Lenaerts, Isabelle; Walker, Glenda A; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Gems, David; Vanfleteren, Jacques R
In Caenorhabditis elegans, several manipulations that affect nutrition slow development, reduce fecundity, and increase life span. These are viewed as dietary restriction (DR) and include culture in semidefined, nutrient-rich liquid medium that is axenic (i.e., there is no microbial food source). Here we describe convenient ways to exert DR by culture on agar plates containing axenic medium. We used these to explore whether effects of axenic culture really reflect DR. Our results imply that major nutrient components of axenic medium, and overall caloric content, are not limiting for life span. However, adding growth-arrested Escherichia coli as an additional food source rescued the effects of axenic culture. We then sought to identify the component of E. coli that is critical for normal C. elegans nutrition using add-back experiments. Our results suggest that C. elegans has a nutritional requirement for live, metabolically active microbes or, possibly, an unidentified, heat-labile, nonsoluble component present in live microbes.
Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh
Pulp paper mill effluent has high pollution load due to presence of lignin and its derivatives as major colouring and polluting constituents. In this study, two lignin degrading bacteria IITRL1 and IITRSU7 were isolated and identified as Citrobacter freundii (FJ581026) and Citrobacter sp. (FJ581023), respectively. In degradation study by axenic and mixed culture, mixed bacterial culture was found more effective compared to axenic culture as it decolourized 85 and 62% of synthetic and kraft lignin whereas in axenic conditions, bacterium IITRL1 and IITRSU7 decolourized 61 and 64% synthetic and 49 and 54% kraft lignin, respectively. Further, the mixed bacterial culture also showed the removal of 71, 58% TOC; 78, 53% AOX; 70, 58% COD and 74, 58% lignin from synthetic and kraft lignin, respectively. The ligninolytic enzyme was characterized as manganese peroxidase by SDS-PAGE yielding a single band of 43 KDa. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples showed reduction as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the degradation as well as transformation of compounds. Further, in GC-MS analysis of synthetic and kraft lignin degraded samples, hexadecanoic acid was found as recalcitrant compounds while 2,4,6-trichloro-phenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-phenol and pentachloro-phenol were detected as new metabolites.
López, Mariela; Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Dr. Francisco J. Triana Alonso”, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Escuela de Bioanálisis, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Licenciada en Bioanálisis; Rivera, María G.; Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Dr. Francisco J. Triana Alonso”, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Licenciada en Bioanálisis.; Viettri, Mercedes; Biomédicas “Dr. Francisco J. Triana Alonso”, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Licenciada en Bioanálisis.; Lares, María; Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Dr. Francisco J. Triana Alonso”, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Técnico superior universitario en Química.; Morocoima, Antonio; Centro de Medicina Tropical de Oriente, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Oriente. Anzoátegui, Venezuela. Médico cirujano, magíster en Parasitología.; Herrera, Leidi; Instituto de Zoología y Ecología Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela. Biólogo, doctora en Ciencias.; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Dr. Francisco J. Triana Alonso”, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo. Maracay, Venezuela. Licenciada en bioanálisis, doctora en Biología Molecular.
Objectives. To compare two extraction protocols of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA for use in DNA amplification of kinetoplast minicircles (kDNA) through the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Materials and methods. Epimastigotes of T. cruzi were cultured in axenic conditions and masses from 1.5 to 100 x 106 parasites were obtained. DNA extraction was performed using two protocols: extraction with organic solvents (phenol/chloroform), and with resin (Chelex®100), from different parasitic sed...
刘会莲; 帅莉; 段德麟; 徐怀恕
After discarding marine microorganisms from conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra haitanensis, their axenic cultures were obtained through treatment with antibiotics. Antibiotic disc tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of each antibiotic in eliminating contaminating microorganisms. Five of 12 antibiotics tested were selected and used to produce the axenic cultures in this study, which showed that 200 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 μg/mL penicillin, 252 μg/mL kanamycin, 30 μg/mL neomycin, 200 μg/mL chloramphenicol were effective concentrations for eliminating microorganisms from conchocelis when antibiotics were added singly step by step; whereas simultaneous combination of 150 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 (or 350) μg/mL penicillin, 150 (or 250) μg/mL kanamycin, 70 μg/mL neomycin and 200 μg/mL chloramphenicol was also effective for producing the axenic cultures. However, it seemed that the treatments with antibiotics applied individually were more feasible than those with all antibiotics added at the same time. This may be due to the combined inhibiting effect of antibiotics on the growth and development of conchocelis.
Liu, Hui-Lian; Shuai, Li; Duan, De-Lin; Xu, Huai-Shu
After discarding marine microorganisms from conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra haitanensis, their axenic cultures were obtained through treatment with antibiotics. Antibiotic disc tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of each antibiotic in eliminating contaminating microorganisms. Five of 12 antibiotics tested were selected and used to produce the axenic cultures in this study, which showed that 200 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 μg/mL penicillin, 252 μg/mL kanamycin, 30 μg/mL chloramphenicol were effective concentrations for eliminating microorganisms from conchocelis when antibiotics were added singly step by step; whereas simultaneous combination of 150 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 (or 350) μg/mL penicillin, 150 (or 250) μg/mL kanamycin, 70 μg/mL neomycin and 200 μg/mL chloramphenicol was also effective for producing the axenic cultures. However, it seemed that the treatments with antibiotics applied individually were more feasible than those will all antibiotics added at the same time. This may be due to the combined inhibiting effect of antibiotics on the growth and development of conchocelis.
Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Bruce A; Ramsay, Juliana A
This is the first study to report that bacteria from the genera Ochrobactrum, Brevundimonas and Bacillus can be isolated by growth on naphthenic acids (NAs) extracted from oil sands process water (OSPW). These pure cultures were screened for their ability to use a range of aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic NA surrogates in 96-well microtiter plates using water-soluble tetrazolium redox dyes (Biolog Redox Dye H) as the indicator of metabolic activity. Of the three cultures, Ochrobactrum showed most metabolic activity on the widest range of NA surrogates. Brevundomonas and especially Ochrobactrum had higher metabolic activity on polycyclic aromatic compounds than other classes of NA surrogates. Bacillus also oxidized a wide range of NA surrogates but not as well as Ochrobactrum. Using this method to characterize NA utilisation, one can identify which NAs or NA classes in OSPW are more readily degraded. Since aromatic NAs have been shown to have an estrogenic effect and polycyclic monoaromatic compounds have been suggested to pose the greatest environmental threat among the NAs, these bacterial genera may play an important role in detoxification of OSPW. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that bacteria belonging to the genera Ochrobactrum and Bacillus can also degrade surrogates of tricyclic NAs.
Ortiz, Sylvia; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Saavedra, Miguel; Solari, Aldo
The etiologic agent of Chagas disease is Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan whose life cycle involves obligatory passage through vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in a series of stages. The aim of this study was to explore the transferability of mixed discrete typing units (DTUs) of T. cruzi present in chronic chagasic patients when passed through an invertebrate host during xenodiagnosis (XD) and then when transferred to axenic cultures to obtain T. cruzi isolates. DTUs of T. cruzi present in these two hosts and axenic cultures were identified by kDNA PCR amplification and subsequent hybridization with DTU-specific probes. Mixtures of Tc I, Tc II, Tc V and Tc VI DTUs were detected in blood samples. However as a result of XD and axenic cultures it was possible to identify mostly Tc V. We conclude that the transferability of an isolate of T.cruzi derived from mixed DTUs present in human blood depends upon the starved invertebrate host used for xenodiagnosis.
KOOISTRA, WHCF; BOELEBOS, SA; STAM, WT
Axenic cultures of the tropical green seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (C. Agardh) Boergesen were obtained by cutting 2-mm apical tips from fast-growing unialgal filaments and incubating them in 1/2PES containing 100-mu-g.mL-1 cefotaxime. After 1 week, apical tips were cut from the newly grown pla
de Brouwer, J.F.C.; Wolfstein, K.; Stal, L.J.
The excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by an axenic culture of the benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium was investigated. Two sequential extraction steps proved to be sufficient to remove the bulk of the EPS present. Soluble EPS was recovered by a simple centrifugation step and
Vujičić, Milorad; Cvetić, Tijana; Sabovljević, Aneta; Sabovljević, Marko; id_orcid 0000-0001-5809-0406
Axenic culture of Marchantia polymorpha ssp. ruderalis were establish from the gemmae. The most appropariate condition of culturing were searched concerning mineral nutrition, light and temperature with other invariable conditions. The best material to start aseptic in vitro culture were to use gemmae and to use commercial bleach for surface sterilization (7%). The fully developed plants developed in long day condition at mild temperature 18-20°C and high humidity. The best biomass yields wer...
Ebrahim, Weaam; El-Neketi, Mona; Lewald, Laura-Isabell; Orfali, Raha S; Lin, Wenhan; Rehberg, Nidja; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter
The endophytic fungus Aspergillus austroafricanus isolated from leaves of the aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes was fermented axenically on solid rice medium as well as in mixed cultures with Bacillus subtilis or with Streptomyces lividans. Chromatographic analysis of EtOAc extract of axenic cultures afforded two new metabolites, namely, the xanthone dimer austradixanthone (1) and the sesquiterpene (+)-austrosene (2), along with five known compounds (3-7). Austradixanthone (1) represents the first highly oxygenated heterodimeric xanthone derivative. When A. austroafricanus was grown in mixed cultures with B. subtilis or with S. lividans, several diphenyl ethers (8-11) including the new austramide (8) were induced up to 29-fold. The structures of new compounds were unambiguously elucidated using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, HRESIMS, and chemical derivatization. Compound 7 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma L5178Y cell line (EC50 is 12.6 μM). In addition, compounds 9 and 10, which were enhanced in mixed fungal/bacterial cultures, proved to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 700699) with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 25 μM each (6.6 μg/mL), whereas compound 11 revealed moderate antibacterial activity against B. subtilis 168 trpC2 with an MIC value of 34.8 μM (8 μg/mL).
Barros, Juliana H S; Fonseca, Tatiana S; Macedo-Silva, Roger M; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Toma, Helena K; Madeira, Maria de Fatima
Representatives of the genus Trypanosoma have been traditionally found in epimastigote, espheromastigote and trypomastigote flagellated forms in axenic cultures. Trypanosoma caninum is a trypanosomatid that has recently been reported infecting dogs in endemic areas of canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. It presents specific biological characteristics and it is found exclusively on healthy skin. Here, we describe the evolutive forms of this parasite showing not only the forms commonly found in culture, but also epimastigote forms with no free flagellum. The study was conducted using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and, we demonstrate that typical flagellated epimastigotes originate from forms without flagellum, although the latter may remain without differentiation in the culture. Two hypotheses are considered and discussed in this paper: (i) the aflagellated epimastigotes are a typical developmental forms of T. caninum and (ii) the emergence of these aflagellated forms could be resultant from a disturbed process during cell division caused by interfering specific proteins, which leads to inability to form and regulate the flagellum length. In any case, considering that T. caninum is a parasite that is still little studied, the information brought by our study adds data which may be useful to clarify aspects on the cell cycle of this intriguing parasite that has been found in different regions of Brazil.
Rondinelli, E; Silva, R; Carvalho, J F; de Almeida Soares, C M; de Carvalho, E F; de Castro, F T
The operation of an in vitro cycle of cell differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi in axenic culture was obtained. When epimastigote forms, grown in LIT medium, were transferred to a modified LIT medium (E. Chiari, 1981, "Diferenciação do Trypanosoma cruzi em cultura." Ph.D. dissertation, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil), metacyclic trypomastigotes were generated. The latter, upon treatment with fresh human serum, and subsequent incubation in LIT medium gave origin to clusters of spheromastigote cells. The spheromastigotes were resistent to lysis mediated by the complement system and possess a morphology shown by optical and electron microscopy to be very similar to spheromastigotes derived from tissues of infected vertebrates. Blood-like trypomastigotes, or epimastigotes, could be obtained from spheromastigotes depending on the incubation conditions: at high serum concentration (55%) at 37 C, blood-like trypomastigotes were generated; by aging or heating (37 C), at low serum concentration (10%), epimastigotes were formed, closing the whole sequence of cell differentiation of T. cruzi. The molecular characterization of the different cell forms by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of metabolic pulse labeled proteins showed that the in vitro differentiated cells were distinct, not only by morphological criteria, but by differential gene expression as well. All the forms described could be obtained in large amounts (6 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(8)/ml), making it possible to perform preparative biochemical, molecular biological, and immunological experiments.
Full Text Available A growth-promoting factor (GPF that promotes the growth of Entamoeba dispar under axenic culture conditions was found in fractions of mitochondria (Mt, hydrogenosomes (Hg and chloroplasts (Cp obtained from cells of six different protozoan, mammalian and plant species. We were able to extract the GPF from the Cp-rich leaf cells of a plant (spiderwort: Commelina communis L. in an acetone-soluble fraction as a complex of chlorophyll with low molecular weight proteins (molecular weight [MW] approximately 4,600. We also found that on treatment with 0.6 % complexes of 2-mercapthoethanol (2ME, complexes of chlorophyll-a with iron-sulphur (Fe-S proteins (e.g., ferredoxins [Fd] from spinach and Clostridium pasteurianum and noncomplex rubredoxin (Rd from C. pasteurianum have a growth-promoting effect on E. dispar. These findings suggest that E. dispar may lack a sufficient quantity of some essential components of Fe-S proteins, such as Fe-S center.
Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles
Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the
Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel;
Bacterial diseases are a major constraint in aquaculture, especially in larviculture. Antibiotics that can control pathogens should be avoided due to risk of antibiotic resistance. We have shown in axenic systems of live larval feed that marine Roseobacter clade bacteria can antagonize fish patho...... demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can be introduced at the stage of live feed and have a pathogen reducing effect in both an Artemia and a D. tertiolecta challenge setup. This can potentially limit the subsequent use of antibiotics for control of pathogenic bacteria....
Strain, J.J.; Fallowfield, H.J.; Fraser, T.W.; Garrett, M.K.
Algal biomass produced in an outdoor pilot plant facility for the treatment of the liquid phase of pig slurry was nutritionally evaluated together with Chlorella vulgaris 211/le produced axenically in defined media in laboratory chemostats. Data from amino acid analyses showed that the sulphur-containing amino acids were limiting. Digestibility, net protein utilisation and biological values of the algal products were assayed. In vivo and in vitro enzymic digestions were monitored by transmission electron microscopy. Although the cell wall was only partially digested, the cell contents, and especially the pyrenoid, were extensively digested in several treatments. The most indigestible components of the cell may be the membranes of the chloroplast. It is suggested that the absence of sporopollenin from the cell wall of this alga may be responsible for the high nitrogen digestibility of the laboratory-produced material. The waste-grown algal biomass contained appreciable amounts of algal species other than Chlorella vulgaris 211/le which may have contributed to the lower digestibility of this material. 44 references.
Full Text Available Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O is generated from axenic C. vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favoring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO, the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.
Full Text Available Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO, the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38–10.1 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.
Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.
Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38-10.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions). These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.
Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.
Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic C. vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favoring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.
Obeidy, A A; Smith, M A
Endophytic fungi associated with mature pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) nuts prevented successful, contaminant-free in vitro culture of embryo expiants, even after rigorous surface disinfestation of the nuts and careful aseptic shelling. Disinfestation with sodium hypochlorite after shell removal was also unsuccessful, because even dilute concentrations which were ineffective against the fungal contaminants prevented subsequent growth from the embryo. Explanting media with low water availability which would not sustain growth of fungal contaminants, but supported growth from mature pecan embryos, were developed as an alternative disinfestation method. The explanting media were supplemented with 0.9-1.5% agar, and other media components were selectively omitted to test their influence on water availability and fungal growth. Disinfestation of up to 65% of the cultures was accomplished, depending on the medium formulation, compared to 100% loss to contamination on control medium (0.5% agar). A complete medium (containing sucrose, salts, vitamins, 18 μM BAP, and 5 μM IBA) with 1.5% agar provided control of contamination, and encouraged subsequent regeneration from the embryo expiants, which remained free of contaminant growth through subsequent subcultures.
Vanfleteren, J R; De Vreese, A; Braeckman, B P
We have fitted Gompertz, Weibull, and two- and three-parameter logistic equations to survival data obtained from 77 cohorts of Caenorhabditis elegans in axenic culture. Statistical analysis showed that the fitting ability was in the order: three-parameter logistic > two-parameter logistic = Weibull > Gompertz. Pooled data were better fit by the logistic equations, which tended to perform equally well as population size increased, suggesting that the third parameter is likely to be biologically irrelevant. Considering restraints imposed by the small population sizes used, we simply conclude that the two-parameter logistic and Weibull mortality models for axenically grown C. elegans generally provided good fits to the data, whereas the Gompertz model was inappropriate in many cases. The survival curves of several short- and long-lived mutant strains could be predicted by adjusting only the logistic curve parameter that defines mean life span. We conclude that life expectancy is genetically determined; the life span-altering mutations reported in this study define a novel mean life span, but do not appear to fundamentally alter the aging process.
Soro, Valeria; Dutton, Lindsay C; Sprague, Susan V; Nobbs, Angela H; Ireland, Anthony J; Sandy, Jonathan R; Jepson, Mark A; Micaroni, Massimo; Splatt, Peter R; Dymock, David; Jenkinson, Howard F
The diversity of bacterial species in the human oral cavity is well recognized, but a high proportion of them are presently uncultivable. Candidate division TM7 bacteria are almost always detected in metagenomic studies but have not yet been cultivated. In this paper, we identified candidate division TM7 bacterial phylotypes in mature plaque samples from around orthodontic bonds in subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment. Successive rounds of enrichment in laboratory media led to the isolation of a pure culture of one of these candidate division TM7 phylotypes. The bacteria formed filaments of 20 to 200 μm in length within agar plate colonies and in monospecies biofilms on salivary pellicle and exhibited some unusual morphological characteristics by transmission electron microscopy, including a trilaminated cell surface layer and dense cytoplasmic deposits. Proteomic analyses of cell wall protein extracts identified abundant polypeptides predicted from the TM7 partial genomic sequence. Pleiomorphic phenotypes were observed when the candidate division TM7 bacterium was grown in dual-species biofilms with representatives of six different oral bacterial genera. The TM7 bacterium formed long filaments in dual-species biofilm communities with Actinomyces oris or Fusobacterium nucleatum. However, the TM7 isolate grew as short rods or cocci in dual-species biofilms with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, or Streptococcus gordonii, forming notably robust biofilms with the latter two species. The ability to cultivate TM7 axenically should majorly advance understanding of the physiology, genetics, and virulence properties of this novel candidate division oral bacterium.
Full Text Available We report a skew-Laplace statistical analysis of both flow cytometry scatters and cell size from microbial strains primarily grown in batch cultures, others in chemostat cultures and bacterial aquatic populations. Cytometry scatters best fit the skew-Laplace distribution while cell size as assessed by an electronic particle analyzer exhibited a moderate fitting. Unlike the cultures, the aquatic bacterial communities clearly do not fit to a skew-Laplace distribution. Due to its versatile nature, the skew-Laplace distribution approach offers an easy, efficient, and powerful tool for distribution of frequency analysis in tandem with the flow cytometric cell sorting.
Carolina De Marco Verissimo
Full Text Available Prolonged culturing of many microorganisms leads to the loss of virulence and a reduction of their infective capacity. However, little is known about the changes in the pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba after long culture periods. Our study evaluated the effect of prolonged culturing on the invasiveness of different isolates of Acanthamoeba in an in vivo rat model. ATCC strains of Acanthamoeba, isolates from the environment and clinical cases were evaluated. The in vivo model was effective in establishing the infection and differentiating the pathogenicity of the isolates and re-isolates. The amoebae cultured in the laboratory for long periods were less virulent than those that were recently isolated, confirming the importance of passing Acanthamoeba strains in animal models.
Veríssimo, Carolina De Marco; Maschio, Vinícius José; Correa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano; Rott, Marilise Brittes
Prolonged culturing of many microorganisms leads to the loss of virulence and a reduction of their infective capacity. However, little is known about the changes in the pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba after long culture periods. Our study evaluated the effect of prolonged culturing on the invasiveness of different isolates of Acanthamoeba in an in vivo rat model. ATCC strains of Acanthamoeba, isolates from the environment and clinical cases were evaluated. The in vivo model was effective in establishing the infection and differentiating the pathogenicity of the isolates and re-isolates. The amoebae cultured in the laboratory for long periods were less virulent than those that were recently isolated, confirming the importance of passing Acanthamoeba strains in animal models. PMID:24271042
孙雯; 黄和; 林海龙; 彭超; 苏会波
We studied eight common antibiotics adding to the culture broth to explore axenic cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis. The optimal antibiotics and concentration were determined. At the earlier stage of the cultivation ( 0⁃8 d ) , relatively lower concentration of griseofulvin ( 0�05 mg/mL ) was beneficial to microalgae cell growth and antibacterial effect than the others. In the middle and later stage of the cultivation(after 8 d),an obvious antibacterial effect was observed when penicillin(0�05 mg/mL) was used as bacteriostatic agent. Furthermore,the combination of griseofulvin ( 0�05 mg/mL) and penicillin (0�025 mg/mL) had better antibacterial effect than that with single use. After 18 days cultivation,the number of algal cells reached 4�75×106 mL-1, nearly 1�8⁃fold of the control.%采用8种常用抗生素对雨生红球藻进行无菌化处理，研究抗生素种类及浓度对雨生红球藻细胞生长的影响，以确定对雨生红球藻细胞无害并能抑制伴生杂菌生长的抗生素种类及使用浓度。结果表明：培养前期（0～8 d）添加灰黄霉素（0�05 mg／mL）的抑菌效果最好，且对雨生红球藻细胞的生长抑制最小；培养中后期（8 d后），添加青霉素（0�05 mg／mL）所起到的抑菌效果较明显。另外，当分阶段添加灰黄霉素（0�05 mg／mL）和青霉素（0�025 mg／mL）时，雨生红球藻细胞密度可达4�75×106个／mL（培养18 d），是空白对照实验组的1�8倍，且其抑菌效果明显优于使用单一抗生素。
Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul
The growing aquaculture industry is in need for non-antibiotic based disease control strategies to reduce risk of bacteria developing and spreading antibiotic resistance. We have previously, in axenic model systems of live larval feed, demonstrated that bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can...... antagonize fish pathogens such as Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi and that they can reduce larval mortality in challenge trials. However, in the aquaculture production, a natural microbiota is present at all stages and may affect the efficacy of the probiotic bacteria. The purpose of the present study......-axenic natural Artemia and algae (Tetraselmis) received from an aquaculture unit, Vibrio anguillarum grew to 107 CFU/ml but only reached 104 CFU/ml when P. inhibens was also added. P. inhibens was added at a concentration 106 CFU/ml in all systems and remained at this concentration at the end of the study...
Ko, M P; Schmitt, D P; Sipes, B S
A non-chemical technique for surface sterilizing plant-parasitic nematodes for aseptic cultures is described. The method is most applicable to nematodes with active migratory infective stages and requires only a few starting specimens. Rate of achieving a primary aseptic culture with the technique ranged from 60%-100% depending on the conditions of the specimens collected for culturing. Aseptic cultures of species of Meloidogyne, Rotylenchuluz, Pratylenchus, and Radopholus initiated with the method remained contamination-free after 12 months of maintenance in tomato root explant or alfalfa callus cultures. Further studies of Pluronic F127, a polyol gel medium employed in the technique to confine the spread of contaminating bacteria or fungi associated with the nematodes, showed that the polyol gel was a suitable support medium for culturing corn root explant, alfalfa callus tissues, and consequently Pratylenchus species including P. agilis, P. brachyurus, P. scribneri, and P. penetrans. During the course of 10 months, P. penetrans reared in polyol-base medium followed a standard biological growth curve, multiplied to a higher population density, maintained a similar female-to-male ratio, and possessed a similar tendency to reside inside or outside host tissues as did P. penetrans reared in agar-base medium. The percentages of P. penetrans juveniles in the sub-populations residing outside or inside the host tissues reared in polyol-base medium also were similar to and fluctuated temporally in like manner as those reared in agar-base medium. Members of these sub-populations from the polyol- or agar-base were equally infective and reproductive after 9 months of culturing.
Anil Kumar; Kaushlendra Tripathi; Manish Rana; Shalini Purwar; G K Garg
Effect of dibutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbc-AMP), an analogue of c-AMP, was investigated on growth and morphological differentiation of Tilletia indica. Exponential growth was observed up to 21 days in both presence and absence of dbc-AMP; however, increasing concentration of dbc-AMP was deleterious to mycelial growth in liquid culture. A slow increase of mycelial biomass up to 21 days and decline at 30 days in the presence of 2.5 mM dbc-AMP was observed, therefore, this concentration was chosen in subsequent investigations. The inhibitory influence of dbc-AMP was further substantiated by decrease in soluble protein. The fungus on exposure to dbc-AMP experienced morphological differentiation from vegetative mycelial phase to sporogenous mycelial phase, and was induced to produce filiform sporidia. Use of quantitative ELISA further suggested that sporidia formation took more than 21 days in the presence of dbc-AMP. Variations of proteins during different stages of T. indica grown in the presence and absence of dbc-AMP suggested the expression of stage-specific proteins or differential expression of proteins induced by dbc-AMP. The changes in expression of cell surface antigens as evidenced from decrease and increase binding of anti-mycelial and anti-sporidial anti-bodies in dbc-AMP treated culture by ELISA was further interpreted on the basis of morphological differentiation from mycelial to sporidial phase.
周金梅; 杨锐; 方文雅; 沈梅丽; 孙雪; 吴小凯
对坛紫菜叶状体的无菌处理方法进行了优化,并利用紫菜外生菌对无菌处理后的紫菜叶片进行了人工感染.经0.7%KI和0.1%(w/v)氨苄青霉素对紫菜叶片进行预处理后,利用氨苄青霉素、硫酸链霉素、新霉素、庆大霉素及卡那霉素等5种抗生素及其不同组合对紫菜叶片进行处理,筛选出最佳抗生素组合、浓度和培养条件.结果表明:氨苄青霉素(终浓度300 μg/mL)、卡那霉素(终浓度100 μg/mL)与庆大霉素(终浓度100 μg/mL)3种抗生素组合对坛紫菜叶状体进行无菌处理18 h,对紫菜细胞的毒害较小,并且3种抗生素合用对89.5%紫菜外生细菌的抑菌率达80%以上;外生菌感染结果研究表明:用105/mL真菌孢子液和细菌菌液回染紫菜,培养22 d后,实验组紫菜生长状况较对照组好,对照组紫菜出现褪色.用108/mL真菌孢子液分别回染健康紫菜、穿刺紫菜(用灭菌刀片在紫菜表面划1～2 mm的伤口),分别在18℃、28℃和35℃条件下培养.实验结果表明28℃和35℃高温和穿刺均会影响无菌紫菜健康生长,且加菌紫菜在高温和穿刺条件下,则会出现明显病斑,而18℃培养的加菌紫菜则生长良好.%The sterile processing of Porphyra haitanensis thallus was optimized. The artificial infection of thallus by epiphytic microorganisms from Porphyra was studied. The thalli of P. Haitanensis were pretreated by 0. 7% KI and 0. 1%( w/v )ampicillin firstly to remove the outside organisms. Five antibiotics, such as ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin, were applied independently or combinationally to remove the epiphytic microorganisms from the thallus of Porphyra. The appropriate combination, concentration and culture conditions were optimized. The cells of P. Haitanensis thallus were minimum affected under the treatment of the combination of ampicillin ( final concentration 300|xg/mL ), kanamycin ( final concentration 100|jLg/mL ) and
Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)
The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.
Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Schweynoch, Carola; Schonian, Gabriele; Jaffe, Charles L
Optimum conditions for generating Leishmania (Leishmania) tropica axenic amastigotes (AxA) in culture were determined, pH 5.5/36 degrees C, and the parasites characterized by different techniques, including light microscopy, macrophage infection, stage specific antigen expression and differential display. AxA were morphologically similar to amastigotes and 15.5-fold more infective than stationary phase promastigotes for mouse peritoneal macrophages. Western blotting with promastigote stage specific monoclonal antibodies to either lipophosphoglycan (T2) or a 60 kDa flagella antigen (F3) showed a dramatic decrease in antigen expression when AxA were compared to promastigotes. Similarly F3 gave strong immune fluorescent staining of the promastigote flagellum, but no fluorescence was detected when AxA were examined. Conversely, Western blotting with the amastigote specific monoclonal antibody (T16) showed that this antigen is more highly expressed in AxA than promastigotes. Differential display-PCR was used to identify several parasite genes showing stage specific expression. One gene selectively expressed by AxA was partially sequenced and identified as Leishmania (L.) tropicaamastin. Amastigote specific expression of this gene was further confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) using AxA and infected macrophages. No amastin expression was observed with promastigotes. Expression of the cysteine protease B (cpb) and protein kinase A catalytic isoform 1 subunit (pkac1) in promastigotes and AxA was also examined by RT-PCR. Pkac1 was strongly expressed by promastigotes, while cpb expression was only seen with AxA or infected macrophages. L. (L.) tropica AxA will prove useful for further studies on parasite differentiation and gene regulation, as well as for drug screening.
李艳; 窦森; 尹显宝; 田相玲
Abstract[Objective]Cyanobacteria are the oldest photoautotrophic organisms on the earth. As they lived commonly in the ancestral protohydrosphere and entered into the geosphere with geological changes, they got profoundly involved in the formation of primitive soil humic substances(HS). Since contain large volumes of protein,polysaccharide and even some humic-like acid substances in their cells,extra-and intra-cellular metabolites,is it possible for cyanobacteria cells to form HS spontaneously? If the formation process needs catalysis of some microorganisms,what are the differences between different groups of microorganisms in role in the process? These scientific problems need to be solved.[Method] In view of the above-mentioned scientific problems,this research adopted the source control and shake-flask liquid axenic culture method to get axenically cultured samples ofAnabaena flos-aquae,a representative species of cyanobacteria,in different growth stage and products ofAnabaena flos-aquae used as the only substrate and treated with different microbes. The products were analyzed for structural characteristics,using the method of element composition and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),with a view to exploring possibility of cyanobacteria spontaneously forming HS or acting as substrate in HS formation and hence to make up and specifying the role of cyanobacteria in the origination and formation of soil HS.[Result]The following findings were obtained. Under the experimental conditions,Anabaena flos-aquaehad a long life cycle and remained quite constant in carbon content during their growing period. However,during the logarithmic phase,the carbon content in the thallus was relatively high,while in the extracellular metabolites it rose steadily but remained much lower than that in the thallus. None of the FTIR spectra of the cyanobacteria samples showed any peaks characteristic of the carboxyl C=O bonds at 1 720 cm-1,instead,the spectra intensified
Full Text Available Background: The main goal of the present study was to set up an axenic cultivation of Acanthamoeba and assess the pathogenic ability of T4 genotypes from different clinical and environmental strains of Acanthamoeba using two physical assays.Methods: Sixteen Acanthamoeba isolates including 10 environmental and 6 clinical strains were cultured axenically. Axenic cultivation was performed using Proteosepepton, yeast extract and glucose medium and TY-I-S33culture. Pathogenic survey was done using osmotolerance and thermotolerance assay. Briefly, differentosmolarity (0.5 M and 1 M of non-nutrient agar plates were performed. One hundred fiftyµl of axenic culture were collected and were inoculated in 1% agar medium. For thermotolerance assay 150 µl of amoebas from axenic culture were divided into fresh culture mediums. Cultures were incubated at 37oC and 42 oC. All plates were monitored for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h.Results: Overall, 16 strains of Acanthamoeba isolates previously genotyped as T4 were cultivated axenically after several months. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assay revealed that all of clinical strains, soil and animal feces strains were highly pathogenic isolates. Two dust and water strains did not grow at high temperature (42 oC and osmolarity (1.5 M and thus they were classified as weak pathogens.Conclusion: Most of T4 genotypes are highly pathogenic organisms. This is an important finding since Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 type is the predominate genotype in environmental and clinical samples. The presence of highly pathogenic Acanthamoeba may pose a risk within susceptible people.
Hatam, Gholam Reza; Bahrami, Somayeh; Razavi, S Mostafa; Oryan, Ahmad
Leishmania tropica is one of the main etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. For ultrastructural and isoenzyme study, axenic amastigotes were cultured in a brain-heart infusion medium containing 20 % fetal calf serum, pH 4.5, and incubated at 37 °C in 5 % CO(2). Different stages of L. tropica revealed the same isoenzyme profiles after comparing four enzyme systems including phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and nucleoside hydrolase II. Different isoenzyme patterns for glucose-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nucleoside hydrolase I, and malic enzyme enzymic systems were seen; thus, these isoenzyme systems among the eight systems studied were more efficient in characterizing L. tropica amastigotes. The structure of the axenic amastigotes was essentially similar to that of the promastigotes except for some important characteristics including the flagellum, flagellar pocket, paraxial rod, and the subpellicular microtubules.
Bahrami, S; Hatam, G R; Razavi, M; Nazifi, S
The present study aimed to establish a simple method to yield large amounts of Leishmania tropica amastigote-like forms in axenic cultures and to compare the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzymes at different stages of L. tropica. Different culture conditions were tested to find the optimum condition of axenic amastigotes generation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined at logarithmic and stationary phases and axenic amastigote stage of the parasite. A high proportion (88%) of amastigote-like forms of L. tropica was observed in BHI medium supplemented with 20% FCS, pH 4.5, and incubated at 37ºC with 5% CO(2). The results showed that SOD activity was at the lowest level in the logarithmic phase of promastigotes and increased towards the stationary phase of promastigotes and amastigote stage. The results showed that the optimum condition for differentiation of L. tropica promastigotes to axenic amastigotes was BHI medium containing 20% FCS at pH 4.5, incubated at 37ºC in the presence of 5% CO(2). It seems that SOD, but not GPX is a major determinant of intracellular survival of the parasite.
Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology. This is in part due to the fact that no reproducible experimental methods had been developed to maintain the different evolutive forms of this trypanosome under laboratory conditions. Appropriate protocols were developed in the 1990s for the axenic maintenance of three major animal Trypanosoma species: T. b. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. These pioneer studies rapidly led to the successful genetic manipulation of T. b. brucei and T. congolense. Advances were made in the understanding of these parasites' biology and virulence, and new drug targets were identified. By contrast, challenging in vitro conditions have been developed for T. vivax in the past, and this per se has contributed to defer both its genetic manipulation and subsequent gene function studies. Here we report on the optimization of non-infective T. vivax epimastigote axenic cultures and on the process of parasite in vitro differentiation into metacyclic infective forms. We have also constructed the first T. vivax specific expression vector that drives constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter gene. This vector was then used to establish and optimize epimastigote transfection. We then developed highly reproducible conditions that can be used to obtain and select stably transfected mutants that continue metacyclogenesis and are infectious in immunocompetent rodents.
The effects of amphotericin B, chloramphenicol, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B sulfate, potassium penicillin G, and streptomycin sulfate (used singularly and in various combinations at different concentrations) on the growth and development of four marine dinoflagellates of the genus Gonyaulax and associated bacteria were studied. The combination of amphotericin B, dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, and penicillin G was highly effective in eliminating bacteria and fung...
Purva D. Bhatter
Full Text Available Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome, Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf, Piper nigrum L. (seed, and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549 infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity.
Sandoz, Kelsi M; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Hansen, Bryan; Heinzen, Robert A
Coxiella burnetii undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle within its host cell that generates morphologically and physiologically distinct large cell variants (LCV) and small cell variants (SCV). During the lag phase of the C. burnetii growth cycle, non-replicating SCV differentiate into replicating LCV that in turn differentiate back into SCV during stationary phase. Nearly homogeneous SCV are observed in infected Vero cells after extended incubation (21 to 28days). In the current study, we sought to establish whether C. burnetii developmental transitions in host cells are recapitulated during host cell-free (axenic) growth in first and second generation acidified citrate cysteine media (ACCM-1 and ACCM-2, respectively). We show that ACCM-2 supported developmental transitions and viability. Although ACCM-1 also supported SCV to LCV transition, LCV to SCV transition did not occur after extended incubation (21days). Instead, C. burnetii exhibited a ghost-like appearance with bacteria containing condensed chromatin but otherwise devoid of cytoplasmic content. This phenotype correlated with a near total loss in viability between 14 and 21days of cultivation. Transcriptional profiling of C. burnetii following 14days of incubation revealed elevated expression of oxidative stress genes in ACCM-1 cultivated bacteria. ACCM-2 differs from ACCM-1 by the substitution of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Mβ-CD) for fetal bovine serum. Addition of Mβ-CD to ACCM-1 at 7days post-inoculation rescued C. burnetii viability and lowered expression of oxidative stress genes. Thus, Mβ-CD appears to alleviate oxidative stress in ACCM-2 to result in C. burnetii developmental transitions and viability that mimic host cell-cultivated organisms. Axenic cultivation of C. burnetii in ACCM-2 and new methods of genetic manipulation now allow investigation of the molecular basis of C. burnetii biphasic development.
Vogel, Kevin J; Valzania, Luca; Coon, Kerri L; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that Aedes aegypti larvae colonized by a native community of bacteria and gnotobiotic larvae colonized by only Escherichia coli develop very similarly into adults, whereas axenic larvae never molt and die as first instars. In this study, we extended these findings by first comparing the growth and abundance of bacteria in conventional, gnotobiotic, and axenic larvae during the first instar. Results showed that conventional and gnotobiotic larvae exhibited no differences in growth, timing of molting, or number of bacteria in their digestive tract. Axenic larvae in contrast grew minimally and never achieved the critical size associated with molting by conventional and gnotobiotic larvae. In the second part of the study we compared patterns of gene expression in conventional, gnotobiotic and axenic larvae by conducting an RNAseq analysis of gut and nongut tissues (carcass) at 22 h post-hatching. Approximately 12% of Ae. aegypti transcripts were differentially expressed in axenic versus conventional or gnotobiotic larvae. However, this profile consisted primarily of transcripts in seven categories that included the down-regulation of select peptidases in the gut and up-regulation of several genes in the gut and carcass with roles in amino acid transport, hormonal signaling, and metabolism. Overall, our results indicate that axenic larvae exhibit alterations in gene expression consistent with defects in acquisition and assimilation of nutrients required for growth.
José Arturo Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Differential display technique was applied in order to identify transcripts which are present in axenic amastigotes but not in promastigotes of the Leishmania panamensis parasites. One of them was cloned and the sequence reveals an open reading frame of 364 amino acids (aprox. 40 kDa. The deduced protein is homologous to the serine/threonine protein kinases and specially to the mitogen activates protein kinases from eukaryotic species. Southern blot analysis suggest that this transcript, named lpmkh, is present in the genome of the parasite as a single copy gene. These results could imply that lpmkh could be involved in the differentiation process or the preservation of amastigotes in axenic conditions.
Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. Results showed that most of the combinations improved the lentil growth as compared to the un-inoculated control. Maximum increase in shoot length (1.87 fold, root length (1.97 fold and total biomass (1.98 fold over the un-inoculated control was observed in the treatment where the lentil seedlings were inoculated with the combination Z24P10. Co-inoculation also improved the nodulation in lentil and the maximum number of nodules plant-1 (24 nodules were observed in the combination Z22P10. However, there was no nodulation in few combinations. It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials
Zied, Diego Cunha; Maciel, William Pereira; Marques, Simone Cristina; da Silveira E Santos, Débora Marques; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustáquio Souza
Shiitake mushroom consumption is increasing in Brazil. In addition to the implementation of new production methods, it is also important to increase productivity, quality and reduce production costs. In this study, six commercial Lentinula edodes strains were characterized for genetic diversity (rep-PCR analysis) and mushroom production (yield, number and weight of individual mushrooms) using different substrates and cultural conditions. All strains showed genetic differences by repetitive element palindromic based-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The richest substrate resulted in the greatest production under both environmental conditions. Strains LE4 and LE6 produced the majority of their mushrooms earlier than the other strains. The highest number of mushrooms was observed in the LE6 strain while the highest weights of individual mushrooms were observed in the LE4 strain. Controlled environmental conditions resulted in superior production for all strains, except for LE4, which had empirically greater yield in the semi-controlled environmental condition.
Full Text Available We have examined by gelatin-SDS-PAGE the protease activity in cell lysates of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of two axenic strains isolated in Brazil from a symptomatic patient (BTU-11 and an asymptomatic carrier (BTU-10, and the reference strain Portland 1 (P1. The proteolysis band patterns showed differences among strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. The lysate of the strain BTU-10, showed only five hydrolysis bands, while a greater number of bands (10-11 bands was seen in strains BTU-11 and P1. The protease activity in all lysates was inhibited by cysteine (E-64 and iodoacetamide and serine proteases (TPCK and TLCK inhibitors, but not by PMSF and EDTA. In general, the results revealed protease activities in G. duodenalis trophozoites of Brazilian axenic strains and the predominance of cysteine proteinases. It should be stressed the inter-strain difference in hydrolysis band patterns observed between strains isolated from symptomatic patients and the strain obtained from an asymptomatic carrier.
Maes, Synthia; Props, Ruben; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; De Smet, Rebecca; Vanhaecke, Frank; Boon, Nico; Hennebel, Tom
The widespread use of platinum in high-tech and catalytic applications has led to the production of diverse Pt loaded wastewaters. Effective recovery strategies are needed for the treatment of low concentrated waste streams to prevent pollution and to stimulate recovery of this precious resource. The biological recovery of five common environmental Pt-complexes was studied under acidic conditions; the chloro-complexes PtCl42- and PtCl62-, the amine-complex Pt(NH3)4Cl2 and the pharmaceutical complexes cisplatin and carboplatin. Five bacterial species were screened on their platinum recovery potential; the Gram-negative species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, Geobacter metallireducens, and Pseudomonas stutzeri, and the Gram-positive species Bacillus toyonensis. Overall, PtCl42- and PtCl62- were completely recovered by all bacterial species while only S. oneidensis and C. metallidurans were able to recover cisplatin quantitatively (99%), all in the presence of H2 as electron donor at pH 2. Carboplatin was only partly recovered (max. 25% at pH 7), whereas no recovery was observed in the case of the Pt-tetraamine complex. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of both intra- and extracellular platinum particles. Flow cytometry based microbial viability assessment demonstrated the decrease in number of intact bacterial cells during platinum reduction and indicated C. metallidurans to be the most resistant species. This study showed the effective and complete biological recovery of three common Pt-complexes, and estimated the fate and transport of the Pt-complexes in wastewater treatment plants and the natural environment. PMID:28046131
El-Shibiny, Ayman; Connerton, Phillippa; Connerton, Ian
Campylobacter is considered to be the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal illness in the developed world. Many cases are thought to be acquired from consumption of undercooked poultry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the rate of cooling on the survival, at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C, of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni strains, inoculated on chicken skin from axenic culture or as mixed inoculums. Strains chilled in a domestic refrigerator varied in their tolerance to storage at 4 degrees C. Statistically significant differences between strains applied as axenic or mixed inoculums were observed for specific strain combinations using two-way ANOVA, including the enhanced survival of antibiotic resistant C. coli 99/367 at 4 degrees C. The use of rapid cooling (at -20 degrees C/min) enhanced the survival of all the Campylobacter strains chilled to 4 degrees C compared to standard refrigeration. Freezing to -20 degrees C reduced viable counts by 2.2-2.6 log10 CFU/cm(2) in 24 h. Rapid cooling to -20 degrees C (at -30 degrees C/min) enhanced the survival of C. coli 99/367 compared to freezing in a domestic freezer. Statistically significant interaction terms between specific strains were observed in mixed inoculums chilled to -20 degrees C by freezing in a domestic freezer and by rapid chilling to -20 degrees C. Rapid chilling of poultry, particularly for 4 degrees C storage may enhance survival of Campylobacter and although this is an issue that affects meat quality, it should be considered by poultry processors.
Kumar, Pranav; Lodge, Robert; Raymond, Frédéric; Ritt, Jean-François; Jalaguier, Pascal; Corbeil, Jacques; Ouellette, Marc; Tremblay, Michel J
Drug resistance is a major public health challenge in leishmaniasis chemotherapy, particularly in the case of emerging Leishmania/HIV-1 co-infections. We have delineated the mechanism of cell death induced by the HIV-1 protease inhibitor, Nelfinavir, in the Leishmania parasite. In order to further study Nelfinavir-Leishmania interactions, we selected Nelfinavir-resistant axenic amastigotes in vitro and characterized them. RNA expression profiling analyses and comparative genomic hybridizations of closely related Leishmania species were used as a screening tool to compare Nelfinavir-resistant and -sensitive parasites in order to identify candidate genes involved in drug resistance. Microarray analyses of Nelfinavir-resistant and -sensitive Leishmania amastigotes suggest that parasites regulate mRNA levels either by modulating gene copy numbers through chromosome aneuploidy, or gene deletion/duplication by homologous recombination. Interestingly, supernumerary chromosomes 6 and 11 in the resistant parasites lead to upregulation of the ABC class of transporters. Transporter assays using radiolabelled Nelfinavir suggest a greater drug accumulation in the resistant parasites and in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, high-resolution electron microscopy and measurements of intracellular polyphosphate levels showed an increased number of cytoplasmic vesicular compartments known as acidocalcisomes in Nelfinavir-resistant parasites. Together these results suggest that Nelfinavir is rapidly and dramatically sequestered in drug-induced intracellular vesicles.
Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 gethanol.kg-1 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.
D. C. ZIED; M. T. A. MINHONI; J. KOPYTOWSKI-FILHO; L. BARBOSA; M. C. N. ANDRADE
Ten different casing soils were collected from two soils at two depths (0.2 and 2.0 m below soil surface) to examine the relationships between the physical properties of non-axenic casing soil and yield, number and weight of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann. The results showed that soil clay content and bulk density were negatively correlated with the mushroom yield,respectively, but soil silt content and water-holding capacity were found to be positively correlated with the yield. The number of mushrooms was negatively correlated with soil water-holding capacity but positively correlated with soil clay, bulk density and porosity.The weight of mushroom was positively correlated with the content of soil fine sand and negatively correlated with the contents of soil coarse sand, total sand and clay. Neither soil depth nor different soil combinations affected the yield and number of mushrooms, but the mushroom weight was affected by the soil combinations and soil depth, so interplay in the fructification process with the physical characteristics of casing is complicated.
Jessica Rhea Sieber
Full Text Available Microbial syntrophy is a vital metabolic interaction necessary for the complete oxidation of organic biomass to methane in all-anaerobic ecosystems. However, this process is thermodynamically constrained and represents an ecosystem-level metabolic bottleneck. To gain insight into the physiology of this process, a shotgun proteomic approach was used to quantify the protein landscape of the model syntrophic metabolizer, Syntrophomonas wolfei, grown axenically and syntrophically with Methanospirillum hungatei. Remarkably, the abundance of most proteins as represented by normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF value changed very little between the pure and coculture growth conditions. Among the most abundant proteins detected were GroEL and GroES chaperonins, a small heat shock protein, and proteins involved in electron transfer, beta-oxidation, and ATP synthesis. Several putative energy conservation enzyme systems that utilize NADH and ferredoxin were present. The abundance of an EtfAB2 and the membrane-bound iron-sulfur oxidoreductase (Swol_0698 gene product delineated a potential conduit for electron transfer between acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and membrane redox carriers. Proteins detected only when S. wolfei was grown with M. hungatei included a zinc-dependent dehydrogenase with a GroES domain, whose gene is present in genomes in many organisms capable of syntrophy, and transcriptional regulators responsive to environmental stimuli or the physiological status of the cell. The proteomic analysis revealed an emphasis macromolecular stability and energy metabolism to S. wolfei and presence of regulatory mechanisms responsive to external stimuli and cellular physiological status.
Nühs, Andrea; De Rycker, Manu; Manthri, Sujatha; Comer, Eamon; Scherer, Christina A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Gray, David W
Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of the developing world with a limited arsenal of drugs available for treatment. The existing drugs have significant deficiencies so there is an urgent need for new and improved drugs. In the human host, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites which poses particular challenges in terms of drug discovery. To achieve sufficient throughput and robustness, free-living parasites are often used in primary screening assays as a surrogate for the more complex intracellular assays. We and others have found that such axenic assays have a high false positive rate relative to the intracellular assays, and that this limits their usefulness as a primary platform for screening of large compound collections. While many different reasons could lie behind the poor translation from axenic parasite to intracellular parasite, we show here that a key factor is the identification of growth slowing and cytostatic compounds by axenic assays in addition to the more desirable cytocidal compounds. We present a screening cascade based on a novel cytocidal-only axenic amastigote assay, developed by increasing starting density of cells and lowering the limit of detection, and show that it has a much improved translation to the intracellular assay. We propose that this assay is an improved primary platform in a new Leishmania screening cascade designed for the screening of large compound collections. This cascade was employed to screen a diversity-oriented-synthesis library, and yielded two novel antileishmanial chemotypes. The approach we have taken may have broad relevance to anti-infective and anti-parasitic drug discovery.
D'Alvise, Paul; Lillebø, Siril; Prol García, María Jesús
-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7) cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio...
New hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars resistant to eastern filbert blight are in demand and micropropagation is used to rapidly increase plant availability. Hazelnut trees contain many endogenous microorganisms, making it difficult to initiate axenic cultures. This study was designed to dete...
Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.
Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Edouard, Sophie; Pagnier, Isabelle; Mediannikov, Oleg; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier
A pure bacterial culture remains essential for the study of its virulence, its antibiotic susceptibility, and its genome sequence in order to facilitate the understanding and treatment of caused diseases. The first culture conditions empirically varied incubation time, nutrients, atmosphere, and temperature; culture was then gradually abandoned in favor of molecular methods. The rebirth of culture in clinical microbiology was prompted by microbiologists specializing in intracellular bacteria. The shell vial procedure allowed the culture of new species of Rickettsia. The design of axenic media for growing fastidious bacteria such as Tropheryma whipplei and Coxiella burnetii and the ability of amoebal coculture to discover new bacteria constituted major advances. Strong efforts associating optimized culture media, detection methods, and a microaerophilic atmosphere allowed a dramatic decrease of the time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. The use of a new versatile medium allowed an extension of the repertoire of archaea. Finally, to optimize the culture of anaerobes in routine bacteriology laboratories, the addition of antioxidants in culture media under an aerobic atmosphere allowed the growth of strictly anaerobic species. Nevertheless, among usual bacterial pathogens, the development of axenic media for the culture of Treponema pallidum or Mycobacterium leprae remains an important challenge that the patience and innovations of cultivators will enable them to overcome.
李善策; 李勇勇; 夏金兰; 秦松
Single filaments of Arthrospira/Spirulina strains were picked up and axenicly cultured. Six protocols for ex-traction of whole genome DNA of the Arthrospira strains were comparatively studied. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA-ITS (internally transcribed spacer) gene sequences as molecular markers were conducted. The results show that the method of Freezing-thawing CTAB was effective in extracting extra-genomic DNA, not chromasomal from the tested strains. The extracted DNA containing excellent overall quality and high molecular weight can be directly used for molecular biology experiments. The molecular phylogenetic dendrogram indicates that the strains used in this research were all Arthrospira platensis, which were significantly different from strains of Spirulina in molecu-lar classification and identification in cyanobacterial genus.%本研究从实验室保藏的节旋藻(Arthrospira)藻种出发，挑取形态不同的单藻丝体进行纯化培养，采用6种方法进行全基因组DNA提取的比较研究，而后以16S rRNA-ITS区基因作为分子标记对藻株进行相关序列测定和分子系统进化分析。结果表明，冻融 CTAB 法能够提取出包含染色体外 DNA 在内的节旋藻全基因组，高质量样品可以满足分子生物学实验要求；分子系统研究表明，纯化藻株皆为钝顶节旋藻，节旋藻与螺旋藻在分子鉴定中属间差异明显。
Víctor T Contreras
Full Text Available In this study we examined whether the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi by long-time in axenic culture produces changes in gene expression and antigenic profiles. The studies were made with a Dm30L-clone from a low-virulent strain and a non-cloned virulent EP-strain of T. cruzi. Both parasites were maintained, for at least seven years, by successive alternate passage triatomine/mouse (triatomine condition, or by serial passage in axenic medium (culture condition. The comparison of the [35S]methionine metabolic labeling products of virulent and non-virulent parasites by 2D-SDS-PAGE, clearly indicates that the expression of metacyclic trypomastigotes (but not of epimastigotes proteins have been altered by laboratory maintenance conditions. Western blot analysis of EP and Dm30L-epimastigotes using a serum anti-epimastigotes revealed that although most of antigens are conserved, four antigens are characteristics of triatomine condition parasites and three other are characteristics of culture condition parasites. Anti-metacyclics serum revealed significative differences in EP- and Dm30L-metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine condition. However, avirulent metacyclic forms were antigenically very similar. These results suggest that besides a possible selection of avirulent subpopulation from T. cruzi strains genetically heterogeneous when maintained by long time in axenic culture, changes in virulence might be due to post-translational modifications of the antigens induced by the absence of the natural alternability (vertebrate-invertebrate in the life-cycle of T. cruzi
Eleanor Fay Vesty
Full Text Available Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyse green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal-bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. Ulva linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors. The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures.The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal-microbial interactions.
Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Ashraf
Full Text Available A series of screening experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of rhizobia for producing auxins and improvegrowth and nodulation of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. were carried out under axenic conditions. Forty fouriolatess of rhizobia were isolated using standard procedures. Auxin biosynthesis by these rhizobial isolates wasdetermined in the absence and presence of L-Trp, a physiological precursor of auxins. Rhizobial isolates variedwidely in auxins biosynthesis capabilities. On the basis of auxins biosynthesis, a pouch experiment was conductedfor screening thirty four efficient isolates of rhizobia for the growth promotion of mung bean. Results of pouch studyshowed that inoculation with selected rhizobial isolates increased the root /shoot length, fresh, and dry shoot weightof mung bean up to 33, 59, 71, 148, 107 and 188%, respectively, over untreated control. Further studies are neededunder glasshouse and field conditions for confirmation of these results.
Isolation and purification of an axenic diazotrophic drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, from natural cyanobacterial crusts and its utilization for field research on soils polluted with radioisotopes.
Katoh, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Jun; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nishi, Yasuaki
Nitrogen fixation and drought tolerance confer the ability to grow on dry land, and some terrestrial cyanobacteria exhibit these properties. These cyanobacteria were isolated in an axenic form from Nostoc commune clusters and other sources by modifying the method used to isolate the nitrogen-fixing and drought-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HK-01. Of these cyanobacteria, N. commune, which is difficult to isolate and purify, uses polysaccharides to maintain water, nitrogen fertilizers for nitrogen fixation, and can live in extreme environments because of desiccation tolerance. In this study, we examined the use of N. commune as biosoil for space agriculture and possible absorption of radioisotopes ((134)Cs, (137)Cs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.
Krombholz, R; Mersinger, R; Kreis, W; Reinhard, E
Root cultures of COLEUS FORSKOHLII Briq. were initiated from primary callus or IBA-treated suspension cultures and maintained on Gamborg's B5 medium containing 1 mg/l IBA. Transformed root cultures were established by infecting surface-sterilized leaves with AGROBACTERIUM RHIZOGENES strain 15834. Transformation was confirmed by mannopine detection. These cultures displayed the typical characteristics of hairy root cultures, with the sole exceptions of slow growth in hormone-free medium and accelerated growth on medium containing phytohormones. All root cultures examined formed forskolin and its derivatives in amounts ranging from 500 to 1300 mg/kg dry weight, corresponding to about 4 to 5 mg/l. During cultivation roots could be cut into small pieces without affecting growth and forskolin production. Scale-ups of the cultivation procedure were performed in 20-l glass jars with a working volume of 10 to 13l. Forskolin production in bioreactors was better than in shake flasks. Levels of almost 14 mg/l could be reached after 21 d of cultivation. As in the shake flask experiments cutting the roots did not affect growth or productivity in a negative way.
Full Text Available In vitro culture of Jatropha curcas L.. The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have to be able to give a high oil yield and be morphologically and phenotypically homogeneous to facilitate cultural operations. If high oil content can be obtained by varietal selection, the achievement of homogeneous material passes by the in vitro propagation. Various methods of mass production of plant material by axenic culture have been published. This study reviews the protocols published for in vitro propagation of J. curcas and discusses their applicability to an industrial scale.
Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Judelson, Howard S
Conditional expression systems have been proven to be useful tools for the elucidation of gene function in many taxa. Here, we report the development of the first useful inducible promoter system for an oomycete, based on an ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the ecdysone analogue methoxyfenozide. In Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen, a monopartite transactivator containing the VP16 activation domain from herpes simplex virus, the GAL4 DNA-binding domain from yeast and the EcR receptor domain from the spruce budworm enabled high levels of expression of a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, but unacceptable basal activity in the absence of the methoxyfenozide inducer. Greatly improved performance was obtained using a bipartite system in which transcription is activated by a heterodimer between a chimera of VP16 and the migratory locust retinoid X receptor, and a separate EcR-DNA-binding domain chimera. Transformants were obtained that exhibited >100-fold activation of the reporter by methoxyfenozide, with low basal levels of expression and induced activity approaching that of the strong ham34 promoter. Performance varied between transformants, probably as a result of position effects. The addition of methoxyfenozide enabled strong induction during hyphal growth, zoosporogenesis and colonization of tomato. No significant effects of the inducer or transactivators on growth, development or pathogenicity were observed. The technology should therefore be a useful addition to the arsenal of methods for the study of oomycete plant pathogens.
An Investigation on principle biochemical components, photosynthetic pigments, nucleic acid and enzymatic activities of axenic culture of Scytonema sp. treated with two PAHs: Acenapthene and Fluoranthene
Full Text Available The fresh water cyanobacteria Scytonema sp. was cultivated in a laboratory scale in the presence of various concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 ppm of two polycyclic hydrocarbons in order to assess the influence of the pollutant on the growth and certain physiological responses of the cyanobacteria. The algal cells were analyzed for chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycobilliproteins, proteins, amino acid, nucliec acid, C/N ratio and elemental composition, carbohydrate and different enzymes at four days interval up to 16 days. According to our results, Scytonema sp. was significantly affected by the pollution with regard to the different physiological parameters examined, and this significance may be negative, positive or variable. The effect of the pollutant on carbohydrate, and the total amount of amino acids, proteins was negative, however, the composition of the phenol increase with raise in PAHs concentration. A positive effect of the pollutant on cellular C/N ratio was observed up to certain doses of PAHs.
Full Text Available We aimed to identify the early stress response and plant performance of Medicago truncatula growing in axenic medium with ammonium or urea as the sole source of nitrogen with respect to nitrate based nutrition through biomass measurements, auxin contents analyses, root system architecture response analyses, and physiological determinations. Both ammonium and ureic nutrition severely affected the root system architecture, resulting in changes in the main elongation rate, lateral root development and insert position from the base. The auxin content decreased in both urea- and ammonium- treated roots; however, only the ammonium- treated plants were affected at the shoot level. The analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients showed that ammonium affected photosystem II, but urea did not impair photosynthetic activity. Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the plastids were moderately affected by urea and ammonium in the roots. Overall, our results showed that low N doses from different sources had no remarkable effects on M. truncatula, with the exception of the differential phenotypic root response. High dose of both ammonium and urea caused great changes at plant length, auxin content and physiological determinations. The interesting correlations found between the shoot auxin pool, the plant length, and the parameter performance index, obtained from the chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetics measurements, indicated that both IAA pool and performance index are an important part of the response of M. truncatula under ammonium or urea as a sole N source.
Esteban, Raquel; Royo, Beatriz; Urarte, Estibaliz; Zamarreño, Ángel M.; Garcia-Mina, José M.; Moran, Jose F.
We aimed to identify the early stress response and plant performance of Medicago truncatula growing in axenic medium with ammonium or urea as the sole source of nitrogen, with respect to nitrate-based nutrition. Biomass measurements, auxin content analyses, root system architecture (RSA) response analyses, and physiological parameters were determined. Both ammonium and ureic nutrition severely affected the RSA, resulting in changes in the main elongation rate, lateral root development, and insert position from the root base. The auxin content decreased in both urea- and ammonium-treated roots; however, only the ammonium-treated plants were affected at the shoot level. The analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients showed that ammonium affected photosystem II, but urea did not impair photosynthetic activity. Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the plastids were moderately affected by urea and ammonium in the roots. Overall, our results showed that low N doses from different sources had no remarkable effects on M. truncatula, with the exception of the differential phenotypic root response. High doses of both ammonium and urea caused great changes in plant length, auxin contents and physiological measurements. Interesting correlations were found between the shoot auxin pool and both plant length and the “performance index” parameter, which is obtained from measurements of the kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Taken together, these data demonstrate that both the indole-3-acetic acid pool and performance index are important components of the response of M. truncatula under ammonium or urea as the sole N source. PMID:26909089
Vendelova, E; Hrčková, G; Lutz, M B; Brehm, K; Nono Komguep, J
Cestode-mediated diseases hold the interesting feature of persisting metacestode larvae dwelling within the host tissues, in the midst of the immune response. Excretory-secretory (ES) products of the metacestode larval stage modulate the host immune response and modify the outcome of the disease. Therefore, isolation and analysis of axenic metacestode ES products are crucial to study their properties. Here, we report the development of a system for long-term in vitro cultivation of the metacestode of the parasitic cestode Mesocestoides corti (syn. Mesocestoides vogae). Although feeder cells and host serum supported the early growth of the parasite, long-term survival was not dependent on host serum or host-derived factors enabling the collection of parasite released products in serum-free medium. Functionally, these axenic ES products recapitulated M. corti tetrathyridia's ability to inhibit LPS-driven IL-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells. Thus, our new axenic culture system will simplify the identification and characterization of M. corti-derived immunomodulatory factors that will indirectly enable the identification and characterization of corresponding factors in the metacestode larvae of medically relevant cestodes such as Echinococcus multilocularis that are not yet amenable to serum-free cultivation.
Nakano, M; Mii, M
Seventeen cultivars belonging to the genus Dianthus were examined for protoplast isolation, culture and shoot regeneration under the same conditions. These included D. caryophyllus, D. chinensis, D. barbatus, D. plumarius, D. superbus and D. japonicus as well as interspecific hybrid cultivars (D. caryophyllus x D. chinensis and D. chinensis x D. barbatus). In all cultivars, viable protoplasts were isolated at high yields from leaves of axenic shoot cultures and some of these protoplasts divided and formed colonies. However, shoot regeneration frequencies were markedly different among the species. High frequency shoot regeneration was obtained from D. chinensis and interspecific hybrid cultivars, while only low frequency or no shoot regeneration was obtained from other species.
Inoguchi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Sanae; Kondo, Hirokiyo
Hairy roots of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.) were induced by infecting axenic plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Growth and allelopathic polyacetylene (cis-dehydromatricaria ester, cis-DME) production of two independent hairy root clones were examined in several culture media and light regimes. cis-DME contents in hairy roots were at the same level as those in normal roots. cis-DME production in root cultures was several-fold lower than that of native plants and greatly repressed by light.
Xie, Huixiang; Scarratt, Michael G.; Moore, Robert M.
Carbon disulphide (CS 2) data were collected from axenic monocultures of six species of marine phytoplankton. The tested species included Chaetoceros calcitrans, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Phaeocystis sp., Porphyridium purpureum, Synechococcus sp. and Isochrysis sp. For a period of between two weeks and forty days, substantial accumulation of CS 2 was found in the cultures of C. calcitrans, P. tricornutum and Phaeocystis sp., whereas the change of CS 2 concentration in the remaining cultures was insignificant. C. calcitrans had a potential for CS 2 production about 10 times higher than P. tricornutum or Phaeocystis sp. The formation of the compound was strongly dependent on the physiological state of the cultured species. More investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the formation of this sulphur compound in these cultures.
Olga Maria Lage
Full Text Available Planctomycetes have been known since the description of Planctomyces bekefii by Gimesi at the beginning of the twentieth century (1924, although the first axenic cultures were only obtained in the 1970s. Since then, eleven genera with fourteen species have been validly named and five candidatus genera belonging to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox bacteria have also been discovered. However, Planctomycetes diversity is much broader than these numbers indicate, as shown by environmental molecular studies. In recent years the authors have attempted to isolate and cultivate additional strains of Planctomycetes. This paper provides a summary of the isolation work that was carried out to obtain in pure culture Planctomycetes from several environmental sources. The following strains and planctomycetes have been successfully isolated: two freshwater strains from the sediments of an aquarium, which were described as a new genus and species, Aquisphaera giovannonii; several Rhodopirellula strains from the sediments of a water treatment recycling tank of a marine fish farm; and more than 140 planctomycetes from the biofilm community of macroalgae. This collection comprises several novel taxa that are being characterized and described. Improvements in the isolation methodology were made in order to optimize and enlarge the number of Planctomycetes isolated from the macroalgae. The existence of an intimate and an important relationship between planctomycetes and macroalgae reported before by molecular studies is therefore supported by culture dependent methods.
Higgins, Brendan T; Labavitch, John M; VanderGheynst, Jean S
Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition are important metrics for the production of high quality biodiesel from algae. Our previous results showed that co-culturing the green alga Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli under high-substrate mixotrophic conditions enhanced both culture growth and crude lipid content. To investigate further, we analyzed neutral lipid content and fatty acid content and composition of axenic cultures and co-cultures produced under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. We found that co-culturing C. minutissima with E. coli under high substrate conditions (10 g/L) increased neutral lipid content 1.9- to 3.1-fold and fatty acid content 1.5- to 2.6-fold compared to equivalent axenic C. minutissima cultures. These same co-cultures also exhibited a significant fatty acid shift away from trienoic and toward monoenoic fatty acids thereby improving the quality of the synthesized fatty acids for biodiesel production. Further investigation suggested that E. coli facilitates substrate uptake by the algae and that the resulting growth enhancement induces a nitrogen-limited condition. Enhanced carbon uptake coupled with nitrogen limitation is the likely cause of the observed neutral lipid accumulation and fatty acid profile changes.
Maria Aparecida Gomes
Full Text Available In this study we have tried to verify whether the interaction "in vitro" with bacteria or small pieces of normal hamster liver would modify the pathogenic behavior of axenic strains of E. histolytica: avirulent ones (ICB-32 and ICB-RPS, of attenuated virulence (ICB-CSP and HM1 and of mean virulence (ICB-462. Every attempt to render virulent, recover or increase the virulence of axenic strains of E. histolytica has failedNeste trabalho procuramos verificar se a interação "in vitro" com bactérias e fragmentos de fígado de hamster normal, modificaria o comportamento patogênico de cepas axênicas de E. histolytica avirulentas (ICB-32 e ICB-RPS; virulentas, porém atenuadas (ICB-CSP e HM1 e de média virulência (ICB-462. Todas as tentativas de tornar virulentas, restabelecer ou aumentar a virulência das cepas axênicas de E. histolytica utilizadas fracassaram
Full Text Available Commercial culture media present interlot variations in biological activity. We have previously designed a homemade and economic culture medium, PEHPS medium, for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. Trophozoites of amoebae and trichomonads grow well in this medium. Furthermore, the medium is stable for several months when stored frozen or refrigerated. The objective of this work was to modify PEHPS medium to support the in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia. Inocula of 5 × 103 trophozoites/mL of G. lamblia were incubated at 36.5°C in modified PEHPS or TYI-S-33 medium. Then, the growths of the three Giardia strains in both media were compared. The logarithmic growth phase lasted 72 h; the mean yield of the strains ranged from 10.06 to 11.43 × 105Giardia trophozoites/mL, and the range of duplication time in the three strains was from 5.67 to 6.06 in modified PEHPS medium. These growth characteristics were not significantly different from those obtained with TYI-S-33 medium. We conclude that modified PEHPS medium might be used for the axenic cultivation of G. lamblia.
Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D.; Hernández-García, Magda E.; Garza-González, Jesús N.; De La Garza-Salinas, Laura H.; González-Salazar, Francisco
Commercial culture media present interlot variations in biological activity. We have previously designed a homemade and economic culture medium, PEHPS medium, for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. Trophozoites of amoebae and trichomonads grow well in this medium. Furthermore, the medium is stable for several months when stored frozen or refrigerated. The objective of this work was to modify PEHPS medium to support the in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia. Inocula of 5 × 103 trophozoites/mL of G. lamblia were incubated at 36.5°C in modified PEHPS or TYI-S-33 medium. Then, the growths of the three Giardia strains in both media were compared. The logarithmic growth phase lasted 72 h; the mean yield of the strains ranged from 10.06 to 11.43 × 105Giardia trophozoites/mL, and the range of duplication time in the three strains was from 5.67 to 6.06 in modified PEHPS medium. These growth characteristics were not significantly different from those obtained with TYI-S-33 medium. We conclude that modified PEHPS medium might be used for the axenic cultivation of G. lamblia. PMID:24982905
Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Hernández-García, Magda E; Garza-González, Jesús N; De La Garza-Salinas, Laura H; González-Salazar, Francisco
Commercial culture media present interlot variations in biological activity. We have previously designed a homemade and economic culture medium, PEHPS medium, for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. Trophozoites of amoebae and trichomonads grow well in this medium. Furthermore, the medium is stable for several months when stored frozen or refrigerated. The objective of this work was to modify PEHPS medium to support the in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia. Inocula of 5 × 10(3) trophozoites/mL of G. lamblia were incubated at 36.5°C in modified PEHPS or TYI-S-33 medium. Then, the growths of the three Giardia strains in both media were compared. The logarithmic growth phase lasted 72 h; the mean yield of the strains ranged from 10.06 to 11.43 × 10(5) Giardia trophozoites/mL, and the range of duplication time in the three strains was from 5.67 to 6.06 in modified PEHPS medium. These growth characteristics were not significantly different from those obtained with TYI-S-33 medium. We conclude that modified PEHPS medium might be used for the axenic cultivation of G. lamblia.
Królicka, A; Staniszewska, I; Bielawski, K; Malinski, E; Szafranek, J; L&z shtsls;ojkowska, E
Axenically grown Ammi majus plantlets were inoculated with seven different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains. Hairy root lines were established only after inoculation with the two agropine strains: A4 and LBA9402. The growth rate of hairy root cultures was about thirty times faster than that of callus and cell suspension cultures. Polymerase chain reaction with primers for the genes rolB and rolC confirmed the integration of the T-DNA fragment of Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes to the genome of hairy roots obtained after transformation by both Agrobacterium strains. The furanocoumarins (psoralen, xanthotoxine, bergapten and imperatorin) usually found in seeds of A. majus were not detected in callus, cell suspension and hairy root cultures using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, umbelliferone, a precursor of furanocoumarins, was detected in callus, cell suspension and hairy root cultures. The umbelliferone content in extracts of hairy root cultures, obtained after transformation by A4, was similar to that determined in A. majus seeds (19 µg/g DW) and higher than those obtained for cell suspension and callus cultures (2 and 9 µg/g DW, respectively).
Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram
In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety.
Shen, Songdong; Wu, Xunjian; Yan, Binlun; He, Lihong
To establish a micropropagation system of three Laurencia complex species ( Laurencia okamurai, Laurencia tristicha, and Chondrophycus undulatus) by tissue culture techniques, we studied the regeneration characteristics and optimal culture conditions of axenic algal fragments cultured on solid medium and in liquid medium. Regeneration structures were observed and counted regularly under a reverse microscope to investigate the regeneration process, polarity and optimal illumination, and temperature and salinity levels. The results show that in most cultures of the three species, we obtained bud regeneration on solidified medium with 0.5% agar and in liquid medium. Rhizoid-like regeneration was filamentous and developed from the lower cut surface of fragments in L. okamurai, but was discoid and developed from the apical back side of bud regeneration in L. tristicha and C. undulatus. Regeneration polarity was localized to the apical part of algal fronds in all three species, and on fragments cut from the basal part of algae buds could develop from both the upper and the lower cut surfaces. Buds could develop from both the medullary and the cortical portions in L. okamurai and C. undulatus, while in L. tristicha, buds only emerged from the cortex. The optimal culture conditions for L. okamurai were 4 500 lx, 20°C and 35 (salinity); for C. undulatus, 4 500 lx, 20°C and 30; and for L. tristicha, 4 500 lx, 25°C and 30.
Lucero, Patricia A; Ferrari, Mónica M; Orden, Alejandro A; Cañas, Irene; Nassetta, Mirtha; Kurina-Sanz, Marcela
Endosulfan is a Persistent Organic Pollutant insecticide still used in many countries. It is commercially available as mixtures of two diastereomers, α- and β-endosulfan, known as technical grade endosulfan (TGE). A laboratory model based on the use of axenic plant cell cultures to study the removal and metabolization of both isomers from contaminated water matrixes was established. No differences were recorded in the removal of the two individual isomers with the two tested endemic plants, Grindelia pulchella and Tessaria absinthioides. Undifferentiated cultures of both plant species were very efficient to lower endosulfan concentration in spiked solutions. Metabolic fate of TGE was evaluated by analyzing the time course of endosulfan metabolites accumulation in both plant biomass and bioremediation media. While in G. pulchella we only detected endosulfan sulfate, in T. absinthioides the non-toxic endosulfan alcohol was the main metabolite at 48h, giving the possibility of designing phytoremediation approaches.
黄振华; 刘晓娟; 胡章喜; 段舜山
研究了5种抗生素在不同浓度下对湛江等鞭金藻(Isochrysis zhangjiangensis)生长的影响,采用混合添加抗生素法获得无菌藻株.结果表明,(1)不同抗生素对湛江等鞭金藻生长的影响存在差异,湛江等鞭金藻对氯霉素最敏感,浓度为50 μg·mL-1时抑制率为27.02%,浓度＞50 μg·mL-1时抑制率达80%,湛江等鞭金藻对青霉素、链霉素、卡那霉素和庆大霉素不敏感,后3种抗生素在低浓度时对藻细胞生长有促进作用;(2)除50 μg·mL-1青霉素处理外,青霉素、链霉素、卡那霉素和庆大霉素其它浓度处理均有明显的抑菌作用;(3)采用500 μg·mL-1链霉素,1000 μg·mL-1卡那霉素和50 μg·mL-1庆大霉素的4个组合混合添加抗生素,均获得了无菌藻株,且对生长有促进作用.
S F AbouZid
Full Text Available Abstract: Root cultures of Withania coagulans (Solanaceae were obtained from in vitro germinated sterile plantlets. The roots grew axenically in MS medium containing 0.25 mgL-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 30 gL-1 sucrose. A RP-HPLC method for the determination of withanolides in plant tissues was developed using a binary gradient solvent system comprising acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% (v/v acetic acid. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The linearity was found to be in the range of 1.2-720 µLmL-1. The method described is simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible. The developed method was applied for quantification of withanolides level in cultured roots of W. coagulans. The root cultures synthesized withanolides of which withaferin A was the major compound. The productivity of withaferin A in the three-week-old cultured roots was 11.65 µgg-1. Withaferin A production showed consistent increase with root growth during the three weeks of culture period. Industrial relevance: Plant tissue culture can be a potential source for important secondary metabolites such as pharmaceuticals and food additives. This technology depends on using plant cultures in a similar manner to microbial fermentation for factory-type production of target metabolites. The technology bears many advantages over conventional agricultural methods: production is independent of variation in crop quality or failure, yield of target compounds would be constant and geared to demand, there is no difficulty in applying good manufacturing practice to the early stages of production, production would be possible anywhere under strictly controlled conditions, independency of political problems, free from risk of contamination with pesticides, herbicides, agrochemicals or fertilizers and new methods of production can be patented.
Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...
Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.
The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.
Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....
Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...
... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...
Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)
Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)
Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)
Huang, W.-J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lai, C.-H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.-L. [Environmental Toxin and Analysis Laboratory, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com
The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test.
Nispen tot Pannerden, P.J.M. van
The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are discu
Barron, Daniel D.
Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)
@@ Culture is a very big concept, big enough almost to comprise all the activities of human beings and the tangible and intangible results caused by human activities.Therefore, it is very difficult to define culture in a few words.
Ball, E. A.
Utilizing the lateral buds of known high rubber producing plants as explants in culture medium specifically designed to engender shoot development and to prevent callus formation, unlimited numbers of replicate plants can be produced. Each has the same genotype as the parent. This procedure has long been used to rid plants of virus, the latter generally does not occur in the embryonic tissues of the bud; it also, by virtue of its axenic nature, eliminates all microorganisms characteristic of the parent plant. Auxins were found essential to callus formation, but since the latter is known to bring about chromosomal aberrations, it was avoided. The cytokinin benzylaminopurine strongly stimulated shoot growth, and the number of regenerated buds on the inoculum was proportional to its concentration. These buds produced shoots several centimeters in length which were caused to root on medium containing indolebutyric acid. Transferred to the septic condition of soil, the plantlets were gradually brought into full sunlight where they showed a brief vegetative growth with production of mature leaves, and flowered.
for re-subjectivization. By developing a dialogue with other disciplines, such as the conception of architecture outlined by Alberto Pérez-Gómez, humanistic urban studies may even contribute to reappropriations of objective culture. During the first decade of the 2000s, graduate students at the Faculty......Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...
Specialists say that it is not easy to get used to life in a new culture.“Culture shock”is the term these specialists use when talking about the feelings that people have in a new environment.There are three stages of culture shock,say the specialists.In the first stage,the newcomers like their new environment,Then when the fresh experience
Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...
Alcolea, Pedro J; Alonso, Ana; Domínguez, Mercedes; Parro, Víctor; Jiménez, Maribel; Molina, Ricardo; Larraga, Vicente
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, where domestic dogs and wild canids are the main reservoirs. The promastigote stage replicates and develops within the gut of blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. Mature promastigotes are injected in the dermis of the mammalian host and differentiate into the amastigote stage within parasitophorous vacuoles of phagocytic cells. The major vector of L. infantum in Spain is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Promastigotes are routinely axenized and cultured to mimic in vitro the conditions inside the insect gut, which allows for most molecular, cellular, immunological and therapeutical studies otherwise inviable. Culture passages are known to decrease infectivity, which is restored by passage through laboratory animals. The most appropriate source of promastigotes is the gut of the vector host but isolation of the parasite is technically challenging. In fact, this option is not viable unless small samples are sufficient for downstream applications like promastigote cultures and nucleic acid amplification. In this study, in vitro infectivity and differential gene expression have been studied in cultured promastigotes at the stationary phase and in promastigotes isolated from the stomodeal valve of the sand fly P. perniciosus. About 20 ng RNA per sample could be isolated. Each sample contained L. infantum promastigotes from 20 sand flies. RNA was successfully amplified and processed for shotgun genome microarray hybridization analysis. Most differentially regulated genes are involved in regulation of gene expression, intracellular signaling, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of surface molecules. Interestingly, meta-analysis by hierarchical clustering supports that up-regulation of 22.4% of the differentially regulated genes is specifically enhanced by the microenvironment (i.e. sand fly gut or culture). The correlation between cultured and naturally
It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…
Jensen, Ole B.
by certain representations and embedded in certain norms and values. The analytical framework is applied on a case of cultural urban branding. The case is the harbour front in Aalborg, Denmark where a number of flagship architecture projects and cultural institutions are being planned. It is shown how...
Madsen, Jacob Østergaard
The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....
What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...
Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.
Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…
Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.
Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...
@@ Until recently, employees posted abroad would, if they were lucky, receive some limited language training before they relocated. How they would cope with living in a completely new culture when they arrived was left up to them to figure out.
... 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ... PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 22. Read More Cryptosporidium enteritis Fecal culture Proctitis Review Date 5/11/2016 ...
Exorbitant Performance Fees ProhibitedThe Ministry of Culture has taken measures todiscourage performance artists from charging excessively for their stage appearances. According to the ministry, payment for performers and ticket prices must be in line with average con-
Yangshao culture was born in the Neolithic Age. In 1921, archaeologists unearthed a number of chipped stone implements such as knives and axes; bone objects and everyday ceramic items. Thus Yangshao Village and its matriarchal society have
FOREIGN commodities have flowed into China since the country opened its doors to the outside world. China is an expansive territory with a huge population offering a vast potential consumer market. There are absolutely no limits to the world of culture in China, with Chinese people having access to foreign films, dramas, music and books, all of which have helped to strengthen exchanges between Chinese and Western cultures.
Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...
Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...
In this paper, we have investigated the concept of "Cultural Robotics" with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...
"Who are we?Where are we from?"Humans have been pondering these questions since the day they first came into being.One of the ways we preserve memories of the past is through our cul- tural heritage that has been passed on from generation to genera- tion.Intangible cultural heritage,as well as tangible cultural her- itage,is essential to the continuity of human civilization. Since the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)unveiled the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001,China has had Kunqu opera,Guqin and its music,the art of Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang and the traditional Mongolian folk song Long Song added to UNESCO’s protection list.It is now one of the coun-
Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.
To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…
Kang, Ilnam; Kim, Suhyun; Islam, Md. Rashedul; Cho, Jang-Cheon
The acI lineage of the phylum Actinobacteria is the most abundant bacterial group in most freshwater lakes. However, due to difficulties in laboratory cultivation, only two mixed cultures and some incomplete single-amplified or metagenome-derived genomes have been reported for the lineage. Here, we report the initial cultivation and complete genome sequences of four novel strains of the acI lineage from the tribes acI-A1, -A4, -A7, and -C1. The acI strains, initially isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing, eventually failed to be maintained as axenic cultures. However, the first complete genomes of the acI lineage were successfully obtained from these initial cultures through whole genome amplification applied to more than hundreds of cultured acI cells. The genome sequences exhibited features of genome streamlining and showed that the strains are aerobic chemoheterotrophs sharing central metabolic pathways, with some differences among tribes that may underlie niche diversification within the acI lineage. Actinorhodopsin was found in all strains, but retinal biosynthesis was complete in only A1 and A4 tribes. PMID:28186143
Hervik, Peter Bent
The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....
Ramírez, Claudia Gómez
Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketin...
Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives,just like material comfort.It is thought of as an important source of a nation's vitality and creativity,and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries.It is also said culture is a productive power that not only shapes human concepts and impacts their behavior,but also contributes in no small measure to the betterment of our material as well as spiritual world.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....
This year, June 10 marked China's first Cultural Heritage Day. The designation by the Chinese Government aims to raise awareness of the need to protect and understand the value of the nation's abundant cultural treasures. In future the second Saturday in June each year will be set aside for this purpose. Recently, the State Council published the sixth group of major relics under state protection. On the list are 1,080 historic relics such as the Grand Canal from Beijing to Hangzhou and the
Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way...
Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.
Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)
Brown, Angela Khristin
The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…
When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...
Pörtner, R; Märkl, H
Dialysis techniques are discussed as a means for effective removal of low-molecular-mass components from fermentation broth to reach high cell density. Reactor systems and process strategies, the relevant properties of membranes and examples for high-density fermentation with dialysis, and problems related to scale-up are addressed. The dialysis technique has turned out to be very efficient and reliable for obtaining high cell densities. As in dialysis processes the membranes are not perfused, membrane clogging is not a problem as it is for micro- and ultrafiltration. By applying a "nutrient-split" feeding strategy, the loss of nutrients can be avoided and the medium is used very efficiently. The potential of dialysis cultures is demonstrated on the laboratory scale in a membrane dialysis reactor with an integrated membrane and in reactor systems with an external dialysis loop. In dialysis cultures with different microorganisms (Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, extremophilic microorganisms, Lactobacilli) the cell densities achieved were up to 30 times higher than those of other fermentation methods. The technique enables high cell densities to be attained without time-consuming medium optimization. For animal cell cultures the concept of a fixed bed coupled with dialysis proved to be very effective.
Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi
As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area.
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of "Cultural Robotics" with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.
Yusuf Cagatay Ersan
Full Text Available Attentive monitoring and regular repair of concrete cracks are necessary to avoid further durability problems. As an alternative to current maintenance methods, intrinsic repair systems which enable self-healing of cracks have been investigated. Exploiting microbial induced CaCO3 precipitation using (protected axenic cultures is one of the proposed methods. Yet, only a few of the suggested healing agents were economically feasible for in situ application. This study presents a NO3- reducing self-protected enrichment culture as a self-healing additive for concrete. Concrete admixtures Ca(NO32 and Ca(HCOO2 were used as nutrients. The enrichment culture, grown as granules (0.5 – 2 mm consisting of 70 % biomass and 30 % inorganic salts were added into mortar without any additional protection. Upon 28 days curing, mortar specimens were subjected to direct tensile load and multiple cracks (0.1 – 0.6 mm were achieved. Cracked specimens were immersed in water for 28 days and effective crack closure up to 0.5 mm crack width was achieved through calcite precipitation. Microbial activity during crack healing was monitored through weekly NOx analysis which revealed that 92±2 % of the available NO3- was consumed. Another set of specimens were cracked after 6 months curing, thus the effect of curing time on healing efficiency was investigated, and mineral formation at the inner crack surfaces was observed, resulting in 70 % less capillary water absorption compared to healed control specimens. In conclusion, enriched mixed denitrifying cultures structured in self-protecting granules are very promising strategies to enhance microbial self-healing.
Erşan, Yusuf Ç.; Gruyaert, Elke; Louis, Ghislain; Lors, Christine; De Belie, Nele; Boon, Nico
Attentive monitoring and regular repair of concrete cracks are necessary to avoid further durability problems. As an alternative to current maintenance methods, intrinsic repair systems which enable self-healing of cracks have been investigated. Exploiting microbial induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) using (protected) axenic cultures is one of the proposed methods. Yet, only a few of the suggested healing agents were economically feasible for in situ application. This study presents a NO3− reducing self-protected enrichment culture as a self-healing additive for concrete. Concrete admixtures Ca(NO3)2 and Ca(HCOO)2 were used as nutrients. The enrichment culture, grown as granules (0.5–2 mm) consisting of 70% biomass and 30% inorganic salts were added into mortar without any additional protection. Upon 28 days curing, mortar specimens were subjected to direct tensile load and multiple cracks (0.1–0.6 mm) were achieved. Cracked specimens were immersed in water for 28 days and effective crack closure up to 0.5 mm crack width was achieved through calcite precipitation. Microbial activity during crack healing was monitored through weekly NOx analysis which revealed that 92 ± 2% of the available NO3− was consumed. Another set of specimens were cracked after 6 months curing, thus the effect of curing time on healing efficiency was investigated, and mineral formation at the inner crack surfaces was observed, resulting in 70% less capillary water absorption compared to healed control specimens. In conclusion, enriched mixed denitrifying cultures structured in self-protecting granules are very promising strategies to enhance microbial self-healing. PMID:26583015
Full Text Available Este artículo releva la Arquitectura Cultural, que es plural y diversa en términos estéticos y conceptuales. Sugiere la apertura a otras dinámicas de comprensión de lo arquitectónico, a otras lógicas de construcción de las ciudades. Para aclarar el concepto se expone un breve ejemplo práctico./This article points out the "cultural architecture", which is plural and diverse in concept and aesthetic terms. It suggests the opening to other dinamics of comprehention of the architectural issue and the building of cities. The article presents a brief empirical example that clarifies the conceptual approach.
Singer puts a modern musical face on ancient cultural classics In traditional loose sleeved Chinese costume and a hairstyle straight from ancient China, a slim female singer stepped onto the stage, singing a wistful song called Li. "Li is respect, Li is elegance, Li is purity, Li is tranquility; Li comes from a smile, Li comes from love, Li comes from the heart," she sings, accompanied by a melody of haunting court music. The singer is appearing on CCTV, China’s National TV station, in a music program aired during the 2008 Olympic Games.
Angela Khristin Brown
Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.
YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian
Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.
Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.
... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...
In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict, as the Ministry of Culture was established to support cultural enlightenment and democratic access to art and culture, while popular demands for more entertainment were raised.......In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict, as the Ministry of Culture was established to support cultural enlightenment and democratic access to art and culture, while popular demands for more entertainment were raised....
SunCuilan; RenHuaiping; MaDaoshan
In inter-linguistic-cultural communication, cultural misreading is unavoidable. The same is true in foreign language teaching and learning owning to the cultural dissimilarities, for the influence exerted by cultural components upon languages constitutes the major barriers. Language can not exist without culture as its component. Culture consists of all the shared
Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong
Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…
Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan
Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the ce
Malefyt, Timothy de Waal; Moeran, Brian
The growth, success and secrets of advertizing are legendary. Advertizing agencies ceaselessly churn out evermore sophisticated campaigns that, when successful, manage to capture the every essence of consumer desire. The secrets of advertizing are perhaps best understood by turning......, but exposes, through in-depth accounts based on personal experience, the inner workings of the advertizing industry. How do adverts manage to capture "real" life? What issues do agencies have to consider when using an advert in a range of different countries? What specific methods are used to persuade us...... to the relationship between advertizing and anthropology. The link between them may come as a surprise to those who consider advertizing to be firmly rooted in commerce and anthropology in culture. Through the lens of anthropologists, this book not only shows how anthropology and advertizing are connected...
Esther Fernández de Paz
Full Text Available Desde el momento en que Europa sacralizó un determinado conjunto de objetos y los convirtió en referentes patrimoniales activados y protegidos por los representantes de la cultura oficial, hasta el presente, mucho se han ensanchado los estrechos límites patrimoniales; se ha superado la concepción objetual, historicista y esteticista para abarcar todo el conjunto de bienes de valor cultural. El patrimonio deja así de ser contemplado exclusivamente como un tesoro histórico-artístico para pasar a convertirse en algo mucho más valioso: en elementos -materiales e inmateriales- fundamentales para comprender nuestra identidad. No obstante, la creciente demanda turística de supuestas autenticidades está hoy provocando que este patrimonio se oferte, en no pocas ocasiones, como la expresión de un pasado idealizado.
Cultural teaching is an issue which is associated with complexity and paradox and also it is a big challenge for faculty. Teaching culture through films has become an important way of cross-cultural teaching This paper focuses on the reasons for teaching culture through films, the value and how it works. And finally it leads out the prospects of cultural teaching through films.
WANG Xiao-hui; REN Pei-hong
Language, as a kind of symbol system of social culture, is strongly connected with culture. Language is a carrier of cul⁃ture and a form of culture. Just because the strong connection between culture and language, so we can believe that language is a mirror of culture.
While planet Earth endeavors to transmit information instantaneously, cultural misunderstanding interferes with communication more than any language barrier. The article urges teachers of French to be cognizant of their role as cultural mediators. (Author/CK)
A unique training book containing over 100 culture awareness exercises, dialogues, stories incidents and simulations that bring to life Geert Hofstede's five dimensions of culture. These dimensions are: power distance, collectivism versus individualism, femininity versus masculinity, uncertainly avo
Juan Soto Ramírez
Full Text Available A inicios del 2007, un llamativo suceso se convirtió en el ‘foco de atención' de la opinión pública: 600 internas de La Villa de las niñas de Chalco, presentaron síntomas como: mareo, náuseas, vómitos y problemas musculares. Una vez descartados los factores orgánicos y con el aval de la ‘ciencia médica' se procedió a construir una versión oficial respaldada por la ‘ciencia' y los ‘sistemas de expertos'. En las entrevistas televisivas aparecían ‘académicos' de distintas instituciones del país opinando al respecto y lo sorprendente es que su ‘punto de vista' sobre el caso, resultaba ser tan inverosímil como el de las instancias de salud. Incluso, como se verá, las ‘versiones académicas' terminaron otorgándole, quizá sin quererlo, verosimilitud a la ‘versión oficial' de la Secretaría de Salud. Lo interesante del caso es que las explicaciones que se produjeron para justificar la existencia de los ‘hechos' se apegaron con estricto fervor romántico a las suposiciones hipnótico-epidemiológicas desarrolladas por la ‘psicología de masas' de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Sirva el presente ensayo para hacer una revisión no sólo del curioso caso de la villa de las niñas sino de la forma en que la construcción de versiones, descripciones y explicaciones, circulan de modos particulares y que el entendimiento de la forma en cómo circulan dichas versiones, descripciones y explicaciones, permite entender la complejidad cultural de cualquier entorno social.
A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)
Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...
Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...
Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...
Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...
van Schaik, Carel P
Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Milford Microalgal culture Collection holds over 200 live cultures representing 13 classes of of algae. The cultures are maintained in three different growing...
The article deals with the importance of cultural awareness for businesspeople when they go abroad. It also gives some cultural advice and factors which are thought to be the most important in creating a culture.
cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.
The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards an unders......The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...
Вячеслав Владимирович Суханов
Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-1
Drake, Miriam A.
This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…
Cohen, Adam B.
Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…
There is a natural relationship between culture and language. Language reflects how the people of a nation form the unique way of life and the way of thinking. Therefore, English teaching necessarily involves cultural education as well. This paper analyzes the influence of social culture in English teaching and tries to set up a principle of teaching English culture.
As the carrier of culture,language is considered as the main expressional form of culture which develops with nation,country and society’s development.Language is a part of a nation’s culture.The different nations own their unique cultures,his-tory,manners and customs and so on.However,various cultural characteristics can be displayed in the form of language.This ar-ticle,by analyzing the influence and the difference of historical culture,regional culture and custom culture,mainly reveals the relationship between language and culture which is interdependent and interactive.What’s more,a better comprehension of this relationship prevents us from misunderstanding in cross-culture communication.
Paul W D'Alvise
Full Text Available Phaeobacter gallaeciensis can antagonize fish-pathogenic bacteria in vitro, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the organism as a probiont for marine fish larvae and their feed cultures. An in vivo mechanism of action of the antagonistic probiotic bacterium is suggested using a non-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7 cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio anguillarum was significantly reduced by wild-type P. gallaeciensis, when introduced into these cultures. A P. gallaeciensis mutant that did not produce the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA did not reduce V. anguillarum numbers, suggesting that production of the antibacterial compound is important for the antagonistic properties of P. gallaeciensis. The ability of P. gallaeciensis to protect fish larvae from vibriosis was determined in a bath challenge experiment using a multidish system with 1 larva per well. Unchallenged larvae reached 40% accumulated mortality which increased to 100% when infected with V. anguillarum. P. gallaeciensis reduced the mortality of challenged cod larvae (Gadus morhua to 10%, significantly below the levels of both the challenged and the unchallenged larvae. The TDA mutant reduced mortality of the cod larvae in some of the replicates, although to a much lesser extent than the wild type. It is concluded that P. gallaeciensis is a promising probiont in marine larviculture and that TDA production likely contributes to its probiotic effect.
Wojciech J. Szypuła
Full Text Available This study presents a protocol for a fast and effective in vitro axenic culture of Huperzia selago (Huperziaceae Rothm. sporophytes, a club moss which is a source of huperzine A, an alkaloid of a considerable therapeutic potential extensively investigated for its uses as treatment for some neurodegenerative diseases. The proposed procedure allowed approximately tenfold shortening of the species developmental stages with the omission of the gametophyte stage while the sporophyte mass could be increased tenfold within a 6-month period. The cultures were established using vegetative propagules (bulbils procured from sporophytes growing in the wild without degrading the habitats of this endangered plant species. Explants underwent surface and internal disinfection to eliminate the epiphytic and endophytic bacteria and fungi. In in vitro cultures, the optimum results were achieved using Moore (Mr medium without growth regulators or supplemented with 0.015 mg/l IBA and 0.3 mg/l kinetin. These media ensured both viability of the propagules and their further development. The biomass growth index for H. selago sporophytes grown from propagules, determined at 3 months of culture (1 passage on Mr medium with IBA and kinetin was 650%. At 6 months, the biomass growth index increased to 1114%. Vigorous growth of adventitious roots, especially on Mr medium with the addition of 0.25 mg/l NAA, and callus formation on shoot apices were observed. At 6 months of culture, some sporophytes obtained from the bulbils were used as the initiating material for shoot subcultures, which developed best on Mr medium with IBA and kinetin.
Participants at a forum on communication between cultures generate ideas on how China can deal with its growing cultural deficit Five months ago, Ding Wei, Assistant Minister of Culture, described China's deficit in international cultural trade as "huge" at a press conference held by the State Council Information Office. "Our statistics years ago showed that the ratio of imports of cultural products to exports was 10 to 1," he
China's contemporary culture and the protection of its diverse cultural heritage have become some of the most talked about issues today.Cultural prosperity was put forward as an important objective of the Central Government's national development strategy last year.However,the industrialization and commercialization of China's culture have been both criticized and celebrated.Many scholars believe industrialization and enormous government investment may not be the best means to protect intangible cultural heritage (ICH).
Full Text Available Cultural institution management is to direct the organization to a specific cultural profile purpose, namely production values esthetic sense, artistic, moral, spiritual, distribution, promotion of these values, protection and circulation of cultural heritage. In this regard, an analysis in the diagnosis cultural organizations aims to determine the main strengths and weaknesses, assess the potential and making recommendations focused on the root causes of failures and positive aspects. This paper presents considerations diligence activity Culture House "IL Caragiale "in Ploiesti. The mission of this organization is to contribute to the cultural development of the community by initiating projects and cultural programs, offer development programs and services to meet cultural needs, increase public access to diverse cultural life, providing a constant presence institution circuit local, national, European and international level. Conclusions drawn from the analysis shows that in a world of economic globalization, information and culture in a company in constant change, in a competitive market where there is information readily available means and leisure, but not cultural consistency in a social environment where interest in culture of people is declining, the situation of the population is impaired, the remuneration of staff working in the field of cultural education is demotivating, the funds allocated to culture have grown lately effectively lead a cultural institution is a challenge.
李欣欣; 赵静; 廖红
This paper describes the processes of establishment of dual culture system of soybean hairy roots and vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora margarita under axenic conditions. Soybean hairy roots were used as host to be infected by G. margarita. After 3.5 months of dual culture, the infection of transformed soybean hairy roots by VA mycorrhizal fungi was observed, subsequently auxiliary cells were formed and mature spores of G. margarita were obtained. The successful establishment of dual culture system of soybean and VA mycorrhizal fungi provides an effective method to study the mechanisms of symbiosis between soybean roots and VA mycorrhizal fungi and related molecular researches.%以大豆毛状根为宿主,接种VA菌根真菌珠状巨孢囊霉(Glgaspora margarita),经过3.5个月的双重培养,观察到VA菌根真菌珠状巨孢囊霉对大豆毛状根的侵染,辅助细胞形成,并获得VA菌根真菌成熟孢子,在无菌条件下建立了大豆毛状根-VA菌根真菌双重培养体系,为研究茵根真菌侵染大豆根部形成共生体系及相关分子机制提供了一种有效的研究方法.
Analysis of proteins from membrane and soluble fractions of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of two Brazilian axenic strains Análise de proteínas de frações de membranas e de frações solúveis de trofozoítos de duas cepas de Giardia duodenalis, isoladas e axenizadas no Brasil
Full Text Available In the present study, we have analyzed by sodium docecyl sulphate - polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and Concanavalin A blotting (Con A blotting proteins of membrane fractions and soluble fractions obtained from Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of two axenic strains isolated in Brazil from a symptomatic (BTU-11 and an asymptomatic patient (BTU-10, as compared to the reference strain Portland 1. Both Brazilian strains showed a complex and homogeneous electrophoretic pattern of proteins, but some differences could be observed. Several glycoproteins were detected, particularly the proteins of 81, 72, 59 kDa and the protein of 62 kDa in the membrane proteins and cytosol, respectively. Many antigenic components were revealed by anti-Giardia rabbit IgG antibodies in the immunoblotting analysis. Among these components, the membrane protein of 32 kDa and the cytosol protein of 30 kDa could be related to giardin, as previously demonstrated.Foi realizada a análise de algumas características bioquímicas e antigênicas de duas cepas axênicas de Giardia duodenalis, isoladas em Botucatu, a partir de cistos obtidos de paciente sintomático (BTU-11 e assintomático (BTU-10, tendo por referência a cepa padrão Portland 1 (P-1, isolada e axenizada nos Estados Unidos. Preparações contendo proteínas de membranas e proteínas solúveis (citosol de cada cepa foram empregadas na eletroforese das proteínas em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE, na análise de glicoproteínas pela técnica de Con A blot e na análise antigênica pela técnica de "Immunoblotting". Na análise do perfil eletroforético os padrões de bandas de proteínas das cepas BTU-10 e BTU-11 foram complexos e na maior parte homogêneos; algumas diferenças foram detectadas entre as proteínas de membranas. Várias glicoproteínas foram demonstradas, destacando-se as de 81, 72, 59 kDa e a glicoproteína de 62 kDa, detectadas nas preparações de proteínas de membranas
Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary
This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.
Value stands for the significance of things,and concepts of value are ideas,opinions and attitudes about what kind of things are significant.Studies on the concept of value cannot be separated from culture.Every society has its own distinct culture and concept of value shared by its people.The relationship between concept of value and culture shows that the building of the concept of value must be based on culture.Developing culture,providing excellent products of culture and better humanitarian environment are the premise for people's possession of the correct concept of value.
In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be mad...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....
This paper aims at emphasizing the issue of teaching of culture in foreign language teaching. In this respect, the reasons of teaching culture in foreign language classes are focused on initially. So, the justifications of teaching culture are considered and explained and by the help of a dialogue. Right after this, ways of developing cultural awareness is taken into account. At this step, types of courses to develop cultural awareness are dealt with. Developing cultural awareness in cla...
The Year of Chinese Culture in Australia is poised to cement bonds between the Chinese and Australians As the Year of Australian Culture in China drew to a close in June,the Year of Chinese Culture in Australia,titled Experience China,came ons tage to showcase the rich variety of China’s traditional and contemporary culture to the Australians.The opening ceremony of the event was held on June 24 at the Sydney State Theater.It featured famous Chinese dancer Yang Liping’s original dance drama The Legend of Shangri-La.The Year of Chinese Culture in Australiais by far the largest Chinese cultural festival
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
of ‘‘highbrow’’ culture, cultural oppositions can nonetheless readily be detected. We point to nine oppositions, mostly shared between the nations. Three tensions between (a) participation and non-participation in cultural activities; (b) knowledge and ignorance in cultural issues (such as for music, literature...... than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features...
Full Text Available Turkish steppe culture constituted a typical structure with regard to its creation and development. It emerged from steppe geography. The geography affected social, politic, economical, military and religious structure of the society substantially. The Turkish culture was shaped up under these influences. The agents of the culture appeared as a shepherd generally. Shepherding provided a basic to the animal husbandry. The shepherds headed to search the fertile grass. Shepherding obliged people to became seminomadic. Thus the life continued in a manner of searching new pastures and shuttling between plateau and winter quarters . The horse that is one of the important ingredient of the culture provided mobility and speed to the culture. In social, politic, and military life of society the horse came into prominence. The nomadic houses or the cars contributed to Turks’ life very much. These nomad houses were shelter at the nights and cold days for them. Going from the plateau to winter quarters and from pasture to another pasture was made easy thanks to these. The finding which took out from graves reflects to all features of the culture.The ruins of nomad houses and horses were arised from the graves . These support the informations which was given in the written sources. Among the findings, there were also The animal struggle scenes which reflect art concept of theseminomadism between tomb finds. This art concept named as turkish animal style. It’s tried to determine The scope of the Turkish culture by emphasizing steppe, shepherding, semi-nomadism, horse, nomad house, tomb. It is also emphasized that aforementioned notions can be used for Turkish culture. Thus, cultural dysphemisms in the turkish culture based on that idea.
This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple). Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and th...
Rolf Dieter Illg
Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.
Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan
Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.
A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...
Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.
Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.
Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia
in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse......This symposium will introduce a project developed under the auspices of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) in an effort to inspire and support the development of culturally sensitive theoretical frameworks and research methodologies in career studies and career assistance services...... around the world. The cultural approach to the theory and practice of sport psychological research has been recently articulated in two edited books, Cultural Sport Psychology (Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009) and The Cultural Turn in Sport Psychology (Ryba, Schinke, & Tenenbaum, 2010). The presenters...
A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...
Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.
Rolf Dieter Illg
Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.
Patton, Michael Quinn
This synthesis of the previous articles concludes that cultural considerations are important for effective evaluation practice. Culturally sensitive and situationally responsive evaluation practices can contribute to international understanding. (BS)
The bi-direction of cross-cultural communication determines culture teaching should include both target culture and native culture. Currently, however, mere emphasis of target culture with ignoring native culture has resulted in“two-skin”phenomenon and“aphasia of Chinese culture”. Therefore, this paper aims to underline native culture teaching, to explore proper techniques for native culture teaching, to achieve integration of target culture and native culture, to enhance students’expressive competence in native culture and finally to carry out effective cross-cultural communication.
Paul A Den Uyl
Full Text Available Black band disease (BBD is a cyanobacterial-dominated polymicrobial mat that propagates on and migrates across coral surfaces, necrotizing coral tissue. Culture-based laboratory studies have investigated cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria isolated from BBD, but the metabolic potential of various BBD microbial community members and interactions between them remain poorly understood. Here we report genomic insights into the physiological and metabolic potential of the BBD-associated cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 and six associated bacteria that were also present in the non-axenic culture. The essentially complete genome of Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 contains a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase gene for oxidation of sulfide, suggesting a mechanism for tolerating the sulfidic conditions of BBD mats. Although the operon for biosynthesis of the cyanotoxin microcystin was surprisingly absent, potential relics were identified. Genomic evidence for mixed-acid fermentation indicates a strategy for energy metabolism under the anaerobic conditions present in BBD during darkness. Fermentation products may supply carbon to BBD heterotrophic bacteria. Among the six associated bacteria in the culture, two are closely related to organisms found in culture-independent studies of diseased corals. Their metabolic pathways for carbon and sulfur cycling, energy metabolism, and mechanisms for resisting coral defenses suggest adaptations to the coral surface environment and biogeochemical roles within the BBD mat. Polysulfide reductases were identified in a Flammeovirgaceae genome (Bacteroidetes and the sox pathway for sulfur oxidation was found in the genome of a Rhodospirillales bacterium (Alphaproteobacteria, revealing mechanisms for sulfur cycling, which influences virulence of BBD. Each genomic bin possessed a pathway for conserving energy from glycerol degradation, reflecting adaptations to the glycerol-rich coral environment. The presence of genes
It is the basis of promoting the scientific development of the audit business to strengthen the cultural construction of the audit staff, and also can improve the comprehensive quality of the audit staff. Aiming at the shortcomings of the current audit culture, this paper analyzes the reasons, and then puts forward some countermeasures for the construction of the audit culture, which is the goal of accelerating the construction of the audit culture and enhancing the strength of the audit team.
Euphemism,as a unique form in language expression,conveys a lot about the society and culture in which it exists.The study of euphemism is one method to understand the relation between language,society and culture.This paper analyzes the application of euphemism in social-cultural activities,studies the features of euphemisms in such application with the purpose to reveal connections between language and culture.
This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology.......This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology....
Rupestrian culture in Italy. L'articolo descrive sinteticamente le aree di studio, di alcune regioni italiane interessate dal fenomeno dell’architettura rupestre, che sono state oggetto dei workshop realizzati nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca internazionale Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in the Circum-Mediterraneam Area-cinp. Programme Culture 2007-2013, Budget 2010, Strand 1.1 Multi-annual cooperation project, Strand 1.2.1- Cooperation measures. estrian culture in Italy
Full Text Available The CLIL approach is a modern manner of teaching English, which has been adapted in Romanian schools and universities. An interesting aspect of learning a foreign language is the contact with its culture/s and the changes it produces in terms of identity. Therefore, a challenging question to be answered is whether a CLIL approach focusing on culture influences students' cultural identity.
Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…
Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…
Grodal, Torben Kragh
The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....
Most of the post-quake cultural heritage rescue and protection projects in Sichuan have been completed The State Administration of Cultural Heritage recently rewarded 132 individuals and organizations for their work in rescuing and protecting cultural relics damaged by the Wenchuan earthquake on May12,2008.
Culture manifests itself in everything human, including the ordinary business of everyday life. Culture and art have their own value, but economic values are also constrained. Art sponsorships and subsidies suggest a value that exceeds market price. So what is the real value of culture? Unlike the u
The paper explores the prospect of introducing language, perception, culture and communication. Starting with some definitions of language, perception, culture and communication, the paper argues for the internal connection among them. It pro⁃vides better understanding of these factors in foreign language learning and encourages learners to achieve the better learning re⁃sult to communicate effectively through language, culture etc.
Looks at the question of how culture is understood in the Teaching English as a Second/Other-Language (TESOL) profession. Examines the perspectives toward culture implicitly or explicitly expressed in recent "TESOL Quarterly" articles, and concludes that different views of culture exist in the field. (Author/VWL)
Native American and other cultural stories provide students with a broader perspective on the world. In addition, cultural stories connect science content and knowledge about the world to cultural interpretations and people's life ways. By implementing the ideas suggested in this article, you can select books that both enrich your science library…
Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…
Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.
Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan
cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....
In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…
@@ The market scale of China's cultural industries reached around 800 billion yuan($118 billion)in 2009,said a report on China's cultural industry development jointly released by a cultural research center under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the academy's Social Sciences Academic Press on May 6.
@@ Ⅰ.What Is Culture In 1871,in his classic book Primitive Culture,British anthropologist Edward Tylor first gave the definition of culture which is widely quoted: "Culture…is that complex whole which includes knowledge,beliefs,arts,morals,law,custom and any other capacities and habits acquired by man as a member of society".
Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.
Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera
Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....
“Culture” is such a broad concept which is understood and defined differently by different people and has been remaining a focus for research. Some view culture as skills, values, understandings, knowledge or ways of being achieved as members of society and it is acquired and transmitted over generations; some regard culture as meaning which is established and constructed in practice and it is the context of production of new meaning and constraint of action. In this article it will focus on two theories of culture, namely, Cultural Relativism and Cultural Structuralism, and will illustrate the general ideas, main representatives and their arguments of these two theories.
This essay attempts to explore the relationship between leaders, organizational culture, and national culture. Leaders cre⁃ate“climate of the organization”with six mechanisms. Furthermore, leaders style of management is considerably influenced by their national culture based on Hofstede’s organizational culture theory. Varieties of examples and cases are analyzed to illustrate that leadership beliefs and practices have direct relationship with organizational culture and shape their individualistic communica⁃tion styles and goals that influence to a significant degree in establishing shared values, beliefs and practices among employees within an organization.
Stewart, L; Leggat, P A
As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate
IntroductionCommunicative competence is now widely recognised as the goal of language teaching.A studentcannot obtain this competence in the target language without knowledge of the target culture sincelanguage and culture are closely interrelated.From this,it follows that EFL teaching involvesteaching of two languages and two cultures,in our case,English and Chinese.Then what is culture?Culture is‘the customs,beliefs,and music,and all the other products of human thought made by aparticular group of people at a particular time.’(Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,1990:251)
Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh
The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....
Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S
Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.
Cultural capital is assumed to benefit all members of society. It is accumulated through the consumption of cultural services and is diminished through depreciation. Using the stock of cultural goods, cultural services are provided by the cultural services industry; the stock of cultural goods is enlarged by the flow of new cultural goods created by individuals who are both consumers and creators of culture and whose utility is positively affected by the cultural goods they created. In the no...
Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D
People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding.
Hastings; K; Shula; Aizhong; Liu
Cultural stress is no longer a rare phenomenon because the world has been reduced to the size of a village due to modern technology and advancements. It is a concept that grows in magnitude each year. More and more people are affected. In this paper, we discuss the assessment of cultural stress by combining some instruments like the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale with the Cultural Stress Scale. They appear to be valid and can be used across different cultures. We discuss the need to come up with a standard instrument for measuring cultural stress as opposed to having so many. We also outline ways of coping with cultural stress as it occurs at different stages. There is need for more research to counter the negative effects of cultural stress.
in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... on the system, the lifeworld, and the inter-mediating public sphere, and in order to adapt his theory better to the network society, I make much use of Manuel Castells' theories on the global network of new media and the culture of realvirtuality. Finally, the third main theoretician which I make use of, is Lev...... and the Audiovisual Media Services Directive from 2007. In order to exemplify the functions of digital cultural public spheres adequately, I therefore take a thorough look at EU's interventions within the cultural, media and communication sectors. Finally, I also analyse projects and programmes that the European...
Ferreira Filipa M.
Full Text Available The rearing of snails, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium, S. intercalatum, S. bovis and Fasciola hepatica is the first step to maintain the life cycle of these parasites in laboratory in order to have biological material for the different studies, namely on the systematic biology and immunodiagnostic of schistosomosis and fasciolosis. According to the traditional method, the alga Oscillatoria formosa Bory (Cyanobacteria, principal food source for the snails, was cultivated in soil extract (Sampaio Xavier et al., 1968. However, it was sometimes very difficult to find the proper soil extract and the material was also contaminated by protozoa and fungi. In our work, using a new medium having as a base the Mineral Medium II (modified from Hughes et al., 1958 we found that O. formosa had a better growth response than in the soil extract medium. Snails fed on O. formosa reached three times the size of others at the same age, and they also reached sex maturity earlier, having more egg-masses per snail and, in addition, the rate of survival as well as the number of generations per year under laboratory conditions significantly increased. This culture was also easier to perform, and the axenic conditions easier to maintain.
Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline
Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…
ach culture in English education.This paper expounds the connotation of culture and language, points out the reasons of culture teaching in English education, and raises some suggestions and methods on English culture teaching.
Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William
Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan
Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.
Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian
Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...
Zrinka Zadel; Sinisa Bogdan
The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...
In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…
Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter
Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.
Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.
The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...
Michelsen, Anders Ib
INTRODUCTION The present publication deals with issues of imagination and creativity as a notion, philosophy – and social and cultural form, with point of departure in current debates on visual culture. Whereas these debates cover a large ground, spanning from media studies over design to cultural...... studies, they seldom reflect on the basic fact that visual culture in its present form indicates a huge collective creativity in some capacity, implicating the entire postwar era. From early focuses on the possible social and cultural roles of the image in the 1950s and 60s - e.g. in work of Roland...... Barthes and Daniel Boorstin - to the present day, forms of visual culture have proliferated through a variety of collective dimensions, as reflected for instance in the curriculums of visual communication within design education and studies of image representation and pictorial cognition in art history...
Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.
Edwards, C P; Kumru, A
Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways.
The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The paper...... argues that dynamic aspects of culture as enacted by key individual actors and constructed in a given context are far more relevant and critical for the joint venture’s managerial process. With evidence from four Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, the paper proposes a way of managing culture in IJVs...... through individual sense-making and mutual learning and adjustment as key to the process of cultural negotiation....
Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi
This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.
Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample.
Cultural diversity is a question mark to many companies and some are afraid to build multicultural teams, however cultural differences can be a huge benefit to any company, especially to those working in global markets. Company management as well as the individuals within the teams need to understand what are the biggest issues within multicultural teams, how to get to know other cultures and to be aware of issues caused by stereotyping others, what to expect from others and how to overcome ...
Lehrmann, Ask; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Dzieza, Malgorzata; Hansen, Nathalie Gylling
The topic of this project is the relationship between culture, cultural identity and language, and their relationship to the ambiguous concept of neutrality. Taking a case study of Esperanto, an artificial language designed with the specific intention of being a completely neutral and nationless language, we will explore how languages relate to the world. By comparing the thoughts on culture and group identity of various authors, we will then try to explore the concept of neutrality – for can...
unless proven unsafe" attitude and culture was deeply entrenched at the leadership level. 10 J Navy Rear Admiral Steve Turcotte , former Commanding...Admiral Turcotte deliberated that the mishap was due to a culture that was dysfunctional in regards to the communication and relationship between the...organizational performance. Pro-active leadership plays apivotal role in identifying dysfunctional cultural trends. During an interview with RADML Turcotte
This paper reports a pilot study, which examines culture differences in a social function of language, i.e.,the function of promise making using Searle′s constitutive rules. It is to argue that different cultures may have the same type of speech-act such as promise, which, however, represents different cultural concepts. Evidence supporting the argument was drawn from a comparison of performance of Americans and Orientals concerning their respective concepts of promise making.
A., & Wolpert, L. (2008). Implementing the cultural dimension into a command and control system, (DTIC Document #ADA518842). Grim, P., Selinger, E...752). Santa Monica: CA: HFES. Hofstede , G. (1984). The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. The Academy of Management Review, 9(3...to structural and cultural dimensions of social cohesion (arXiv:0807.2880v1). Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.2880 Lynch, A. (1998
The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....
Simpson, K J
Anorexia nervosa is currently considered a disorder confined to Western culture. Its recent identification in non-Western societies and different subcultures within the Western world has provoked a theory that Western cultural ideals of slimness and beauty have infiltrated these societies. The biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa emphasizes fat-phobia in the presentation of anorexia nervosa. However, evidence exists that suggests anorexia nevosa can exist without the Western fear of fatness and that this culturally biased view of anorexia nervosa may obscure health care professionals' understanding of a patient's own cultural reasons for self-starvation, and even hinder their recovery.
Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles.
As an emigrant country, the essential characteristic of America culture is its tolerance. It contributes to the formation the diversity of American culture. By tracing back to American history, this essay shows what caused American cultural tolerance. Through describing briefly the manifestation of American cultural tolerance from certain aspects and analyzing the major factors, it will give us a clue about the reason why America can be always prosperous. At last, the paper shows the limitation as well as advantages about the tolerance from the point of current status.
Moore, S; De Vries, OMH; Tudzynski, P
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the biotrophic pathogen Claviceps purpurea, which causes the ergot disease on a wide range of host grasses, were examined in axenic and pathogenic cultures. Almost all SOD activity in axenic culture originated from a single Cu,Zn SOD; a substantial part of th
Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline
When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain.
Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de
Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…
Cluff, Gary A.
Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…
Borup, Jørn; Ahlin, Lars
The relations and possible causality between religion, ethnicity, and cultural integration is discussed using empirical data from survey on a group people with Vietnamese origin in Denmark......The relations and possible causality between religion, ethnicity, and cultural integration is discussed using empirical data from survey on a group people with Vietnamese origin in Denmark...
Wilson, James Q.
Explores the concept of culture as a factor in the well-being of children. Holding students accountable for their behavior, holding schools accountable for activities and achievements of students, and inducing parents to support their children in school require a cultural change in how we look at schooling. (SLD)
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held on the is...
Jos de Haan; Anna Adolfsen
Original title: De virtuele cultuurbezoeker. More and more Dutch people are using the Internet for an increasing number of different applications. A great deal of information on art and culture is also available in digital form. How many Dutch people make use of this digitised culture, and what kin
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix
Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....
Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can...
Dye, Frank J.
Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…
What does the use of cameras entail for the production of cultural critique in anthropology? Visual anthropological analysis and cultural critique starts at the very moment a camera is brought into the field or existing visual images are engaged. The framing, distances, and interactions between...... to establish analysis as a continued, iterative movement of transcultural dialogue and critique....
Henrique de Oliveira Lee
Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.
Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper
mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...
Full Text Available The urgency of franchise relations in the sphere of culture in Ukraine is grounded, the author definition of “franchise in culture” as an economic category is proposed and the main advantages and disadvantages of franchising in culture are systematized.
White, David Manning, Ed.
The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…
Wiegand, Frauke Katharina
to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...
M.W. Dickson; N. Castaño; A. Magomaeva; D.N. den Hartog
In this article, we summarize research on how the meaning of leadership varies systematically across cultures, and describe the conflict in the literature between the quest for universals and the identification of cultural contingencies in leadership theory. We review the literature on the relations
Te, Huynh Dinh
This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…
Barringer, Carolyn Fox
Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…
McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.
The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI framewo
Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.
Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...
du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda
to the past - unpack the key concepts of contemporary culture, such as mobility and materiality - look with fresh eyes at today's media world and the cultural practices it gives rise to - practice their critical skills with up-to-date exercises and activities This book remains the perfect 'how to...
After the Second World War, the field of cultural anthropology underwent an explosive development. Sociologists, psychologists, educators, and economists all added to the increasing interest in a discipline which began by assuming that culture is the foundation of social structures and that every institution manifests itself as a system of…
EARLY this year an exhibition on the ancient civilization of Etruria was held at the Beijing-based China Millennium Monument.The theme of the exhibition was Etruscan Culture and on show were the most representative cultural and historical relics of this ancient civilization unearthed in the past 20 years. The 349 exhibits from various
The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…
Hayre, Ruth W.
Reprints an article originally published in 1961. Describes the "culture crusade" at William Penn High School for Girls in midcity Philadelphia, part of Project WINGS, an overall program of educational incentive and motivation. Notes that over a 2-year period, more than 1,000 girls went on at least 1 cultural trip. (RS)
Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian
Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.
The «Korean Wave», or Hallyu phenomenon, has brought South Korean popular culture to the global population. Studies on Korean visual culture have therefore often focused on this aspect, leaving North Korea sidelined and often considered in a negative light because of its political regime. Korean...... – including online gaming and television drama – and concentrates on the margins, in which the very nature of «The South» is contested. «The South and the North» examines North Korea as an ideological other in South Korean popular culture as well as discussing North Korean cinema itself. «The Global» offers...... new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...
Full Text Available The urban area covers a high density of structures developed by man compared to the surrounding areas. Cultural tourism includes, on the one hand, cultural tourism in urban areas – particularly historical towns and cities with cultural sites such as museums or theatres – and, on the other hand, cultural tourism in rural areas – where its main goal is to focus on communities, festivals, rituals, and traditions. From the point of view of the practice of urban or rural cultural tourism, tourists are, in most cases, presented what they wish to see: thus, authenticity can turn into inauthenticity and what is promoted is vulgar art or improper beauty, surrogate art or even pseudo-art – kitsch, represented by souvenirs that have nothing to do with true art.
G. M. Gadzhinayev
Full Text Available Abstract. Features of national culture as component of culture of ethnos, and as phenomenon of social and historical and cultural life of the people are defined in the article.National artist of force of space felt in all that was for it considerable in nature and in creations of a man. Human it is learned through natural, natural through the human. Animals, birds, plants personify forces of nature, serve as the symbols connecting people with space.It was manysets of various symbols, magic signs in the dwelling andhouse furniture, which subsequently some have lost initial magic value, having given way, mainly, to esthetic appointment. Ornaments of embroideries and jewelry, ornamental compositions and elements of symbols of other nationalities show it. Every ensemble of art have the semantic loading designating the age characteristic and a social standing.Results of the work can be used as information for the tourist organizations, in esthetics, cultural science, culture ecology.
Patient safety is highly prioritised in the Danish health care system, never the less, patients are still exposed to risk and harmed every day. Implementation of a patient safety culture has been suggested an effective mean to protect patients against adverse events. Working strategically...... with assessment and development of the patient safety culture is in early days in Denmark. It depends upon valid, reliable and effective methods. The patient safety culture represents a wide range of social phenomena permeating the way of life in a health care. In essence, the safety culture is an aggregation...... of health care professional’s behaviour, habits, norms, values, and basic assumptions related to patient care; it is the way things are done. The patient safety culture guides the motivation, commitment to and know-how of the safety management, and how all members of a work place interact. This thesis...
A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...
Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle
comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students’ experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students....... The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory–practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes...
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.
group breaks totally with the existing Arabic Bible translations that they were in the habit of using. In this translation, the previously strenuous relationship between culture and religion is flattened in a binary sets of oppositions between an unaltered Devine message preserved in ancient Bible...... of this paper to shed some light on Jehovah’s Witnesses theological perception of religion and culture within the context of modern Arab Christianity; a subject that has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. This paper shall also look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible Translation New World...... translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms -Jehovah’s witnesses...
EVOC (for EVOlution of Culture) is a computer model of culture that enables us to investigate how various factors such as barriers to cultural diffusion, the presence and choice of leaders, or changes in the ratio of innovation to imitation affect the diversity and effectiveness of ideas. It consists of neural network based agents that invent ideas for actions, and imitate neighbors' actions. The model is based on a theory of culture according to which what evolves through culture is not memes or artifacts, but the internal models of the world that give rise to them, and they evolve not through a Darwinian process of competitive exclusion but a Lamarckian process involving exchange of innovation protocols. EVOC shows an increase in mean fitness of actions over time, and an increase and then decrease in the diversity of actions. Diversity of actions is positively correlated with population size and density, and with barriers between populations. Slowly eroding borders increase fitness without sacrificing diver...
Eyford, Glen A.
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
The analysis of cultural tourism is given in the article as alternative cultural practice which counteracts unifying and levelling processes of mass culture. Priorities of cultural strategies of tourism are determined in the context of ethnic culture and national traditions.
Culture is a mirror of real life which can reflect all aspects of people's lives.More and more scholars have begun to study the differences between American culture and Chinese culture As a view to make the differences more clear,and to lay foundations for the further studying this shot paper will discuss the things make American culture distinct from Chinese culture.
Full Text Available A few of the main concepts of cultural memory are investigated in this paper, in order to extend the idea of cultural memory to include the diversity of past cultures and cultural products. It is claimed that understanding of diversity, in a dialogue with the past, enhances cultural understanding for the benefit of sustainable development.
Hauf, James E.
Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…
Farmer, Lesley S. J.
In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…
As a unique culture in human history,the coffee culture originated with a magic story.This paper first tells the origin of coffee culture.Then it illustrates some typical coffee cultures in the world.Moreover,the paper specially describes the Chinese coffee culture before making a conclusion.
Full Text Available A society’s common cultural identity is the mainstay of a society’s definition. Socialization is the joining of the individual to the group activities, realizing the norms and to act in accordance with the exceptional behaviours. The most important factor to individual’s socializing is the structure of the society itself. The society, aspires, the individual who with the traditional behaviour go into to the socialization process into its ongoing social norms. Thus, the individual enters a learning process in which he/she acquires the essential knowledge. In a media based society the most common value judgement component is again media itself. The mass culture which is improving under the control of media is begun to produce as artificial, mono character and serial by the cultural industry which is also the producer and the protector of culture. Mass culture bombardment under the control of the cultural media separates, demolishes and alienates the public to their traditional culture. Social dissolution is shown itself by distorting or by eviscerating the common values, such as; traditions, customs and practices which make the society itself.
Full Text Available A proposta deste texto é discutir a relação entre quadrinhos e luta cultural. No primeiro momento a luta cultural é discutida, no sentido de demonstrar os pressupostos fundamentais de sua existência na sociedade moderna e as implicações e importâncias desta nos quadrinhos. Em seguida foi proposta uma análise de elementos que constituem os quadrinhos, no sentido de esclarecer o processo de manifestação da luta cultural nas HQ’s e, por fim, concluímos com uma breve discussão sobre o papel dos quadrinistas diante da luta cultural. Não objetivamos analisar um quadrinho ou gênero específico, por considerar que a luta cultural perpassa todos os gêneros, desta forma, é uma análise que pode contribuir com os quadrinistas que dedicam à produção de quadrinhos em qualquer gênero existente. Este texto, portanto, propõe-se uma análise sobre a luta cultural como pressuposto para a criação de quadrinhos, no sentido de discutir a importância dos quadrinhos na luta cultural e sua contribuição na luta pela emancipação humana. Este é também o pressuposto deste texto que está sendo apresentado ao leitor. Palavras-chave: Axionomia, axiologia, quadrinistas, cultura.
Dick, S. J.
The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.
Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H
Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.
Sparks, Amy E
The incidence of monozygotic twinning in pregnancies achieved with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is significantly higher than spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The factors associated with ART that predispose the embryos to splitting are not well-characterized. Assisted hatching and extended embryo culture are two ART laboratory methods that have been risk factors for monozygotic twinning. The methods and strategies that may be employed to avoid monozygotic twinning are discussed in this chapter.
1. Analysis of Culture and Managing change 1.1 The Two Varies of Models 1.1.1 Five-step model According to ’five-step model’, the progress of change could be divided into five stages. Firstly, manager needs to think why a culture change is necessary. Possibly due to the signals from the environment in which the company locate in, managers find the operating principles or routines are not in line with the change of the market. These elements have threatened the corporation. On this occasion, managers could start to analyze what kind of culture the organization possesses.
Lorenzo Casellas López
Full Text Available This article places the immigrants’ integration issue within the culture-citizenship debate. In order to understand culture as something else than people’s given customs or “essence”, the text begins by analysing the essentialist notion of the term ‘culture’, pointing out some of its deficiencies and risks involved in dealing with such a notion. Drawing on the ethical relativism-universalism continuum, the authors also discuss the drawbacks they see in a culture-centred integration, suggesting instead a citizenship approach based on a multidirectional and dynamic notion –aimed at achieving equal rights for everyone involved, immigrant and native populations alike.
Harrits, Gitte Sommer
Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...
Reading is a basic ability in learning English and reading comprehension exercise is a common way to assess this ability.Since reading is a communicative activity between author and reader in written form,there are some different rules and regulations of this communication in different countries.Therefore,cultural factors,existing in reading,decide,help,and influence the percentage of the right answers.This article attempts to analyze the effects of cultural differences in reading and the barriers in comprehension,and aims to improve students awareness of cultural differences in reading.
Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.
Culture, in a wide sense, is the sum total of material and spiritual products created by man in the historical process of a socialpractice. In a narrow sense, it refers to a social ideology and the political system and constitutional organization corresponding to the ideology.Language has a very special position in this big culture and it cannot be well taught and learnt without the introducing of cultural knowledge. One ofthe effective ways to increase awareness of the euhural is to learn the patterns of western everyday life.
Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.
In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.
HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk
Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.
Christiansen, Lene Bull
). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....
This article engages the role played by culture in a part of multicultural literature. Through the study of Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka's positions, it introduces to the critique of reductionism which is addressed to approaches founded on the intrinsic or instrumental value of culture....... On epistemological grounds, these approaches would assimilate cultures to closed ensembles with strictly defined contours and content. On political grounds, such a conception faces three types of objections. It would favor the propagation of stereotypes, influence the balance of power within communities and alter...
Gad, Ulrik Pram
and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...
While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled
Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.
Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte
Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...
Different nations in the world have their own cultures, and these cultures are characterized by both universality and particularity. The former provides a foundation and guarantee for intercultural communication, while the latter often leads to neg⁃ative cultural transfer in communication if the speakers are unconscious of cultural differences. This paper makes a general analysis of the negative transfer of surface-structure culture in language forms and that of deep-structure culture in values, thought pat⁃terns, religious beliefs and ethics. It holds that failure in intercultural communication will occur if inadequate attention is paid to cultural differences in the process of language and culture learning.
From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
Taking our point of departure in ‘the cultural intermediary’ as theoretical concept (Bourdieu, 1984; Maguire and Matthews, 2012) and in the coverage of blockbuster movies on Danish cultural pages from 1960 to 2012, this paper analyses the changing role of the cultural journalist and the changing...... cultural approach in cultural journalism since the mid-20th century. The analysis shows that the negotiation and definition of the blockbuster as cultural phenomenon has changed; whereas it was originally, critically, interpreted as a sign of cultural imperialism, Americanisation, or artistic decline...... as cultural intermediaries has changed historically...
Sandlin, Jennifer A.
This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…
Bialas, Mateusz; Tekofsky, Shoshannah; Spronck, P.H.M.
In general, video game researchers do not differentiate between players’ nationalities. Cultural theories, however, show that cultural differences concern numerous values, including values associated with interaction with media. We therefore ask the question whether there exist cross-cultural differ
Culture and language have close relation and are combined together . So teaching language is a process of teaching cultural knowledge . And teaching language is not perfect without teaching the factors of culture.
@@ The Olympic Games is established as the largest sporting event in the world today.Moreover,Olympic cultural activity can be regarded as a mechanism for developing cultural.In 1992,Barcelona introduced the notion of the Cultural Olympic.
@@ On July 22 of 2009, the State Council released the Revitalization Plan of Cultural Industry, which is the 11th revitalization plan for an industry following plans for steel, auto, textile, equipment manufacturing, ship-making, IT and other industries.
Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…
... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...
Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz
Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... varying cultural repertoires, in particularly heterogeneous flexible repertoires, influence offending and victimization patterns among young men in high-risk settings....... independently of the authors in neighbouring township areas of Cape Town, we offer insights into patterns of victimization among young men not involved in crime who live and attend school in the townships. Young men who perform decent cultural repertoires are highly exposed to victimization due to their moral...
Johnston, Sean F
Holograms have been in the public eye for over a half-century, but their influences have deeper cultural roots. No other visual experience is quite like interacting with holograms; no other cultural product melds the technological sublime with magic and optimism in quite the same way. As holograms have evolved, they have left their audiences alternately fascinated, bemused, inspired or indifferent. From expressions of high science to countercultural art to consumer security, holograms have represented modernity, magic and materialism. Their most pervasive impact has been to galvanize hopeful technological dreams. This book explores how holograms found a place in distinct cultural settings. Engineers, artists, hippies and hobbyists have played with, and dreamed about, holograms. This book explores the technical attractions and cultural uses of the hologram, how they were shaped by what came before them, and how they have matured to shape our notional futures. Today, holograms are in our pockets (as identity do...
The overall aim of this chapter is to discuss an approach to studying culture by drawing on the project of remembering and reconciliation from a discursive psychology perspective. I demonstrate discourse analysis from research using a case of the Anglo-Japanese reconciliation. I provide a brief...... overview of the development of discourse analysis and discursive psychology and highlight key philosophical foundations and theoretical assumptions on which discursive psychology and practice of discourse analysis are based. As the examples of discourse analysis, I will demonstrate how culture can...... be studied as a topic of members' concern. In this view, culture is not a matter of the researcher's concern to handle as a causal factor or independent variable. Discursive psychologists study culture as a resource for the participants. Finally, I will discuss the implication of the discursive approach...
Renshaw, Steven L.
While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.
Under the background of economic globalization, the globalization of human resources management determines the success of enterprise success or failure, in a sense, human resource is the first resource of the enterprise. Cross-cultural training is the core problems in global human resource management, it can let employees quickly familiar with the company's business and job content, understand the enterprise culture and core idea, to play a huge role in promoting enterprise development. Therefore, strengthen enterprise staff training, improve the comprehensive quality of enterprise personnel has become the urgent problems now in the process of enterprise development. Articles in samsung electronics of South Korea, for example, introduces the samsung especial y cross-cultural training content, training method and training effect. And analysis of cross-cultural training impact in the global business team and establish business relationship.
THROUGH efforts to wipe out illiteracy and spread cultural and scientific knowledge in Panjin, Liaoning Province, rural illiterate and semi-literate women were able to read and write by the end of 1991. Many of
Club news : Record Club, Ski Club, Dancing Club, Orienteering Club, CERN Women's Club, Concerts Club, Russian Cultural Circle, Yachting Club. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne. Exhibition.
The China-Indonesia Islamic Culture Expo and Art Show 2010 was held in Indonesia on July 23-25.With the theme of Peace,Friendship, Cooperation and Progress,the event also commemorated the 60th anniversary
Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart
Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...
Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper
This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...... mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...... urban site. Due to the sensitive subject matter of death and mourning, the participation of the public in general faces challenges that need attention when planning a cultural heritage programme....
Central China’s Henan Province harnesses its ancient culture for development on March 29, about 10,000 Chinese gathered in Xinzheng City, central China’s Henan Province, to attend a ceremony honoring Huangdi or the Yellow Emperor,
this thesis will have a deeper investigation on the changing and cognitive process of home culture awareness reflected in Chinese modern literary predecessors’based on the relationship between home and country.
Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa
Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...
Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø
This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...
China International Cultural Association (hereafterreferred to as the association)was founded on July3,1986.It is a nationwide social group engaged inexternal cultural exchange between peoples.Its purpose isto develop cultural exchange and cooperation with allcountries in the world,promote culturJ ullderkings.im-prove understanding and friendship between the Chinesepeople and peoples of the world,promote social progress,and defend world peace.On the basis of equality andmutual benefit we hope to conduct exchange and coopera-tion with all countries through visits,the exchange of booksand reference materials,the holding of theatrical perform-ances and exhibitions,and the study of literature and art.The president of the association is Zu Muzhi; vice-presidents,Yu Wen,Chen Xinren,Zhou Weizhi,YaoZhongming,Wang Lanxi,L(?) Zhixian,Zeng Jianhui,LiuDeyou and Luo Jun; secretary,Wu Chunde.
Chinese and Japanese citizens have found themselves inextricably linked by strong cultural bonds. This is evident from the interviews conducted by Beijing Review reporters Zhang Yuying and Miao Xiaoyang. They spoke to Yu Qiang, a Chinese writer who has b
Full Text Available The number of countries engaged in developing global strategies for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage is continuously increasing. This is doubly significant: intrinsically for its cultural value, extrinsically for its effects on the economy, territory, environment and society. The Ministry of Education, University and Research coordinates and supports projects submitted by cultural institutes of excellence. Among the Flagship Projects of the National Research Programme 2010-2012 is the study of the sumptuous Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. Excavations, which took place in the eighteenth century, produced many detailed documents, but 90% of the Villa remains unexplored. As part of the International Platform on space exploration, a world conference is to be held at the church of San Romano in Lucca, Italy, in which prestigious Italian and foreign structures are involved, regarding technical innovation for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.
A partir de la Convención de la Haya (1954) que constituye el primer texto internacional que reconoce la importancia de la protección de los objetos culturales significativos para el Patrimonio Cultural de los pueblos, la UNESCO ha establecido y promovido instrumentos normativos para la protección y la conservación de los vestigios del "Patrimonio Cultural Material"
Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard
I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft, including the introduction of the concept of cultural orientation as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....
Patty Lee Parmalee
Full Text Available Nazi Culture would seem at first to be a very esoteric subject to teach to the rather practical-minded and not very cosmopolitan students of a northern New Jersey state college. But of course it is really a distancing technique, a Verfremdungseffekt a la Brecht. Teaching fascism is not really teaching fascism per se, but an angle for teaching capitalism and socialism. And teaching Nazi culture is an angle for teaching some of the purposes of capitalist ideology.
Abtract:Smoking culture is deeply rooted in daily routine of Chinese people.The most significant one is that Chinese people have the tendency to send the cigarette as a gift.Only if scientists coordinate with the Chinese government to raise taxes on cigarette, limit the use of smoking scenes, advocate the use of electronic cigarette and educate the public will the deeply imbedded smoking culture in China change!
Full Text Available Culture designates “the tools through which the human polishes himself and develops his multiple spiritual and physical gifts.” The humans interact and change opinions and become conscious that they belong to a global cultural space and are also “authors of the culture of their own community.” Through these tools human “exerts to disobey the world, humanizes social, family and physical life, through progress of mores and institutions, in the end human, expresses, communicates and keeps in its operas, during the times, its great major experiences, because them to serve the progress… of whole human people.” The human valorizes itself but also contributes to the progress of society. Today we talk about the plurality of culture through which is opened the path to the cultural dissemination and perfection. In this way, the humans get a responsibility towards the cultural progress of their community which is anchored in global community, and then appears the question: “what must be done so that all the humans of the world to participate to cultural gods? It is observed here a “spiritual and moral maturity of humans,” defined as “new humanism”. This new type of humanism is not a simple talk, but it represents a new “type of responsibility towards human and towards history.” In this way, it appears the need of a new type of education because the nowadays human must be prepared to become creator and responsible to integrate in a global culture based on values as “intelligence, will, conscience and human fraternity.”
Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete; From, Unni
This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.......” In this introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations...... of “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique...
Cheung, Fanny M
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.
Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay
The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling att...... and concerns, beginning with the possibility of "computer-mediated colonization," i.e., of imposing culturally-specific preferences and values through the design and implementation of ICTs as then distributed globally.......The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...... attention to the role of culturally-variable dimensions, including communication preferences, in the design, implementation, and use of ICTs - and thereby helping to bring into the mainstream of related scholarship and research (e.g., HCI, etc.) what was then a novel perspective and series of questions...
Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.
Richard A. Shweder
Full Text Available In this wide ranging interview, Professor Richard A. Shweder from the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago, discusses whether it is or is not possible to be a robust cultural pluralist and a dedicated political liberal at the same time. In this discussion, Professor Shweder offers his insights - based on over 40 years of research - on issues related to the history and re-emergence of cultural psychology; moral anthropology and psychology; the experimental method in psychological investigation and its philosophical basis; contemporary and historical cultural collisions – most notably conflicting representations of female genital surgeries; cultural diversity and inequality; and the dissemination of ideas through open access publishing and Twitter. Professor Shweder ends by offering valuable advice to young researchers in the field of cultural psychology as well as a glimpse into the larger themes of his forthcoming book, which seeks to provide answers to the question of what forms of political liberalism are most compatible with robust cultural pluralism and which are not.
Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson
Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.
Language and culture are inseparable. Culture contains language while language carries culture (Hu,2011:146). As the essence of a language, idioms are believed to be the most culturally loaded expressions in it. Accordingly, they are often consid⁃ered as the mirror of culture, reflecting the special features of different cultures (Yu,1999:132). Hence, it is of vital importantce for English learners to trace the root of English idioms and understand their connotations culturally. This paper aims to explore the cultural origins of English idiomatic expressions from four perspectives, involving history, mythology, religion and society.
Angela Khristin Brown
Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.
Stability Emotional Stability Neuroticism Agreeableness Agreeableness Agreeableness Culture Culture These personality traits are often...comparing Indonesian culture to the rest of the world), or factors that presumably vary across members of each society (e.g., neuroticism , which is...is represented and thus why it might differ across cultures. One way to conceptualize uncertainty tolerance is fundamentally cognitive - we might
Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations.
Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…
Young, Patricia A.
Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…
Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.
The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…
Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua
International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…
In this passage, love in Chinese culture and in western culture is compared. It briefly introduces the difference love view in western culture and in Chinese culture on a specific matter. Then it discusses the origin of this phenomenon. At last it tries to conclude the characters of these two different love views.
Perry, Leigh A; Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Dee L; Ruby, Annette L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Westropp, Jodi L
The association between urolithiasis and growth of bacteria in the urine or urolith has not been recently evaluated in the past 15 years, and the effects of antimicrobial administration on urolith cultures have not been reported. As well, laboratory techniques for urolith cultures have not been critically evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to 1) report bacterial isolates from uroliths and their association with signalment, urolith composition, antimicrobial use, and urine cultures and 2) evaluate laboratory techniques for urolith cultures. For the first objective, a retrospective search of bacterial isolates cultured from uroliths submitted to the laboratory as well as the signalment, urine culture results, and antimicrobial use were recorded. For the second objective, 50 urolith pairs were cultured by washing each urolith either 1or 4 times and culturing the core. Five hundred twenty canine and 168 feline uroliths were reviewed. Struvite-containing uroliths had an increased prevalence of a positive culture compared to nonstruvite-containing uroliths (P culture results and previous antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.41). Eighteen percent of cases with negative urine cultures had positive urolith cultures. There was no significant difference in core culture results whether the urolith was washed 1 or 4 times (P = 0.07). Urolith culture outcome was not always influenced by previous antimicrobial administration, and bacterial culture of a urolith may not yield the same results as those obtained from the urine. The modified protocol, which requires less time and expense for urolith cultures, may be an acceptable alternative.
Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau
Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.
Alarcón, Renato D
This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of "cultural discordances" as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical "telescoping" strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on "culture bound syndromes"), are outlined.
Patricia Silva Dorneles
Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.
The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced an alterna......The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated......, critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...
It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.
Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU
Full Text Available When getting a new workplace, the employee has to start all over again or from zero. From learning what his/her place is to how to work on computers, it is a continuous task as everything keeps changing in a dynamic organization. Employee’s luggage of knowledge is going to get harder and harder with each step taken inside the organization. He or she has to adapt to the new place, has to know his/her duties, to work only with certain information, to behave properly, to respect some rules of conduct. All this is just a small part of what means adapting to an organizational culture. We are going to see in this paper that not only this culture is important but, we have to take into consideration computer culture too. People are influenced by the organization’s environment and culture when doing their tasks and that is why a healthy culture is needed in order to prevent computer crimes.
Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.
Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.
English idioms are crystallization of English culture development. Culture gap is the main reason of misunderstanding idioms for non-English speaking country people. To understand English idioms wel people must equip themselves with some English culture knowledge. In this article, three most important culture influences on idioms will be discussed, that is, historical influence, naming customs’ influence and animal images’ influence.
Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija
The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…
This project reviews key concepts of organizational culture and examines how our military culture may change as a result of various social and...of the society it is sworn to defend. This study examined the military’s organizational culture through the use of an organizational culture /climate
Is cultural evolution needed to explain altruistic selfsacrifice? Some contend that cultural traits (e.g. beliefs, behaviors, and for some "memes") replicate according to selection processes that have "floated free" from biology. One test case is the example of suicide kamikaze attacks in wartime Japan. Standard biological mechanisms-such as reciprocal altruism and kin selection-might not seem to apply here: The suicide pilots did not act on the expectation that others would reciprocate, and they were supposedly sacrificing themselves for country and emperor, not close relatives. Yet an examination of both the historical record and the demands of evolutionary theory suggest the kamikaze phenomenon does not cry out for explanation in terms of a special non-biological selection process. This weakens the case for cultural evolution, and has interesting implications for our understanding of altruistic self-sacrifice.
Children's play and culture have changed over the recent years, and it is possible to understand the changes as a result of a more general change in society. We witness a large degree of changes connected to demographical aspects of children's lives. First of all it is a fact that large groups....... They are changing play arenas in order to find the identity, which suits them. In order to play children must know and be conscious of the cultural heritage, which contains knowledge of the way to organize in the playing session, the aesthetics, the techniques of playing, and this is something that is handed down...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...
inside and outside the classroom; at the same time, culture also influences the context of the learning. The context may be “invisible” and hide itself as tacit knowledge or embedded values, or it may be very visible and present itself as a fixed curriculum or an established tradition. No matter what......, including a student-centered task-based problem-based learning (PBL) approach, a digital technology-supported approach and more. It also reports on how, when teaching and learning culture, teachers’ professional identity and the informal teaching and learning environment impact the teaching and learning......, but instead, should explore how the context may be integrated into and used constructively in the teaching and learning of culture. This allowance of context in the classroom will allow for teachers, students, subjects and contexts to enter into a dialogue and negotiation of meaning that will enrich each...
Adams, Catherine A.
'..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.
Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues......, lifting everyday discourse and providing a forum for advancing discussion and dialogue. Nandita Chaudhary, S. Anandalakshmy and Jaan Valsiner bring together contributors from the field of cultural psychology to consider how people living within social groups, regardless of how liberal, are guided...... by collective reality and interconnected with life circumstances. The book discusses experiences and events in the lives of people of Indian cultures covering topics including family, food, pilgrimages, social dynamics and truth, in order to expand the material on human phenomena under the broad frame...
This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.
There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space.
Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob
Purpose - Purpose: Intercultural communication problems are most often argued to be caused by differences in cultural values. In this exploratory paper, we argue that attention should not only be directed at national differences. Alternatively, we argue that more interest should be paid...... corporation. This illustrates how individuals and groups may essentialize cultural differences during intercultural business encounters and how this fixation of cultural traits can be used in social stratification. Originality/value - Originality: Only scant extant research has focused on the active use...... to the actual use of those differences in communication. Design/methodology/approach - Methodology: Ethnographic field study including 12 interviews and observations. Findings - Findings: We use a short case on interaction between expatriates and local managers in a Chinese subsidiary of a Danish multinational...
Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....
Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez
In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... our cities. The sharing economy has the power to democratise access the urban space, resources and raw materials (Steen Nielsen 2008; Harvey 2000); it holds the ability to change the current dominant understandings and structures of economy and growth (Steen Nielsen 2008); solve emerging environmental...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...
Full Text Available We compared South Koreans with Australians in order to characterize cultural differences in attitudes and choices regarding risk, at both the individual and group levels. Our results showed that Australians, when assessed individually, consistently self-reported higher preference for risk than South Koreans, regardless of gender. The data revealed that South Koreans, regardless of gender composition, were willing to take greater risks when making decisions in group decision-making situations than when they were alone. This is a different pattern from that seen in the Australian sample, in which a risky shift was noted only among males. This difference was attributed to the influence of various cultural orientations (independent vs. interdependent relationship styles. This study also provides a discussion of the implications of these results in terms of cultural differences in attitudes and decisions regarding risk.
Wiegand, Frauke Katharina
We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...... by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by examining mundane accounts of touristic encounters with sites of memory? From Blaavand Beach in Western Denmark...... to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...
Mouton, Nico; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration...... is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development...
Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø
This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...... its role as a scientific discipline that contributes to making transparent the political, social, and interpersonal relations that define how our lives are shaped, if we want a discipline that provides value beyond the scientific realm....
Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena
is required to address the issue, since by definition cultural services (encompassing physical, intellectual, spiritual interactions with biota) need to be analysed from multiple perspectives (i.e. ecological, social, behavioural). A second reason is the lack of data for large-scale assessments, as detailed......Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...
Human beings are inherently cultural beings – growing up in an environment that is steeped in culture and developing our self-construal accordingly. The new psychology book series Self in culture in mind (SICIM) gathers current research perspectives on this issue. This first volume, Development o...... and in different cultural settings, while concurrently illustrating the diversity of empirical methods that are appropriate for studying culture-mind-mediation.......Human beings are inherently cultural beings – growing up in an environment that is steeped in culture and developing our self-construal accordingly. The new psychology book series Self in culture in mind (SICIM) gathers current research perspectives on this issue. This first volume, Development...... of self in culture, sets the stage by examining the unfolding of self from a broad range of developmental perspectives. Each chapter suggests a specific theoretical approach and provides original research within it. Together they document culturally mediated development at different stages of life...
L. M. Andryukhina
Full Text Available The man in the modern culture faces the challenge of either being creative or forced to leave the stage, which reflects the essential basics of life. The price of lost opportunities, caused by mental stereotypes and encapsulation, is gradually rising. The paper reveals the socio-cultural conditions and the necessary cultural topology of creativity development, as well as the man’s creative potential in the 21st century. The content of the creativity concept is specified along with the phenomenon of its fast expansion in the modern discourse. That results from the global spreading of numerous creative practices in various spheres of life, affecting the progress directions in economics, business, industrial technologies, labor, employment and social stratification. The author emphasizes the social features of creativity, the rising number of, so called, creative class, and outlines the two opposing strategies influencing the topology modification of the social and cultural environment. The first one, applied by the developed countries, facilitates the development of the creative human potential, whereas the other one, inherent in our country, holds that a creative person is able to make progress by himself. However, for solving the urgent problem of innovative development, the creative potential of modern Russia is not sufficient, and following the second strategy will result in unrealized social opportunities and ever lasting social and cultural situation demanding further investment. According to the author, to avoid such a perspective, it is necessary to overcome the three deeply rooted archetypes: the educational disciplinary centrism, organizational absolutism and cultural ostracism.
L. M. Andryukhina
Full Text Available The man in the modern culture faces the challenge of either being creative or forced to leave the stage, which reflects the essential basics of life. The price of lost opportunities, caused by mental stereotypes and encapsulation, is gradually rising. The paper reveals the socio-cultural conditions and the necessary cultural topology of creativity development, as well as the man’s creative potential in the 21st century. The content of the creativity concept is specified along with the phenomenon of its fast expansion in the modern discourse. That results from the global spreading of numerous creative practices in various spheres of life, affecting the progress directions in economics, business, industrial technologies, labor, employment and social stratification. The author emphasizes the social features of creativity, the rising number of, so called, creative class, and outlines the two opposing strategies influencing the topology modification of the social and cultural environment. The first one, applied by the developed countries, facilitates the development of the creative human potential, whereas the other one, inherent in our country, holds that a creative person is able to make progress by himself. However, for solving the urgent problem of innovative development, the creative potential of modern Russia is not sufficient, and following the second strategy will result in unrealized social opportunities and ever lasting social and cultural situation demanding further investment. According to the author, to avoid such a perspective, it is necessary to overcome the three deeply rooted archetypes: the educational disciplinary centrism, organizational absolutism and cultural ostracism.
Chapman, H. D.
Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.
This paper proposes a playful learning scenario, to enhance children’s museum experience, and the design of MicroCulture, a new learning platform. MicroCulture has been developed through a participatory design process, involving around 25 children. The perspective proposed in this paper is focused...... on enhancing existing storytelling practices, so to provide a more tangible grounding to the communication of historical processes and to elicit a lively dialogue between children and guides. In this perspective, it is proposed to turn storytelling, as a museum learning practice, into a more dialogic...
Geertz, Armin W.
This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach...... uniquely accommodates contemporary cultural and neurobiological sciences. Since the challenge that the study of religion faces, in my opinion, is at the interstices of these sciences, I have tried to develop a theory of religion which acknowledges the fact. My hope is that the theory can be of use...
Full Text Available This research project is going to review the existing information cultures in 15 Finnish insurance businesses through a qualitative study. The interview-material consists of 40 in-depth-interviews and they are being analysed through the multiple case study method. The analysis is conducted in 5 stages considering information environment, information as resource, work processes, innovation and business success. The information culture varieties compared to the business success will hopefully be useful to create an understanding for the need of a broad understanding of the modern knowledge management concept in business organisations.
Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.
Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections...
Full Text Available National culture and the organization’s management are interdependent systems of values, which generate human performances that can reach levels of excellence. But, in certain crises situations, generated and supported by turbulent economic frames, by the transition from one economic system to another, the cultures specific to the organizations’ management become vulnerable. In such conditions, when an economic system is chaotically dismantled, as it happened to the communist one, “an organized anarchy” appears, a system which is good for some individuals and interest groups that assimilates rapidly the deficiencies specific to a “marginal culture”.
Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin
Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....
Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational
This paper argues that cross -cultural communication between Chinese and Foreigners often runs into trouble. Some factors which block communication lie in culture - governed structures of language. In view of the fact that the cultural messages are reflected in people' s daily use of language, culture dements should not be overlooked in FLT. This paper attempts to explore the ways of including culture teaching in the language classroom.
Culture teaching has been considered to be a very important element in foreign language teaching.Since English has become an international language,this paper mainly talks about the relationship between culture and English teaching.There are three parts in this paper: I. The role of culture in English teaching;Ⅱ.Culture teaching methods in the English classroom;Ⅲ.A danger in teaching cultures in English class.
McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean
Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.
Full Text Available As public policy, cultural policy focuses on providing conditions for free and undisturbed exercise of cultural rights: right to culture and information, right to cultural identity, right of intellectual property protection, right of participation in cultural life, etc.Cultural rights are specified as a distinct class in the catalogue of international principles regarding culture created by The Cultural Diversity Network, consisting of ministers in charge from many countries such as: cultural heritage preservation, free movement of works and creators, dialogue between cultures, diversity promotion, etc.In this respect, it defines also “the intervention areas” along with actions to be taken, so that each stage of cultural policy, understood as a process of continuous construction, should gain more value.Therefore, as public policy, cultural policy has an undisputed impact on urban/rural areas/territories, at least according to the authorities’ intention to correct some discrepances as regards the number and location of cultural services in the community area, their equipping, easy access of inhabitants to cultural institutions, the density and representativity of the cultural life itself.
Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.
Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…
Tüzemen, Nazmiye Ulkü; Doğan, Nihal
Amebiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. Since it is still an important public health problem in developing countries, rapid differential diagnosis of amebiasis is crucial in terms of treatment. The most frequently used method for laboratory diagnosis is direct microscopy, however more reliable and specific methods are needed in order to differentiate the apathogenic Entamoeba dispar under the microscope. This study was conducted to compare the results of different methods namely, direct microscopy, culture, ELISA and PCR for the detection of E.histolytica in stool samples and to evaluate the performances of those methods. A total of 1049 stool samples collected from pediatric and adult patients who were admitted to hospital with diarrhea complaint between January 2011-March 2013, and randomly selected samples from primary school children, were included in the study. Direct microscopic examination was performed by native-lugol, physiological saline, modified formol-ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining methods. The stool samples were also inoculated into TYI-S-33 media for axenic cultivation of amoeba. The presence of amebic antigens in the samples were screened by a commercial ELISA kit (TechLab, E.histolytica II, USA). For the molecular diagnosis, a multiplex tandem real-time PCR (MT-PCR) kit (AusDiagnostics Pty Ltd, Australia) was used, after the extraction of DNAs with QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen, USA). A total of 354 samples which could be evaluated by all of the methods, were included in the study. Of the 354 stool samples, 84 (23.7%) were found E.histolytica/E.dispar positive by direct microscopy, 61 (17.2%) by trichrome staining, 46 (12.9%) by culture, 31 (8.7%) by ELISA and 9 (2.5%) by MT-PCR. Of direct microscopy positive samples 54.7% (46/84) were also positive with trichrome staining, 39.3% (33/84) with culture, 15.5% (13/84) with ELISA and 7.1% (6
This monograph provides a first-hand account of the experience of a U.S. family who sponsored a Vietnamese refugee family from 1975-1979. The book, which is comprised of journal entries, proposes to show what it is like to deal with people from an entirely difference culture and to suggest an approach to handling the problems before the…
Smith, Robert Alan
Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…
Henle, Paul, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…
The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users...
Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick
More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...
This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…
@@ Besides leaving at least 2,600 people dead and more than 100,000homeless,the 7.1-magnitude earthquake,which jolted the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in northwest China's Qinghai Province on April 14,2010,seriously damaged large numbers of the area's cultural relics.
M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…
Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn
Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...... that they are dramatically different. Results: Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved...... amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary: We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance....
Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra
A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)
Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others
Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…
In Longman Modern English Dictionary, “culture” is defined as： “the social and religious structures and intellectual and artistic manifestations etc. that characterize a society.” Kluckhohn’s definition is： “culture is way of thinking, feeling, believing. It is the group’s knowledge stored up for future use.”
Dobbs, Stephen Mark
In light of the fact that young Americans spend hundreds of dollars each year on the arts yet have little training in developing critical skills, this writer outlines what must be done in school arts programs to educate culture consumers. (Author/JM)
Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.
La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professi
@@ The China-Indonesia Islamic Culture Expo and Art Show 2010 was held in Indonesia on July 23-25. With the theme of Peace, Friendship, Cooperation and Progress, the event also commemorated the 60th anniversary of the establishing of diplomatic relations between China and Indonesia.
Glenn, E. S.; And Others
Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…
Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris
In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…
How will the Qinghai-Tibet Railway affect the religious culture of Tibet? The mystery of Tibet has long held a fascination for travelers the world over and part of the mystique of the region has been its inaccessibility. That's all about to change. When
Dissimilarities between the Chinese and Western cultures are vast.Aging significantly points to these differences.The great Chinese thinker Confucius expressed very definite thoughts about his own aging process.In many ways his words contrast with the verses of the famous Western playwright,
Ehlers, Ulf Daniel
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…
Uldam, Julie; Askanius, Tina
This article explores the potential of video activism on YouTube to form a communicative space for deliberation and dissent. It asks how commenting on activist videos can help sustain civic cultures that allow for both antagonism and inclusive political debate. Drawing on a case study of online...
In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…
Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.
Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others
This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…
Nguyen, Liem Thanh
This booklet provides a brief description of the cultural background of the Vietnamese, the geography of the country of Vietnam, the history of the Vietnamese people, their language, beliefs, systems of values, religions, customs, feasts, and holidays. The kit is designed to provide American sponsors and teachers with meaningful information about…
Useem, Ruth Hill; Downie, Richard D.
Children who live abroad with their parents are exposed to a wide diversity of cultural and educational influences, are internationally oriented, and have high career aspirations; when they return to schools in the United States they are often misunderstood by their peers and not sufficiently challenged academically by their teachers. (JD)
This book focuses on the micro-political implications of the work of Gilles Deleuze (and Felix Guattari). General philosophical articles are coupled to more specific analyses of films (such as Fight Club and Schindler's List) and other expressions of contemporary culture. The choice of giving specif
Laursen, Erik K.
Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…
Kragh, Simon Ulrik
behaviours. In-group/out-group particularist values that have been handed over from preindustrial society tend to overlay and replace impersonal and universalistic bureaucracies and market exchange typical ofindustrial society. The paper shows how these values shape the culture of organizations in Latin...
Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann
In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…
Lange, Sofie C; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle S;
During the past few decades of astrocyte research it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes have taken a central position in all central nervous system activities. Much of our new understanding of astrocytes has been derived from studies conducted with primary cultures of astrocytes. Such ...
Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.
This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…
Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C
Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.
Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.
Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the way in which cultural contributions to human nature have been treated within the field of cognitive science. I was initially motivated to write about this topic when invited to give a talk to a Cognitive Science department at a sister university in California a few years ago. My goal, on that occasion, was to convince my audience, none of whom were predisposed to considering culture an integral part of cognitive science, that they would indeed benefit from recognizing some affinities between the ideas of some of the founders of cognitive science and ideas about culture emanating from the Soviet (now Russian cultural-historical school. My task in presenting this argument to the readers of Outlines is most likely the mirror image of that earlier effort. On the one hand, the ideas of the cultural-historical school are well known to this readership and you do not need to be lectured on the topic by an American whose knowledge of the topic is no greater than your own. At best, the ways in which I have appropriated those ideas and put them to work might provide an opportunity to reflect on the strange fate of ideas when they move between national traditions of thought. On the other hand, owing to a double twist of fate (after all, what was an American doing in Moscow in 1962 doing post-doctoral work in psychology I was also present during the discussions leading to the founding of Cognitive Science in the early 1970’s and subsequently became a member of the Cognitive Science Program at UCSD in the early 1980’s, arguably one of the pioneering efforts to institutionalize this new discipline.My hope is this unusual confluence of experiences, and the ideas that they have generated, will be of some use to those who see value in a dialogue between these different intellectual projects. With this goal in mind, I will begin by providing my own brief history of key ideas associated with the origins of
Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan
Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.
Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong
Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.
Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.
Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page
Background We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations. PMID:27890048
Full Text Available Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method: The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results: Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion: Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.
ZHANG Fu-sheng; HUA Qing-liang
For historical, regional or other reasons, there are some great differences between the Chinese and the English culture. Generally, the keynote of the western culture is the superiority of lust, while the Chinese culture stresses on reservation and compromise. The westerners emphasize individualism, while the Chinese lay stress on context. Different cultures contribute to different habits, characters and behaviors as well as different registers.Cultural differences can directly lead to information loss, information misleading, thus result in obstacles in communication. This essay will have a detailed analysis on the cultural differences and their influence on communication.
Full Text Available Resumen:El ensayo nace como parte de una investigación mayor que se publicará sobre la inserción profesional docente en la Universidad de Costa Rica. Su finalidad en la investigación en curso es la de explorar los aportes de los estudios sobre competencia cultural e inteligencia cultural, para identificar planteamientos teóricos que fortalezcan nuevos espacios para la mediación cultural docente en la Universidad. Se concluye que el concepto de competencia cultural representa un aporte importante, si se revisa la idea de cultura que subyace y se le transforma en “competencia intercultural”. Luego, se define mediación cultural, evidenciándose la importancia de la nueva figura profesional en el contexto actual, los ámbitos de acción donde se ha empleado y se manifiesta la necesidad de promover mediadores y mediadoras culturales en Costa Rica también.Abstract: The essay comes as part of a larger investigation to be published about teachers’ professional integration at the University of Costa Rica. His purpose in the ongoing investigation is to explore the contributions of studies on cultural competency and cultural understanding, to identify new theoretical approaches and strengthen new cultural spaces for teaching mediation at the University. We conclude that the concept of cultural competence represents an important contribution, if we review the underlying idea of culture and it is transformed into "intercultural competence". The definition of cultural mediation points to the importance of the new professional figure in the current context, evidencing the areas of action where it has been used and showing the need to promote cultural mediators in Costa Rica as well.
On the first day of January, 2004 Beijing, the Bureau for External Cultural Relations of the Ministry of Culture of China will launch itsofficial website in English, www.chinaculture.org, in celebration of 5,000 years of Chinese civilization.It is the Ministry of Culture's first comprehensive English cultural website. Mr. Ding Wei, Director General of the Bureau speaks in an interview to mark the event.
Taboo is a common phenomenon in Chinese and Western Culture. The different cultural backgrounds lead to the differences of taboos. This paper focuses on the differences of taboos from several aspects, such as name title, religion, numbers, privacy topics, etc. According to the analyses, we’l decrease and avoid the cultural shock in intercultural communication. If we know something about taboos in other cultures, we’l succeed in communicating with other people. Otherwise we’l fail to communicate.
Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M
Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.
Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete; From, Unni
This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique...
Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy
An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…
Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)
Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…
The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006
An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…
Catharine Dishke Hondzel
Full Text Available Creativity and divergent thinking are components of learning in childhood that often go unmeasured in favor of standardized subject assessments. To better understand the ways in which creativity develops and is related to environmental and cross-cultural factors, this study reports on the scores obtained by 8-year-old students living in differently sized communities in Norway and Canada measured using the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT. Results of multivariate analyses indicate statistically significant differences between Norwegian and Canadian children on several Torrance Test subscales as well as surprising relationships between the size of the community in which the children lived and the scores they obtained. Results and discussion are framed in reference to the ways in which culture and communities potentially shape the development of divergent thinking skills and open up questions about the ways in which social environments can influence the development of creativity in childhood.
In Oslo, the capital of Norway, several urban development projects are in the making. One such project is the Fjord City project, which involves freeing up waterfront areas for housing, commerce, culture and recreation. It has been decided to relocate The Munch Museum to the area, and a new Opera...... documents and the public debate, it is evident that “culture” is vital in the urban development projects, but it is ambiguous what the value of “culture” consists of. Many citizens are questioning the disruption to historical continuity and they are confused about the political reasoning behind...... the decisions to abandon the old museum buildings. On the other hand, the relocation of the cultural institutions is intended to increase the city’s attractiveness and make it more interesting to investors, tourists and visitors. Against this backdrop, this thesis is devoted to the task of analysing – from...
Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter
As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... aspects are basically part of engineering discipli¬nes, work challenges as well as the contextual elements in engineering curriculum [1,2]. This is reflected in the aims of the CDIO programme [3,4]; however, the programme, as well as the teaching practises, undoubtedly needs to further develop approaches...... the continuously development of CDIO, including the current discussion of a new principles . Secondly it has practical relevance to the engineering education, which to a growing degree has to cope with the potentials and challenges of internationalisation of educations and thus intercultural classrooms. Thirdly...
Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.
/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework that combines modern framing theory, and classical stasis theory is applied to the rhetorical struggles over the meaning of “Liborgate.” Findings – While rhetorical struggles over “Liborgate” overtly center on the issue of who is to blame, an analysis of the argumentative relations...... between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....
Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained during an enquiry based on a questionnaire about the classroom culture. This concept it is understood as a micro-society with its own characteristics derived from the dynamic of socialization and training process. This research aims to investigate certain specific aspects of micro-sociology and emphasis on classroom culture. A relatively new concept is reflected by the normative consensus or the integrated system of values that belongs to the teachers, pupils and school, as a social entity. The integrative ensemble of values, class cohesion degree and training strategies are only a few of the aspects described by 62 pupils aged 17-18 years old, from a very prestigious school in Bucharest. The perception of pupils regarding our concept is the effect of the relational practices and training used constantly by the teachers. Those practices reflect the school’s focus mostly on cognitive performance.
Jensen, Ole B.
contemporary theorists understanding bodily movement, material sites of mobility, and social interactions must be consulted along the road (e.g. Latour’s work on objects and ANT, Thrift’s work on the body and ‘non-representational theory, and Massumi’s notions of affects and emotions related to bodily mobility....... A particular emphasis is put on how mobilities produce and re-produce norms, meanings and cultures in relation to the Everyday life perspective. By looking into walking, running, cycling, driving and mass transit mobilities different modes of embodied mobility is identified. The theoretical framework is based...... and interaction (Lynch). The argument is thus that understanding embodied cultures of mobilities from the vantage point of this paper lend is self to new interpretations, explorations and understandings of what it means to move within and between other social agents in particular material and physical...
Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette
of violence, there are transformations of meanings across time, media, cultural, social and political contexts – which influence audience reception. The theoretical perspectives are on the construction of meaning-making, culture, and self as dialogic (Bakhtin) and socially constructed (Gergen), and on media......(A revised, full paper will be published in the journal Mediekultur, spring 2014) This paper explores two examples of narratives representing memories of acts of mass violence: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director...... Joshua Oppenheimer) about 1960’s Indonesia. The two films, in very different ways, focus on persons who tell about their involvement in acts of mass violence. Both films are told as "a film within a film" and experiment with “documentary” as genre. The two film projects and audiences are analyzed from...
-Lufthavn. Også kunstneriske værker som Per Højholts radioversion af Turbo, postmoderne dans i New York og fiske fremstilling af Hongkomg indgår i tolkningerne af urbanitet og æstetik. Analyserne fordeler sig i fem sektioner om arkitektur, byrum, tekstualitet, erindring og steder. Tilsammen skitserer bogens...... of the relationships between urbanity and aesthetics. The articles span five realms: sensory and conceptual architecture, urban spaces, aesthetic textualities, collective memory, and spatial consciousness, all of which contribute to establishing spatial culture as an important field of research within the humanities....... Considerable parts of the volume are in both English and Danish. Along with the introductory chapter by Henrik Reeh, Associate Professor of Humanistic Urban Studies and Modern Culture, University of Copenhagen, and the final essay by Albertó Pérez-Gómez, Professor of the History of Architecture, Mc...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam
In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...
Full Text Available The paper deals with the most important contributions in studying cultural influences on organizations. The interest of social scientists in this topic began in the 1960s, based on the belief that it was necessary to overcome the dominant parochialism of US researchers in organizational theory and practice. Increasing internationalization of business activities, especially in the 1970s, imposed the need for large-scale studies and for finding practical solutions to the completely new problems encountered by multicultural organizations whose number was constantly rising. In spite of numerous and serious difficulties in every cross-cultural organizational study, several decades of development in this field have produced important theoretical and empirical contributions, enabling further advances in this scientific and practical discipline.
16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.
Xi, Ning; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
In social sciences, there is currently no consensus on the mechanism for cultural evolution. The evolution of first names of newborn babies offers a remarkable example for the researches in the field. Here we perform statistical analyses on over 100 years of data in the United States. We focus in particular on how the frequency-rank distribution and inequality of baby names change over time. We propose a stochastic model where name choice is determined by personalized preference and social influence. Remarkably, variations on the strength of personalized preference can account satisfactorily for the observed empirical features. Therefore, we claim that personalization drives cultural evolution, at least in the example of baby names.
International audience; The founding fathers of the social sciences recognized commensality as a major issue but considered it mostly in a religious, sacrificial, ritualistic context. The notion of commensality is examined in its various dimensions and operations. Empirical data are used to examine cultural variability in attitudes about food, commensality and its correlates among countries usually categorized as 'Western' and 'modern'. Clear-cut differences are identified, hinting at possibl...
Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....
Both art and the kinds of life styles which predispose one to disease reflect the culture of an era. Might the history of art give some insight into the origins of behaviors which are conducive to particular diseases? An attempt is made to answer this question by looking at the perception of time and space in modern and contemporary art and in the behaviors which lead to coronary proneneses and anorexia nervosa.
Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson; Ingi Runar Edvardsson; Vilma Zydziunaite; Vlad Vaiman
Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects fro...
Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.
Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los efectos de la diversidad cultural, medida a partir de la fragmentación étnica, lingüística y religiosa, sobre la actividad emprendedora. A partir de datos de 39 países que hacen parte del proyecto Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM para el año 2008 y utilizando diversas regresiones lineales, se demuestra la importancia de la fragmentación étnica y lingüística sobre la religiosa, como condicionantes del emprendimiento. En cuanto a las implicaciones, el estudio permite por un lado, avanzar en la relación entre instituciones informales como la cultura y el emprendimiento, desde una faceta más novedosa como es la diversidad cultural en el contexto de la teoría institucional.Asu vez, las evidencias encontradas podrían facilitar el diseño de políticas y estrategias de fomento a la actividad emprendedora, en el contexto de globalización actual que favorece la movilidad geográfica y por ende, la diversidad cultural.
The recent controversy surrounding the choice, by a deaf lesbian couple, to have children who were themselves deaf, has focused attention on the ethics of choosing (apparent) disabilities for children. Deaf activists argue that deafness is not a disability, but instead the constitutive condition of access to a rich culture. Being deaf carries disadvantages with it, but these are a product of discrimination, not of the condition itself. It is, however, implausible to think that all the disadvantages which stem from deafness are social in origin. Moreover, though it may be true that being deaf carries with it the important compensation of access to a rich culture, no physical condition is required for such access. Cultures are simply the kind of things to which we are born, and therefore to which the children of deaf parents, hearing or deaf, normally belong. Thus these parents are making a mistake in choosing deafness for their children. Given their own experience of isolation as children, however, it is a mistake which is understandable, and our reaction to them ought to be compassion, not condemnation.
Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.
As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.
A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk.
... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...
... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...
Cultural week celebrates the 40th anniversary of Sino-Kuwaiti relations A Kuwaiti Cultural Week kicked off on April 14 at Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU), China’s top lan- guage and international studies university.
This paper is mainly focused on the examination of the role of cultural schema in readinghow the cultural schemacomprehension, in particular,helps or impedes reading comprehension; most important of all, the implications for teaching reading in China.
Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam
One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....
The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.
Full Text Available The literature on total quality management confirmed that the national culture has an effect on total quality management implementation. The aim of this study is to compare the Algerian national culture and the TQM culture. The results indicated that not all the national culture dimensions are appropriate for TQM implementation in the Algerian context: the collectivism dimension is appropriate, the power distance and uncertainty avoidance dimensions are not appropriate.
The purpose of this diploma was to outline the curriculum of art workshops on cultural heritage, organized in gallery Krpan in Cerknica. The paper is composed of two parts. It links field of cultural heritage in connection with art planning. In the theoretical part we introduced the concept of cultural heritage, its various forms as well as its protection and preservation with our relation to cultural heritage. Further it reflects field of etnographic record connected with still usefull p...
Korolko, Valentyn; Nekrasova, Oksana
Analyzing American publications dealing with the concept of excellent public relations, the authors trace the development of organizational culture and its connection with societal culture, as well as an alyze theoretical and methodological issues of corporate culture and its impact on public relations in an organization. Special attention is paid to some ways in which professional PR departments can be come the source of progressive counter cultures inside the organization capable of changin...
When it comes to the intercultural business negotiation,a correct understanding of the cultural differences between the east and the west and the appropriate approach to the cultural conflicts are the preconditions for the success.This paper aims at putting forward effective strategies to tackle cross-cultural obstacles in the business negotiation through the comparative study of cultural factors in business negotiations.
Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.
To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid
Wu Qixuan; Zhao Shuncai
Language is closely related to culture. Language expresses and embodies cultural reality, in the meantime, culture exerts enormous influences on language. Therefore, language learning is often culture learning. The author, based on the negligence of culture teaching in English language classes, illustrates the influences of cultural knowledge on reading, translating and intercultural communicating, and proposes suggestions on culture teaching in English language teaching (ELT).
Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a
This working paper – written for inclusion as a chapter on Japanese society, to be published in Chinese by the Beijing University of Foreign Studies later in 2011 – looks at popular culture as a form of cultural production. It argues for the need to study popular cultural forms like advertisements...
Full Text Available In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners’ culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And how can we develop in the learners an intercultural competence that would shortchange neither their own culture nor the target culture, but would make them into cultural mediators in a globalized world? This paper explores these issues from the perspective of the large body of research done in Australia, Europe and the U.S. in the last twenty years. It links the study of culture to the study of discourse (see, e.g., Kramsch 1993, 1998, 2004 and to the concept of translingual and transcultural competence proposed by the Modern Language Association (e.g., Kramsch, 2010. Special attention will be given to the unique role that the age-old Persian culture can play in fostering the cultural mediators of tomorrow.
Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh
Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely eclec...