decisions regarding surgical decompression with or without revascularisation can be relied on is generally poor, mostly coming from retrospective single centre studies. Proper patient selection is critical in order to avoid overtreatment in patients without a clear association between vascular compression and clinical symptoms. With a focus on the thoracic outlet-syndrome, the median arcuate ligament syndrome and the popliteal entrapment syndrome, the present article gives a selective literature review on compression syndromes from an interdisciplinary vascular point of view.

  20. Critical Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, John

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to data compression is developed and applied to multimedia content. This method separates messages into components suitable for both lossless coding and 'lossy' or statistical coding techniques, compressing complex objects by separately encoding signals and noise. This is demonstrated by compressing the most significant bits of data exactly, since they are typically redundant and compressible, and either fitting a maximally likely noise function to the residual bits or compressing them using lossy methods. Upon decompression, the significant bits are decoded and added to a noise function, whether sampled from a noise model or decompressed from a lossy code. This results in compressed data similar to the original. For many test images, a two-part image code using JPEG2000 for lossy coding and PAQ8l for lossless coding produces less mean-squared error than an equal length of JPEG2000. Computer-generated images typically compress better using this method than through direct lossy coding, as do man...

  1. Bifurcation and chaos analysis of nonlinear rotor system with axial-grooved gas-lubricated journal bearing support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Hei, Di; Lü, Yanjun; Wang, Quandai; Müller, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    Axial-grooved gas-lubricated journal bearings have been widely applied to precision instrument due to their high accuracy, low friction, low noise and high stability. The rotor system with axial-grooved gas-lubricated journal bearing support is a typical nonlinear dynamic system. The nonlinear analysis measures have to be adopted to analyze the behaviors of the axial-grooved gas-lubricated journal bearing-rotor nonlinear system as the linear analysis measures fail. The bifurcation and chaos of nonlinear rotor system with three axial-grooved gas-lubricated journal bearing support are investigated by nonlinear dynamics theory. A time-dependent mathematical model is established to describe the pressure distribution in the axial-grooved compressible gas-lubricated journal bearing. The time-dependent compressible gas-lubricated Reynolds equation is solved by the differential transformation method. The gyroscopic effect of the rotor supported by gas-lubricated journal bearing with three axial grooves is taken into consideration in the model of the system, and the dynamic equation of motion is calculated by the modified Wilson- θ-based method. To analyze the unbalanced responses of the rotor system supported by finite length gas-lubricated journal bearings, such as bifurcation and chaos, the bifurcation diagram, the orbit diagram, the Poincaré map, the time series and the frequency spectrum are employed. The numerical results reveal that the nonlinear gas film forces have a significant influence on the stability of rotor system and there are the rich nonlinear phenomena, such as the periodic, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, period-4 and chaotic motion, and so on. The proposed models and numerical results can provide a theoretical direction to the design of axial-grooved gas-lubricated journal bearing-rotor system.

  2. Cyclic Loading of Growing Tissue in a Bioreactor: Mathematical Model and Asymptotic Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.

    2013-10-24

    A simplified 2D mathematical model for tissue growth within a cyclically-loaded tissue engineering scaffold is presented and analyzed. Such cyclic loading has the potential to improve yield and functionality of tissue such as bone and cartilage when grown on a scaffold within a perfusion bioreactor. The cyclic compression affects the flow of the perfused nutrient, leading to flow properties that are inherently unsteady, though periodic, on a timescale short compared with that of tissue proliferation. A two-timescale analysis based on these well-separated timescales is exploited to derive a closed model for the tissue growth on the long timescale of proliferation. Some sample numerical results are given for the final model, and discussed. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  3. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben

    2017-01-01

    is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...... different loading regimes as tension and compression. With this technique, the evolution of dislocation structures in selected grains was followed during an individual load cycle....

  4. In vitro biomechanical comparison of a 4.5 mm narrow locking compression plate construct versus a 4.5 mm limited contact dynamic compression plate construct for arthrodesis of the equine proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Benjamin J; Showalter, Brent L; Elliott, Dawn M; Richardson, Dean W; Getman, Liberty M

    2013-04-01

    To compare the in vitro biomechanical properties of a 4.5 mm narrow locking compression plate (PIP-LCP) with 2 abaxially located transarticular screws and a 4.5 mm limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) with 2 abaxially located transarticular screws using equine pasterns. Experimental. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods for stabilizing adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Adult equine forelimbs (n = 8 pairs). Each pair of PIP joints were randomly instrumented with either a PIP-LCP or LC-DCP plate axially and 2 parasagitally positioned 5.5 mm transarticular screws. The proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx (P1) and the distal aspect of the middle phalanx (P2) were embedded to allow for mounting on a mechanical testing machine. Each construct was tested in both cyclic and subsequently single cycle to failure in 4-point bending. The displacement required to maintain a target load of 1 kN over 3600 cycles at 1 Hz was recorded. Maximum bending moment at failure and construct stiffness was calculated from the single cycle to failure testing. In cyclic testing, significantly more displacement occurred in the LC-DCP (0.46 ± 0.10 mm) than for the PIP-LCP (0.17 ± 0.11 mm) constructs (P = .016). During single cycle testing there was no significant difference in the bending moment between the LC-DCP (148.7 ± 19.4 N m) and the PIP-LCP (164.6 ± 17.6 N m) constructs (P = .553) and the stiffness of the LC-DCP (183.9 ± 26.9 N mm) was significantly lower than for the PIP-LCP (279.8 ± 15.9 N/mm) constructs (P = .011). All constructs failed by fracture of the bone associated with the transarticular screws and subsequently bending of the plates at the middle hole. Use of the PIP-LCP resulted in a stiffer construct of the same strength as the LC-DCP in vitro using this 4-point bending model. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. The cyclical component factor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Hansen, Henrik; Smidt, John

    Forecasting using factor models based on large data sets have received ample attention due to the models' ability to increase forecast accuracy with respect to a range of key macroeconomic variables in the US and the UK. However, forecasts based on such factor models do not uniformly outperform...... the simple autoregressive model when using data from other countries. In this paper we propose to estimate the factors based on the pure cyclical components of the series entering the large data set. Monte Carlo evidence and an empirical illustration using Danish data shows that this procedure can indeed...

  6. Cyclic voltammetry of supported BLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgasova, Renata; Sabo, Jan; Ottova, Angelica L.; Tien, H. T.

    1996-06-01

    The transfer of an electron across a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) is one of the BLMs most exciting processes. A number of well known electron mediators have been investigated using the method of cyclic voltammetry on a Teflon coated platinum wire, the tip of which has been modified by a self-assembled bilayer lipid membrane (s-BLM). The electrical capacitance of the s-BLM system was measured as a function of frequency. The results are discussed in terms of electron transfer and redox reactions.

  7. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  8. Reducing axial mixing in flotation columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Taweel, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Moharam, M.R.; Hassan, T.A. [Al Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); El Mofty, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The axial mixing characteristics of a pilot-scale flotation column were investigated with the objective of identifying means to mitigate the extent of axial mixing that adversely affects its grade/recovery performance. A wide range of design and operating conditions wa investigated and the experimental results, obtained using the dynamic response method, were analyzed using three axial mixing models. The dynamic response of the column can best be described using the axial dispersion model. The results obtained suggest that the value of the axial dispersion coefficient, E{sub L}, can be significantly reduced by judicial selection of hydrodynamic conditions and/or the use of column inserts that suppress the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to the operation of conventional flotation columns. Up to 40% reduction in the value of E{sub L} was thus obtained by using spargers that produce more uniform bubble sizes, while up to 30% reductions were obtained by controlling the residual frother concentration. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  10. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  11. Integrins mediate mechanical compression-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation through endothelial nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction lead to compression of intramuscular arterioles, which, in turn, leads to their vasodilation (a process that may enhance blood flow during muscle activity). Although endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in compression-induced vasodilation, the mechanism whereby arterial compression elicits NO production is unclear. We cannulated isolated swine (n = 39) myocardial (n = 69) and skeletal muscle (n = 60) arteriole segments and exposed them to cyclic transmural pressure generated by either intraluminal or extraluminal pressure pulses to simulate compression in contracting muscle. We found that the vasodilation elicited by internal or external pressure pulses was equivalent; moreover, vasodilation in response to pressure depended on changes in arteriole diameter. Agonist-induced endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation was used to verify endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell viability. Vasodilation in response to cyclic changes in transmural pressure was smaller than that elicited by pharmacological activation of the NO signaling pathway. It was attenuated by inhibition of NO synthase and by mechanical removal of the endothelium. Stemming from previous observations that endothelial integrin is implicated in vasodilation in response to shear stress, we found that function-blocking integrin α5β1 or αvβ3 antibodies attenuated cyclic compression-induced vasodilation and NOx (NO(-)2 and NO(-)3) production, as did an RGD peptide that competitively inhibits ligand binding to some integrins. We therefore conclude that integrin plays a role in cyclic compression-induced endothelial NO production and thereby in the vasodilation of small arteries during cyclic transmural pressure loading.

  12. Prediction by Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Ratsaby, Joel

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that text compression can be achieved by predicting the next symbol in the stream of text data based on the history seen up to the current symbol. The better the prediction the more skewed the conditional probability distribution of the next symbol and the shorter the codeword that needs to be assigned to represent this next symbol. What about the opposite direction ? suppose we have a black box that can compress text stream. Can it be used to predict the next symbol in the stream ? We introduce a criterion based on the length of the compressed data and use it to predict the next symbol. We examine empirically the prediction error rate and its dependency on some compression parameters.

  13. LZW Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheemanth H N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW is a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch. LZW compression is one of the Adaptive Dictionary techniques. The dictionary is created while the data are being encoded. So encoding can be done on the fly. The dictionary need not be transmitted. Dictionary can be built up at receiving end on the fly. If the dictionary overflows then we have to reinitialize the dictionary and add a bit to each one of the code words. Choosing a large dictionary size avoids overflow, but spoils compressions. A codebook or dictionary containing the source symbols is constructed. For 8-bit monochrome images, the first 256 words of the dictionary are assigned to the gray levels 0-255. Remaining part of the dictionary is filled with sequences of the gray levels.LZW compression works best when applied on monochrome images and text files that contain repetitive text/patterns.

  14. Shocklets in compressible flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁湘江; 男俊武; 沈清; 李筠

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of shocklets is studied theoretically and numerically for the stationary fluid, uniform compressible flow, and boundary layer flow. The conditions that trigger shock waves for sound wave, weak discontinuity, and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave in compressible flows are investigated. The relations between the three types of waves and shocklets are further analyzed and discussed. Different stages of the shocklet formation process are simulated. The results show that the three waves in compressible flows will transfer to shocklets only when the initial disturbance amplitudes are greater than the certain threshold values. In compressible boundary layers, the shocklets evolved from T-S wave exist only in a finite region near the surface instead of the whole wavefront.

  15. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  16. Flexibility and electrical stability of polyester-based device electrodes under monotonic and cyclic buckling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoczny, G.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bejitual, T.S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Abell, J.S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Sierros, K.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Cairns, D.R., E-mail: Darran.Cairns@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Kukureka, S.N. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and electrical stability of highly conductive and transparent amorphous indium tin oxide (a-ITO) films coated on polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene naphthalate substrates were investigated by buckling tests with in situ monitoring of the electrical resistance. Monotonic and cyclic loading tests of the ITO/polymer systems were conducted. The results show that monotonic buckling in tension is more critical for electromechanical stability of ITO films than in compression (an increase in electrical resistance was observed at a critical radius of curvature, of ∼ 3 and ∼ 1 mm, respectively for both cases investigated). In contrast, cyclic loading tests show that the compression mode is more critical than the tensile mode which may be a result of the residual stress present in the film structure. Failure of the ITO film was caused by buckling-driven delamination observed using scanning electron microscopy after the tests. The presence of residual stress could mean that buckling-driven delamination is the dominant failure mode for ITO/polymer systems under repeated flexing. In general, comparable electromechanical stability was observed in both cases. Investigating the electromechanical response of such material systems is important for polymer substrate selection and life-time prediction of flexible polyester-based electronic devices. - Highlights: ► Cyclic buckling investigation of flexible electrodes. ► Importance of ITO surface compression mode as opposed to tension. ► Role of ITO residual stresses on controlled buckling investigations.

  17. Compressible Quasi-geostrophic Convection without the Anelastic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, M. A.; Marti, P.; Julien, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid compressibility is known to be an important, non-negligible component of the dynamics of many planetary atmospheres and stellar convection zones, yet imposes severe computational constraints on numerical simulations of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). An often employed reduced form of the NSE are the anelastic equations, which maintain fluid compressibility in the form of a depth varying, adiabatic background state onto which the perturbations cannot feed back. We present the linear theory of compressible rotating convection in a local-area, plane layer geometry. An important dimensionless parameter in convection is the ratio of kinematic viscosity to thermal diffusivity, or the Prandtl number, Pr. It is shown that the anelastic approximation cannot capture the linear instability of gases with Prandtl numbers less than approximately 0.5 in the limit of rapid rotation; the time derivative of the density fluctuation appearing in the conservation of mass equation remains important for these cases and cannot be neglected. An alternative compressible, geostrophically balanced equation set has been derived and preliminary results utilizing this new equation set are presented. Notably, this new set of equations satisfies the Proudman-Taylor theorem on small axial scales even for strongly compressible flows, does not require the flow to be nearly adiabatic, and thus allows for feedback onto the background state.

  18. Deep Blind Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shikha; Singhal, Vanika; Majumdar, Angshul

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of extracting deeply learned features directly from compressive measurements. There has been no work in this area. Existing deep learning tools only give good results when applied on the full signal, that too usually after preprocessing. These techniques require the signal to be reconstructed first. In this work we show that by learning directly from the compressed domain, considerably better results can be obtained. This work extends the recently proposed fram...

  19. Reference Based Genome Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Bobbie; Ochoa, Idoia; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target gen...

  20. Study of an anisotropic polymeric cellular material under compression loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Francisco Caliri Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the influence of micro mechanisms of failure of a cellular material on its phenomenological response. Most of the applications of cellular materials comprise a compression loading. Thus, the study focuses on the influence of the anisotropy in the mechanical behavior of cellular material under cyclic compression loadings. For this study, a Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique (named Correli was applied, as well as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy images were analyzed. The experimental results are discussed in detail for a closed-cell rigid poly (vinyl chloride (PVC foam, showing stress-strain curves in different directions and why the material can be assumed as transversely isotropic. Besides, the present paper shows elastic and plastic Poisson's ratios measured in different planes, explaining why the plastic Poisson's ratios approach to zero. Yield fronts created by the compression loadings in different directions and the influence of spring-back phenomenon on hardening curves are commented, also.

  1. Evaluation of the AZ31 cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour under multiaxial loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Components and structures are designed based in their material’s mechanical properties such as Young's modulus or yield stress among others. Often those properties are obtained under monotonic mechanical tests but rarely under cyclic ones. It is assumed that those properties are maintained during the material fatigue life. However, under cyclic loadings, materials tend to change their mechanical properties, which can improve their strength (material hardening or degrade their mechanical capabilities (material softening or even a mix of both. This type of material behaviour is the so-called cyclic plasticity that is dependent of several factors such as the load type, load level, and microstructure. This subject is of most importance in design of structures and components against fatigue failures in particular in the case of magnesium alloys. Magnesium alloys due to their hexagonal compact microstructure have only 3 slip planes plus 1 twining plane which results in a peculiar mechanical behaviour under cyclic loading conditions especially under multiaxial loadings. Therefore, it is necessary to have a cyclic elastic-plastic model that allows estimating the material mechanical properties for a certain stress level and loading type. In this paper it is discussed several aspects of the magnesium alloys cyclic properties under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions at several stress levels taking into account experimental data. A series of fatigue tests under strain control were performed in hour glass specimens test made of a magnesium alloy, AZ31BF. The strain/stress relation for uniaxial loadings, axial and shear was experimentally obtained and compared with the estimations obtained from the theoretical elastic-plastic models found in the state-of-the-art. Results show that the AZ31BF magnesium alloy has a peculiar mechanical behaviour, which is quite different from the steel one. Moreover, the state of the art cyclic models do not capture in

  2. Atlanto-axial infection after acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A; Lind, C R P; Smith, R J; Kodali, V

    2015-12-11

    A 67-year-old man presented with neck cellulitis following acupuncture for cervical spondylosis. Blood cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Increased neck pain and bacteraemia prompted MRI, which showed atlanto-axial septic arthritis without signs of infection of the tissues between the superficial cellulitic area and the atlanto-axial joint, thus making direct extension of infection unlikely. It is more likely that haematogenous spread of infection resulted in seeding in the atlanto-axial joint, with the proximity of the arthritis and acupuncture site being coincidental. Acupuncture is a treatment option for some indolent pain conditions. As such, acupuncture services are likely to be more frequently utilised. A history of acupuncture is rarely requested by the admitting doctor and seldom offered voluntarily by the patient, especially where the site of infection due to haematogenous spread is distant from the needling location. Awareness of infectious complications following acupuncture can reduce morbidity through early intervention.

  3. Axial symmetry and conformal Killing vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mars, M; Mars, Marc; Senovilla, Jose M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformal symmetry are studied and it is shown that, if there is no further conformal symmetry, the axial Killing vector and the conformal Killing vector must commute. As a direct consequence, in conformally stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes, no restriction is made by assuming that the axial symmetry and the conformal timelike symmetry commute. Furthermore, we prove that in axisymmetric spacetimes with another symmetry (such as stationary and axisymmetric or cylindrically symmetric spacetimes) and a conformal symmetry, the commutator of the axial Killing vector with the two others mush vanish or else the symmetry is larger than that originally considered. The results are completely general and do not depend on Einstein's equations or any particular matter content.

  4. Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.

  5. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics

    2015-11-15

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  6. Organocatalytic atroposelective synthesis of axially chiral styrenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng-Cai; Wu, San; Zhou, Qinghai; Chung, Lung Wa; Ye, Liu; Tan, Bin

    2017-05-01

    Axially chiral compounds are widespread in biologically active compounds and are useful chiral ligands or organocatalysts in asymmetric catalysis. It is well-known that styrenes are one of the most abundant and principal feedstocks and thus represent excellent prospective building blocks for chemical synthesis. Driven by the development of atroposelective synthesis of axially chiral styrene derivatives, we discovered herein the asymmetric organocatalytic approach via direct Michael addition reaction of substituted diones/ketone esters/malononitrile to alkynals. The axially chiral styrene compounds were produced with good chemical yields, enantioselectivities and almost complete E/Z-selectivities through a secondary amine-catalysed iminium activation strategy under mild conditions. Such structural motifs are important precursors for further transformations into biologically active compounds and synthetic useful intermediates and may have potential applications in asymmetric synthesis as olefin ligands or organocatalysts.

  7. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, R; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Zanotti, J M

    2015-01-01

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order $O(a)$ effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  8. The biosynthesis of cyclic carotenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R J; Britton, G; Goodwin, T W

    1967-10-01

    1. The incorporation of (3RS)-[2-(14)C,(4R)-4-(3)H(1)]mevalonic acid into various cyclic carotenes in the fruit of the tomato mutant delta has been studied. The results confirm our previous view that the alpha-ionone ring of alpha-carotene does not arise by isomerization of a beta-ionone residue, and show that the same is also true for the alpha-ionone ring of delta- and in-carotene and alpha-zeacarotene. 2. The incorporation of (3RS)-[2-(14)C,2-(3)H(2)]mevalonic acid into alpha- and beta-carotene in carrot roots has been studied. The results show that the beta-ionone ring of beta-carotene does not arise by isomerization of the alpha-ionone residue of alpha-carotene. 3. These experiments show that alpha- and beta-ionone rings in cyclic carotenes are formed independently, probably by elimination of different protons from the same carbonium ion intermediates.

  9. [Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.

  10. Cyclic Cohomology of the Weyl Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Willwacher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We give an explicit formula for symplectically basic representatives of the cyclic cohomology of the Weyl algebra. This paper can be seen as cyclic addendum to the paper by Feigin, Felder and Shoikhet, where the analogous Hochschild case was treated. As an application, we prove a generalization of a Theorem of Nest and Tsygan concerning the relation of the Todd class and the cyclic cohomology of the differential operators on a complex manifold.

  11. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  12. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan VOICU; Li, Mengran

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive...

  13. Alternative Compression Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  14. Water Ingestion Into Axial Flow Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    AFAPL-TR-76-77 WATER INGESTION INTO AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS PURDUE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONA UTICS S WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA 47907...CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TITL _07" 0 EREO Final i-7 0 Water Ingestion Into Axial Flow Compressorse 1 Auq 75 -: 31 Au0 a6 114o’ H-WPAFB-T-76-l:P ."CO TACT...necessary and Idenify by block number) Water ingestion , turbomachinery, and jet engines. 20 ABSTRACT (Contlinue on tov.ras side Hi necessary and Identify

  15. «FLARES» IN AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.

  16. Optimization of Axial Intensity Point Spread Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; GAN Fuxi; CHEN Zhongyu

    2001-01-01

    It is known that for the converged laser beam, the axial intensity distribution corresponds to a Gaussian curve, that is, the intensity on the focal plane is the peak intensity. When it defocuses, the intensity would decrease rapidly. In optical data storage, for instance, we expect the intensity within a certain distance to be almost equal. In this paper, we propose to use a pure phase superresolution apodizer to optimize the axial intensity distribution of the converged laser beam and at the same time improve the resolution. The intensity point spread function remains almost identical in a wide range within the focal depth.

  17. Axial Nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Harraud, P A; Guichon, P; Jansen, K; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length $L=2.1$ fm and $L=2.8$ fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely $a=0.089$ fm, $a=0.070$ fm and $a=0.056$ fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  18. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  19. Scalar Resonances in Axially Symmetric Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F

    2015-01-01

    We study properties of resonant solutions to the scalar wave equation in several axially symmetric spacetimes. We prove that non-axial resonant modes do not exist neither in the Lanczos dust cylinder, the $(2+1)$ extreme BTZ spacetime nor in a class of simple rotating wormhole solutions. Moreover, we find unstable solutions to the wave equation in the Lanczos dust cylinder and in the $r^2 <0$ region of the extreme $(2+1)$ BTZ spacetime, two solutions that possess closed timelike curves. Similarities with previous results obtained for the Kerr spacetime are explored.

  20. Axial buckling scrutiny of doubly orthogonal slender nanotubes via nonlocal continuum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Keivan [K.N. Toosi University of Technolog, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Using nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, buckling behavior of elastically embedded Doubly orthogonal single-walled carbon nanotubes (DOSWCNTs) is studied. The nonlocal governing equations are obtained. In fact, these are coupled fourth-order integroordinary differential equations which are very difficult to be solved explicitly. As an alternative solution, Galerkin approach in conjunction with assumed mode method is employed, and the axial compressive buckling load of the nanosystem is evaluated. For DOSWCNTs with simply supported tubes, the influences of the slenderness ratio, aspect ratio, intertube free space, small-scale parameter, and properties of the surrounding elastic matrix on the axial buckling load of the nanosystem are addressed. The proposed model could be considered as a pivotal step towards better understanding the buckling behavior of more complex nanosystems such as doubly orthogonal membranes or even jungles of carbon nanotubes.

  1. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially....... Thus, several CPT-based methods have been proposed for the design of offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil such as the UWA-05, ICP-05, and NGI-99 methods. This article treats a case study where the API-method as well as the UWA-05 and NGI-99 methods are compared using CPT-data from an offshore...... location with dense to very dense sand. The design of the piles in the jacket foundation shows that API-00 for both the tension and the compression loads predicted much longer piles than the CPT-based methods. Variation of the pile length and pile diameter shows that NGI-99 and UWA-05 predicts almost...

  2. Experimental research on behavior of 460 MPa high strength steel I-section columns under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Shi, Gang; Shi, Yongjiu

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the seismic behavior of I-section columns made of 460 MPa high strength steel (HSS), six specimens were tested under constant axial load and cyclic horizontal load. The specimens were designed with different width-to-thickness ratios and loaded under different axial load ratios. For each specimen, the failure mode was observed and hysteretic curve was measured. Comparison of different specimens on hysteretic characteristic, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity were further investigated. Test results showed that the degradation of bearing capacity was due to local buckling of flange and web. Under the same axial load ratio, as width-to-thickness ratio increased, the deformation area of local buckling became smaller. And also, displacement level at both peak load and failure load became smaller. In addition, the full extent of hysteretic curve, energy dissipation capacity, ultimate story drift angle decreased, and capacity degradation occurred more rapidly with the increase of width-to-thickness ratio or axial load ratio. Based on the capacity of story drift angle, limiting values which shall not be exceeded are suggested respectively for flange and web plate of 460 MPa HSS I-section columns when used in SMFs and in IMFs in the case of axial load ratio no more than 0.2. Such values should be smaller when the axial load ratio increases.

  3. Real-time monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment using axial strain and axial-shear strain elastograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rongmin; Thittai, Arun K

    2014-03-01

    Axial strain elastograms (ASEs) have been found to help visualize sonographically invisible thermal lesions. However, in most studies involving high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced thermal lesions, elastography imaging was performed separately later, after the lesion was formed. In this article, the feasibility of monitoring, in real time, tissue elasticity variation during HIFU treatment and immediately thereafter is explored using quasi-static elastography. Further, in addition to ASEs, we also explore the use of simultaneously acquired axial-shear strain elastograms (ASSEs) for HIFU lesion visualization. Experiments were performed on commercial porcine liver samples in vitro. The HIFU experiments were conducted at two applied acoustic power settings, 35 and 20 W. The experimental setup allowed us to interrupt the HIFU pulse momentarily several different times during treatment to perform elastographic compression and data acquisition. At the end of the experiments, the samples were cut along the imaging plane and photographed to compare size and location of the formed lesion with those visualized on ASEs and ASSEs. Single-lesion and multiple-lesion experiments were performed to assess the contribution of ASEs and ASSEs to lesion visualization and treatment monitoring tasks. At both power settings, ASEs and ASSEs provided accurate location information during HIFU treatment. At the low-power setting case, ASEs and ASSEs provide accurate lesion size in real-time monitoring. Lesion appearance in ASEs and ASSEs was affected by the cavitation bubbles produced at the high-power setting. The results further indicate that the cavitation bubbles influence lesion appearance more in ASEs than in ASSEs. Both ASEs and ASSEs provided accurate size information after a waiting period that allowed the cavitation bubbles to disappear. The results indicate that ASSEs not only improve lesion visualization and size measurement of a single lesion, but, under certain

  4. Molecular Simulations of Cyclic Loading Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Atomistic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT in many engineered bionanomaterials and electromechanical devices have imposed an urgent need on the understanding of the fatigue behavior and mechanism of CNT under cyclic loading conditions. To date, however, very little work has been done in this field. This paper presents the results of a theoretical study on the behavior of CNT subject to cyclic tensile and compressive loads using quasi-static molecular simulations. The Atomistic Finite Element Method (AFEM has been applied in the study. It is shown that CNT exhibited extreme cyclic loading resistance with yielding strain and strength becoming constant within limited number of loading cycles. Viscoelastic behavior including nonlinear elasticity, hysteresis, preconditioning (stress softening, and large strain have been observed. Chiral symmetry was found to have appreciable effects on the cyclic loading behavior of CNT. Mechanisms of the observed behavior have been revealed by close examination of the intrinsic geometric and mechanical features of tube structure. It was shown that the accumulated residual defect-free morphological deformation was the primary mechanism responsible for the cyclic failure of CNT, while the bond rotating and stretching experienced during loading/unloading played a dominant role on the strength, strain and modulus behavior of CNT.

  5. Retro-odontoid ''ghost'' pseudotumours in atlanto-axial instability caused by rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenez, J. (Dept. of Neurology, Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Turoczy, L. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, National Inst. of Traumatology, Budapest (Hungary)); Barsi, P. (Dept. of Neurology, Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Veres, R. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, National Inst. of Traumatology, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-05-01

    Among 27 cases of marked atlanto-axial instability investigated in the last 10 years we found three with reducible dislocation, in which a cystic 'ghost' pseudo-tumours appeared behind the odontoid, maintaining cord compression even in the reduced position, thus influencing the strategy of operative treatment. The cervical spine and the craniocervical region were examined by conventional tomogrpaphy, myelotomography, CT, CT myelography (following melography), and recently in some cases with MRI. (orig./UWA)

  6. Cell reorientation under cyclic stretching

    CERN Document Server

    Livne, Ariel; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical cues from the extracellular microenvironment play a central role in regulating the structure, function and fate of living cells. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the mechanisms and processes underlying this crucial cellular mechanosensitivity remains a fundamental open problem. Here we provide a novel framework for addressing cellular sensitivity and response to external forces by experimentally and theoretically studying one of its most striking manifestations -- cell reorientation to a uniform angle in response to cyclic stretching of the underlying substrate. We first show that existing approaches are incompatible with our extensive measurements of cell reorientation. We then propose a fundamentally new theory that shows that dissipative relaxation of the cell's passively-stored, two-dimensional, elastic energy to its minimum actively drives the reorientation process. Our theory is in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete temporal reorientation dynamics of individual cells, measu...

  7. Excitation modes in non-axial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.; Ginnochio, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Excitation modes of non-axial quadrupole shapes are investigated in the framework of interacting boson models. Both {gamma}-unstable and {gamma}-rigid nuclear shapes are considered for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 6 refs.

  8. Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohle, PNM; Wurzer, HAL; Seelen, PJ; Kingma, LM; Go, KG

    1999-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural schwannom

  9. Knowledge Based Design of Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh kumar.R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry with highly competitive market the time to design and delivery is shortening every day. Pressure on delivering robust product with cost economy is in demand in each development. Even though technology is older, it is new for each customer requirement and highly non-liner to fit one in another place. Gas turbine is considered one of a complex design in the aircraft system. It involves experts to be grouped with designers of various segments to arrive the best output. The time is crucial to achieve a best design and it needs knowledge automation incorporated with CAD/CAE tools. In the present work an innovative idea in the form of Knowledge Based Engineering for axial compressor is proposed, this includes the fundamental design of axial compressor integrated with artificial intelligence in the form of knowledge capturing and programmed with high level language (Visual Basis.Net and embedded into CATIA v5. This KBE frame work eases out the design and modeling of axial compressor design and produces 3D modeling for further flow simulation with fluid dynamic in Ansys-Fluent. Most of the aerospace components are developed through simulation driven product development and in this case it is established for axial compressor.

  10. Active axial stress in mouse aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agianniotis, A; Rachev, A; Stergiopulos, N

    2012-07-26

    The study verifies the development of active axial stress in the wall of mouse aorta over a range of physiological loads when the smooth muscle cells are stimulated to contract. The results obtained show that the active axial stress is virtually independent of the magnitude of pressure, but depends predominately on the longitudinal stretch ratio. The dependence is non-monotonic and is similar to the active stress-stretch dependence in the circumferential direction reported in the literature. The expression for the active axial stress fitted to the experimental data shows that the maximum active stress is developed at longitudinal stretch ratio 1.81, and 1.56 is the longitudinal stretch ratio below which the stimulation does not generate active stress. The study shows that the magnitude of active axial stress is smaller than the active circumferential stress. There is need for more experimental investigations on the active response of different types of arteries from different species and pathological conditions. The results of these studies can promote building of refined constrictive models in vascular rheology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encke, W.

    1947-01-01

    A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.

  12. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...

  13. Tensile stresses generated in pharmaceutical tablets by opposing compressive line loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K R; Newton, J M; Mokhtary-Saghafi, S; Davies, P N

    2007-03-01

    The distribution of tensile stress, across the splitting plane, has been investigated for the case when circular and square tablets are subjected to opposing compressive line loads acting in the through thickness direction. This type of loading is referred to in the paper as axial compression. Analytical solutions for the two-dimensional problem of a rectangular strip have been used to investigate the variation of stress in the through thickness direction and to consider the effects of load spreading. Three-dimensional finite element analysis has been used to investigate the variation in stress across the diameter, or breadth, of the tablets. It is shown that the magnitude of the tensile stress varies significantly throughout and that load spreading has an important influence on the stress distribution in the through thickness direction. Experiments have been carried out with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102) material for circular and square tablets to determine their breaking loads when subjected to axial compression and diametral compression. The experimental results show higher breaking loads for the case of axial compression. It is concluded that the platen contact width must be known in order to evaluate the exact value of the tensile strength of the tablet material when applying this test procedure.

  14. Thermal conductivity and compressive strain of foam neoprene insulation under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Erik; Mollendorf, Joseph; Pendergast, David

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to show that the thermal properties of foam neoprene under hydrostatic pressure cannot be predicted by theoretical means, and that uni-axial pressure cannot simulate hydrostatic compression. The thermal conductivity and compressive strain of foam neoprene were measured under hydrostatic pressure. In parallel, uni-axial compressive strain data were collected. The experimental set-up and data were put into perspective with past published studies. It was shown that uni-axial compression yielded strains 20-25% greater than did hydrostatic compression. This suggests the need for direct hydrostatic pressure measurement. For comparison to hydrostatic experimental data, a series of thermal conductivity theories of two phase composites based on particulate phase geometry were utilized. Due to their dependence on the porosity and constituent thermal conductivities, a model to predict porosity under hydrostatic pressure was used and an empirical correlation was derived to calculate the thermal conductivity of pure neoprene rubber from experimental data. It was shown that, although some agreement between experimental data and thermal conductivity theories was present, no particular theory can be used because they all fail to model the complex structure of the pores. It was therefore concluded that an experimental programme, such as reported here, is necessary for direct measurement.

  15. Axisymmetric compressive buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under different boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Qi Sun; Kai-Xin Liu; You-Shi Hong

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the axisymmetric compressive buckling behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under different boundary conditions based on continuum mechanics model.A buckling condition is derived for determining the critical buckling load and associated buckling mode of MWNTs,and numerical results are worked out for MWNTs with different aspect ratios under fixed and simply supported boundary conditions.It is shown that the critical buckling load of MWNTs is insensitive to boundary conditions,except for nanotubes with smaller radii and very small aspect ratio.The associated buckling modes for different layers of MWNTs are in-phase,and the buckling displacement ratios for different layers are independent of the boundary conditions and the length of MWNTs.Moreover,for simply supported boundary conditions,the critical buckling load is compared with the corresponding one for axial compressive buckling,which indicates that the critical buckling load for axial compressive buckling can be well approximated by the corresponding one for axisymmetric compressive buckling.In particular,for axial compressive buckling of double-walled carbon nanotubes,an analytical expression is given for approximating the critical buckling load.The present investigation may be of some help in further understanding the mechanical properties of MWNTs.

  16. Cyclic Deformation Behavior and Fatigue Crack Propagation of Low Carbon Steel Prestrained in Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests were performed on low carbon steel plate. In the tension fatigue tests, two angle values (ϕ=0° and ϕ=45°, ϕ is the angle between the loading and the rolling direction have been chosen. The influence of strain path change on the subsequent initial work softening rate and the saturation stress has been investigated. Dislocation microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the strain amount of preloading in tension has obviously affected the cyclic softening phenomenon and the initial cyclic softening rate. It was observed that the reloading axial stress for ϕ=45° case increased more than that of ϕ=0° case, due to the anisotropism of Q235. In the fatigue crack propagation tests, the experimental results show that with increasing the pretension deformation degree, the fatigue crack growth rate increases, especially at the near threshold section.

  17. Conformational analysis of cyclic sulphites. 2-Oxo 1,3,2-dioxathiane-4-spiro-4- tert-butyl-cyclohexanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaux, Louis; Koudsi, Yahia; Maroni, Pierre

    Three series of 4-spirosulphites, a new class of cyclic sulphites, were synthesized and five couples of diastereoisomers isolated. Their structural analysis, using 1H NMR coupling constants and SO stretching vibration as conformational probes, shows a large variety of ananchomeric chair forms and multicomponent equilibria for the cyclic sulphite moiety, the cyclohexane part of the molecule remaining in the chair form. Related to the occurrence of severe interactions involving the 5-methyl or 6- tert. butyl substituent, several twist forms were encountered, with 2,5-axis and isoclinal SO or 1,4-axis and axial or equatorial SO as a consequence of the weak free energy difference between chair and twist conformations in the cyclic sulphite series.

  18. Buckling of un-stiffened cylindrical shell under non-uniform axial conpressive stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌永

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent research advances and trends in the area of stability of un-stiffened circular cylindrical shells subjected to general non-uniform axial compressive stresses. Only the more important and interesting aspects of the research, judged from a personal viewpoint, are discussed. They can be crudely classified into four categories: (1) shells subjected to non-uniform loads; (2) shells on discrete supports; (3) shells with intended cutouts/holes; and (4) shells with non-uniform settlements.

  19. Analysis of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressor by actuator disk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressors. The analysis is based on two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. It is applied to a rotor blade row by considering a cascade of airfoils. The effects of shock waves and flow separation are included in the model. Calculations show that the model predicts the onset, in an unshrouded rotor, of a bending flutter mode that exhibits many of the characteristics of supersonic stall bending flutter. The validity of the analysis for predicting this flutter mode is demonstrated.

  20. BUCKLING BEHAVIOUR OF SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES UNDER AXIAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Litak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a single walled Carbon Nanotube under an axially directed compressive line loading applied at both of its edges. The expected buckling behavior we study by application of a molecular computation approach. We formulate a global potential and search for its minimum to obtain the equilibrium configuration. Using besides the main parameter, which is the value of the loading, as second parameter the diameter of the tube, we are able to define the critical value of the diameter, for which we obtain the coincident case of local shell buckling.

  1. Cyclic electrophoretic and chromatographic separation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Berg, van den Albert; Manz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A review is given of the application of cyclic analytical methods in capillary electroseparation (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) systems. Cyclic methods have been used since the early sixties in chromatographic systems to overcome pressure limitations to resolution. From the early nineties on th

  2. Cyclicality in Losses on Bank Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Keijsers (Bart); B.F. Diris (Bart); H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cyclicality in the losses of bank loans is important for bank risk management. Because loans have a different risk profile than bonds, evidence of cyclicality in bond losses need not apply to loans. Based on unique data we show that the default rate and loss given defau

  3. Cyclic malyl anthocyanins in Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, M; Koshioka, M; Yoshida, H; Kan, Y; Fukui, Y; Koike, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-12-01

    3,5-Di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) pelargonidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate and a previously reported cyanidin equivalent, 3,5-di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) cyanidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate were identified from petals of deep pink and red-purple flower cultivars of Dianthus caryophyllus, respectively.

  4. Beam Steering, Focusing and Compression for Warm-Dense Matter Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anders, A.; Cohen, R. H.; Coleman, J. E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B. G.; Roy, P. K.; Sefkow, A. B.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the Warm Dense Matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Axial compression leading to ˜100X current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching, but still short of, the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We present measurements from the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including: (1) axial compression and radial focusing; (2) spatial and temporal distribution of energy deposition at the target plane; and (3) centroid motion of the beam spot through the pulse.

  5. Compressive Behavior of Concrete Confined with GFRP Tubes and Steel Spirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results and analytical modeling of the axial compressive behavior of concrete cylinders confined by both glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP tube and inner steel spiral reinforcement (SR. The concrete structure is termed as GFRP–SR confined concrete. The number of GFRP layers (1, 2, and 3 layers and volumetric ratios of SR (1.5% and 3% were the experimental variables. Test results indicate that both GFRP tube and SR confinement remarkably increase the ultimate compressive strength, energy dissipation capacity, and ductility of concrete. The volumetric ratio of SR has a more pronounced influence on the energy dissipation capacity of confined concrete with more GFRP layers. In addition, a stress–strain model is presented to predict the axial compressive behavior of GFRP–SR confined concrete. Comparisons between the analytical results obtained using the proposed model and experimental results are also presented.

  6. SYMBOLIC VERSOR COMPRESSION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    In an inner-product space, an invertible vector generates a reflection with re-spect to a hyperplane, and the Clifford product of several invertible vectors, called a versor in Clifford algebra, generates the composition of the corresponding reflections, which is an orthogonal transformation. Given a versor in a Clifford algebra, finding another sequence of invertible vectors of strictly shorter length but whose Clifford product still equals the input versor, is called versor compression. Geometrically, versor compression is equivalent to decomposing an orthogoual transformation into a shorter sequence of reflections. This paper proposes a simple algorithm of compressing versors of symbolic form in Clifford algebra. The algorithm is based on computing the intersections of lines with planes in the corresponding Grassmann-Cayley algebra, and is complete in the case of Euclidean or Minkowski inner-product space.

  7. Image compression for dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, John P.; Sneiderman, Charles; Colaianni, Joseph; Hood, Antoinette F.

    1990-07-01

    Color 35mm photographic slides are commonly used in dermatology for education, and patient records. An electronic storage and retrieval system for digitized slide images may offer some advantages such as preservation and random access. We have integrated a system based on a personal computer (PC) for digital imaging of 35mm slides that depict dermatologic conditions. Such systems require significant resources to accommodate the large image files involved. Methods to reduce storage requirements and access time through image compression are therefore of interest. This paper contains an evaluation of one such compression method that uses the Hadamard transform implemented on a PC-resident graphics processor. Image quality is assessed by determining the effect of compression on the performance of an image feature recognition task.

  8. Products in Hopf-Cyclic Cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaygun, Atabey

    2007-01-01

    We construct several pairings in Hopf-cyclic cohomology of (co)module (co)algebras with arbitrary coefficients. The key ideas instrumental in constructing these pairings are the derived functor interpretation of Hopf-cyclic and equivariant cyclic (co)homology, and the Yoneda interpretation of Ext-groups. As a special case of one of these pairings, we recover the Connes-Moscovici characteristic map in Hopf-cyclic cohomology. We also prove that this particular pairing, along with few others, would stay the same if we replace the derived category of (co)cyclic modules with the homotopy category of (special) towers of $X$-complexes, or the derived category of mixed complexes.

  9. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  10. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  11. Image data compression investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    NASA continuous communications systems growth has increased the demand for image transmission and storage. Research and analysis was conducted on various lossy and lossless advanced data compression techniques or approaches used to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of high volume stellite image data such as pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM (DPCM), transform coding, hybrid coding, interframe coding, and adaptive technique. In this presentation, the fundamentals of image data compression utilizing two techniques which are pulse code modulation (PCM) and differential PCM (DPCM) are presented along with an application utilizing these two coding techniques.

  12. Microwave Radiation Effect on Axial Fluid Permeability in False Heartwood of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Koiš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of microwave radiation on the fluid permeability and compression strength parallel to the grain of beech false heartwood. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was selected, and samples of false heartwood with dimensions of 30×20×20 mm3 were used. The microwave treatment was carried out in a laboratory device at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The testing samples were divided into three groups (untreated, treated at 20-s intervals, and treated at 30-s intervals. The permeability was measured in the axial direction using distilled water. The coefficient of specific permeability was calculated using Darcy’s law. The results showed that the coefficient of specific permeability increased by up to 159% in comparison with untreated samples. The compression strength parallel to the grain decreased by up to 15%.

  13. Image compression in local helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims. We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods. We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results. The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still...

  14. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Alfonse T.

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hype...

  15. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Alfonse T.

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hype...

  16. Heavy vector and axial-vector mesons in hot and dense asymmetric strange hadronic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Chhabra, Rahul

    2015-09-01

    We calculate the effects of finite density and temperature of isospin asymmetric strange hadronic matter, for different strangeness fractions, on the in-medium properties of vector (D*,Ds*,B*,Bs*) and axial-vector (D1,D1 s,B1,B1 s) mesons, using the chiral hadronic SU(3) model and QCD sum rules. We focus on the evaluation of in-medium mass-shift and shift in decay constant of above vector and axial-vector mesons. In the quantum chromodynamics sum rule approach, the properties, e.g., the masses and decay constants of vector and axial-vector mesons are written in terms of quark and gluon condensates. These quark and gluon condensates are evaluated in the present work within the chiral SU(3) model, through the medium modification of scalar-isoscalar fields σ and ζ , the scalar-isovector field δ , and the scalar dilaton field χ , in the strange hadronic medium which includes both nucleons as well as hyperons. As we shall see in detail, the masses and decay constants of heavy vector and axial-vector mesons are affected significantly from isospin asymmetry and the strangeness fraction of the medium, and these modifications may influence the experimental observables produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. The results of present investigations of in-medium properties of vector and axial-vector mesons at finite density and temperature of strange hadronic medium may be helpful for understanding the experimental data from heavy-ion collision experiments in particular for the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment of the FAIR facility at GSI, Germany.

  17. A space-charge-neutralizing plasma for beam drift compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Coleman, J. E.; Gilson, E. P.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; Sefkow, A. B.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2009-07-01

    Simultaneous radial focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams are being studied to heat matter to the warm dense matter, or strongly coupled plasma regime. Higher compression ratios can be achieved if the beam compression takes place in a plasma-filled drift region in which the space-charge forces of the ion beam are neutralized. Recently, a system of four cathodic arc plasma sources has been fabricated and the axial plasma density has been measured. A movable plasma probe array has been developed to measure the radial and axial plasma distribution inside and outside of a ˜10-cm-long final focus solenoid (FFS). Measured data show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter ˜5 mm along the solenoid axis when the FFS is powered with an 8 T field. Measured plasma density of ⩾1×10 13 cm -3 meets the challenge of np/ Znb>1, where np and nb are the plasma and ion beam density, respectively, and Z is the mean ion charge state of the beam ions.

  18. Advanced numerical studies of the neutralized drift compression of intense ion beam pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Sefkow

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal bunch compression of intense ion beams for warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion applications occurs by imposing an axial velocity tilt onto an ion beam across the acceleration gap of a linear induction accelerator, and subsequently allowing the beam to drift through plasma in order to neutralize its space-charge and current as the pulse compresses. The detailed physics and implications of acceleration gap effects and focusing aberration on optimum longitudinal compression are quantitatively reviewed using particle-in-cell simulations, showing their dependence on many system parameters. Finite-size gap effects are shown to result in compression reduction, due to an increase in the effective longitudinal temperature imparted to the beam, and a decrease in intended fractional tilt. Sensitivity of the focal plane quality to initial longitudinal beam temperature is explored, where slower particles are shown to experience increased levels of focusing aberration compared to faster particles. A plateau effect in axial compression is shown to occur for larger initial pulse lengths, where the increases in focusing aberration over the longer drift lengths involved dominate the increases in relative compression, indicating a trade-off between current compression and pulse duration. The dependence on intended fractional tilt is also discussed and agrees well with theory. A balance between longer initial pulse lengths and larger tilts is suggested, since both increase the current compression, but have opposite effects on the final pulse length, drift length, and amount of longitudinal focusing aberration. Quantitative examples are outlined that explore the sensitive dependence of compression on the initial kinetic energy and thermal distribution of the beam particles. Simultaneous transverse and longitudinal current density compression can be achieved in the laboratory using a strong final-focus solenoid, and simulations addressing the effects

  19. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at N

  20. The role of thermal shock in cyclic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of thermal shock on the spalling of oxides from the surfaces of several commercial alloys was determined. The average cooling rate was varied from approximately 240 C/sec to less than 1.0 C/sec during cyclic oxidation tests in air. The tests consisted of one hundred cycles of one hour at the maximum temperature (1100 or 1200 C). The alloys were HOS-875, TD-Ni, TD-NiCrAl, IN-601, IN-702, and B-1900 plus Hf. Thermal shock resulted in deformation of the metal which in turn resulted, in most cases, in changing the oxide failure mode from compressive to tensile. Tensile failures were characterized by cracking of the oxide and little loss, while compressive failures were characterized by explosive loss of platelets of oxide. The thermally shocked oxides spalled less than the slow cooled samples with the exception of TD-NiCrAl. This material failed in a brittle manner rather than by plastic deformation. The HOS-875 and the TD-Ni did not spall during either type of cooling. Thus, the effect of thermal shock on spalling is determined, in large part, by the mechanical properties of the metal.