WorldWideScience

Sample records for axel patents technology

  1. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  2. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  3. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  4. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  5. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting... patent licensing meeting was subsequently held February 16, 2011 at the SAIC Enterprise Bldg...

  6. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  7. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  8. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  9. A Predictive Model of Technology Transfer Using Patent Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehyun Choi; Dongsik Jang; Sunghae Jun; Sangsung Park

    2015-01-01

    The rapid pace of technological advances creates many difficulties for R&D practitioners in analyzing emerging technologies. Patent information analysis is an effective tool in this situation. Conventional patent information analysis has focused on the extraction of vacant, promising, or core technologies and the monitoring of technological trends. From a technology management perspective, the ultimate purpose of R&D is technology commercialization. The core of technology commercializ...

  10. Domestic Enterprise Awarded Overseas Patents On Fiber Optical Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Beijing Aerospace Times Optical-Electronic Technology Corp. Ltd was granted a patent for a fiber optical gyroscope using a low-polarization and polarization-maintaining hybrid light path in Ukraine. After filling an ordinary patent application for the technology domestically in 2006, the company filed a Paris Convention application in Ukraine to collaborate with a Ukrainian technical center in 2007.

  11. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  12. EPA-developed, patented technologies available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  13. Patent Strategy at the Age of High Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper is a summary of the lecture which the author presented at the 5th Hokuriku Workshop for Study of Scientific and Technological Information Activities on the 17th of January in 1986. The author analyzed the present situation and made some suggestions on them ; (1) the role of patent system has shifted from introduction of foreign technologies to independent technological development at the age of high technology, (2) circumstances of rapidly increasing international patent war, particularly patent conflict between U.S. and Japan concerning U.S. ITC, (3) as the service of soft aspects of economy has been closed up, the new business has come to the fore front, and the move to consider technology as a good has been activated, (4) how patent specification should be written, the way of obtaining and protecting patent successfully, (5) basic pattern of patent strategy and what the strategy should be to respond to the enterprises level, (6) present situation of patent information service, effective use of patent maps and information strategy.

  14. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  15. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  16. Advanced Analyses of Technology Innovations, Patents, and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A good indicator of the technical competitiveness of a country or an enterprise is the number of high quality international patents it owns. The latest statistics from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO showed that USA, Japan, Germany, China, and South Korea are among the top patent filing countries [1]. WIPO data indicate that these countries and their global companies are directing significant resources toward engineering innovations, design inventions, and technology R&D. The end result will be to capitalize their intellectual assets for competitive advantage. The huge and ever growing data and knowledge content of international patent (cyber- depositories creates great challenges for engineers, researchers, and technology strategists to fully utilize the wealth of knowledge [2]. Most critically, engineers must make correct R&D decisions based on the complex sets of patent information. This special issue features research papers focusing on the advances of representing, modeling, reasoning, analyzing, and synthesizing knowledge related to innovations, intellectual property (IP, patents, and technology adoptions. For industries with short life cycles and technical products (e.g., semiconductor, LED, and consumer electronics, state-of-the-art knowledge engineering approaches for IP and patent analysis are essential for sustaining competitive advantage. We have accepted five articles in this special issue and each has developed methodologies using industrial cases for verification. The papers are highlighted briefly as follows. The article “Applying Hybrid-Quantity Analysis in the Asia Semiconductor Industry,” co-authored by Chin-yuan Fan, Ming-Fong Lai, and Shu-Hao Chang, provides an integrated approach to explore competing technological and strategic-group relationships within the semiconductor industry in the Asia-Pacific region. They use a combination of patents, multidimensional scaling, and K-means clustering to

  17. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    to Navy suppliers. F. Contact: Darryl Mexic, Esquire Patent Counsel Sughrue, Mion, Zinn , Macpeak & Seas 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC...Bovernack Auoney, Agent. or Firm- Howard P. Terry; Seymour (75) Inventor: D d H. MeMa , Carlisle, Mass. Levine [73] Assignee: Sperry Corporatloin, New York

  18. Technology Convergence and Divergence in China's Electronic Industries: Evidence from Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang-dong; LIU Xiao-qing

    2006-01-01

    By thoroughly reviewing international studies on technology convergence and divergence, four kinds of hypothesis are proposed based on patent data Herfindhal Index (HI)measurement. The main finding is that technology convergence does exist, based on patent technology records in China, primarily driven by overseas companies' strategic behavior, such as field intensiveness, competition during technology maturity session, and patent technology growth.

  19. Image Science Technology Forecasting on offset printing:A Patent Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaojen

    2004-01-01

    Technology forecasting is a important approach which can help researcher to point out what will be of technology in the future. There are many well-developed approaches and methodologies can do technology forecasting well, for example S-curve analysis. Patent analysis is another way to analyze technology development trend. Patent is a kind of intellectual property right can help researcher avoid to infringe patent owned by competitor. Patent analysis can help researcher and corporate find out what are major technology trends and point out what field has low patent infringement risk.It will describe what patent analysis is briefly and how to process, and use patent analysis to analysis image reproduction technology trend. Offset printing technology is the main field discussed. When running analysis will follow the international patent classification (IPC) category and use USPTO patent database.

  20. A new patented building technology based on ancient Roman knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chains is a new patented building technology by means of which you can build houses, bridges, tunnels, and even ships with longer spans, less material-, and energy consumption, without scaffolding, and making the use of arches, vaults, domes, ribbed shells, and new...

  1. Research Funding, Patent Search Training and Technology Transfer: a collaboration

    KAUST Repository

    Tyhurst, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on the collaboration efforts of three different university departments to create, teach and evaluate the benefits of a joint patent training series, as well as the future directions this collaboration will take. KAUST has as one of its goals the diversification of the Saudi economy. There is a strong focus at the university on developing entrepreneurial ideas and commercializing research done. The University Library supports this goal through the provision of electronic resources and introductory patent search training skills. However, the patent training class offered by the University Library is only one step in a process that faculty and students need when starting or taking their research to the next level. In the Fall of 2015, I met with representatives of the two major stakeholders in the patent arena, the office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO), to develop a patent training program to meet the needs of researchers. The OSR provides funding to researchers who have demonstrated that their ideas have merit with potential applications, the TTO works with researchers who are at the point of needing IP protection. The resulting discussion led us to collaborate on creating a workshop series that benefit the researcher’s information needs and each of our departments as well. In the first of the series of three 2 hour workshops, the Manager of TTO and the Lead Integrative Specialist from the OSR presented a workshop on an overview of Intellectual Property and the patenting process. These presentations focused on when and how to determine whether research is potentially patentable, why a researcher needs to protect his/her research and how to go about protecting it. The second workshop focused on introductory patent search skills and tools, how to expand a literature search to include the information found in patents, and how this kind of research will improve not only the literature search but the research

  2. 77 FR 7095 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definition of Technological Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Patents-- Definition of Technological Invention AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office..., Covered Business Method Patent Review Proposed Definition for Technological Invention.'' Comments may also... preamble of this notice sets forth in detail the definition of technological invention that the Board...

  3. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  4. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  5. 75 FR 34988 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a.... Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 84,557.//U.S. Patent No....

  6. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION REGARDING PREBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS NUTRITION VERSUS THE PATENT REGISTERS: WHAT IS NEW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos REIS, José Maciel Caldas; PINHEIRO, Maurício Fortuna; OTI, André Takashi; FEITOSA-JUNIOR, Denilson José Silva; PANTOJA, Mauro de Souza; BARROS, Rui Sérgio Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods. Method: Electronic consultation was conducted (online) in the main public databases of patents in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO) and the European Patent Bank (EPO). The research involved the period from January 2014 to July 2015, being used in the title fields and summary of patents, the following descriptors in INPI "prebiotic", "prebiotic" "probiotics", "probiotic" and the USPTO and EPO: "prebiotic", "prebiotics", "probiotic", "probiotics". Results: This search haven't found any deposit at the brazilian patents website (INPI) in this period; US Patent &Trademark Office had registered 60 titles in patents and the European Patent Office (EPO) showed 10 documents on the issue. Conclusion: Information technology offered by genetic engineering, biotechnology and nanotechnology deposited in the form of titles and abstracts of patents in relation to early nutritional intervention as functional foods, has increasingly required to decrease the risks and control the progression of health problems. But, the existing summaries, although attractive and promising in this sense, are still incipient to recommend them safely as a therapeutic tool. Therefore, they should be seen more as diet elements and healthy lifestyles. PMID:28076487

  8. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  9. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to vehicles and fuel emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  10. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to pollution prevention that are available for licensing.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  11. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to waste that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  12. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to water monitoring and remediation that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  13. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to air quality that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  14. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  15. Study on Technology Development Status of Genetically Modified Soybean Based on Patent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Runlian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified soybean is a product of the emerging bio-technology in the 1980s and is widely concerned all over the world. This study analyzed GM soybean related patent documents in China, the United States and Europe, aiming to find out the R and D status and trends as well as technical distribution pattern of GM soybean in the world. It analyzed the patent general tendency, regional distribution and key technologies, clarified major countries who master such technologies, relevant companies, technologies, etc. Finally, the author put forward solutions for the strategic development of GM soybean patents.

  16. NIH Patent Policy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Public Health Service (PHS) may determine that it is necessary to seek patent protection on its inventions, when doing so would facilitate the commercial development of products or services that will benefit the public health, or when a patent will advance another PHS objective. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  17. Innovation in clean coal technologies: Empirical evidence from firm-level patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Jürgen; Wetzel, Heike

    2016-01-01

    This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to affect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm's history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively affects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong...

  18. 77 FR 73456 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a... described in U.S. Patent No. 7,020,354: Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No....

  19. AXEL-2016: Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    AXEL-2016 is the latest in a yearly lecture series on particle accelerators given at CERN within the framework of the 2016 Technical Training Programme. As part of the BE department's Operation group’s shutdown lecture series, this general accelerator physics module has been offered since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE department and the Technical Training team and is open to the wider CERN community.    The lecturer is Rende Steerenberg, deputy leader of the Operation group and PS section leader. Programme: basic mathematics; transverse optics; lattice calculations; resonances; longitudinal motion; transfer lines, injection and ejection; longitudinal and transverse beam instabilities; colliders. A detailed programme is available on the AXEL-2016 webpage. Target audience: designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but also open to technicians, engineers and physicists interested i...

  20. 48 CFR 970.2770-3 - Technology transfer and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology transfer and....2770-3 Technology transfer and patent rights. The National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 (NCTTA) established technology transfer as a mission for Government-owned,...

  1. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  2. DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE BASES OF THE WORLD PATENT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. KAMENEVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the innovative growth and progressive economic performance in high-technology industries, or at least to keep them at a fixed level it is necessary for the industrial enterprises to conduct scientific research and inventive activities through developing technological innovations and also through supporting, completing, replenishing, updating one of the most important intangible components of the business – patent resources: protective documents on inventions, industrial designs, utility models, trademarks etc. Scientific-and-engineering information, contained in international patent funds, allows determining the world state of the art, registering and securing the company’s exclusive patent rights to the innovations. This work presents the method of obtaining patent information in Russia by means of using various Russian and international databases and abstract journals that can help to investigate the world state of art in a given technological field.

  3. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms : The effects of patent pools and industry consortia on the interplay between patents and technological standards

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010-13; This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical i...

  4. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30-70 - Patent costs and technology transfer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology transfer costs. 970.3102-05-30-70 Section 970.3102-05-30-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30-70 Patent costs and technology transfer costs. (a) For management and operating contracts that do not include the clause at 970.5227-3, Technology Transfer Mission,...

  5. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  6. Patent Network Analysis and Quadratic Assignment Procedures to Identify the Convergence of Robot Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Won Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Because of the remarkable developments in robotics in recent years, technological convergence has been active in this area. We focused on finding patterns of convergence within robot technology using network analysis of patents in both the USPTO and KIPO. To identify the variables that affect convergence, we used quadratic assignment procedures (QAP). From our analysis, we observed the patent network ecology related to convergence and found technologies that have great potential to converge with other robotics technologies. The results of our study are expected to contribute to setting up convergence based R&D policies for robotics, which can lead new innovation. PMID:27764196

  7. Patenting Bioprinting Technologies in the US and Europe– The 5th element in the 3rd dimension"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Mimler, Marc

    2017-01-01

    of bioprinting- inventions are being patented or would be- protectable under European and US patent laws. Rather than focusing on the highly relevant questions that 3D printing poses for patent infringement doctrines and research exemptions , this paper concentrates on the question of patentable subject matter......, “Patenting Bioprinting Technologies in the US and Europe– The 5th element in the 3rd dimension", Working Paper, forthcoming in: RM Ballardini, M Norrgård & J Partanen (red), 3D printing, Intellectual Property and Innovation – Insights from Law and Technology. Wolters Klu. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=...

  8. A Study on Diffusion Pattern of Technology Convergence: Patent Analysis for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Choi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology convergence indicates that technologies of different application areas are converted into a new and common unity of technology. Its range spans from inter-field, whereby technologies are converged between heterogeneous fields in homogeneous sector, to a wider inter-sector, whereby technologies belong to heterogeneous technology sector are converged. This paper determined the definition of technology convergence from previous literature and classified patents into technology category depending on patent information. Furthermore, we empirically measure technology convergence degree based on co-classification analysis and estimate its diffusion trend at the entire technology domain level by using overall 1,476,967 of patents filed to the KIPO (Korean Intellectual Property Office from 1998 to 2010. As a result, potential size and growth rate of technology convergence are varied by both technology and type of technology convergence, i.e., inter-field and inter-sector technology convergence. Diffusion pattern of inter-sector technology convergence appears as the more various form than that of inter-field technology convergence. In a relationship between potential size and growth rate of technology convergence, growth rate of technology convergence is in inverse proportion to potential size of technology convergence in general. That is, the faster the growth rate of technology convergence, the smaller the potential size of technology convergence. In addition, this paper found that technology convergence of the instrument and chemistry sector is actively progressing in both inter-field and inter-sector convergence, while the technologies related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT in electrical engineering sector have relatively mature progress of technology convergence, especially in inter-sector technology convergence.

  9. 78 FR 17187 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation, a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive... its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a revocable,...

  10. 78 FR 32380 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Navy Case No. 100910: Harvesting Rotational Energy Using Linear-Based Energy Harvesters//Navy Case No... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies... gives notice of its intent to grant to Lumedyne Technologies, Inc., a revocable,...

  11. 76 FR 1412 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Case No. 99741--Improved Electro-Magnetic Kinetic Energy Harvesting Device Using Increased Magnetic... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies... gives notice of its intent to grant to Lumedyne Technologies, Inc., a revocable,...

  12. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Masatsura; Okazaki, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). Reported findings include: (1) Nanotechnology is a multifaceted technology, currently consisting of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field;…

  13. Energy prices, technological knowledge and green energy innovation. A dynamic panel analysis of patent counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Juergen; Wetzel, Heike [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-07-15

    We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the e.ect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.

  14. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  15. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  16. Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of US State-Level Patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Frenken, K.; Los, B.

    2015-01-01

    Castaldi C., Frenken K. and Los B. Related variety, unrelated variety and technological breakthroughs: an analysis of US state-level patenting, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how variety affects the innovation output of a region. Borrowing arguments from theories of recombinant innovation

  17. Warfarin pharmacogenomics: recommendations with available patented clinical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Andrew A; Kardani, Avni; Mastorides, Stephen M; Thomas, L Brannon

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin pharmacogenomic testing has become a prime example of the utility of personalized molecular testing in the modern clinical laboratory. Warfarin is a commonly used drug for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in a variety of clinical situations. However, a number of factors lead to a high interindividual variability in dose requirements. Among the primary factors in this variability are genetic polymorphisms in general patient populations, which can account for 35-50% of varying dose requirements among patients. In this review, we discuss the implications of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P-450 enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) and Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Enzyme Complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) as they relate to therapeutic warfarin dosing. We discuss the clinical utility of pharmacogenomics testing as related to warfarin dosing, and propose a clinical model for the implementation of the pharmacogenomic test results. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the currently available commercial testing platforms with discussion of the complexities of utilizing patented methodologies in bringing genetic testing such as this to the clinical laboratory.

  18. New patent in sight for CERN-made technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    A portable gamma and beta radiation survey meter capable of operating in a strong magnetic field is the most recent subject of a CERN patent application. Developed by members of the HSE Unit, the new instrument may find applications not only in research laboratories but also in hospitals where radioactivity is managed in the presence of magnetic fields.   The new instrument consists of two parts: an active probe and a counting unit. Inside the probe, a scintillating crystal sends its signal to a photo detection module, which in turn is connected to the electronics. The counting unit is a portable box to be fixed on the operator’s waist. Tested in a magnetic field up to 1 Tesla, this innovative radiation survey meter has an operating range of a fraction of µSv/h to 1 mSv/h for the ambient dose equivalent rate, and 45 keV – 1.3 MeV for photon energy, with a fast response. “The instrument is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Milan Politecnico ...

  19. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to contaminated sites and hazardous substances that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  20. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  1. Patents and Technological Progress in a Globalized World-Liber Amicorum Joseph Straus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    to congratulate and pay tribute to this "distinguished grandmaster of intellectual property law". One of his birthday presents was a colossal book honoring his lifelong dedication to intellectual property law and his widely recognized achievements, not only in his primarily patent law-related research...... to address a remarkable variety of crucial issues in the complex debates shaping today's technology related intellectual property law. Besides dealing with topics that directly concern Professor Straus' primary research interest, i.e. international and comparative patent law with a special focus......On December 14th, 2008, one of the world's most renowned patent scholars, Prof. Dr. Dres. h.c. Joseph Straus, celebrated his 70th birthday. Shortly thereafter, a great number of colleagues and friends gathered in his "academic home", the Max Planck Institute at Munich's Marstallplatz...

  2. Computer-Aided Analysis of Patents for Product Technology Maturity Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanhong; Gan, Dequan; Guo, Yingchun; Zhang, Peng

    Product technology maturity foresting is vital for any enterprises to hold the chance for innovation and keep competitive for a long term. The Theory of Invention Problem Solving (TRIZ) is acknowledged both as a systematic methodology for innovation and a powerful tool for technology forecasting. Based on TRIZ, the state -of-the-art on the technology maturity of product and the limits of application are discussed. With the application of text mining and patent analysis technologies, this paper proposes a computer-aided approach for product technology maturity forecasting. It can overcome the shortcomings of the current methods.

  3. Identification and Analysis of Technology Emergence Using Patent Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Bangkok , Thailand. 11 about This report This report describes a new method for studying the emergence of technologies through the analysis of the...HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORTATION INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS LAW AND BUSINESS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITY

  4. Longitudinal Patent Analysis for Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Country, Institution and Technology Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Yip, Alan; Ng, Gavin; Guo, Fei; Chen, Zhi-Kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visualization techniques on NSE-related United States patent documents to support various knowledge tasks. This paper presents results on the basic analysis of nanotechnology patents between 1976 and 2002, content map analysis and citation network analysis. The data have been obtained on individual countries, institutions and technology fields. The top 10 countries with the largest number of nanotechnology patents are the United States, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Australia. The fastest growth in the last 5 years has been in chemical and pharmaceutical fields, followed by semiconductor devices. The results demonstrate potential of information-based discovery and visualization technologies to capture knowledge regarding nanotechnology performance, transfer of knowledge and trends of development through analyzing the patent documents.

  5. Intellectual Property Rights and Patenting in China's High-technology Industries: Does Ownership Matter?.%Intellectual Property Rights and Patenting in China's High-technology Industries: Does Ownership Matter?.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-Hai Yang; Chun-Chien Kuo; Eric D. Ramstetter

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to systematically investigate the impacts of strengthening intellectual property rights on patenting in China's high-technology industries and to explore the potential differences in response to patent reform by ownership. Empirical results show that the estimated patent elasticity of R &D is lower than that for OECD countries, indicating relatively low R&D productivity for China's high-technology industries. The direct innovation effect of technology imports is negative, while the absorptive ability embodied in R&D helps in gaining external sources of knowledge, thus contributing to innovations. Specifically, strengthening intellectual property rights can induce more innovations in terms of patents in China's high-technology industries and is particularly relevant to foreign-owned high- technology enterprises.

  6. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every c

  7. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibl

  8. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue.

  9. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Godoy Daiha

    Full Text Available The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis.

  10. Ethics and technology transfer: patients, patents, and public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Deborah

    2011-06-01

    Universities and academic medical centers have been increasing their focus on technology transfer and research commercialization. With this shift in focus, academic-industry ties have become prevalent. These relationships can benefit academic researchers and help then to transform their research into tangible societal benefits. However, there also are concerns that these ties and the greater academic focus on commercialization might lead to conflicts of interest, especially financial conflicts of interest. This paper briefly explores some of these conflicts of interest, particularly relating to research and training. This paper also discusses some of the policies that have been, and are being, developed to try to mitigate and manage these conflicts so that academic involvement in technology transfer and commercialization can continue without jeopardizing academic work or the public's trust in them.

  11. The Technology Trend of Japanese Patent for the Nuclear Fuel Assembly Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Jeong, Kyung Min; Suh, Yong Chil; Kim, Chang Hoi; Shin, Jung Cheol

    2008-06-15

    Japanese technology patents for the nuclear fuel assembly inspection unit, from the year 1993 to the year 2006, were investigated. The fuel rods which contain fissile material are grouped together in a closely-spaced array within the fuel assembly. Various kinds of reactor including the PWR reactor are being operated in Japan. There are many kinds of nuclear fuel assemblies in Japan, and the shape and the size of these nuclear fuel assemblies are various also. As the structure of these various fuel assemblies is a regular square as the same as the Korean one, the inspection method described in Japanese technology patent can be applied to the inspection of the nuclear fuel assembly of the Korea. This report focuses on advances in VIT(visual inspection test) of nuclear fuel assembly using the state-of-the-art CCD camera system.

  12. Technology and industrialization in Spanish economy from 1950 to 1960: the patents as technological activity indicators; Tecnologia e industrializacion en la economia espanola de 1950 a 1960: Nueva evidencia a partir de datos de patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Molero Zayas, J.; Granda Gayo, I.

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this research is to study the innovative activity developed in the fifties by the Spanish industry focussing on the foreign technology incorporated in the activity of several industrial sectors. The structure of innovation in each sector has been characterized by using patents as technological activity indicators. The data of patents registered in Spain belonging to the 1950-1960 period have been obtained taking into account the research developed by the Department of Business Administration of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid through a subsidy granted by the Spanish Patent Office. (Author)

  13. X线机专利技术分析%Analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To make the better understanding on the status of patent application to technical staff and enterprises worked on X-ray field,provide reference for technical development and patent application though the analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument.Methods:Combined international patent classification with keywords for searching the patents related X-ray instrument both in domestic and international and analyzed patent application amount,area distribution,principal applicant and important technology for the searched patents.Results:Some information about global amount of patent application over the years,country and area distribution of the patent technology,patent application status of principal applicant is obtained in the X-ray technology field.Conclusion:The amount of patent application in the field of X-ray instrument technology is rising year by year both around the world and in china.There is a big gap between domestic corporations and large foreign companies in the amount of patent application,patent validity and integrity of patent layout.%目的:通过对X线机专利技术进行分析,使X线机技术领域人员以及相关企业了解该领域的专利申请状况,为国内申请人在该领域的技术开发以及进行专利申请提供参考.方法:结合国际专利分类号和关键词检索出国内外涉及X线机的专利,并对所检索的专利申请量、区域分布、主要申请人以及重点技术专利进行分析.结果:获得了全球X线机技术领域的历年专利申请量、专利技术的国家和地区分布、重点申请人的专利申请情况以及在中国申请的X线机技术的专利申请状况信息.结论:X线机技术领域中的专利申请量在全球和中国范围内均呈现逐年上升趋势,我国企业在专利数量、专利的有效性及布局的完整性等方面与国外大公司相比存在较大差距.

  14. An SAO-based approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information: Case study—graphene sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyin; HU; Shu; FANG; Ling; WEI; Yi; WEN; Xian; ZHANG; Min; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces an approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information based on Subject-Action-Object(SAO) structures.Design/methodology/approach: First, SAO structures were extracted from patent documents and were cleaned. Second, several dimension-reduction techniques were used to generate technology topics. Then, the hierarchical relationships between technology topics were calculated based on patent clustering. Finally, technology evolution maps were drawn by adding a timeline.Findings: This approach can reveal technology evolution processes from multiple perspectives than other approaches.Research limitations: The semantic annotation of an SAO type is not very accurate and the semantic types of technology topics need to be enriched.Practical implications: The approach can be applied to draw technology evolution maps using different types of technology topics such as problem or solution.Originality/value: This approach offers an analytical dimension and more details than existing techniques, and it helps identify fundamental and emerging technologies more accurately and comprehensively.

  15. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  16. The Population Ecology of Technology: An Empirical Study of US Biotechnology Patents from 1976 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Ad; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i.e., density and diversity) ecological characteristics have a positive effect on its growth rate. The niche's external characteristics of crowding and status have a negative effect on its growth rate. Hence, applying theory from organizational ecology increases our understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of technological growth and evolution, and suggest avenues for further research.

  17. [Globalization of acupuncture technology innovation: a quantitative analysis based on acupuncture patents in the U.S.A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2011-08-01

    The structure of international flow of acupuncture knowledge was explored in this article so as to promote the globalization of acupuncture technology innovation. Statistical methods were adopted to reveal geographical distribution of acupuncture patents in the U.S.A. and the influencing factors of cumulative advantage of acupuncture techniques as well as innovation value of application of acupuncture patents. Social network analysis was also utilized to establish a global innovation network of acupuncture technology. The result shows that the cumulative strength on acupuncture technology correlates with the patent retention period. The innovative value of acupuncture invention correlates with the frequency of patent citation. And the U. S. A. and Canada seize central positions in the global acupuncture information and technology delivery system.

  18. Do Oil Companies aquire Alternative Energy Patents to Limit Technological Innovation, in order to Maintain Economic Advantage in Fossil Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, George G.

    2002-01-01

    Do Oil Companies acquire Alternative Energy Patents to limit Technological Innovation, in order to maintain Economic Advantage in Fossil Fuels by George G. Sims Roger N. Waud, Chairman Economics (Abstract) This paper addresses the charge made by environmental groups that oil companies, since the 1970's, have been acquiring alternative energy patents, to restrict these technologies from reaching the market. The purpose of these restrictions was to protect profits from...

  19. The Population Ecology of Technology: An Empirical Study of US Biotechnology Patents from 1976 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Ad; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology’s internal (i.e., density and diversity) ecological characteristics have a positive effect on its growth rate. The niche’s external characteristics of crowding and status have a negative effect on its growth rate. Hence, applying theory from organizational ecology increases our understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of technological growth and evolution, and suggest avenues for further research. PMID:28081570

  20. [Strategy and core technologies for the secondary development of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagn, Bo-Li; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Chegn, Yi-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Secondary development of Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM) is an effective and innovation-driven way for the leaping development of Chinese medicine industry with less investment and faster return. Aim to improving the efficacy, safety and batch-to-batch consistency of CPMs, the theory and methodology for the secondary development of CPMs, mode for cultivating superior CPM, approaches to reforming the pharmaceutical technology and the corresponding core technologies were proposed in this paper, which is summarized as 'One objective, Three analyses, Five definitudes and Seven improvements'.

  1. Entropy and gravity concepts as new methodological indexes to investigate technological convergence: patent network-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrae Cho

    Full Text Available The volatility and uncertainty in the process of technological developments are growing faster than ever due to rapid technological innovations. Such phenomena result in integration among disparate technology fields. At this point, it is a critical research issue to understand the different roles and the propensity of each element technology for technological convergence. In particular, the network-based approach provides a holistic view in terms of technological linkage structures. Furthermore, the development of new indicators based on network visualization can reveal the dynamic patterns among disparate technologies in the process of technological convergence and provide insights for future technological developments. This research attempts to analyze and discover the patterns of the international patent classification codes of the United States Patent and Trademark Office's patent data in printed electronics, which is a representative technology in the technological convergence process. To this end, we apply the physical idea as a new methodological approach to interpret technological convergence. More specifically, the concepts of entropy and gravity are applied to measure the activities among patent citations and the binding forces among heterogeneous technologies during technological convergence. By applying the entropy and gravity indexes, we could distinguish the characteristic role of each technology in printed electronics. At the technological convergence stage, each technology exhibits idiosyncratic dynamics which tend to decrease technological differences and heterogeneity. Furthermore, through nonlinear regression analysis, we have found the decreasing patterns of disparity over a given total period in the evolution of technological convergence. This research has discovered the specific role of each element technology field and has consequently identified the co-evolutionary patterns of technological convergence. These new findings

  2. 相机防抖技术的专利分析%Patents Analysis for Camera Anti-shake Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 李婉怡; 卢浩

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the patents for camera anti-shake technology which is applied in China, the patent application situation, the patent quantity of different anti-shake technology, the important applicants and the patent development trend of the camera anti-shake technology are all analyzed in detail, and in-depth studied. Finally the characteristic of those patents for camera anti-shake technology is summarized by the introduction of the patent status and development trend of the field.%基于在中国申请的相机防抖技术的专利文献,给出了在该领域专利情况的统计分析,其中针对专利申请情况、采用不同技术的专利数量、重要申请人以及专利发展趋势进行了详细的分析和研究.通过介绍这一领域专利的现状和发展趋势,总结出一些涉及相机防抖技术专利的特征.

  3. Recognition of Emerging Technology Trends. Class-selective study of citations in the U.S. Patent Citation Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bruck, Péter; Szente, Judit; Tobochnik, Jan; Érdi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    By adopting a citation-based recursive ranking method for patents the evolution of new fields of technology can be traced. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the laser / inkjet printer technology emerged from the recombination of two existing technologies: sequential printing and static image production. The dynamics of the citations coming from the different "precursor" classes illuminates the mechanism of the emergence of new fields and give the possibility to make predictions about future technological development. For the patent network the optimal value of the PageRank damping factor is close to 0.5; the application of d=0.85 leads to unacceptable ranking results.

  4. Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: Geographic and technological perspectives on "photovoltaic cells"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Alkemade, F.; Heimeriks, G.; Hoekstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) provide new options for an informed delineation of samples in both USPTO data and the Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PatStat) of EPO. Among the "te

  5. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN; Condicionantes do potencial de exploracao comercial da patente: a implantacao de um sistema de oferta publica de tecnologia na CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila, Daniela Lima Cerqueira

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  6. Scientific production and technological production: transforming a scientific paper into patent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cleber Gustavo; de Almeida, Roberto Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil has been presenting in the last years a scientific production well-recognized in the international scenario, in several areas of knowledge, according to the impact of their publications in important events and especially in indexed journals of wide circulation. On the other hand, the country does not seem to be in the same direction regarding to the technological production and wealth creation from the established scientific development, and particularly from the applied research. The present paper covers such issue and discloses the main similarities and differences between a scientific paper and a patent application, in order to contribute to a better understanding of both types of documents and help the researchers to chose and select the results with technological potential, decide what is appropriated for industrial protection, as well as foster new business opportunities for each technology which has been created. PMID:23579737

  7. Nanosuspension Technology For Poorly Soluble Drugs: Recent Researches, Advances and Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vijay; Bajpai, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, in pharmaceutical industries, the attention on nanosized materials is growing gradually due to their wide applications in drug delivery systems. Recently, out of different nanosize systems, nanosuspension system has undergone a lot of interest in such a way to rectify the solubility and bioavailability problem due to their technical simplicity and cost-effectiveness property compared to other colloidal systems. Nanosuspension technology has proven that it can be a superior substitute over alternative approaches, which are available for enhancing the bioavailability of different drugs having low solubility. Since today, nanosuspensions have been greatly evolved for a huge number of drugs and also investigated for their potential applications. The various unique features make the nanosuspension to enable their utilization in numerous dosage forms and given through different routes, including parenteral, oral, topical, peroral, ocular and pulmonary routes. A large number of products grounded in nanosuspension technology are present in the market, and some are on the way. In fact, the number of such types of products is much more in comparison of other nanotechnologies based products. Additionally, the different preparation methods used to prepare the nanosuspensions are also well- established and patented. This article reviews the recent research, advances in formulation and their approaches related to nanosuspensions with emphasis given on different patents related to nanosuspension methods.

  8. Patterns of technology diffusion Spanish. An identification through the information contained in patents; Pautas de difusion de la tecnologia espanola. Una identificacion a traves de la informacion contenida en las patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Sero, M.; Coronado Guerrero, D.; Fernandez Perez, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to answer the following research questions: What countries are the geographical destinations of technological knowledge generated by Spanish inventors? What sectors take advantage of the technological knowledge produced in a different sector? What are the characteristics of the patented knowledge more intensively diffused? Our methodology rests on a biblio metric analysis of patent granted by the Patent Office from the US (USPTO) to Spanish inventors. We found some relevant aspects that might be useful to think about technological policy favouring knowledge diffusion. (Author) 27 refs.

  9. Technical training: AXEL-2008 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2008: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2008 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the AB Operation Group Shut-down Lectures. Since 2003, this course has been organized as a joint venture between the AB Department and Technical Training and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2008 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from 29th January to 1st February 2008, and given in English with questions and answers als...

  10. Technical training: AXEL-2012 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2012: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2012 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the Technical Training Program. Being part of BE Department’s Operation Group Shutdown Lecture series, the general accelerator physics module is organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE Department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2012 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 16th – 20th of January 2012, and given in English with ...

  11. Technical Training: AXEL-2005 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2005 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the 'PS Shutdown Course', now AB/OP), the general accelerator physics section is organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2005 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to all people (technicians, engineers, physicists) interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course will be given in French on course supports in English; questions and answers possible in both languages. AXEL-2005 - I...

  12. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  13. ChemicalVia: a CERN-patented technology for use in high-density circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    High-density multilayer printed circuits such as those pictured here are found in miniaturized modern equipment from video cameras to mobile phones. Adjacent layers in these circuits are electrically connected by microvias, consisting of a small-diameter hole (usually 50 µm) with a thin metal-deposited surface covering their cylindrical walls to ensure local conductivity between the two layers. ChemicalVia is a new method, patented by CERN, to make microvias on high-density multilayer printed circuits using chemicals rather than complex laser, plasma or photoimaging technology. The process is compatible with all standard printed-circuit assembly lines, and has the advantages of low initial investment and reduced manufacturing costs. http://www.cern.ch/ttdatabase

  14. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  15. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  16. 碳纤维制造产业的专利分析%Analysis of patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀小强; 易方方

    2012-01-01

    对碳纤维制造技术专利文献进行了检索统计,分别从年度发展趋势、专利申请国分布、申请人状况和中美日欧四局共同申请的重点专利布局等方面对碳纤维制造产业的国内外技术专利进行了分析,揭示了国内外碳纤维专利申请的现状,分析了主要专利申请人专利的国际专利分类领域和技术重点,为我国科研院所和企业提出了专利申请布局的相关建议.提出了我国应利用已公开的专利技术,研发特种碳纤维的制造技术,强化碳纤维的应用技术,促进碳纤维的产业化和工程化.%The relevant patents of carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were retrieved. The China and international patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were analyzed from the aspects of annual trend and geographical spread of patent applications, statistics of patent applicants, distribution of key patents filed in US, Japan, Europe and China patent offices. The status of carbon fiber patent application was explored is China and abroad. The international classification and focal points of patent technology were analyzed according to the dominant patent applicants. Some suggestion on the patent application strategy was put forward for China science research institutes and enterprises. It was pointed out that China should develop the manufacturing technology of special carbon fiber, strengthen the application technology and stimulate the industrialization and engineering technology of carbon fiber using the published patent technologies.

  17. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  18. A Hybrid Method of Analyzing Patents for Sustainable Technology Management in Humanoid Robot Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid, which refers to a robot that resembles a human body, imitates a human’s intelligence, behavior, sense, and interaction in order to provide various types of services to human beings. Humanoids have been studied and developed constantly in order to improve their performance. Humanoids were previously developed for simple repetitive or hard work that required significant human power. However, intelligent service robots have been developed actively these days to provide necessary information and enjoyment; these include robots manufactured for home, entertainment, and personal use. It has become generally known that artificial intelligence humanoid technology will significantly benefit civilization. On the other hand, Successful Research and Development (R & D on humanoids is possible only if they are developed in a proper direction in accordance with changes in markets and society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze changes in technology markets and society for developing sustainable Management of Technology (MOT strategies. In this study, patent data related to humanoids are analyzed by various data mining techniques, including topic modeling, cross-impact analysis, association rule mining, and social network analysis, to suggest sustainable strategies and methodologies for MOT.

  19. Technology whitespaces India should focus: a comparative anti-cancer patent rational analysis of Indian and international public funded universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    The article reported an in-depth comparative technology analysis of 1708 Anti-cancer patents from top 20 international universities and leading 10 Indian public funded organization and research institutes. The study segregated pioneer universities vs. technologies used in the field of Anticancer research at a level of drug discovery, development, diagnosis and treatment, which are illustrated in the form of novel substantive patent landscape maps. The reported competitive intelligent maps identified genetics, composition and synthetic compounds as dominating technologies; followed by natural extracts, combination and drug delivery systems as upcoming technologies. The least number of patents were reported by surgical apparatus, targeted therapy and animal models. In addition, the study analysed the key technologies followed by Indian universities in comparison to the international universities, to identify the overlooked technologies by the Indian public funded institutes. In an ever changing competitive world, it is essential for every university to have their own research plan and thrust areas; but at the same time, it is equally important for any organisation to have an idea of their competitor's research plan as well. So, the article suggested Indian institutes to focus on the latest emerging Anti-cancer technology trends, which are in practice by the international universities. Concurrently, this study may be a landmark indication for Indian public funded universities and institutes, calling for a U-turn from their traditional approaches.

  20. The university-industry knowledge relationship: Analyzing patents and the science base of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Via the Internet, information scientists can obtain cost-free access to large databases in the hidden or deep web. These databases are often structured far more than the Internet domains themselves. The patent database of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office is used in this study to examine the science base of patents in terms of the literature references in these patents. University-based patents at the global level are compared with results when using the national economy of the Netherlands as a system of reference. Methods for accessing the on-line databases and for the visualization of the results are specified. The conclusion is that 'biotechnology' has historically generated a model for theorizing about university-industry relations that cannot easily be generalized to other sectors and disciplines.

  1. [Overview of patents on targeted genome editing technologies and their implications for innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyu, Fan; Yanping, Lin; Guojian, Liao; Jianping, Xie

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease are important targeted genome editing technologies. They have great significance in scientific research and applications on aspects of functional genomics research, species improvement, disease prevention and gene therapy. There are past or ongoing disputes over ownership of the intellectual property behind every technology. In this review, we summarize the patents on these three targeted genome editing technologies in order to provide some reference for developing genome editing technologies with self-owned intellectual property rights and some implications for current innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities.

  2. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  3. AXEL-2015 - Introduction To Particle Accelerators | starting 19 January

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2015: Learning for the LHC AXEL-2015 is a lecture series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2014 Technical Training Programme. As part of the BE Department’s Operations Group Shutdown Lecture series, the general accelerator physics module has been organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE Department and Technical Training, and is open to the general CERN community. The AXEL-2015 course is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations and some basic knowledge of magnetism would be an advantage. The series will consists of 10 one-hour sessions (Monday 19 January 2015 – Friday 23 January 2015, from 9 a.m. to 10.15 a.m. and ...

  4. Technical Training: AXEL-2005: Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2005 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the 'PS Shutdown Course', now AB/OP), the general accelerator physics section is organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2005 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to all people (technicians, engineers, physicists) interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) during the week 14-18 March 2005, given in Fr...

  5. Technical training: AXEL-2009 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2009: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2009 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2009 Technical Training Program. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the ‘PS Shutdown Course’), the general accelerator physics module is organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2009 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 19th – 23rd of January 2009, and given in English with...

  6. Technical training: AXEL-2006 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2006: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2006 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2006 Technical Training Programme. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the 'PS Shutdown Course'), the general accelerator physics module is organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2006 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) during the week 6-10 February March 2006, and given in English...

  7. Technical training: AXEL-2008 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2008: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2008 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the AB Operation Group Shut-down Lectures. Since 2003, this course is organized as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2008 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 29th of January to the 1st February 2008, and given in English with questions and answers also possible in French. The lecturer is Rende Steerenberg, engineer and sup...

  8. Technical training: AXEL-2009 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2009: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2009 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2009 Technical Training Program. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the ‘PS Shutdown Course’), the general accelerator physics module as been organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB Department and Technical Training Service, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2009 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from 19 to 23 January 2009, and will be given i...

  9. Technical training: AXEL-2010 - Introduction to particle accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2010: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2010 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2010 Technical Training Program. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the ‘PS Shutdown Course’), the general accelerator physics module is organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2010 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 1st – 5th of February 201...

  10. Technical training: AXEL-2011 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2011: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2011 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2011 Technical Training Program. As part of the BE Department’s Operation Group Shutdown Lecture series, the general accelerator physics module has been organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE Department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2011 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic knowledge of magnetism would be an advantage. The series will be composed of 10 one-hour courses (Monday 10.01.2011 – Fri 14.01.2011, from 09:00 to 10:30 and from 14:00 to 15:...

  11. Patente gera patente?

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Coeli Ribeiro Garcia

    2006-01-01

    A patente, fonte de informação e geradora de nova patente em condições e contexto favoráveis, constitui objeto desta pesquisa. Esta é respaldada em quadro teórico da Ciência da Informação e identifica os fatores intervenientes no fluxo das relações desde a patente-fonte até o registro de nova patente. Da amostra da pesquisa constam instituições privadas e públicas representadas por unidades situadas em Brasília, Belo Horizonte e Rio de Janeiro. A entrevista é a técnica usada para a coleta de ...

  12. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  13. 77 FR 34030 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Navy Case No. 101330: Tuning Fork Gyroscope Time Domain Inertial Sensor.//Navy Case No. 101472: Auto... Integrated Clock.//U.S. Patent Application No. 11/272588: Auto-Ranging for Time Domain Inertial...

  14. Research and Development of Hepatitis B Drugs: An Analysis Based on Technology Flows Measured by Patent Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian-bo; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of available therapies, the Hepatitis B virus infection continues to be one of the most serious threats to human health, especially in developing countries such as China and India. To shed light on the improvement of current therapies and development of novel anti-HBV drugs, we thoroughly investigated 212 US patents of anti-HBV drugs and analyzed the technology flow in research and development of anti-HBV drugs based on data from IMS LifeCycle databases. Moreover, utilizing the patent citation method, which is an effective indicator of technology flow, we constructed patent citation network models and performed network analysis in order to reveal the features of different technology clusters. As a result, we identified the stagnant status of anti-HBV drug development and pointed the way for development of domestic pharmaceuticals in developing countries. We also discussed about therapeutic vaccines as the potential next generation therapy for HBV infection. Lastly, we depicted the cooperation between entities and found that novel forms of cooperation added diversity to the conventional form of cooperation within the pharmaceutical industry. In summary, our study provides inspiring insights for investors, policy makers, researchers, and other readers interested in anti-HBV drug development. PMID:27727319

  15. Patent Analysis of Russian Identification Technology%俄罗斯识别技术领域专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春生; 刘光武

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly fierce competition in the world, many countries in the world have carried out the patent analysis and Research on the industry and enterprise level. Patent analysis based on patent information analysis, processing and combination, using statistical methods to achieve technology development forecast, for enterprises to make technology development strategy, evaluate competitors provide useful information and provide a reference for the technology, product and service development. This paper analyzes the present situation of the development of Russian recognition technology and the technology development of the main areas of the present identification technology, and analyzes the main competitors and their research direction.%随着世界技术竞争的日益激烈,世界各国纷纷从产业及企业层面开展专利分析研究。专利分析是指通过对专利信息进行分析、加工、组合,利用统计学方法实现技术发展预测,为企业制定技术发展策略、评估竞争对手提供有用的情报,为技术、产品及服务开发提供决策参考。本文分析了目前俄罗斯识别技术的发展现状及目前识别技术主要领域的技术发展情况,并对目前主要竞争者及其研究方向做出分析。

  16. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  17. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Dara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR: India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade

  18. Patent licensing and selling to China as a strategy of technology transfer in a New Era: A perspective of European firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert;

    2010-01-01

    International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience a...... the primary concern despite the recently adaption of the new Patent Law in China; (4) EU firms are most interested in selling obsolete technologies and licensing state-of-art technologies to China....... and intentions of EU firms with regard to patent licensing and/or selling to China in this new era. Firms from 12 European countries in various industries were surveyed by an online questionnaire. We found that (1) large and small EU firms are very different with regard to the number of non......-commercialized patents and activeness in patent transactions; (2) for those EU firms that are not interested in licensing or selling patents in the future, most of them are not employing an open innovation model; (3) for those EU firms that are interested in patent licensing/selling to China, IP infringement is still...

  19. A Study on the Issues of Patent Trolls for Technology Companies%科技公司Patent Trolls相关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘溪

    2015-01-01

    Patent Trolls是我国科技公司面临的一个重要问题.文章为科技公司解决以下问题提供参考:(1) Patent Trolls的内涵及运行;(2)防御专利侵权诉讼的时间与成本;(3)应对Patent Trolls的选择——谈判vs.诉讼;(4)谈判战略;(5)益于诉讼的建议.

  20. 基于专利分析的机器人产业技术情报研究%On Robotics Industry Technology Development Trends Based on Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超; 刘琼泽; 仲伟俊

    2012-01-01

      The patent application trend of robotics industry technology, applying countries’ distribution, Japanese and Chinese robotics patent geographical distribution, robot technology patent applicants distribution and the level of university-industry collaboration were ana-lyzed based on patent map, using Derwent Patents Index database as a data source. The research hotspots and trends of robotics industry technology were also revealed through robotic industrial technology IPC analysis, cited frequency analysis and patent citation network anal-ysis.%  以德温特专利索引数据库为数据源,利用专利地图分析了机器人产业技术专利申请趋势、申请国家分布、日本及中国机器人专利地域分布、机器人技术专利申请人分布及产学研合作水平,并通过机器人产业技术IPC分析、被引频次分析及专利引文网络分析揭示了机器人产业技术的研究热点及发展趋势。

  1. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  2. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  3. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  4. A Patent Analysis on Realistic Media for R&D Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Hyun; Yeon, Seung-Jun

    In this paper, we use patent statistics as the recent status of R&D in international patents. The number of patents was used to compare different countries' share in the overall number of technology patents. Using the degree of patent citations, the influence and technological prowess of patents were examined. Also, implications were drawn from an analysis of patent contents for realistic media.

  5. On the Patent Information Retrieval Technology and Its Analysis Content%浅谈专利信息检索技术及分析内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓冉

    2012-01-01

    Patent document is a great intellectual treasure-house, which can reflects the fresh achievement and level of present scientific technology development. Nowadays, the developed countries in the world pay attention to the explore and application of patent docu- ment. With the deepening of intellectual property system in every economic society, the computer retrieval technology of patent document is getting the focus in research of information retrieval fields. This paper introduces the retrieval methods and skills of patent information and describes how to write products patent retrieval report with patent information.%专利文献是一个巨大的知识宝库,它能充分反映出现代科学技术发展的最新成果和水平,当今世界上那些文明的、发达的、强盛的国家无不重视专利文献的开发与利用;随着知识产权制度在经济社会各方面的进一步深化,专利文献的计算机检索技术正成为情报检索领域研究的热点,本文着重介绍了专利信息的检索方法和技巧,就如何利用专利信息撰写产品专利检索报告进行了阐述。

  6. Looking for a new HIT. Sanyo's patents for the HIT technology has expired, and competitors hope for new profits; Suche nach dem neuen HIT. Sanyos Patente fuer die HIT-Technologie sind ausgelaufen, die Konkurrenz frohlockt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunduri, Shravan K.; Haase, Christian

    2010-11-15

    With their hybrid cells, Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. had covered a solar niche market. The HIT technology offers high efficiency at low production cost. Now, however, the most relevant patents of the Japanese producer have expired, and competitors working on similar concepts are out for their chance. For example, Swiss manufacturer Roth and Rau have been taking orders for turnkey hybrid cell production from January 2011. (orig.)

  7. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  8. Research of Patent Layout on Chinese LED Backlighting Technology%中国LED背光技术专利布局现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弘第; 刘娅; 张旭

    2011-01-01

    The paper explored the competition landscape and development trends which are the commanding points of the LED backlighting technology from the perspective of the patent. It chooses the patents from 2003-2008 collected in the DII (Dement Innovations Index) patent database to study the patent layout of Chinas LED backlight technology in accordance with the following aspects: technology composition of the overall industry, countries (regions) and layout of the major technology companies and so on.%从专利的角度探究了液晶电视中的技术制高点—LED背光的竞争格局和发展趋势.选择DII( Derwent Innovations Index)专利数据库中2003~2008年的申请专利,分别从整体产业、国家(地区)、技术构成以及主要公司的技术布局等方面,研究了中国LED背光技术的专利布局情况.

  9. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  10. Axel Honneth's Idea of a Drawn-Out Process of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhela, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Axel Honneth's interpretation of Hegel's "ethical life" as a conception of a "drawn-out" process of education. Honneth's formulations of ethical life, namely "personal relationships", "market economy" and "the democratic will-formation", are an interesting…

  11. 基于技术生命周期的专利组合判别研究%Patent Portfolio Analysis Based on Technology Life Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华; 邓辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on the introduction on the patent portfolio analysis, the paper establishes a model of patent portfolio analysis based on technology life cycle. It carries out an empirical study on HBV pharmaceutical enterprise, uses the logistic model to generate S curves, and draws a constitutional diagram that combined the patent portfolio and the technology life cycle theory together. It can help the organizations to monitor competitors' relative patent position and find out the relative advantages in the technology fields.%对专利组合理论进行介绍,构建基于技术生命周期的专利组合判别模型,并以抗HBV制药企业为实证研究对象,利用Logistic模型生成S曲线进行技术生命周期判断。在此基础上,绘制技术生命周期与专利指标相结合的组合判断图,从而辅助组织监测竞争对手的相对专利地位和认识技术领域的发展优势。

  12. The Latest Development of Patent Technology on Tungsten and Molybdenum Separation%钨钼分离专利技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶波

    2016-01-01

    Many properties of the tungsten and molybdenum are very similar,Extraction separation of tungsten and molybdenum is a technical problem.In order to know the current situation of chi-nese patents in tungsten and molybdenum separation,The patent technology is reviewed in this pa-per.The main methods of the patent technology in the tungsten and molybdenum are precipitation, ion-exchange and solvent extraction at present.The technological scheme of each patent applica-tion was analyzed by category in order to provide preliminary reference to the researchers engaged in the separation of tungsten and molybdenum.%钨、钼的许多性质都极为相似,钨钼分离一直是业界的一个技术难题。对中国钨钼分离技术领域的专利现状进行了综述,按沉淀法、离子交换法、溶剂萃取法的类别对目前钨钼分离专利技术进行了详细分析,以期对从事钨钼分离的研究者进行专利申请时提供参考。

  13. 技术专利保护强度反思--基于技术伦理的视角%Reflections on Technology Patent Protection Intensity:From the Perspective of Technology Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方园

    2014-01-01

    对技术专利实行完全定价,进行强有力的保护,只能导致寡头垄断,阻碍技术的传播与扩散,进而阻碍技术的创新。因此,为了鼓励竞争,从伦理学的角度出发对技术专利保护强度进行初探。应提倡对技术专利进行非完全定价。%Fully pricing for technology patents and strong protection can only lead to monopoly, and thus hindering technology dissemination and diffusion, which further hinders the technology innovation. Therefore, in order to encourage competition, from the perspective of ethics, this article makes a preliminary study of the strength of technogy patent protection. Non-complete pricing should be advocated to the technology patents.

  14. Technology transfer opportunities: patent license: electrochemical technique for introducing and redistributing ionic species into the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinz, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have expanded applications of the Chim electrode, technology used to perform partial geochemical extractions from soils. Recent applications of the the improved electrode technology show that geochemical extraction efficiencies can be improved by 2 orders of magnitude or better to about 30%.

  15. The 'Food Polymer Science' Approach to the Practice of Industrial R&D, Leading to Patent Estates Based on Fundamental Starch Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2016-09-22

    This paper reviews the application of the 'Food Polymer Science' approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology . The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on 'cryostabilization technology' of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of 'solvent retention capacity' technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; e) production of 'baked-not-fried', chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  16. The Role of Technological Rarity and Environmental Uncertainty in Explaining Patent Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Lauto, Giancarlo;

    explore how environmental uncertainty affects innovation value, and whether environmental uncertainty has a moderating effect on the relation between rarity and innovation value. We take as our empirical case hydrocracking, a mature technology widely applied in the oil industry. Innovations...

  17. 基于专利分析的技术预测概念模型%Conceptual Model of Technology Forecast Based on Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韵君; 柳飞红

    2014-01-01

    国内外研究者对技术预测给予了不同的阐释。专利分析作为技术预测的一种有效工具,可以为技术创新提供有力的决策支持。针对特定技术领域的预测,是基于“专利三性”隐含的技术发展方向、技术发展水平和技术发展潜力的特征所作出的判断。因此,可以建立一个基于专利分析的技术预测概念模型。概念模型在纵向层次上分为总预测层、预测综合层、预测分析层和预测信息层。在此基础上,选择和运用相应的专利分析指标和方法,形成一个技术预测的专利分析方法框架,以指导实际的技术预测活动。技术预测的效用可以用技术的发展方向、发展水平和发展潜力这三个变量予以描述。但专利分析也存在局限性,需要与其它方法配合使用。%There are different definitions for technology forecast domestically and abroad. Being an effective tool for technology forecast, patent analysis is very helpful to technological innovation decision-making. Because the forecast in specific technology fields is based on features of technology development direction, level and potential implicated in the “three natures of patent”, so a conceptual model of technology forecast can be built on the basis of patent analysis. The proposed model consists four layers of overall forecast, forecast con-solidated, predictive analysis and forecast information from a longitudinal level. Based on this, corresponding indicators and methods of patent analysis can be chosen and used to build a patent analysis frame for technology forecast to guide the actual activities of technology forecast. The effectiveness of technology forecast can be described with the three variables of development direction, level and potential of technology. And it is suggested that other methods be used together with patent analysis because of its limitations.

  18. Inventions shaping technological trajectories: do existing patent indicators provide a comprehensive picture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Sam; Appio, Francesco Paolo; Looy, van B.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Since Schumpeter’s (The theory of economic development, 1934) seminal work on economic development, innovation is considered as one of the main drivers of firm performance and economic growth. At the same time, technological innovations vary considerably in terms of impact with only a minority of ne

  19. The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-03

    Perhaps most illustrative of the influence of the Bayh-Dole Act on small business is the biotechnology industry . According to Dr. Bernadine Healy...sector.65 The biotechnology industry primarily is composed of small firms that are developing technologies and techniques derived from R&D funded by NIH...important as an economic force in our economy.... ”68 In a report by Battelle for the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), analysts found that

  20. Patent System Innovations of Low-carbon Technology%低碳技术领域专利制度的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐升权

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many international agencies and countries have explored the patent system innovations of low-carbon technology. The fast track to the grant, the information sharing mechanism and the development fund of patent of low carbon technologies are being practiced. In addition, there are many aspects of the patent system can be innovated, for example, the term of protection, the investment regime and the quality control system of the patent of low-carbon technology. To enable it could better protect and encourage the innovation and application of low-carbon technology to meeting the needs of climate change.%近年来,一些国际机构和国家在低碳技术领域对专利制度予以了创新探索,建立并运行了低碳技术专利申请与授权的快速通道、低碳技术专利信息分享机制、低碳技术专利发展基金制度.而除这些已有创新外,专利制度还可以围绕低碳技术专利的保护期、低碳技术专利投资制度体系以及低碳技术专利质量监控制度予以创新,以使其能更好地激励和保障低碳技术的创新与广泛应用,满足应对气候变化的需求.

  1. Strength function sum rules and the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-10-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. I will show that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators; seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-FG02-96ER40985.

  2. Modification of the Brink-Axel Hypothesis for High Temperature Nuclear Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Misch, G Wendell; Brown, B Alex

    2014-01-01

    We present shell model calculations of electron capture strength distributions in A=28 nuclei and computations of the corresponding capture rates in supernova core conditions. We find that in these nuclei the Brink-Axel hypothesis for the distribution of Gamow-Teller strength fails at low and moderate initial excitation energy, but may be a valid tool at high excitation. The redistribution of GT strength at high initial excitation may affect capture rates during collapse. If these trends which we have found in lighter nuclei also apply for the heavier nuclei which provide the principal channels for neutronization during stellar collapse, then there could be two implications for supernova core electron capture physics. First, a modified Brink-Axel hypothesis could be a valid approximation for use in collapse codes. Second, the electron capture strength may be moved down significantly in transition energy, which would likely have the effect of increasing the overall electron capture rate during stellar collapse...

  3. 钙钛矿太阳电池专利技术概述%Overview of patent technology for solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波

    2016-01-01

    钙钛矿太阳电池(Perovskite Solar Cells,PSCs)是由染料敏化太阳能电池演化出来的一种新型太阳能电池.其能够利用有机太阳能电池所采用的溶液法进行制备,极大降低了生产成本,有望成为新能源产业的一项重要技术.本文通过对检索到的国内外关于钙钛矿太阳电池的专利申请文件进行统计和梳理,对钙钛矿太阳电池领域的技术概况、专利申请态势以及专利技术发展趋势作了介绍,并分析了国内重点申请人的重点专利,为未来钙钛矿太阳电池领域的研究和改进提供参考.%Solar Cells Perovskite (PSCs) is a new type of solar cell which has evolved from the dye sensitized solar cell. It can be used in the preparation of organic solar cells,which greatly reduces the cost of production, is expected to become an important technology in the new energy industry. In this paper, after the statistics and analysis of the retrieved at home and abroad on the perovskite solar cell patent application, patent application and patent technology development trend trend of technology survey, on the field of perovskite solar cell are introduced,and the analysis of the key focus of domestic patent applicants, for the future of solar cell research field of perovskite and provide reference for improving.

  4. 深层网技术在专利数据提取中的应用%Using deep Web technology in patent search and download

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小龙; 李晓霞; 郭力

    2011-01-01

    深层网技术是获取隐藏在以表单为特征的网络数据库检索入口后的数据页面的提取技术,解决了通用搜索引擎不能有效索引深层网网页的问题.专利数据是一类重要的深层网数据资源,对其进行提取、挖掘具有重要意义.本文利用深层网技术开发了一个专利检索系统,实现了对中国和美国专利数据的本地检索、提取和下载,以及针对中国专利的法律状态检索.该软件支持专利的批量下载及文件管理,并根据中国和美国专利显示为多个单页TIFF格式图片不利于本地管理和浏览的特点,开发了实用性较强的TIFF格式图片多页合并和通用PDF格式转换功能.该专利检索系统采用面向用户的界面设计和功能开发,具有简单、易用的特点.%The Deep Web refers to the web pages which are buried far down on dynamically generated sites and could not be indexed by standard search engines. Online patent data are very important Deep Web data source of valuable technology information. A patent's software using Deep Web technology to search and download the patent data from Chinese and American government websites is presented here. Multi-file download and file management functions are provided. It can also check the legal status of the Chinese patent. To bring convenience to user in saving and browsing patents at local, this software provides TIFF mergence and PDF conversion capabilities which can merge multiple single-page TIFF format images of Patent into single multiple-page TIFF image and then convert it into PDF format.

  5. 基于专利文献的我国LED背光源技术态势分析%Analysis of Chinese LED Backlight Technology Based on Patent Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波

    2011-01-01

    Using official web site of Chinese patent database and patent information analysis systems, the paper searches, analyzes and summarizes the related patent data of LED backlight technology. Then from the perspectives of application a mount, key patents and patent holders, the paper analyzes the patents of LED backlight technology. Finally, the paper pro vides reference to the R&D and patent composition of LED backlight technology.%利用国家知识产权局网站上发布的中国专利数据库,采用专利信息分析系统,对LED背光源技术领域的相关专利数据进行检索、分析、归纳,从专利申请总量、重点专利技术和专利持有人等方面对LED背光源技术专利进行分析总结,为国内LED背光源产业技术研发和专利布局提供参考.

  6. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  7. 太阳能技术的合作专利分析及对策%Analysis on Patent Cooperation in Chinese Solar Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红艳; 滕飞; 扆铁梅

    2014-01-01

    低碳经济已经成为国际经济发展的新要求,因此,低碳技术开发日益受到世界各国的重视。太阳能技术是一种典型的低碳技术,我国经过10几年的发展,在太阳能领域取得了举世瞩目的成就,但因缺乏核心技术,目前面临着严峻的挑战。由于专利分析能客观地评价技术创新与合作水平,因此,为更好地促进我国太阳能技术的发展,基于专利分析法,对我国太阳能合作专利数据进行了分析。结果表明:我国太阳能技术的跨机构技术联系较少,“产学研”创新体系尚不成熟;政策扶持对于太阳能这种新兴低碳技术有较大的影响力;国内太阳能专利授权的技术领域主要集中在太阳能热利用,而在光伏领域的合作较少;太阳能合作专利存在较大的区域差异,应该进一步加强区域之间的技术合作和技术转移;应该加强国际技术合作。%Solar technology is a typical low-carbon technology. After many years of development, China has made great achievements in solar technology. But China is still confronted with grave challenges due to the lack of core technology. Considering that the technology innovation and cooperation level can be evaluated by patent analysis, this paper, analyzes the data of patent cooperation of solar technology in China based on the method of patent analysis. The conclusions are: there are few technical connection in solar technology among institutions in China, which means the mature innovation system among industry, universities and research institutions has not been established; the policy support has great impact on the emerging low-carbon technologies including solar technology; the patent authorization in solar technology in China mainly concentrates in solar thermal industry with less cooperation in solar photovoltaic industry; regional differences of solar patent cooperation are still obvious, and we should strengthen the

  8. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  9. Comparative Research on Chinese and Foreign Nuclear Power Technology Based on Patents%基于专利的核电技术中外对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄岩; 杨培培; 黄鲁成; 苗红

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] Nuclear energy as an economic and efficient energy for easing the worldˊs energy crisis has many ad-vantages, so it gets more and more attention. Nuclear power generation is a very important application of nuclear energy, the development of nuclear power technology has also caused widespread concern around the world. [ Method/Process] In the study of nuclear power tech-nology it can be divided into patent research and non-patent research, and the patent research on nuclear power technology is few in Chi-na. So this article discusses nuclear power technologyˊs current situation from the perspective of patent and analyses nuclear power technol-ogy from the macro and micro levels, using the patents to find issues in the field of research and development. [ Result/Conclusion] Re-search shows that although the growth rate of patents is increasing in recent years, research of nuclear energy started late, and the number of patents is small, also the exchanges link with research institutions in other countries are less. Finally, concerning the existing problems of the nuclear industry, some suggestions that aim at promoting the development of Chinaˊs nuclear power industry, are given.%[目的/意义]核能作为缓和世界能源危机的一种经济有效的能源有很多优点,因此受到越来越多的关注。核能发电是核能一项很重要的用途,核电技术的发展也受到了世界各国的关注。[方法/过程]对核电技术的研究可以分为专利研究与非专利研究,但国内关于核电技术的专利研究相对较少。从专利的角度来研究核电技术的现状,从宏观和微观两个层面对核电技术进行分析,发现我国该技术领域在研发中存在的问题。[结论/结果]研究表明,尽管我国近年专利增长率不断提高,但是对核电的研究起步较晚,申请专利数量较少,与其他国家的研究机构交流联系较少等问题。最后针对我国核电

  10. Three-Dimensional Printing Technology and Patent Law%3D打印技术发展与专利法回应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍春艳; 焦洪涛

    2014-01-01

    3D打印技术在改变制造业基础设施的配置、原材料的供应链和产品销售模式的同时,也对现行专利法律制度形成了冲击和挑战。在3D打印技术领域,如何在激励创新与防止潜在的非法复制之间实现平衡,廓清合法的“修理”和不合法的“再造”之间的界限以及以“非生产经营目的”的个人打印是否构成侵权等问题亟待专利法律制度的回应。面对3D打印技术带来的机遇与挑战,立法者应重新审视《专利法》的制度基础,在平衡技术革新和其他社会、经济价值的基础上,推动3D打印技术和专利法律制度间的互动演进式发展。%3D printing technology is altering the traditional allocation of manufacturing infrastructure, raw material supply chain and the model of sales activity. It challenges the existing patent law. In the ifeld of 3D printing technology, the patent system is expected to respond to some issues, including how to achieve a balance between the prevention of illegal use and innovation incentive, how to clear the boundaries of legal “repair” and illegal “reconstruction”, how to define “non-commercial purposes”and so on. For new opportunities and challenges raised by 3D printing technology, legislators should re-examine the foundation of the patent system and push the interactional and evolutionary development of 3D printing technology and patent law on the basis of balancing technology innovation and other social and economic value.

  11. "Patent Activity and Technical Change"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Basmann; Michael, McAleer; Daniel, Slottje

    2003-01-01

    As creations of the mind, intellectual property includes industrial property and copyrights. This paper presents an aggregate production function of the generalized Fechner-Thurstone (GFT) form to analyze the impact of an important component of intellectual industrial property, namely patent activity, on technical change in the USA for the period 1947-1981. Patents should alter isoquant maps, and measuring their elasticities is both intuitively and empirically appealing. We define a technolog...

  12. Strength function sum rules and the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Calvin W

    2015-01-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators.

  13. Test of the Brink-Axel hypothesis for the pygmy dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, D; Tamii, A; Aoi, N; Bassauer, S; Bertulani, C A; Carter, J; Donaldson, L; Fujita, H; Fujita, Y; Hashimoto, T; Hatanaka, K; Ito, T; Krugmann, A; Liu, B; Maeda, Y; Miki, K; Neveling, R; Pietralla, N; Poltoratska, I; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Shima, T; Yamamoto, T; Zweidinger, M

    2016-01-01

    The gamma strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) of 1- states in 96Mo have been extracted from a high-resolution study of the (p,p') reaction at 295 MeV and extreme forward angles. The GSF agrees with results of compound nucleus gamma decay experiments in the energy region of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR), validating the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis commonly assumed in astrophysical reaction network calculations. The consistency of the LD deduced from the present data with those of the gamma decay experiments provides independent confirmation of the methods used to separate GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  14. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  15. ANALYSIS OF PATENT STATUS FOR COAL-TO-NATURAL GAS TECHNOLOGY%煤制天然气技术专利状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义玲; 宋晓军

    2011-01-01

    With the search of coal-to-natural gas patents of various countries kept in Databases a study on and analysis of development trend of coal-to-natural gas technology,main competitors and their layout internationally as well as their patent applications in China have been carrying out;meanwhile,the hot spots in R/D in various development phases are analyzed to provide an assistance in IPR in any new development or improvement of coal-to-natural gas technology.%通过对各种专利数据库中世界各国煤制天然气专利的检索,分析研究煤制天然气技术的发展趋势、主要竞争对手、竞争对手国际布局及在中国的专利申请等,同时分析各个发展时期的研发热点,以期对煤制天然气技术新的开发或改进提供知识产权帮助。

  16. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  17. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  18. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC! : AXEL-2003  -  Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    AXEL-2003 is a course given at CERN within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will present an introduction to particle accelerators. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the "PS Shutdown Course"), and organised by the ex-PS division until last year, it is now organised as a joint venture between the AB division and Technical Training, and open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2003 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to all people (technicians, engineers, physicists) interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course and the course supports will be in English, with questions and answers also in French. Lectures will be recorded and available online via the Web Lectu...

  19. The analysis of international patents in flow cell technology%液流电池技术国际专利态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿海妮; 马廷灿; 戴炜轶; 李莉华; 赵三姗

    2016-01-01

    液流电池技术作为一种大规模高效电化学储能技术,具备寿命长、安全可靠等突出优势。本工作以液流电池技术为研究对象,通过对液流电池技术相关专利的分析,揭示该技术领域研发和专利申请活动的特点,为我国在这一具有战略重要性的储能技术领域中的研发和产业化提供知识产权情报支撑。在调研液流电池技术研发概况的基础上,利用Derwent Innovations Index(DII)数据库检索液流电池相关专利信息,并使用TDA、Innography等分析工具,从专利申请数量的年度变化趋势、技术研发主题、主要竞争国家/地区、主要专利申请人等方面,对全球液流电池技术的整体专利态势进行了分析。结果发现,日本在该技术领域处于全球领先地位,近年来全球液流电池的专利申请数量呈现爆发式增长,并开始走向商业化应用。%Flow batteries are used mainly for large-scale energy storage, which have a great number of outstanding advantages, including long lifespan and high safe reliability. In order to reveal the development features of this technology and provide intellectual property strategy support for our country, we study the international patents in flow cell technology. The patent information in this article is gathered from the Derwent Innovation Index (DII). By using the method of literature investigation, we summarize the overview of the flow cell technology development. Then we analyze the trend of the patent application number, the layout of the technology, the situation of patent applications on flow cell in the main countries or regions, and the significant patentees by using the analysis tools—TDA and innography. As a result, we find that Japan takes the lead in this sector, and the dramatic rise in patent application number recently shows the gradually mature of flow cell technology.

  20. 奇虎360科技有限公司专利管理地图分析%Analysis of Patent Management Map of Qihoo 360 Technology Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏书慧

    2014-01-01

    专利战略对于企业取得经济利益、获取竞争优势有着重要作用。本文运用专利管理地图分析方法,对奇虎360科技有限公司的专利类型、专利年代趋势、技术领域构成、主要发明人和主要竞争对手进行了分析:奇虎科技专利申请以发明专利为主,专利申请质量较高;主要集中在电学和物理两大技术领域;奇虎360发明人研发实力较强,其专利技术生命周期正处在由发展期向成熟期转变阶段。在互联网安全专利竞争领域,奇虎科技相对直接竞争对手占较大优势。文章最后对未来360专利战略的专利申请数量质量、专利人力资源管理、专利竞争对手监控、以及应对专利侵权纠纷方面提出相关建议。%Patent strategies plays an important role for enterprises to obtain economic benefits and competitive advantage. By the method of patent management map, this paper analyzes the type and era trend of the patent, composition of technical field, the main inventor and the main competitors of Qihoo 360 Technology Co., Ltd.. Patent application of Qihoo technology is mainly the invention of the patent, which is in high quality and mainly in the electrical and physical technology field; Qihoo 360 inventors have a strong development strength, its patent technology life cycle are in a changing stage from development period to maturity. In the field of Internet security of patent competition, Qihoo has a great advantage against other competitors. Finally, suggestions about the quantity and quality of the patent, human resource management of the patent, competitor monitoring as well as infringement disputes of the patent strategy of 360 in the future are propose.

  1. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent “Thicket”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    and entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved......It has been proposed that difficulties in negotiating cross-licenses under multiple, independently-owned and ”overlapping” patents may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter development of technology covered by such patents. The literature alleges these features were present in radio development...... during 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, we re-examine the legal trajectories...

  2. "Natürlich kann man Geld als Medium begreifen…" - Interview mit Axel Stockburger von Ruth Sonderegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Stockburger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Sonderegger hat für die MEDIENIMPULSE Axel Stockburger interviewt, der an der Wiener Akademie der bildenden Künste im Bereich "Kunst und digitale Medien" arbeitet. Gibt es angesichts der post-medialen Kondition noch eine Medienkunst? Und wie sieht es mit dem Kunst-Wert im Kapitalismus aus?

  3. 环境核辐射监测重点技术专利分析与思考%Patent Analysis and Measurement for Major Technology in Monitoring System of Environmental Nuclear Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷爱梅; 王海军; 张建国

    2014-01-01

    应用专利分析软件对国家专利局七国两组织数据库及欧洲专利局数据库中的环境核辐射监测系统进行检索,在出入口控制、区域环境控制、流出物监测等技术方面进行了专利分布和技术特点分析,就今后我国环境核辐射监测系统在上述技术领域的专利战略构建提出了初步的建议。%This article researched on related patents literature on the major technology in monitoring system of the environmental nuclear radiation by applying patent analysis software in the database of National patent of -fices and seven countries and two organizations and the European Patent Office .Analyses the patent distribution of quantity and technology , and gave some recommendations on the future of the intellectual property of the ma -jor technology in the monitoring system of the environmental nuclear radiation ,including entrance control ,Re-gional environmental control ,effluent monitoring .

  4. Analysis of globle patents on controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology%全球控轧控冷技术专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琴琴; 蒋玲; 马广程

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the global patents on controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology applied before 2013,and revealed the technical progress,the patent layout,the development and evolution,the development situation at home and abroad, the advantages and gap between competitions etc.It could provide information support to build research and development direction,explore the competitors,establish strategic alliance decisions for enterprises and research institutions.%对2013年前申请的控轧控冷技术领域全球专利文献进行分析研究,揭示了自该技术开发以来的技术进步、专利布局、发展演化、国内外发展状况、竞争对手之间的优势及差距等,以期为企业和科研机构建立研究发展方向、发掘竞争对手、建立战略联盟决策提供信息支持。

  5. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  6. Are There Enduring Patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  7. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  8. Contribuições de Axel Honneth aos debates da teoria crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Costa Lerbach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende apresentar alguns dos debates e propostas teóricas que caracterizam a tradição sociológica conhecida como Teoria Crítica. Para tanto, aborda o pensamento de Max Horkheimer e de Theodor Adorno, ambos ligados à sua origem; as críticas e proposições realizadas por Jürgen Habermas; e, em seguida, as elaboradas por seu sucessor, Axel Honneth. Por fim, traremos as formulações deste último autor no livro “Luta por reconhecimento: a gramática moral dos conflitos sociais”, o qual aborda elementos importantes para a compreensão dos movimentos sociais no século XXI. E, como buscaremos argumentar, mantém vivos, de maneira atualizada, os propósitos presentes na origem da Teoria Crítica.   Abstract: This article aims to present some of the debates and theoretical proposals that characterize the sociological tradition known as Critical Theory. Therefore, it approaches Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno’s thought, both related to its origin; the critics and propositions made by Jürgen Habermas; and, subsequently, those elaborated by his successor, Axel Honneth. Finally, we are going to handle on this last author’s formulations in the book “The struggle for recognition: the moral grammar of social conflicts”, which approaches important elements for social movements’ comprehension in the XXI century. And, as we’ll try to argue, they keep alive, in an upgraded way, the purposes from Critical Theory’s origin. Resumen: Este artículo presenta algunos de los debates y posiciones teóricas que caracterizan la tradición sociológica conocida como Teoría Crítica. Por lo tanto, explora el pensamiento de Max Horkheimer y Theodor Adorno, ambos vinculados a su origen; las críticas y las propuestas realizadas por Jürgen Habermas; y, después,  las elaboradas por su sucesor, Axel Honneth. Por último, traeremos las formulaciones de este último autor en el libro “La lucha por el reconocimiento: la gram

  9. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  10. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  11. Measurement Analysis on RFID Technology Patent of Internet of Things Based on the Data of RFID Technology Patent in China from 1985 to 2011%物联网RFID技术专利计量分析——基于1985年至2011年中国RFID技术发明专利数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫; 叶春霞; 徐小品; 黎浩宏

    2012-01-01

    Based on China and foreign country' s patent database of CNIPR, the paper made a contrast analysis of China RFID technology patent' s main applicant countries and regions in the respect of technical development trend, technical structure, hot fields, r.iain research institutions and multi - field connection. With revealing the present situation of RFID technology industry, the competition and development trend, it can be a reference for technological innovation and development strategy of China RFID technology.%以CNIPR中外专利数据库为数据源,从技术发展趋势、技术结构、热点领域、主要研究机构、多领域联系等方面,对我国RFID技术专利主要申请国或地区进行对比分析,揭示我国RFID技术领域产业现状、竞争格局和发展趋势,为我国RFID技术领域的技术创新与制订发展战略提供参考.

  12. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  13. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  14. Study on Patent Portfolio Strategy and Its Impact on Technological Innovation Performance%专利组合策略及其对技术创新绩效的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 蒋振宇; 孙合林

    2015-01-01

    In the era of knowledge economy, enterprises manifest a strong motivation towards patent portfolios. Based on the context of patent fragmentization and patent thicket, this paper firstly dissects the features of patent portfolio strategies in terms of patent property, business scale and product flow, and then discusses the tactics’ impact on technological innovation performance from the perspective of pa-tent property according to existing theories, thus points out new orientations for further studies and provides modern corporations with theo-retical guidance concerning how to optimize the strategies of patent portfolio and enhance the capacity and performance of technological in-novation.%在知识经济时代,企业拥有强烈的专利组合动机。基于专利碎片化、专利“丛林”的发展背景,本文从专利属性、公司规模、产品流程三个视角剖析了企业专利组合策略及其特征,并结合现有研究探讨了基于专利属性的组合策略对企业技术创新绩效的影响,为深化该领域的学术研究提供了建议,同时也为我国企业优化专利组合、提升技术创新能力和绩效提供了理论指导。

  15. Bibliography of US patents on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.L.; Bergles, A.E.; Junkhan, G.H.

    1983-12-01

    Patents are an important source of information on the potential commercialization of augmented heat transfer technology. This report presents a bibliography of US patents pertinent to that technology. The total number of patents cited is 454. They are presented in three separate lists: by patent number, alphabetically by first inventor, and by augmentation technique (with secondary arrangement according to mode of heat transfer).

  16. Axel Honneth leitor de Lukács: reificação e reconhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we intend to discuss central aspects of the concept reification conceived by Georg Lukács in his book “History and Class Consciousness”. Our aim, however, is to show the interpretation that Axel Honneth proposes as an actualization of that concept through an attempt to overcome the subject-object epistemological tradition in favor of an intersubjectivity theory. We intent to show how Honneth's reading of reification tries to give it a contemporary formulation taking his own theory of recognition as basis. Postulating social theory and ontological problems, this understanding about the reification has implications to his own intellectual trajectory, as well as to the thinking of critical theory in the context of contemporary society.

  17. Literature Review on University Patent Technology Transfer Organization%大学专利技术转移组织研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小丽

    2014-01-01

    This article conducted a systematic literature review about the function,operation mechanism,performance fac-tors,and external policies of university patent technology transfer organization,and made prospects for the future research in order to provide meaningful information for construction of China’s TTO.%对大学专利技术转移组织的功能、运营机制、绩效影响因素及外部政策的现有研究成果进行系统述评,并在此基础上提出“制度-资源-能力”协同的 TTO 发展模型,以期为我国大学专利技术转移组织的构建提供参考。

  18. A compared R&D-based and patent-based cross impact analysis for identifying relationships between technologies

    OpenAIRE

    D. THORLEUCHTER; D. VAN DEN POEL; A. PRINZIE; 1958-

    2010-01-01

    The planning of technological research and development (R&D) is demanding in areas with many relationships between technologies. To support decision makers of a government organization with R&D planning in these areas, a methodology to make the technology impact more transparent is introduced. The method shows current technology impact and impact trends from the R&D of an organization's competitors and compares these to the technology impact and impact trends from the organization's own R&D. ...

  19. 基于专利计量的中国家电产业技术追赶研究%Research on the Technological Catching Up of China's Household Appliance Industry through the Perspective of Patent Bibliometrics Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锦铖; 张越; 余江

    2016-01-01

    后发国家产业技术创新能力的提升可以有效推动技术追赶进程,论文从专利计量的视角深入剖析了全球化背景下中国家电产业技术追赶的机制。通过对中国和日本代表性白色家电企业专利数量及质量的分析发现:日本家电企业的专利数量近年基本维持稳定,中国家电企业的专利数量快速增长,并超越了日本家电企业;整体上中国家电企业重点布局成熟技术,日本家电企业则更加注重产业前沿性技术的研发。对于专利质量的一系列评价指标表明,中国家电企业日趋注重研发水平的提升,专利质量快速上升,与国外领先企业的差距不断缩小。%This paper analyzes the technological catching up of China's household appliance industry from the per-spective of patent bibliometrics. By examining the patent quantity and quality of China's and Japan's white goods Appliance Company, we find the patent quantity of Japan's household appliance company remains stable in recent years. However, the patent quantity of China's household appliance company grows fast and exceeds Japan's. Chi-na's household appliance company mainly layout on fundamental technology heavily, while the Japan's company pay more attention on the R&D of the cutting-edge technology. Through the evaluation of patent quality index, we find the patents from Japan's companies have better quality and are appliedearlier than China's patents. Howe-ver, since the beginning of 21st century, China's household appliance companies have pay more attention on R&D. The patent quality of China's companies' quality are raised rapidly and the quality gap between China's and Japan's patent are narrowed continuously.

  20. Patenting Marketing Methods: A Missing Topic in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1998 landmark case that validated the patenting of business methods as intellectual property, a plethora of patents has emerged. Patents for marketing-related processes have been particularly abundant, especially when new marketing processes are tied to a technology component. A review of the marketing literature and textbooks shows an…

  1. 77 FR 64315 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Provisional Patent...

  2. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  3. Mapping (USPTO) patent data using overlays to Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2012-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and the quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology anal

  4. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  5. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  6. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  7. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Anil V. Parwani; Suryanarayana Vepa; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United State...

  8. 基于专利分析的替代性技术识别研究%Identification of Alternative Technology Based on Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄岩; 张赏; 黄鲁成; 苗红

    2014-01-01

    The identification of alternative technologies is the basis for technology strategy choice of enterprise. Currently, the research on alternative technologies is mostly confined to qualitative studies and lacks an exact quantitative method, much less uses the method of pa-tent analysis. After summarizing the characteristics of alternative technologies, this paper presents the identification framework from two aspects:core feature and similarity. It uses an integrated approach combining of text mining, co-occurrence of manual code and use&ad-vantage matrix to identify the alternative technologies progressively. The empirical research on baseband chip technology proves the feasi-bility of the suggested approach.%替代性技术识别是企业进行技术战略选择的基础。目前,对替代性技术识别的研究多集中于定性分析,很少采用定量方法,利用专利文献与技术的关联关系进行替代性技术识别的研究少之更少。笔者在总结了替代性技术特征的基础上,构建了替代性技术识别方法框架,从核心性和相似性两个视角,综合利用文本挖掘、德温特手工代码共现、应用功效矩阵等方法逐层递进式识别替代性技术。以基带芯片技术为研究对象,进行实际论证,验证了该方法的可行性。

  9. A patent strategy for genomic and research tool patents: are there any differences between the USA, Europe and Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Ihnen J

    2000-12-01

    The patenting of genomics and research tools, and its effects on the development of therapeutics are attracting considerable attention. Regardless of whether one is in favor of patents for this technology, it is not specifically excluded from patenting in most countries. Accordingly, it is imperative that a suitable global patent strategy be developed and followed to maximize both intellectual property rights and returns on R&D investment.

  10. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that...... of development. This interpretation restores the credibility of Kitch's prospect theory of patent function and emphasises that the administration of the patent institution should be designed to support the prospect function of patents.......Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  11. The Patent License Payoffs with Technology Standards in Communication Industry%通信产业技术标准中专利许可的收益研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明

    2012-01-01

    通信产业技术标准中专利许可包含标准化组织、专利许可人、专利被许可人三个核心主体。短期中,在技术标准下进行专利许可总能够提高专利许可人的收益,而被许可人是否采用技术标准受到专利许可费的直接影响,但整个产业的总收益总是增加的。长期中,专利许可费递减能够降低各公司的成本,延长各公司收益的时间,提高技术标准的稳定性。因此,通信公司应当积极实施“专利标准化”战略,而标准化组织在制定技术标准时应当设定合理的专利许可费用。%There are three main parts in the topic, which are standard organization, patent licenser and patent li- censee. In short term, the patent licenser will always benefit from the patent license under technology standard. The patent licensee's payoff depends on the royalties. The payoff of the whole industry will always be increased. In long term, the decrease of royalties will lower the costs of every company, which will extend the period of benefit. Therefore, communication companies should participate in the technology standards with their patents. The standard organization should set reasonable royalties.

  12. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001560.htm Patent ductus arteriosus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus ...

  13. Have Chinese firms learned from their prior technology in-licensing? An analysis based on patent citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise of Chinese economy, now ranking as the second largest economy in the world in 2010, many Chinese firms have started taking technological lead in the global market. Nevertheless, whether Chinese firms have learned from their prior inlicensing technologies and accumulated...

  14. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio......It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re...

  15. A Comparative Study of Linkage Indexes: Co-assignee, Reciprocal Citation, Patent Coupling and Co-patent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-chia Scarlett Lo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Four indexes including co-assignees, reciprocal citation, patent coupling and co-patent were examined in this study to reveal the meanings of the correlations generated via different citation linkages. This study includes 6,274 genetic engineering patents, and 16 primary assignees identified by Bradford model analysis as the base for correlation analysis. The results show that there are four cluster types, including technological affiliated, technological competitor correlated, commercial collaborated and technological isolated.

  16. Patent Database : A Methodology of Information Retrieval From PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patent document holds wealth of information in itself. A brief detail of Indian patent applicationinformation is published as eighteen month publication by Indian patent Office, in electronic gazetteweekly. To date, a proper database of Indian patents specifically for research determination has not beenavailable, making it complicated for researcher to use this data for measuring any kind of researchactivities in terms of patents in India. To facilitate this, we constructed a comprehensive patent databasewhich incorporates the information presented in the electronic gazette. This database includes informationsuch as technology class, applicant, inventor, country of origin etc., of the patent submitted. We present themethodology for the creation of this database, its basic features along with its accuracy and reliability inthis research paper. Patent based database has been developed and can be used for various innovationresearches and activities.

  17. 48 CFR 970.5227-11 - Patent rights-management and operating contracts, for-profit contractor, non-technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transfer (DEC 2000) (a) Definitions. (1) DOE licensing regulations means the Department of Energy patent... patent waiver regulations at 10 CFR part 784. (3) Invention means any invention or discovery which is or... seq.). (4) Made when used in relation to any invention means the conception or first actual...

  18. Science and Technology Output Indicators in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Case Study on the Relevance between Patents and Scientific Products of Iranian Inventors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alaee Arani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The output of scientific products represents the efforts of scientific and industrial communities. The study on this output shows scientific attitudes and approaches of a community towards world of science. Quantitative studies can give a representation of the size and extent of the scientific efforts of researchers in special occasions, or a particular society. Patents are one of these important outputs. In this study, the names of Iranian inventors were extracted by carrying a combined search and the analysis of patent data available through Europe Patent Office (EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO, Japan Patent Office (JPO, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO databases. Inventors amount of scientific products were also evaluated by using citation indexes in Thompson Reuters (formerly ISI Web of Science. Content analysis research method was adopted. Results of this study reported no significant correlation was found between scientific output and patent application. Findings also indicated a 6.5 percent contribution of patent researcher in comparison with non-patent researchers of Iranian indexed articles by Web of Science.

  19. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  20. Patent Portfolio Analysis Application in the Enterprises Technology Competitiveness Evaluation:A Case Study Based on Hydrogen Storage Technology%专利组合分析在评价企业技术竞争力中的应用--以储氢技术为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相丽; 谭宗颖

    2013-01-01

    This article first introduces the theory, analysis model and function of the patent portfolio. Then, based on Professor Holger Ernst’s patent portfolio method, it uses patent relative technological advantage to define the strength of enterprises. Using attractive tech-nology, the patent relative position and relative technology strength as three indicators, we draw a patent portfolio chart. The revised indi-cators are applied in the patent portfolio at the technological level to assess company’s technologies in field of hydrogen storage. The re-sults show patent portfolio is an effective tool in enterprise’s technology competitiveness evaluation.%  首先介绍了专利组合的基本思路与分析模型,以及专利组合分析的相关功能。然后对Holger Ernst 教授的专利组合方法进行部分修正,利用专利相对技术优势来界定各研究公司的技术强度,以各公司主流技术的技术吸引力、专利相对位置和技术强度为指标,绘制专利组合图,并对储氢技术领域的重要企业进行实证分析,表明了专利组合分析是评价企业竞争力的有效方法。

  1. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  2. 从专利角度看丁基橡胶生产技术的发展趋势%Developmental Trend in Butyl Rubber Technology from the Patent Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查芷琦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the global patent information of butyl rubber(lIR) is collected and analyzed. The results show that the technical R & D activities in this field have continued to be strengthened, and the patent protection network has largely been formed already. The I1R technology markets are mainly located in the countries where IIR plants are established, and the product markets are mainly located in Asia. These regions are the pivots in the patent layout of the production technology and applied technology. In recent years, the R & D hot points and patent protection focal points mainly lie in functional modification technology and the catalytic system. The foreign and transnational companies have evident advantages in the patent technologies. Exxon Company and Lanxess Company are the key monopolist in the HR technology, and they have many features in the R & D, patent strategy and tactic aspects.%专利文献记载了技术发展的最新成果,是开展相关领域技术发展态势分析的重要根据.对丁基橡胶全球专利信息进行了收集与分析,结果表明,该领域技术研发活动持续增强,专利保护网已基本形成,丁基橡胶技术市场主要在建有丁基橡胶装置的国家,产品市场主要在亚洲,这些地区分别是生产技术和应用技术专利布局的重点;近年研发热点和专利保护重点主要是功能化改性技术和催化体系;国外跨国公司专利技术优势明显,埃克森和朗盛公司是丁基橡胶技术的主要垄断者,他们在研发、专利战略和策略方面各有特点,值得中国企业借鉴.

  3. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  4. Patent Mapping of Technology Competition among Fortune 500 Enterprises Based on Global Patent Co-citation Analysis%基于全域专利共被引的世界500强企业技术竞争的专利地图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤文; 丁堃; 张曦

    2011-01-01

    Patent citations are generally used to provide support for specific statements of technology competition,when patentometrics has become one kind of main method to analyze competitive technical intelligence for companies. In this paper, the authors choose Fortune 500 enterprises, released in 2009 , as research objects. Using patent data ( 2000 ~2009 ) from Derwent Innovation Index , employing full network methods in social network analysis, the authors construct the global patent co-citation matrix of Fortune 500 companies based on the patent forward citation, and conduct patent mapping analysis using information visualization technology and social network analysis method, including clustering distribution,Kernel density, and co-citation network analysis, to study the technology clusters, technology competition structure of Fortune 500, and to find the pivotal enterprises in the technology competition network.%专利文献的引用行为表达的是技术之间的竞争关系,专利计量方法已经成为企业技术竞争情报研究的一种主要手段.本文选择杂志(Fortune)2009年评选的世界500强企业作为研究对象,利用数据库中2000~2009年的专利数据,基于社会网络分析中全网络方法的思想,从专利的前向引用分析角度构造企业的全域专利共被引矩阵,然后运用信息可视化技术和社会网络分析方法对世界500强企业进行技术竞争的专利地图分析,包括聚类分布、Kernel插值分布、共被引网络分析,研究500强企业的技术群聚类、技术竞争结构,挖掘技术竞争网络中的关键企业.

  5. SUBJECTION AND RECOGNIZABILITY: AGAINST RECOGNITION’S INNOCENCE IN AXEL HONNETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Gorriti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical reading of Axel Honneth’s work “Recognition as ideology” (2006, built upon Judith Butler’s theory of subjection. It attempts to show that because of not considering here enough the dimension of power, the German thinker does not confront successfully the stances that question recognition’s critical potential. This work suggests that such an absence is linked to Honneth’s definition of recognition as being the opposite of practices of domination or subordination. However, Honneth affirms that these skeptical stances are based on the idea that every recognitional praxis reproduces in some way the dominating social order. This article offers then, a critical look upon this idea, warning that an analysis about the way power works on daily recognition practices does not necessarily entail a resignation of the critical function of recognition. More likely, as the Butlerian (and Foucauldian notion of critique suggests, only by framing recognition in the normative horizon that defines it, it can become the basis of social inquiry.

  6. Årets gang i ord og sang, med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lise Charlotte Sanders; Lefmann, Else

    "Årets gang i ord og sang med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla" henvender sig til de 5-8 årige i skole, hjem eller daginstitution - og består af: En illustreret bog med: 14 historier, der følger en familie, bestående af far, mor og tre børn. Gennem et helt år, måned for måned, hører vi om deres liv......, deres oplevelser, glæder og skuffelser. 14 sange, der ligeledes følger familiens liv gennem årstidernes skiften. Til sangene er der såvel noder som becifringer En CD Her er sangene først fuldt arrangeret med musik, børne- og voksenstemmer. Dernæst kommer musikken alene, således at Cd'en også kan bruges...... som akkompagnement, når man synger sangene. Materialet kan bruges på mange måder: Rent pædagogisk kan det bruges til at lære om årets gang og månedernes navne og rækkefølge Som en oplagt mulighed for at lære nye børnevenlige årstids sange i forskellige genre Som samtalestof med gode...

  7. The concept of social domination in axel Honneth’s critical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reconstruct the concept of social domination articulated in the early works of Axel Honneth, a key figure of the ‘third generation’ of critical theory. The author argues that one of the key ambitions of the early Honneth, expressed through his critique of Jurgen Habermas, was to theorize the process of societal reproduction in contemporary capitalism in ‘action-theoretic’ terms, i.e. as determined by the inter-group dynamics of social conflict and domination, as opposed to Habermas’ systems-theoretic approach. The author analyzes Honneth’s criticism of Habermas developed in ‘The Critique of Power’, and focuses more narrowly on Honneth’s conceptualization of social domination outlined in the early article ‘Moral Conscioussness and Class Domination’. The analysis grounds the author’s subsequent reconstruction of the early Honneth’s conception of social domination as a two-dimensional phenomenon that encompasses an ‘intentional’ and a ‘structural’ dimension. Turning towards Honneth’s mature perspective, the author argues that a critique of social domination no longer occupies a central place in Honneth’s influential theory of recognition. Finally, the author considers Honneth’s only recent attempt at theorizing domination presented in the article ‘Recognition as Ideology’, and argues that Honneth has so far missed the opportunity to integrate the early social-theoretical perspective on domination into his mature theoretical system.

  8. Humour and the locus of control in The Gruffalo (Julia Donaldson & Axel Scheffler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van der Westhuizen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is firstly to distinguish between the notions “external locus of control” and “internal locus of control”, secondly to indicate ways in which the locus of control in humour in “The Gruffalo” by Julia Donaldson and Axel Scheffler can be identified and thirdly to indicate possible ways in which emphasis on the internal locus of control in the young reader can assist him/her in the development of a general mental/- psychological well-being. Different kinds of literary humour contribute to the ways in which young listeners/readers can identify with stories, poems, dramas and films. The young listener/reader can recognise him/herself in humorous situations, in the humorous use of imagery, wordplay and illustrations/visuals. He/she can also identify with or distance him-/herself from or reject the characters, the values represented and the author who created the text. When in interaction with the works of authors who use negative as well as positive kinds of humour to point out the dos and don’ts, the rights and the wrongs in life, the horizon of a young listener’s/reader’s experience can be expanded. Such a reading would contribute to the development of the young reader’s cognitive, emotional, social and moral values as it links up with an unconscious or conscious decision about the locus of control in his/her life.

  9. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  10. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  11. Study based on Wave EnergyConverter Technology Patent Analysis%基于波能发电装置技术专利分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾涛; 何雨馨

    2015-01-01

    波能发电是当今新能源开发利用的重要方式之一,通过对波能发电装置国内外专利申请的情况进行分析统计,对国内外波能发电装置的技术发展路线和发展趋势进行梳理,分析我国波能发电与国外的技术差距,为我国波能发电装置的发展提供参考.%Electricity generated from wave energy is becoming an important wayof new energy exploitation, the pa-per tries to find out the technical route and developing trend of wave energy converter by analyzingthe data of therelevant patent application both in Chinaand abroad, analyzes the technology gapon wave energy electricity gen-eration with foreign countries, providing reference for the development of domestic wave energy converter.

  12. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  13. 谈中药技术在国际专利分类法中的分布%Distribution of Traditional Chinese Drug Technology in the International Patent Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 施毅

    2012-01-01

    International Patent Classification (IPC) is a management and classification method of patent documents used internationally. The IPC is consisted of 8 sections, including inventions about knowledge in all areas. The classification system is arranged in a descending hierarchical structure. Traditional Chinese drug patents should be classified by the source of drugs, therapeutic activity, chemical composition, pharmaceutical technology, usage, and etc. There are many IPC sections, among which the traditional Chinese drug patents are distributed. The technology subject is about medicine, health care, chemistry, food, drink, food additives, and etc. The "Sec- tion A-Human Necessities" - "Health; life-Saving; Amusement" - "A61 -Medical or Veterinary Science; Hygiene" and "Section C - Chemistry; Metallurgy" are main classifications, which contain large number of patents on traditional Chinese drug.%国际专利分类法(IPC)是目前国际通用的一种管理和分类专利文献的方法.内容设置包括与发明创造有关的全部知识领域,共分8个部,分类体系是由高至低依次排列的等级式结构.中药相关专利主要可依据药物的来源、治疗活性、化学成分、制剂工艺和用途等进行分类,主要分布于IPC分类的“A部:人类生活必需”中的医学、保健部分和“C部:化学;冶金”中的化学部分,以及食品、饮料和食品添加剂等相关的IPC类下.

  14. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology analysis, innovation studies and evolutionary economics, as well as economic geography. The resulting maps can also be relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management, because the US market...

  15. Study on Technology Innovation Diffusion Dynamic Impact on China's Sports Shoes Patent Technology Life Cycle%技术创新扩散动力对技术生命周期的影响--以我国运动鞋专利技术为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明宇; 司虎克

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data source of the People's Republic of China Intellectual Property Office and the European Patent Office on Chi-nese and foreign enterprises' sports shoes patent application since 2003-2012, applying the power of technology innovation diffusion dy-namic principle, and through factor analysis of the technology life cycle and descriptive statistics, the authors research on the relationship between power of technology innovation diffusion and patent technology life cycle of sports shoes in China. The results show that:Inde-pendent research and development ability is insufficient in China's sports shoes production enterprises;Patent alliance and R &D team of high performance has not been formed, leading to the power shortage of patent in China sports technology innovation diffusion. The for-mation of the invention patents in China sports shoes is too small, the utility model patent and appearance design patent is overmuch. Sports shoes patent technology life cycle is short in China.%以2003-2012年在中华人民共和国知识产权局申请的运动鞋专利申请、欧洲专利局部分国外企业运动鞋专利申请为数据来源。运用技术创新扩散动力基本原理、技术生命周期的系数分析、描述性统计,对技术创新扩散动力与我国运动鞋专利技术生命周期的关系进行研究。结论认为:我国运动鞋生产企业自主研发能力不足,对现有技术的消化吸收及第二次创新的能力较弱;专利研发联盟及高绩效研发团队尚未构成,导致了我国运动专利研发中技术创新扩散动力不足,形成了我国运动鞋专利研发中发明专利过少,实用型新和外观设计专利过多,运动鞋专利研发的技术生命周期较短。

  16. 生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术国外相关专利分析%Analysis of Bio-aerosol Warfare Agent Detection and Identification Technology Based on Foreign Patent Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 王运斗

    2012-01-01

    Patent information is the latest achievement of scientific research program which can reflect the last orientation of technology. This paper chooses SOOPAT as the patent data source, studies retrieval patent data, then obtains the current situation of bio - aerosol detection and identification technology, key areas and trends. Next, the article proposes reflections on the domestic development of biological warfare agents aerosol detect technology. The results have significant guidance for the development of related biological detectors.%专利信息作为科研活动的最新成果,能反映技术的最新动态.选择SOOPAT作为专利数据检索源,通过对检索到的专利数据进行分析研究,得出生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术现状、关键领域和发展趋势,然后对国内发展生物战剂气溶胶侦检技术提出几点思考.研究结果对于指导相关生物侦检装备的发展具有一定的指导意义.

  17. Patentes domésticas: avaliando estatísticas internacionais para localizar o caso brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Domestic patents statistics are a rich source of information about the technological situation of developing countries. Nevertheless, they are scarcely used in economic debates. This paper introduces arguments for the study of domestic patents, especially for the study of domestic patents of developing countries. The statistical meaning of domestic patent statistics is discussed. The differences between domestic and USPTO patents are highlighted. Statistical exercises with a 46 countries samp...

  18. Disrecognition, moral progress and “second order disorders”: on Axel Honneth’s new theory of recognition = Desreconhecimento, progresso moral e “desordens de segunda ordem”: sobre a nova teoria do reconhecimento de Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Luiz Gustavo da Cunha de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition as it has been exposed in his more recent book, Das Recht der Freiheit. Throughout the paper his attempts to describe injustices within modern capitalist societies using the notions of pathologies and anomie will be analyzed and criticized, especially from the viewpoint of their inability to deal with processes and contexts of disrecognition (Aberkennung. With help of this category, Honneth’s diagnosis regarding the moral progress in modern societies, as well as his notion of second order disorders, as injustices will be confronted and, hopefully, complemented

  19. A Study of Japanese New-energy Vehicle Technology Development Trend Based on the Patent Analysis%基于专利分析的日本新能源汽车技术发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞德良; 刘兆国

    2014-01-01

    Starting with the new-energy vehicle patents application, this study uses the transnational patents analysis method to assess the Japanese new-energy vehicle technology level. Then, the characteristics of the Japanese automotive company's new-energy vehicle tech-nology patents application, technology development direction and enterprise technology portfolio are further analyzed, with much emphasis being given to the trend of the technology route and the impacts of industrial policies designed by government. This study suggests that:Ja-pan keeps ahead of other countries in the development of new-energy vehicle technology; the technology route of Japanese new-energy vehicle industry is clear;the industry is developing on the path decided in government's plan in a orderly way under the national industrial policies and other market cultivation policies.%从新能源汽车技术专利申请入手,利用跨国专利比较方法对日本新能源技术的国际水平进行比较分析。在此基础上,对日本汽车企业新能源技术专利申请的阶段性特点、技术发展方向以及企业技术组合进行进一步探讨,重点分析其技术路线的变化方向以及国家产业政策的影响。研究表明,日本新能源汽车技术处于世界领先水平,在国家产业政策以及其他市场培育措施的促进下,新能源汽车产业按国家产业规划目标有序发展。

  20. Research Progress in Domestic Modified Starch-Based on Literature Analysis of Patent Technology%国内变性淀粉研究进展-基于专利技术的文献学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童丹; 韩黎明

    2015-01-01

    相对于原淀粉,变性淀粉具有更广泛的用途和更多的应用领域。为了解国内变性淀粉专利技术的现状,以“中国专利数据库(知网版)”为数据源,用文献计量学方法,对1986~2014年有关变性淀粉的专利进行统计分析,结果表明,1986年,中国第一个变性淀粉专利申请;企业是申请变性淀粉专利技术最多的单位;变性淀粉应用最多的学科领域是化学和有机化工。%Modified starch has a wider range of use and application fields compared with native starch. In order to know about the present situation of patent technology of domestic modified starch, modified starch patents were analyzed ranging from 1986 to 2014 using the method of metrology, taking"Chinese patent database (known network edition)"as the data source. The results showed that the first Chinese modified starch patent was applied in 1986, companies were the most applicants for patent of modified starch, and modified starch was used mainly in the field of chemistry and organic chemical industry.

  1. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  2. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re......-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory....

  3. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart problem ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal ...

  4. 基于专利数据的工程蝇生物堆肥技术发展趋势分析%Development Trend Analysis of Bio-composting Technology of Engineering lfy Based on Patent Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小文; 龙海飞; 牛丛丛

    2016-01-01

    Based on the patent of SIPO patents index inbio-composting technology during 1985-2016and the methods of quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, statistics are conducted for globalpatentdistribution,patenttechnical structure,applicant,inventor. we analyse the competitors,experts,market distribution and research he development status of International,domestic and Guizhou Province. We propose some patent strategy recommendations of technology research and industrializationof bio-compostingof Engineering fly for Guizhou province.%文章以中国国家知识产权局全领域专利检索系统收录的1985-2016年工程蝇生物堆肥技术相关专利作为数据源。利用定量定性的分析方法对该领域的全球专利市场布局、专利技术构成、申请人、发明人等进行统计,分析出该技术领域的竞争对手、行业专家及市场布局,从而研究工程蝇生物堆肥技术国际、国内及贵州发展情况,提出了贵州开展工程蝇生物堆肥技术研究及产业化的专利战略建议。

  5. A new model for gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  6. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    chosen a different approach to integrate in patent law similar policy considerations. Observing how this issue was debated and solved differently is in itself important, but it also allows questioning whether in future patent reforms serious consideration should not be given to alternative solutions....

  7. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  8. 科技型中小企业专利行为分析--上海、慕尼黑四家中小企业案例比较研究%An Analysis of Shanghai's Scientific and Technological SMEs' Patent Behavior:A Case Study of Four SMEs from Shanghai and Munich

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玮

    2013-01-01

    This research consists of four case studies on the patent behavior of different technological SMEs from Shanghai and Munich. Part of Shanghai’s SMEs’ patent behavior is driven by the strategic motivation. However, the expensive patent fees and limited internal resources are the main obstacle of the patent behavior. The dissertation puts forward suggestions on technological SMEs’ patent policies which focus on the patent fee sponsorship and personnel guidance, in order to solve the contradiction between technological SMEs’ patent strategy demand and the resources shortage.%  对上海、慕尼黑四家科技型中小企业专利行为进行案例研究,发现上海市部分科技型中小企业的专利行为受战略驱动,但专利费用高昂及有限的内部资源阻碍了企业的专利行为。建议向我国科技型中小企业提供专利战略服务支撑,并将专利费用资助与人员指导相结合,以解决我国科技型中小企业专利战略需求增加与资源缺乏之间的突出矛盾。

  9. Drugmakers struggle with Indian patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continue their legal battles for intellectual property protection for their drugs in India after the country's patent office revoked Pfizer's local patent for Sutent (sunitinib malate).

  10. 我国纤维素乙醇生产技术的专利研究近况%Study and Patent Analysis of the Cellulosic Ethanol Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志瑞; 张忠营; 张全; 李微

    2016-01-01

    木质纤维素是地球上现存量最大的生物质资源,利用该类原料生产燃料乙醇是木质纤维素类生物质工业化的一个重要方向。选取纤维素乙醇生产工艺中的原料预处理、水解糖化、乙醇发酵,以及废水处理等关键技术点,利用专利文献的检索与分析方法,介绍了不同关键技术点的专利研究近况,旨在全面了解纤维素乙醇生产技术国内发展现状,从而为该项技术的研究方向和产业发展提供一定的专利参考信息。%Lignocellulose is the largest biomass resource on the earth, and using lignocellulose to produce fuel ethanol is an important direction of the industrialization of this biomass. In this paper, taking material pre-treatment, saccharification, alcohol fermentation, wastewater treatment and other key technical points in the process of cellulosic ethanol production as research objectives, in order to comprehensively understand the current development status and development trend of the cellulosic ethanol production technology, the global patent technology distribution and domestic patent technology status of the cellulosic ethanol production technology were studied by using retrieval analysis method of patent documents, important reference information was provided for the technology research and industrial development.

  11. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  12. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  13. Taiwan's Information Security Policy Enhancement: an Analysis of Patent Indicators and Patent Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Wen; Liang-Shiuan, Jr.; Chen, Yi-Chang

    2007-12-01

    Information security policy in Taiwan stems the gap between expectation and reality. For this, the paper presents an analysis of patent indicators and patent document attempt to conclude the overview of the information security technology development. The paper also identifies the leading countries and cutting-edge areas with potential trends. Finally, several practicable and valuable strategies after this work are generalized to achieve the goals of Taiwan information security policy.

  14. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  15. Patent Technology Competitor Group Analysis Method Based on IPC%基于专利IPC分类号的技术竞争对象的群组分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红旗; 付媛; 朱礼军

    2015-01-01

    技术竞争对象群组是产业技术内的技术研发实体因为技术上接近而形成的集群。发现技术竞争对象群组,可以从较高层次上掌握产业技术领域内的竞争态势,给产业技术参与者和政策制定者提供有价值的情报信息。首先概述了主要的群组分析方法,然后引入了可视化的LinLog图形聚类分析方法,从研发机构、省份和国家三个层面,提出了以IPC分类号为特征的技术竞争对象群组的识别流程模型。采集了燃料电池技术领域的专利数据作为实验研究,对数据进行了预处理,采取提出的方法对该领域的竞争对象群组进行了识别,验证了该方法的有效性。%It is crucial to understand the technical groups of intra-industry and to master the competition in the field of technology. In order to provide valuable information to industry participants and policymakers, the Patent technology competitor group analysis method based on IPC is introduced. Firstly, the analysis method of groups is summarized. The recognition model of technological competitor groups characterized by the IPC classification number and the technical terms is put forward. Then, obtain patent data for this research in the field of fuel cell technology through multi-threaded Chinese patent data acquisition system. Finally, invoking LinLog visualization tools to do graphical clustering for research and development institutions, provinces and countries and the patent technology competitor analysis method is validated.

  16. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Guangyuan, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@mail.shufe.edu.cn, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@shufe.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, School of Public Economics and Administration (China); Liu, Weishu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Antai College of Economics and Management (China)

    2015-12-15

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  17. Patents - An Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    cacher, ii existe dana certaines entreprises des sortes de concurrence entre lea services de propri~t6 industrielle at ceux de documentation h...spizialistea A telle ou telle entreprise . -Lea statiatiques: dont on commence b saisir l’intir~t, at qui sont devenues plus fiables avec lea ddlais...you to look at your patent office as a public organisation which in general is financed fully or to a large extend by those who file patent

  18. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR... territories, possessions and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S....

  19. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  20. 脲醛缓释肥料的发展现状及专利技术%Present Development Situation for Slowly Releasing Fertilizer of Urea Formaldehyde and Patent Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2012-01-01

    Author has briefly described the present development situation for slowly releasing fertilizer of urea formaldehyde ; has introduced the patent technology for producing the slowly releasing fertilizer of urea formaldehyde ; has clarified the productive method for slowly releasing fertilizer of urea formaldehyde.%简述了脲醛缓释肥料的发展现状;介绍了生产脲醛缓释肥料的专利技术;阐明了脲醛缓释肥料的生产方法。

  1. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Justus Baron; Tim Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical investigation of the effectiveness of...

  2. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  3. 基于专利地图的农业机器人技术发展态势研究%Studies on the Development Status of Agricultural Robot Related Technologies Based on Patent Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌凯; 林志坚; 应向伟; 仇秋飞; 吴巧玲; 赵云飞; 吴叶青

    2016-01-01

    农业机器人是农机产业的重要潜在发展方向,可提升农机企业核心竞争力、驱动科技创新及促进农业生产效率提升。为此,针对农业机器人技术绘制专利地图,从发展趋势、重点技术领域、地域分布、竞争机构及高引专利等方面开展态势研究,以为相关政府部门、企业和高校院所进一步发展农业机器人产业和技术提供情报支撑。研究结果表明:农业机器人技术真正的发展阶段出现在1993年以后,总体呈现出快速增长,而且这一趋势延续至今。机械手的末端执行器、自动导航及目标探测与定位是该领域的重点研发技术,而收获机器人、田间作业机器人、植保机器人是该领域的重点研发种类。我国近年来对于农业机器人技术的研发热情高涨,申请有大量相关专利,但专利质量相对美国和日本较低,核心专利缺失,技术水平还有待进一步提高。此外,还从政府、企业和产业园区3个层面提出了我国进一步发展农业机器人技术的对策建议。%Agricultural robot is an important potential development direction for agricultural machinery industry, which can improve the core competitiveness of relevant companies, drive technological innovations and promote the increase of agricultural production efficiency.In this article, based on the patent map of agricultural robot related technologies, the development status is investigated from five aspects, including development trend, key technology fields, regional distri-bution, rival agencies and highly cited patents, to provide intelligence support for further development of agricultural ro-bot industry and technologies by related government, companies, universities and research institutes.Research results in-dicate that agricultural robot related technologies began a rapid development around 1995 and up to now.End effector of manipulator, automatic guidance and target

  4. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    ; the rest of the patent application, etc.. Description of the invention The description of the invention aims to provide sufficient technical data and to further clarify and describe all the details of the invention for which protection is sought in the claims. The description should enable the average expert in the specific field of technology to perform  or to conduct a  procedure on the application and determine whether it meets the requirements for patentability. The description contains the following units: title of the invention; technology field; technical problem; state of technology; brief summary of the invention; a brief description of the figures of the draft; detailed invention description and the methods of industrial and other applications of the invention. The claims The claims are the most important part of the patent application and all other elements of the patent application are in a function of patent claims. The claims must define the invention solely by its technical characteristics. They are submitted on a separate sheet after the description of the invention under the title "The claims". Depending  on the protection sought, one or more claims can be placed. Abstract The abstract contains the title of the invention and a brief summary of the invention as shown in the description, the requirements and the draft. A brief review must indicate the technical field to which the invention relates and must allow a clear understanding of the technical problem, the essence of the problem and the basic way (ways of using the invention. The abstract contains a maximum of 150 words. Draft of the invention A draft of the invention is submitted on separate sheets, along with the title of the invention on each side. The reference signs given in the description, requirements and the draft must be the same throughout the application. Other documents with the patent application In addition to the above mentioned sections of the patent application, the following

  5. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  6. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... No. 6,384,953: Micro-Dynamic Optical Device.//U.S. Patent No. 6,433,465: Energy- Harvesting Device... September 4, 2013. ADDRESSES: Written objections are to be filed with the Office of Research and Technology... Technology Applications, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, Code 72120, 53560 Hull St, Bldg...

  7. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a technique to use patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps that indicate both the quantity and quality of patents granted at the city level. The resulting maps are relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management because the US market can be considered as the leading market for patenting and patent competition. Quantitative data is made available by the mapping routines for more detailed statistical analysis, and the non-parametric statistics for significance testing are specified. The new mapping approach is explored for the cases of the emerging technologies of "RNA interference" and "nanotechnology" as specific examples. Perspectives for further developments of this technique (other databases and network analysis of co-inventions) are specified.

  8. The Patent Analysis Based on DII Data of Wifi Technology of Smartphone%基于 DII 检索数据的智能手机Wifi 技术专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕蔓; 王昊; 杨慧波

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data retrieved from Derwent Innovation Index and limited by theme as well as IP class number, this paper presents an all-scale patent analysis of wifi technology of smartphone by retrieving, classifying and analyzing the patents registered with SIPO and other IPOs. Qualitative and quantitative methods are also employed in this paper so as to show an overview of the developing trends, ad-vancing process, key labs, and hotspot technicians and so on in the field of wifi technology of smartphone.%  以 Derwent Innovation Index 为数据源,通过主题和 IP 分类号为限定条件,检索全球范围内关于智能手机wifi 技术的相关专利,并对结果进行归类、整理,结合定性和定量的分析方法,从而得出该技术的发展趋势、技术路线、技术领先者、发展热点等信息。

  9. 国防专利技术转移信息不对称及对策研究%Causes and Countermeasures of Information Asymmetry in Defense Patent Technology Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武剑; 郑绍钰

    2016-01-01

    转移主体双方信息不对称是制约国防专利技术向民用领域转移的主要障碍.在分析国防专利技术转移信息不对称表现的基础上,剖析其背后的原因,并从转移相配套的解密机制、信息平台业务拓展以及审批与评价机制的建立完善等方面针对性地提出解决对策.%The information asymmetry of transfer of both entities poses a major restriction for the transfer of national defense patented technology to civil applications.Based on the analysis on the in-formation asymmetry of main entities of national defense patented technology transfer,the paper ana-lyzes the reasons behind and brings out countermeasures of transfer of corresponding decryption mechanism,expansion of information platform business and the establishment and completion of ap-proval and evaluation mechanism.

  10. AUTOMATIC PATENT DOCUMFNT SUMMARIZATION FOR COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Charles V.TRAPPEY; Chun-Yi WU

    2009-01-01

    Engineering and research teams often develop new products and technologies by referring to inventions described in patent databases. Efficient patent analysis builds R&D knowledge, reduces new product development time, increases market success, and reduces potential patent infringement. Thus, it is beneficial to automatically and systematically extract information from patent documents in order to improve knowledge sharing and collaboration among R&D team members. In this research, patents are summarized using a combined ontology based and TF-IDF concept clustering approach. The ontology captures the general knowledge and core meaning of patents in a given domain. Then, the proposed methodology extracts, clusters, and integrates the content of a patent to derive a summary and a cluster tree diagram of key terms. Patents from the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes B25C, B25D, B25F (categories for power hand tools) and B24B, C09G and H011 (categories for chemical mechanical polishing) are used as case studies to evaluate the compression ratio, retention ratio, and classification accuracy of the summarization results. The evaluation uses statistics to represent the summary generation and its compression ratio, the ontology based keyword extraction retention ratio, and the summary classification accuracy. The results show that the ontology based approach yields about the same compression ratio as previous non-ontology based research but yields on average an 11% improvement for the retention ratio and a 14% improvement for classification accuracy.

  11. 基于专利耦合的企业间技术相似性可视化研究%Visualization of technological similarity analysis for enterprises based on patent coupling approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪勇; 李英敏

    2013-01-01

    The technological similarity among enterprises is an important content of enterprises' technological intelligence analysis.Approach and process for technological similarity analysis for enterprises based on patent coupling is raised,in order to supply enterprises with effective decision-making information and help enterprises to search for technology competitive and cooperative objects worldwide.First,this paper compares some relate approaches in previous studies and points out that patent coupling analysis is a more accurate and real-time approach for reflecting technological similarity among enterprises.Secondly,the paper improves the method for calculating the coupling strength of the paired enterprises based on elaborating the principles of patent coupling analysis,in order to effectively distinguish the difference of coupling strength among several coupling pairs.Thirdly,the paper constructs a visualization and application process framework for analyzing technological similarity among enterprises,through applying correlation analysis and multiple -dimension scaling based on the coupling data.Finally,this paper reveals the technological similarity among the primary organizations in the field of flat panel display,it further demonstrates the visual analysis and application process of enterprises' technological similarity analysis based on patent coupling and can provide a guide for enterprises' technology intelligence analysis.%企业间技术相似性是企业技术情报分析的重要内容.为了给企业在全球范围内寻求技术竞争与合作对象提供有效的决策信息支持,提出基于专利耦合的企业间技术相似性分析方法与流程.首先,综合比较了目前理论研究中的相关方法,指出专利耦合分析能较为准确、实时地体现出企业间的技术相似性.然后,在阐释专利耦合分析基本原理的基础上,对企业间专利耦合强度的计算方法进行改进,以便有效区分多对耦合对象之

  12. 美欧中贝特类药物技术分析及预测--基于授权专利分析%Technological Analysis and Forecasting of Fibrates between America, Europe and China-Based on Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小文; 张秀婷; 胡豪; 王一涛

    2014-01-01

    To identify core technologies of fibrates and forecast their future development, this article made a contrastive analysis of the drug and technological types of fibrates between America, Europe and China through a view of authorized patent. As a result, most of the patents are about pharmaceutical preparation of fenofibrate and drug combination of fibrates. Few amount of patent for new monomers and derivatives emerged as well. Pharmaceuticals companies and scientific research institutions in China should follow the international drug de-velopment and market change. The preparation of fenofibrate which can enhance bioavailability and reduce side effect should be paid more attention to, as well as the combination of fibrate and other drugs. Meanwhile, local firms in China should keep making their own innova-tions, take advantage ofr current patents for fibrate carboxylate.%为明确当前贝特类药物的核心技术,并对其未来技术发展方向做出预测,运用专利分析法,从贝特授权专利的药物类型与技术类型分布角度,进行美欧中三个地域的贝特授权专利对比分析。结果显示贝特类药物专利以非诺贝特制剂专利及贝特类药物与其他药物合用专利为核心,亦有少量新型贝特单体或衍生物专利出现。我国制药企业及科研机构应及时了解国际药物研发及市场变化,准确把握贝特类药物的核心技术方向,将研发关注点投入在能够提高生物利用度、降低毒副作用的非诺贝特新剂型以及苯氧酸衍生物与其他的药物联用上面。同时,企业应重视利用当前的新技术,并且在仿制的基础上提出自己的创新,利用好当前的专利优势。

  13. Patenting humans: clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2005-01-01

    The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current conflict over the moral status of the early human embryo. In this essay, recent evidence from embryological studies is considered and the unbroken continuity of organismal development initiated at fertilization is asserted as clear and reasonable grounds for moral standing. Within this frame of analysis, it is proposed that through a technique of Altered Nuclear Transfer, non-organismal entities might be created from which embryonic stem cells could be morally procured. Criteria for patenting of such non-organismal entities are considered.

  14. 国际移动支付领域专利技术态势研究%The Research on the Patent Technology Situations of International Mobile Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 袁顺波; 苏保朵

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, over three thousand patent records on the mobile payment from DII were analyzed through the self-made pro-grams, TDA and Citespace in terms of quantitative measurement and visualization analysis. The results show that the most important cited patent documents are mainly from developed countries, nowadays the patent outputs of South Korea are plenty and the Samsung Electronics Company owns high patent productivity and strong international influence in the field of mobile payment. The mobile payment architec-ture, plan and agreement the electronic funds transferring and the payment by handheld devices are the main research areas, but the new re-search areas on the servers, user permissions/password system and mobile ecommerce are worth focusing on. China is developing rapidly in recent years, but China faces some problems on how to support research strength, improve the level of research and expand the interna-tional market.%利用自编程序、TDA、Citespace等工具,对来自德温特数据库中的3535条关于移动支付方面的专利文献记录进行了定量计量和可视化分析。研究表明,在移动支付领域,较重要的被引专利主要来自发达国家,但近年来韩国实力强劲,三星电子公司更是具有较强的专利生产能力和国际影响力;移动支付体系结构、方案、协议以及利用手持设备进行支付及电子资金转移等方面的专利文献较多,但有关服务器、用户权限/口令系统、移动商务等领域的专利研究,还需要引起各国的重点关注;我国在移动支付领域发展迅速,但还面临如何扶持研究力量、提高研究水平、扩大国际市场竞争力等问题。

  15. Patent Information Analysis on Low Temperature Multi-effect Seawater Desalination Technology%低温多效海水淡化技术专利信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁明

    2013-01-01

      采用专利公开数据对低温多效海水淡化技术的专利情况进行全面检索,在多效蒸馏海水淡化技术领域,专利分布较宽,基本涵盖了蒸发器、压缩机、换热器等关键设备的结构、海水淡化工艺系统、预处理系统、设备防腐剂、装置控制方法等各个海水淡化过程。日本、法国、以色列等国家研究起步较早,近年来该技术在我国快速发展,我国目前已成为该技术领域专利(申请)量最多的国家。%Low temperature multi-effect seawater desalination technology is researched entirely through public data. The technological development in this field is welled handled in view of fully understood. Patents distributes widely in multi-effect distillation for seawater desalination technology. Basically, it covers construction of evaporimeter, structure of compressor, formation of heat exchanger, and other key devices and construction. And it also covers each seawater desalination process, like seawater desalination system, pre-treatment system, equipment anticorrosion, auxiliaries and device control methods. Japan, France, Israel and other countries research early. In recently years, the technology develops rapidly at home, and China becomes a nation which has the largest number of patent application in this field at present.

  16. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  17. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  18. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    while certainly critical to the commercialization of patentable innovations, is not explored herein. Fifth, this research only considers laws and...conclusions and recommendations. 33 Lieutenant General Robert Brown, “The Human Dimension” ( Speech ...must be likely that an Army activity will use the invention, as evaluated by the Army activity, or the invention has commercial potential as judged

  19. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  20. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  1. 一种古建筑屋面保温节能结构专利技术的推广与标准应用%Promotion and application to an ancient building roof insulation energy-saving structure of patent technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪志军; 倪明; 陈波; 叶鹏

    2014-01-01

    专利的开创性和重大工程价值往往体现在于成功地解决了在工程实践中以前无法解决的关键性技术难题,在技术研究上投入大,并不一定收益就大,为推动专利技术成果的社会效益和经济效益的最大化,推动了行业技术进步,让已有专利技术成果更好地服务于社会,有必要将专利技术成果转化为行业规范标准的内容,使行业规范标准成为专利技术成果的最优载体,实现标准与专利两个不同体系的完美结合。%Patent groundbreaking and important engineering value often lies in successfully solved the key technical problems in the engineering practice of previously unsolvable,in the research of technology investment, does not necessarily yield is high ,in order to promote the patent technology to maximize the social benefit and economic benefit,to promote the technical progress of the industry,Let the existing patent technology to provide better service to the society,It is necessary to patent technology achieve-ments into the industry standards for content ,The industry standards become the best carrier of patent technology, Combination of standard and patent of two different system perfect.

  2. Trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar de saúde como um espaço de reconhecimento: contribuições da teoria de Axel Honneth Interdisciplinary health care teamwork as a space of recognition: contributions of Axel Honneth's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teórico tem como objetivo relacionar uma discussão sobre o trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar nos serviços públicos de saúde com os principais conceitos do filósofo contemporâneo Axel Honneth, dentre eles aquele que denominou Luta por Reconhecimento. Para tanto, partimos da revisão da noção de sujeito na teoria honnethiana, sobretudo a partir do diálogo que faz com a psicanálise de Donald Winnicott. Destacamos que se trata de um sujeito eminentemente social, cuja constituição depende do reconhecimento do outro em relação a sua alteridade e da legitimação do seu pertencimento a um grupo social. Mostramos que esse reconhecimento se dá através de um processo de luta, essencial para o desenvolvimento da capacidade de amar e se relacionar com o outro. Em seguida, defendemos que o trabalho em equipes interdisciplinares pode ser um espaço para o reconhecimento dos profissionais, tal como discutido por Honneth. Consequentemente, as equipes podem facilitar o desenvolvimento de trabalhos criativos e inovações na organização da assistência oferecida aos pacientes.This theoretical study aims to correlate the discussion about interdisciplinary teamwork in public health institutions with the key concepts of contemporary philosopher Axel Honneth with regards to what he called the Struggle for Recognition. We start by revising the notion of subject in Honneth's theory, especially based on his dialogue with Donald Winnicott's psychoanalysis. We highlight that this subject is eminently social; its constitution depends on the recognition of others regarding its otherness and the legitimacy of its belonging to a social group. Next, we show that this recognition occurs through a process of struggle, which is essential for developing the capacity to love and to relate to others. We then argue that the work in interdisciplinary teams can be configured as a potent space for the recognition of professionals, as discussed by

  3. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...); (5) Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-- Definition of Technological Invention...--Definition of Technological Invention, 77 FR 7095 (Feb. 10, 2012). This final rule revises the rules of... definition for technological invention for covered business method patent review proceedings. The...

  4. Handbook of technology law. General funamentals, environment law, genetic engineering act, energy act, telecommunication act and media act, patent act, computer act. 2. ed.; Handbuch des Technikrechts. Allgemeine Grundlagen Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Martin; Schroeder, Rainer (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2011-07-01

    On the boundaries between technology sciences, jurisprudence, social sciences and economic science the technology law proves as a cross-sectional area par excellence. The bases of the technology law are presented: individual, particularly important scopes of the technology law (appliance safety regulations, technology law and environment law, genetic engineering act, energy right, telecommunications law and media law, patent law, computer law, data security, legally binding telecooperation) are analyzed in detail. The manual contacts all lawyers who want to provide a first in-depth insight of this new field of law. [German] Im Grenzbereich von Technik-, Rechts-, Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften erweist sich das Technikrecht als Querschnittsmaterie par excellence. Die Grundlagen des Technikrechts werden dargestellt; einzelne, besonders wichtige Bereiche des Technikrechts (Geraetesicherheitsrecht, Technik und Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht, Datensicherheit, Rechtsverbindliche Telekooperation) werden eingehend analysiert. Das Handbuch wendet sich an alle in Wissenschaft und Praxis mit dem Technikrecht befassten Juristen, die sich einen ersten vertieften Einblick in dieses neue Rechtsgebiet verschaffen wollen. (orig.)

  5. Development of patent technology for brushless doubly fed motor%无刷双馈电机专利技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖超

    2015-01-01

    近年来,作为可再生能源的风力发电受到了全球范围的广泛关注,人们越来越重视适用于风力发电的新型电机,无刷双馈电机以其简单的结构,高可靠性,具有异步和同步电机两种电机的综合特点,通过控制激磁绕组的电压和频率易于实现变速恒压恒频发电,是一种适合风力发电运行环境的新型电机。本文主要以DWPI、SIPOABS专利数据库以及CNTXT数据库中的检索结果为分析样本,从专利文献的视角对无刷双馈电机的发展进行了全面的统计分析,总结了与无刷双馈电机相关的国内和国外专利的申请趋势、主要申请人分布以及其转子结构的发展路线做了一定的分析,并从中得到一定的规律。%In recent years,wind power as the renewable energy by widespread concern in the global scope, people pay more and more attention to applicable to wind power as a new kind of motor, brushless doubly fed machine with its simple structure,high reliability,with the comprehensive characteristic of asynchronous and synchronous motor,two kinds of motor,by controlling the voltage and frequency of the excitation winding is easy to realize the variable speed constant frequency and constant voltage power,is a suitable for wind power generation operating environment as a new kind of motor.This paper mainly to DWPI,SIPOABS patent database and CNTXT database retrieval results for the analysis of the sample,from the patent literature from the perspective of the development of brushless doubly fed machine were comprehensive statistical analysis,summarized and brushless doubly fed machine related domestic and foreign patent application trend, mainly distributed in the applicant and the rotor structure of the development route do some analysis, and the obtained certain rules.

  6. Patent monopoly : protecting your ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.B. [Bennett Jones LLB, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A form of intellectual property, patents can be bought and sold, thereby having a lot of financial value. The petroleum industry is a sector very involved with patent protection. At some time, it is expected that most technical companies will be involved in obtaining patent protection or busy defending themselves against a patent suit. In this paper, the author focussed on the procedure to obtain patent protection. Progressing from the basic facts concerning patents, the author then briefly described the necessary steps in the procedure. The author began by distinguishing the three major intellectual properties of use in the petroleum industry, namely patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Words, symbols or designs, including the various combinations of those, which distinguish the services of one company from those of another, are considered trademarks. Creative works, on the other hand, are protected under copyrights from being copied without permission. Inventions are protected by patents. What should be known about inventions was the focus of the next section in the presentation, followed by a section entitled: seeking patent protection: the first steps. The filing of the formal patent applications was discussed, then the emphasis was placed on after filing: the examination. The issued patent, which can be enforced against competitors, was the very last section in the presentation.

  7. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  8. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  9. The Management of Overlapping Vacuum Tube Pioneer Patents in the Development of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and over-lapping patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on the overlapping patents on vacuum tube technology, of Fleming’s diode and De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how...

  10. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS: a review of patents 1906–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Grasso, Yoshio Sakka and Giovanni Maizza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020 who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents, the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents. A subset of 119 (out of 642 ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS. The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  12. Reconstrução normativa em Axel Honneth e os múltiplos justos do mercado de trabalho = Normative reconstruction in Axel Honneth and the multiple fair and just of the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfield, Cinara Lerrer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem por objetivo analisar as contribuições de Axel Honneth para o atual debate das teorias da justiça, entre as quais a principal é a busca de princípios normativos encrustados na realidade social. Em sua obra O direito da liberdade, o autor indica a liberdade como o grande valor moderno. O medium da justiça seria uma liberdade de tipo social a qual estaria expressa nas instituições vinculadas às relações pessoais, ao mercado e ao universo político. Considerando a lacuna entre os princípios normativos de justiça indicados pelo autor e a realidade social este artigo propõe colocar em discussão as potencialidades e limites da própria reconstrução normativa como instrumento de análise do social, pautando especificamente o mercado de trabalho, a fim de colaborar à discussão das possibilidades de articular a norma compartilhada e a emergência de valores em vias de institucionalização

  13. 基于专利引文网络的技术轨道识别研究——以太阳能光伏电池板领域为例%Research on identification of technological evolution path based on patent citation network —— taking solar photovoltaic panels technology as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中楷; 刘佳

    2011-01-01

    Using patents and patent citation network to identify technological evolution path. Elaborate the principle of technological evolution path identification, form the algorithm of technological evolution path identification and provide the feasibility of technological evolution path identification as well as its visualization. Identify and map the technological evolution path combining the solar photovoltaic panel data, elaborate main nodes and explore technology evolution history as well as future trends to provide some decision -making reference strategy on the development of related industries in China.%利用专利及其引文网络进行技术轨道识别研究。阐述技术轨道识别的原理,形成技术轨道识别的算法,从理论上提供技术轨道识别及其可视化的可行性。结合太阳能光伏电池板数据,识别并绘制出技术轨道图谱,对主要节点进行重点阐述,探寻技术沿革的历史脉络和未来趋势,对我国相关领域的发展战略提供决策参考。

  14. First Joint U.S.-Canada Polar Expedition for Educators, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada: Planetary Analogue Research and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, M.; Pollard, W. H.; McKay, C. M.; Coe, L.; Steinberg, M.; Clement, J.

    2008-12-01

    From July 20 to August 2, 2008, joint activities sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA - Space Learning) and NASA (Spaceward Bound) were carried out at the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) in the Canadian High Arctic. Established in 1960, MARS consists of two sites located on western Axel Heiberg Island along the shore of Expedition Fiord (lower camp), and 8 km inland, at Colour Lake (upper camp). The MARS upper camp is one of the longest-operating seasonal field research facilities in polar regions. The lower camp was established in 2007 through infrastructure support provided by the CSA. The station is located in a mountainous area dominated by ice caps, outlet and valley glaciers, polar desert, arctic tundra, and permafrost, and is internationally recognized for research on cold, perennial springs associated with the presence of evaporite domes. Six educators from the U.S. and Canada participated in field surveys and hands-on demonstrations with the following objectives: (1) join a team of scientists and engineers to explore the topics of Physical Geography, Geoscience, Astrobiology, and Robotics through experiential learning; (2) discover how remote and extreme polar environments on Earth are used by planetary scientists to better understand the evolution of the Moon and Mars, and to potentially train future planetary explorers; (3) bring that experience back to their classrooms, and assist in the development of space curriculum related to science, technology, and engineering projects carried out at planetary analogue sites. In this paper, we present a summary of operational planning and field surveys that led to successful scientific experiments by 16 participants during the Expedition. Research topics explored prior to, and during the arctic mission include Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Geology, Seismology, Earth Observation, Astrobiology, and Terrain Characterization with implications for future human and robotic exploration missions to the

  15. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  16. Quality and quantity: Can we have both within the European patent system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Scrutiny of patent systems is never far away. The European Patent Office has long faced rising levels of 'inventive activity'. Fast, fluid technologies and strategic firm behavior add to the difficulties faced in trying to reward inventions with commensurate rights. Analysis suggests stronger...... patent protection does not necessarily equate with more innovation and greater diffusion of knowledge; nor do more patents lead to or reflect more innovation. This article focuses on improving the fundamental workings of the European system as is stands, and proposes a focus on quality and patent...

  17. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  18. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    are closely related with rules about EU competition law, and policy initiatives regarding science and innovation. For these reasons, the policy options put forward are varied in scope and in method, and aim at tackling specific areas of concern. The policy options put forward by the Working Group...... quality aspects in regard to patentability standards and patent grant procedures; Dealing with emerging technologies; Increasing access to patented inventions; Facilitating defensive publications. The Working Group strongly urges careful consideration of these policy options, one by one and as a group...

  19. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866......, although the internet platforms and CAD files repositories will play a major role in the development and spreading of the 3DP technology, they will likely to be at the center of major law disputes unless they carefully consider the scope of their activities (host and/or customize and/or print) in light...

  20. 第六次科技革命的“核心专利争夺”已悄然展开——2001年以来第六次科技革命的十种前兆%Core Patent Competition of Sixth Scientific and Technological Revolution:10 Omens of Sixth Scientific And technological Revolution since 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何传启

    2012-01-01

    2001年以来,关于第六次科技革命的十种前兆涉及自然人、网络人、仿生人和再生人等多个领域.而第六次科技革命的核心专利争夺,主要涉及信息转换器技术、人格信息包技术、仿生技术、创生技术、再生技术等.%There are about 10 omens of the sixth scientific and technological revolution in the fields on the natural, networked, bionic and regenerated person since 2001. The core patent champion of sixth revolution of science and technology has appeared in the fields of Information Exchange Machine, Information Packet of Personality, Bionic Technology, Bio-Creation Technology, Bio-Regeneration Technology, etc.

  1. Research Progress on Patented Technology of Xnthan Gum Based Hydrogels%黄原胶水凝胶的专利技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光新; 王岩; 蔡培培; 张红城

    2015-01-01

    黄原胶水凝胶具有亲水性强、无毒、可降解及生物相容性好等优点,常作超吸水性树脂、药物载体和微胶囊。黄原胶水凝胶的制备方法成为了国内研究者的主要研究对象。以时间为主线,结合国内外对该产品的专利申请,梳理黄原胶水凝胶制备方法的发展脉络,并对其在人工肌肉、微机械以及仿生器材发展做了展望。%Xanthan gum based hydrogels have fine performance of hydrophilicity, nontoxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibilit, which can be used for superabsorbant resin, medicine carrier and microcapsules.The method technique of xanthan gum based hydrogels was the main object of study of domestic researchers.According to time, the preparation techniques of xanthan gum based hydrogels was reviewed by combining with domestic and foreign patent applications, and the future of their applications on artificial muscles, micro-machinery and bionic equipment was also forecasted.

  2. IPAT: a freely accessible software tool for analyzing multiple patent documents with inbuilt landscape visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Dara; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Patent Analysis Tool (IPAT) is an online data retrieval tool, operated based on text mining algorithm to extract specific patent information in a predetermined pattern into an Excel sheet. The software is designed and developed to retrieve and analyze technology information from multiple patent documents and generate various patent landscape graphs and charts. The software is C# coded in visual studio 2010, which extracts the publicly available patent information from the web pages like Google Patent and simultaneously study the various technology trends based on user-defined parameters. In other words, IPAT combined with the manual categorization will act as an excellent technology assessment tool in competitive intelligence and due diligence for predicting the future R&D forecast.

  3. An Analysis of High-speed Railway Technology Competition Based on Patent Information%基于专利数据的全球高速铁路技术竞争态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鲁成; 高姗; 吴菲菲; 苗红

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the technology competition of the global high-speed railway, this paper conducts an all-round scanning of the countries, organizations and technological fields based on patent information by analyzing the general situation and specif-ics. The analysis results show that China has become a powerful competitor in high-speed railway technology;however it has less core pa-tents, many R&D institutions with weaker competitive strength, and gets involved in the core areas of R&D hotspots less compared to the established countries such as Japan, France and Germany. Therefore, this study is attempting to provide reference for government policy-making, researchers R&D direction-setting and investors decision-making, on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the technology competition of the global high-speed railway.%利用专利数据对全球高速铁路技术的国家、机构、技术领域进行全面扫描,通过总体技术概况和具体技术内容的分析,掌握全球高速铁路的技术竞争态势。分析结果表明,我国在高铁技术领域内已经成为一个强有力的竞争者,但是与老牌高铁强国日本、法国和德国相比,核心专利较少,企业与研发机构虽然多,但是竞争实力不强,在技术研发热点的核心领域涉及较少。因此,对高速铁路技术的竞争态势进行分析,以期为政府制定政策、研发者确定方向、以及投资者决策提供参考。

  4. The patents of 3D printing technology in medical apparatus in China%医疗领域三维打印技术专利状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿晶晶; 马克; 陈燕; 孙全亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨医疗领域三维打印技术的应用现状,确定技术应用重点和趋势。方法:通过分析相关专利数据,研究中国医疗领域三维打印技术的应用情况。结果:我国医疗领域三维打印技术增长较快,发展较好,国内专利申请占据数量优势。主要技术研发者以国内申请人为主,重点应用产品领域分别为植入性假体、组织工程支架、组织器官、给药系统、辅助用具及手术策划6个方向。结论:我国医疗领域三维打印技术应用发展迅速,技术研发者以高校科研机构为主,目前骨科和牙科是技术应用的重点领域。%Objective: Evaluating the tendency and major technical field of the application of three dimensional printing technology in Chinese medical apparatus. Methods:Investigating the application of Three dimensional printing technology in medical apparatus by analyzing the patent data. Result: The applications of three dimensional printing technology in medical apparatus rapidly increase recently. Most patents are applied by domestic applicant. The major application areas include implant, tissue engineering scaffold, artificial tissues and organs, drug delivery system and surgery assistant appliance. Conclusion:The three dimensional printing technology in medical apparatus is developing rapidly. Most of the techniques are owned by universities and research institutes. The implant and tissue engineering scaffolds are the major application fields.

  5. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  6. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  7. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  8. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  9. 基于专利引证网络的技术进化路线分析——以数据挖掘领域为例%Technological evolutionary trajectories based on patent citation network -By taking data mining domain as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琦; 顾新建; 陈芨熙

    2013-01-01

    应用搜索路径连接统计法和搜索路径节点对统计法计算引证路径的连接度,提出了一种基于专利引证网络的技术进化路线提取算法.从美国专利数据库中采集了5073项1975年至1999年授权的数据挖掘领域的相关专利,分析了专利的地区分布情况和年度分布情况.从专利数据集NBER中查询得到专利引证关系,利用网络分析软件Pajek构建专利引证网络,提取了数据挖掘领域的技术进化路线.由实验结果可知,技术进化路线包含创新、扩散和突破,是一个渐进式创新和根本性突破相结合的过程.根据专利内容将主要进化轨迹分为三段,从继承性和延续性的角度分析了各阶段技术的发展情况.最后对下一步的研究工作进行了展望.%Search path link count and search path node pair are applied to calculate the connectivity of citation path and a technological evolutionary trajectory extraction algorithm based on patent citation network is put forward. The 5,073 patents related to data mining which were granted during the period of 1975 - 1999 from database of United States Patent and Trademark Office are collected. The geographical distribution and annual distribution of the patents are analyzed. By querying the patent data set of NBER to get patent citation relations and the network analysis software of Pajek is used to build a patent citation network. The technological evolutionary trajectories of data mining domain are extracted. The experimental results show that the trajectories include innovation, diffusion, and breakthrough. It is a process combining incremental innovation with fundamental breakthrough. From the perspective of patent content, the top evolutionary path is divided into three sections. The technological development of each section is analyzed based on inheritance and continuity. Finally, the further research work is prospected.

  10. Liposomal drug delivery: recent patents and emerging opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Murray S; Rebstein, Patrick; Lamson, Wendy; Bally, Marcel B

    2007-01-01

    It is challenging to develop innovative, as well as commercially viable, lipid-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer because of the breadth of existing intellectual property that limits freedom-to-operate. For example, novel compositions can be described in which a new chemical entity is associated with a lipid based carrier, but if the loading method or components of the lipid compositions are proprietary then the ability to develop novel compositions will require access to the appropriate intellectual property. We believe it is useful to present a review of the patent literature describing novel liposomal drug delivery systems given by parenteral administration to humans for the treatment of serious medical conditions such as cancer. This review is intended to: (i) identify and describe novel approaches that have recently been protected by US or international patents and patent applications, and; (ii) identify founding technology in the field which is recently off-patent, thus presenting emerging opportunities for the development of new therapeutic options for patients. Issued patents, and selected patent applications, having publication dates in 2005 or 2006 were retrieved from searches of the US, European, German, Japanese, INPADOC and WIPO PCT databases. Liposomal delivery systems patented for systemic administration in the treatment of human medical conditions were reviewed in detail.

  11. Analysis of opportunities and challenges in patenting of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Asokan, R; Rajasekaran, P E; Mahmood, Riaz; Nagesha, S N; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial control agent. The broad spectrum of susceptible hosts, production on artificial media and ease of application has caused the widespread use of this bacterium against several pests in agriculture, forest and vectors of human diseases. B.thuringiensis toxins are highly species specific which provide economic, environmental benefits, potential for future control and spread of the technology worldwide. This makes the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins an interesting tool for the implementation in integrated pest management programs. It has gained importance over the last 100 years for its biocontrol properties which is used in this review as a case study and analysis of the patents granted on B. thuringiensis was carried out. This study categorizes a number of patents related to B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins, application of B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins and the development of patentable technologies. The analyses were done using various criteria like patenting trends over the years, assignees playing a major role, comparison of the technology used in different patents and the patenting activity across the insect orders. Patent documents related to bacterium B.thuringiensis contain a trove of technical and commercial information and thus, patent analysis is considered as a useful tool for R management and techno economical development. Patent analysis also helps identifying and evaluating new and alternate technologies, keeping abreast with latest technologies for business interests, finding solutions to technical problems and ideas for new innovative trends.

  12. Trends of Thermal Spray Technology in Steel Industry from the View Point of Patent Applications in Japan%由日本专利应用看热喷涂技术在钢铁业中的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Namba; K. Tani; Akashi/J

    2012-01-01

    Trends of thermal spraying technology in Japanese steel industry is summarized by investigating the patent applications filed in Japan Patent Office in the past 20 years from FY1990 to FY2009. The total number of patents filed in 8 Patent Offices (Japan, United States, Europe, China, Korea, Russia, Brazil and India), retrieved by the International Patent Classification symbol C23C4/00 (IPC index key: Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state), is 15,082. The ratio of patent applications filed in each Patent Office is as follows: JP (39%), US (22%), EP (17%), CN (9%), KR (6%), RU (3%), BR (3%)and IN (1%). The database used in this study is from commercially available "PatBase". Number of patent applications of thermal spray technology (C23C4/00) in Japan is 4,369. Among these patents, the ratio of patents related to steel industry filed by major Japanese steel companies is 13% of total patents of every industrial segment in Japan. These patents are classified according to (1) coating applications in the process of steel production lines, (2) performances and effects obtained by coatings, .and (3) coating materials. In this paper, current status and future trend of thermal spray technology in Japanese steel industry is discussed.%从13本专利局20年(FY1990~FY2009)来申请的专利情况,可以看出日本钢铁领域热喷涂技术的发展趋势。以C23C4/00为分类号进行国际专利检索(IPC检索关键词:喷涂熔融态涂层材料),对8家专利局(日本,美国,欧洲,中国,韩国,俄罗斯,巴西和印度)共15,082篇专利进行检索,各局提交的专利申请比例如下:日本(39%)、美国(22%)、欧洲(17%)、中国(9%)、韩国(6%)、俄罗斯(3%)、巴西(3%)和印度(1%),本文中所引用的数据来自商业数据库。日本关于热喷涂技术申请的专利数量4

  13. 开发失效专利,促进辽宁省技术创新的对策研究%The Countermeasure Research on the Patents Not in Force for Liaoning Province to Promote the Technology Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹猛; 王莹; 孔祥瑞

    2012-01-01

    失效专利是一种巨大的科技创新资源宝库,开发失效专利将为辽宁省各类创新主体从事科技创新活动提供一条重要途径。文章从失效专利的界定与成因入手,分析了失效专利的特点,并进一步提出辽宁省开发利用失效专利的对策建议,为相关的部门制定激励政策提供科学参考。%The Patents Not in Force(PNF) is a enormous treasury for technological innovation.To develop and apply PNF will provide an important approach for enterprise to engage in the activity of technological innovation.The article analyses the characteristic and the cause of formation of PNF,and put forward a series of Countermeasures Proposing which will provide reference for government to lay down the related policy.

  14. Patenting of Pharmaceuticals: An Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Mathur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Patent is one of the major forms of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs used in the pharmaceutical industry. Trade mark, industrial design, geographical indication and copyright are other forms of IPRs available in India. Grant of patent in India is governed under the Patents Act, 1970. Significant changes like provision of product patents and increase in the term of patent to 20 years were introduced in the Indian patent law, after India signed TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement in 1995. This review provides a brief overview of development of patent law in India as a consequence of TRIPS agreement. Criteria of patentability and different types of pharmaceutical patents currently being granted in India are described with the aim to provide the fundamental knowledge of pharmaceutical patenting to the researchers. Other relevant provisions related with patenting of pharmaceuticals like section 3(d, transfer of the patent rights, compulsory licensing etc. are explained with suitable example.

  15. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law....... The article points out that the UPC because of this design will be biased towards technology based values and uniformity at the expense of other values and interests e.g. non-economic public interests, and values associated with diversity. The practical effects of these biases are analysed regarding cases...... involving ordre public and morality and scope of protection. The article shows that the biases will affect the law in all the areas discussed and that if unchecked they will reduce some of the “wriggling room” which the current system has provided. To maintain that room a focused effort by the UPC...

  16. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  17. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  18. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  19. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... supported an ongoing forecasting program for patent application filings that includes the use of... using the survey as part of a comprehensive approach to forecasting, the USPTO is also using this tool... increased with expanding technological innovations. However, newly emerging technologies, evolving...

  20. Sources of inspiration? Making sense of scientific references in patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, Julie; Pellens, Maikel; Looy, Van Bart

    2013-01-01

    Scientific references in patent documents can be used as indicators signaling science-technology interactions. Whether they reflect a direct ‘knowledge flow’ from science to technology is subject of debate. Based on 33 interviews with inventors at Belgian firms and knowledge-generating institutes ac

  1. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  2. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine.

  3. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C

    2010-11-01

    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  4. A SURVEY ON SOFTWARE PATENTS AND THEIR LINKAGE TO PROMOTING INNOVATION: INDIA PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    ANKITA TYAGI; OMNI YADAV; AJAI KUMAR GARG

    2013-01-01

    Personal computers (PC) have significantly increased demand for mass market software. Computer software has also now become an enabler for all fields of technology; innovation is inevitable for growth of this fast emerging industry. For economic viability for such innovations, there is an increased advocacy for incorporating software as a patentable subject matter forcing countries to make computer software patentable either completely or in limited form. However, patenting of computer softwa...

  5. 基于专利引用的技术领域主题的知识流动时间研究%Research on the Knowledge Flow Time about Technology Field Subject from the Perspective of Patent Citations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙轶楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes patent citations as the research approach of knowledge flow. First,from the perspective of forward citations and backward citations,we set up some data sets representing scientific knowledge,technical basic knowledge and technical frontier knowledge. Second,we build the chain of knowledge flow based on by using co-citation clustering; Finally,we build knowledge flow time model a-bout technology field subject based on scientific knowledge absorption time and technical knowledge diffusion time,so as to observe the de-velopment trend of science and technology of the technology field subject from the micro perspective ,which provides theoretical basis and method basis for future empirical research.%将专利文献之间的引用关系作为知识流动的研究途径。首先,从专利文献前引和后引的角度入手,建立分别代表科学知识、技术基础知识和技术前沿知识的数据集;然后,运用共被引聚类法建立基于技术领域主题的知识流动链条;最后,基于科学知识吸收时间和技术知识扩散时间两个维度,构建技术领域主题的知识流动时间模型,以期从微观的角度观察技术领域主题的科学与技术发展趋势,并对后续的实证研究提供理论基础和方法基础。

  6. 78 FR 70955 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License: GMCSF-BclxL-Derived Chimeric Therapeutics for Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... inventions embodied in technology family E-150-2005/0, including U.S. Patent application 11/991,692 [HHS Ref.../or applications for a license which are received by the NIH Office of Technology Transfer on or... directed to: Surekha Vathyam, Ph.D., Senior Licensing and Patenting Manager, Office of Technology...

  7. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  8. A contribuição de patentes para a inovação sustentável: o caso de um trocador de calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mamori Kono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are useful indicators of innovation, although still of a very limited use. In patenting, the need for the precise registration of a method, process, or system facilitates understanding it and eventually motivates the scientific community to carry out research in a given area, thus accelerating technological progress. Patent data are not static; patents cite other connected patents, providing a dynamic view of technological antecedents and descendants leading to state-of-the-art knowledge. This article is an exercise on the usefulness of patents as a source of technological innovation. To do this, we searched patent databases considered as sources of technological innovation in order to introduce improvements in a heat-exchanging device coupled to an electric shower. The results enabled finding the state-of-the-art of the technology and led to suggestions of possible innovations for the product. This allowed us to improve the sustainability potential of this technology.

  9. Network Embeddedness,Knowledge Management and Independent Innovation of Core Enterprise:A Perspective of Patent Transnational Citation Network Based on Huawei Company's Patents about Wireless Communication Network Technology%网络嵌入、知识管理与核心企业自主创新--基于华为无线通信网络技术专利跨国引证网络视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗晴; 石盈芳; 姚洪兴

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets up core enterprise independent innovation network based on Huawei company's issued patents a‐bout wireless communication network technology by USPTO from 2009 to 2015 ,their citing patents and cited patents .By use of social network analysis tool UCINET6 .0 ,the paper analyses the relation between network embeddedness and inde‐pendent innovation of core enterprise and the mediate effect of knowledge management on the above relation .The results of empirical research show that network site has positive effect on independent innovation of core enterprise ,network rela‐tion has negative effect on independent innovation of core enterprise ,and knowledge management plays a positive media‐tion role in core enterprise independent innovation network .%以2009-2015年华为集团公司在美国专利商标局经授权的无线通信网络技术专利及其引证和被引证专利,构建了核心企业自主创新网络。运用社会网络分析软件 UCINET6.0,分析了网络嵌入与核心企业自主创新的关系以及知识管理在其中所起的中介作用。实证结果表明,网络位置对核心企业自主创新能力具有正向影响,网络关系对核心企业自主创新能力具有负向影响,知识管理在核心企业自主创新网络中具有正向调节作用。

  10. 东盟五国有色金属领域的技术创新能力研究——基于专利信息的视角%Analysis on Technological Innovation Capability of Nonferrous Metal Industry in Five ASEAN Countries:From Perspective of Patent Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the technological innovation capability of nonferrous metal industry in five ASEAN countries from the perspective of patent information. The statistic data about patent shows as follows:Singapore and Thailand have more technical advantages and stronger innovation capabilities than other ASEAN countries;both Indonesia and Philippines have certain technical foundations the patent application of Vietnam is the fewest.but the annual application amount and innovation activities are increasing obviously; multinational corporations arc the main patent applicant in ASEAN, and possess most of core technologies. China's enterprises in nonferrous metal industry should take patent strategies.and strengthen independent innovation so as to obtaina active status in international competition.%从专利信息的角度,对东盟五国有色金属领域的技术创新能力进行分析.专利信息统计数据显示:在东盟五国的有色金属领域,新加坡和泰国的技术领先优势明显、技术创新能力强,而印尼和菲律宾具有一定的技术基础,越南的专利申请量最少,不过近年来其年度申请量增幅明显、技术创新活动增多;东盟五国有色金属领域的专利申请主要来自于美、日、德等国,技术创新能力实为跨国公司所拥有.对此,我国企业应当明确技术创新目标,采取相应的专利战略,加强自主创新,以使企业在国际竞争中获得主动地位.

  11. Genetic improvement of biofuel plants: recent progress and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T Sudhakar; Badri, Jyothi; Sastry, R Kalpana; Shrivastava, Anshul; Kishor, P B Kavi; Sujatha, M

    2013-04-01

    Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels, political uncertainties, increase in demand of energy needs and growing concerns of environmental effects, bioenergy as an alternative source of energy needs had taken centre stage globally. In this report, we review the progress made in lignocellulose, cellulose and fermentation based biofuels in addition to tree borne oil seeds. Algae as a source of feedstock for the biofuel has also been reviewed. Recent efforts in genome sequencing of biofuel crops and molecular breeding approaches have increased our understanding towards crop improvement of major feedstocks. Besides, patenting trends in bioenergy sector were assessed by patent landscape analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in published patents during the last decade which is maximum during 2011. A conceptual framework of "transgenesis in biofuels to industrial application" was developed based on the patent analytics viz., International Patent Classification (IPC) analysis and Theme Maps. A detailed claim analysis based on the conceptual framework assessed the patenting trends that provided an exhaustive dimension of the technology. The study emphasizes the current thrust in bioenergy sector by various public and private institutions to expedite the process of biofuel production.

  12. 国际体育用品核心企业专利技术发展演化特征及对我国的启示--以阿迪达斯公司为例%On Patent Technology Development Characteristics Research of Core Sporting Goods Enterprises-Adidas Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司虎克; 张元梁; 蔡犁; 张建华; 朱昆

    2014-01-01

    以德温特专利数据库(DII)为数据源,选取阿迪达斯收录在该数据库的专利技术申请文献为研究对象,并借助大型的文献统计软件Bibexcel和文献可视化软件Citespace ,对阿迪达斯公司的专利技术分布以及专利集群的发展路径转变进行分析研究.结果显示:阿迪达斯公司的专利技术创新正处于快速发展阶段,特别是90年代以后专利申请量和参研发明人数量迅速增长,专利申请主要集中在了美国、德国、欧专局和日本,共占据了总量的71.1%,另外在中国的专利申请数量从2001年之后开始迅速增长以占据中国的技术市场.专利技术集群重心以2000年左右为界,专利技术由A大类的运动鞋、服装以及运动器材的聚合材料和设计技术向W ,T ,S等大类的计算机数据处理、传输技术与运动用品相结合的技术集群转变.此外,阿迪达斯公司研发合作呈现出了非常好的连续性,并且分工明确,合作网络的密度较高,这也极大地提高了专利技术研发的效率和质量.借助对体育用品核心企业阿迪达斯公司的专利技术发展特征分析,对中国体育用品企业的专利技术发展提供一定的启示和情报信息.%In this study ,with Derwent patent database (DII) as the data source ,patented technology appli-cation documents of Adidas included in this database for the study have been selected ,and ,with the large literature statistical software Bibexcelland literature visualization software Citespace ,the distribution of patented technology and patent development path of transformation for cluster analysis have also been studied .The results show that Adidas company's patented technology innovation is in the stage of rapid de-velopment ,especially after 1990s of patent applications and the rapid grow th of the number of parameters developed inventor .patent applications mainly in the United States

  13. A Patent Mapping-based Comparative Study of the Technological Innovation Ability of Chinese and Foreign Sports Goods Companies%基于专利地图的中外体育用品公司技术创新能力比较研究--以运动服装专利为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹龙; 李芳; 陈君; 司虎克

    2015-01-01

    运用专利地图理论对耐克、阿迪达斯、安踏、361°公司的运动服装专利进行比较分析。结果显示,耐克公司2004年后专利研发技术处于快速发展阶段,阿迪达斯公司一直处于缓慢发展阶段,两个公司的专利申请及专利布局主要集中在美国、加拿大、德国、奥地利、澳大利亚、日本、中国,而国内安踏和361°公司从2010年开始注重技术创新和专利申请,其专利申请地区局限于中国;耐克公司研发团队合作网络呈现“三大”特征,国内体育用品公司则呈现“三低”特征;特殊环境下运动服装的防护功能和高科技性是耐克和阿迪达斯公司的主要专利技术领域,国内公司则主要以实用新型专利和外观设计专利为主,专利质量明显低于耐克和阿迪达斯公司。通过对中外体育用品公司技术创新能力的比较和借鉴,为我国体育用品公司运动服装专利研发战略、专利战略等技术创新决策提供参考依据和情报信息。%The present article is a comparative analysis of sportswear patents received by Nike,Adidas,Anta,361 Degrees,using the patent map theory. The results show that while the Nike company has been experiencing a rapid patent research and development period since 2004,Adidas is in the stage of slow development. For both compa-nies,their patent applications and patent layout are mainly concentrated in the United States, Canada, Germany, Austria,Australia,Japan,and China. Domestically,Anta and 361 Degrees began their technological innovation and patent application in 2010,but their applications occurred only in China. The cooperation network of Nike research and development team shows three“big”characteristics,whereas the domestic sports goods companies are character-ized by three“lows”. The main patent technology of Nike and Adidas centers on the protective function of sportswear under special circumstances and high

  14. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  15. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the...

  17. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  18. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  19. 77 FR 4887 - DOE Patent Licensing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 781 RIN 1990-AA41 DOE Patent Licensing Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its patent... patents or patent applications vested in the United States of America, as represented by or in the...

  20. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  1. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  2. Analysis of Scientific Linkage between China′s Technology Innovation and Basic Research in Biotechnology Industry Based on Patent Citation%我国生物科技领域技术创新与基础研究关联分析--从专利引文分析的角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志耘; 雷孝平

    2012-01-01

    This research tries to measure scientific linkage of China ' s technology innovation and basic research in biotechnology industry. Patent data are searched from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) website, and Non-patent References (NPR) analysis method is used in the study. The results find that the scientific linkage degree of China's technology innovation and basic research in biotechnology industry is high, and linkage has becoming tighter. The SCI papers which are cited by China's biotechnology patents are mainly from world-class academic journals. The United States is the main original country for basic knowledge of China's technology innovation in biotechnology industry. The public science has an important role in biotechnology technology innovation.%本研究以生物科技领域为研究对象,以中国在美国专利局申请的专利数据为数据源,使用专利的非专利引文分析方法,定量研究了生物科学对生物技术的影响.研究结果显示,我国生物科技领域的技术创新对基础研究的依赖程度比较高,而且呈不断加强的趋势.我国生物科技领域技术创新的学术研究主要来源于国际一流学术期刊的论文,美国是我国生物科技专利最主要的基础知识来源国家.公共科学在生物科技领域的技术创新中起着重要的作用.

  3. Deporte, investigación y patentes en España

    OpenAIRE

    Irureta-Goyena Sánchez, Pilar; Herrero Pérez, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    Se realiza una aproximación a las patentes españolas correspondientes a tecnología deportiva presentes en la base de datos CIBEPAT, con un análisis del volumen total, distribución temática, tipos de patente que se solicitan, subsectores relevantes, y un estudio más detallado de la década 1990-99. An overview of tbe Spanish patents related to sports technologies used on the CIBEPAT database, with an analysis of tbeir total volume, tbematic distribution, types of requested patents and a m...

  4. 基于专利信息的中国光纤预制棒技术竞争态势分析%Competition Tendency Analysis on Chinese Patent Information of Optical Fiber Perform Rod Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    光纤预制棒是光纤生产的上游产品和光电子产业的基础材料之一,具有较高的附加价值,同时也是我国对外依存度较高的产品.采用定量的方法,对在中国申请的光纤预制棒专利技术进行了数据挖掘和分析研究,揭示其发展现状和趋势、热点和关键技术领域、竞争和合作对手的能力水平及发展意图等,为国内外相关企业和研究机构了解中国光纤预制棒行业的技术状况提供重要的量化参考依据.%Optical fiber preform rod is a upstream production of the optical fiber product and also one of the basic materials in the optoelectronic industry. It is a greatly external depended product in the domestic with high additional value. The pa-per reveals a series aspect of the situation of optical fiber preform rod, such as the current and future development, hot and key technology field, the ability of competition and cooperation, the development level and the opponent intention, through data mining and analysis of the application of the optical fiber perform rod patent technology in China. Our study provides important quantitative reference for the domestic and foreign relevant enterprises and research insliiutes to the understanding of optical fiber preform rod industry technical status in China.

  5. Universities and Patent Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  6. 科技型中小企业专利工作现状及政策建议——基于上海市科技型中小企业实证调研的思考%The Status and the Policy Suggestion of Patent-Related Work of Scientific and Technological Small and Medium Sized Enterprises——Empirical Research on Scientific and Technological SMEs in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽荣

    2011-01-01

    Scientific and technological small and medium sized enterprises possess flexible innovation mechanism and more innovation efficiency, as well as a important carrier of fastening science and technology transformation. Consequently, they have become the indispensable important components of national economy. Intellectual property could become the core competence of scientific and technological SMEs, and patent is the embodiment of core competence. The paper performs empirical research on scientific and technological small and medium sized enterprises in Shanghai < and discusses how scientific and technological small and medium sized enterprises in shanghai to conduct basic patent-related work. The patent management model of enterprises is closely related with the industry. Meantime, different industry have different modes. This empirical research reveals that there exist problems and handicap in work of enterprises patent in Shanghai and gives political suggestion as well.%科技型中小企业具有灵活的创新机制和较高的创新效率,是我国加快科技成果转化的重要载体.知识产权是科技型中小企业获得竞争优势的重要基础,其中专利是企业核心竞争力的体现.通过对上海市科技型中小企业专利工作的调研,就目前科技型中小企业专利工作的现状进行了讨论.企业专利管理模式与行业密切相关,不同的行业专利工作具有不同的管理模式,企业要依据专利工作的要求制定切实可行的专利战略.

  7. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  8. 硅基太阳能电池专利技术现状及其发展趋势综述%Review of Patent Technology Related to Si-based Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马圆; 范崇飞; 武建刚

    2012-01-01

    本文从探究专利分布和布局的角度出发,选择硅基太阳能电池作为主题,通过标准的检索方式,使用关键词并结合国际专利分类号,对中国专利检索数据库中的中国发明专利申请进行了全面的检索,得到相关的发明专利申请,对上述数据进行细致的手工筛选分类,并作了深入的研究分析,揭示了我国硅基太阳能电池领域内发明专利申请的当前状况和未来的发展趋势.%This article reviews the Chinese patent and patent application in the field of silicon based solar cell, explores the distribution of related patent documents through standard searches using key words and international patent classification. In the study of Chinese PV patents, we conduct a computer search and manual sorting, and made an in-depth research and analysis, which reveals the current patent deployment status and the future development trend within the field of silicon solar cells in China.

  9. 美国基因技术与专利制度的互动诉求及趋势--以Myriad Genetics案的起因为视角%Study the Interaction Demand and Trend of the Gene Technology and the U.S. Patent Regime:By analyzing the Reasons of the Case 'Association for Molecular Pathology et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀文; 肖冬梅

    2015-01-01

    The conflict between the high-value gene patents and the human life and health rights, the very strin-gent conditions of the research exemption of the US Patent Regime, the open-mind attitude on the subject matter of the U.S. Patent Regime, which is the root of Myriad Genetics case, but also revealed the interactive demand of gene technology and US Patent Regime. However, the Supreme Court of the United States held that the patent claims of the isolated DNA was invalid which can only temporarily quell the "Controversial" situation of the Patent Regime due to the gene technology, far from achieving benign interaction between gene technology and the Patent Regime. Through appropriate relaxation of the research exemption condition, limit the patentable subject matter of gene technology, in order to balance the interests of gene patentees and the people’human life and health rights, promote the optimization and trend of Patent Regime on gene technology.%高价值基因专利权人利益与人类生命健康权益的冲突、美国专利制度对科研豁免规定的严格条件、美国专利法对专利权客体所持的开放、包容态度,这既是Myriad Genetics案发生的根源所在,也传达了基因技术与专利制度的互动诉求。美国联邦最高法院作出的关于分离的DNA序列不具备可专利性的回应只是暂时平息基因专利争议的权宜之计,远未实现基因技术与专利制度的良性互动。通过适度放宽科研豁免条件、限缩基因类专利的客体范围,以平衡基因技术专利权人利益与人类生命健康权益,推动基因专利制度的优化趋势。

  10. Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available book review: Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

  11. The Development of the Global Gear Machining Technology in the First 10 years of 21st Century Viewed from the Patent Analysis%从专利分析看21世纪头10年全球齿轮加工技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄建华

    2016-01-01

    进入21世纪,国外高端数控齿轮机床达到了高效、高速、高精度、自动化和智能化的高水平。本文通过Questel Orbit国际检索系统的数据库和专利分析平台,使用主题词和分类号对21世纪头10年的专利进行了申请量的分析、专利国家或地区分布的分析、IPC的关联分析、各国家或地区的技术研发对比、重点专利技术分析以及专利申请量排名前列的机构等分析,得出当时的齿轮加工技术领域的主要特点以及掌握该类核心技术的国家和企业。%In the first 10 years of 21st century, high-end CNC gear machines abroad had reached the high level such as high-efficiency, high-speed, high-precision, automation and intelligence. Through Questel Orbit database and patent analysis platform, this paper uses keywords, and classifying number to make patent application number analysis, patent country or region distribution analysis, IPC relating analysis, contrast of country and region technical research and development, technical analysis of the key patents as well as ranking of the patent application units, then obtains the main technical features in the gear machining field, and knows who master the key technologies.

  12. Invention as a combinatorial process: evidence from US patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyejin; Strumsky, Deborah; Bettencourt, Luis M A; Lobo, José

    2015-05-06

    Invention has been commonly conceptualized as a search over a space of combinatorial possibilities. Despite the existence of a rich literature, spanning a variety of disciplines, elaborating on the recombinant nature of invention, we lack a formal and quantitative characterization of the combinatorial process underpinning inventive activity. Here, we use US patent records dating from 1790 to 2010 to formally characterize invention as a combinatorial process. To do this, we treat patented inventions as carriers of technologies and avail ourselves of the elaborate system of technology codes used by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to classify the technologies responsible for an invention's novelty. We find that the combinatorial inventive process exhibits an invariant rate of 'exploitation' (refinements of existing combinations of technologies) and 'exploration' (the development of new technological combinations). This combinatorial dynamic contrasts sharply with the creation of new technological capabilities-the building blocks to be combined-that has significantly slowed down. We also find that, notwithstanding the very reduced rate at which new technologies are introduced, the generation of novel technological combinations engenders a practically infinite space of technological configurations.

  13. Literaturhinweise / Axel Bormann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bormann, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Klauberg, Theis. Gesellschaftsrecht in Estland, Lettland, Litauen : eine Einführung mit vergleichenden Tabellen. Heidelberg [etc.] : Rehm, 2004. - XIV, 116 lk. - (Gesellschaftsrecht - international)

  14. How Much are Flexibility and Uncertainty Worth in Patent Licensing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Oriani, Raffaele; Reichstein, Toke

    2015-01-01

    As patent licensing has become the prime driver of technology trade, understanding the rationales behind a properly-defined payment structure of the agreements is essential. Specifically, among the other remuneration components, upfront fees are critical in license negotiations since they imply a...

  15. 77 FR 38772 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... electrons, thereby producing a beam of ions traveling in a first direction and electrons traveling...

  16. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  17. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  18. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because inventors who assert rights over DNA sequences obtain protection on all uses of the sequences. Extremely valuable to breeders in the national agricultural research system is the ability to genotype their collections to get a clear picture of their diversity and how diversity could be enhanced through sharing and access to global collections. The issue of the eligibility for patenting of DNA sequences needs to be reopened. Patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution. Rights over DNA sequences as research tools should be discouraged. That the best way to discourage the award of such patents is by stringent application of the criteria for patenting, particularly utility. A more equitable, ethically - based food and agricultural system must incorporate concern for three accepted global goals: improved well being, protection of the environment and improved public health (particular point food from GMO. To mitigate conflict one of the approach to solve problem is ethical and truthful label of GM food, because consumers have a right to choose whether to eat genetically modified foods or not. Interesting examples and risks as consequences of free availability of genetic resources utilization, its transformation, patenting of 'new' organism and selling it back to the genetic resource owner are presented. Society has obligations to raise levels of nutrition and

  19. Study on Construction of the Value Guidance Index System of Patent Technology Development in Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions Based on Market Leadership%江苏高校专利技术开发价值导向指标体系探析——基于市场主导视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金秀

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the present situation and the problems of patent work in Jiangsu universities, such as the massive existences of expiration patent, a low rate of patent market conversion, a low rate of implementation, and so on. And it proposes the research on the value guidance of patent technology development in Jiangsu higher education institutions based on market leadership. Considering the market, politics, economy, society and technology, the paper selects a series of indexes and constructs a corresponding indicator system. After applying the analytic hierarchy process to carry on the a-nalysis on various targets, it obtains the corresponding weight and the indicator' s ranking of importance. The market is the most important one in the indicator system of this article, so the various factors in the market should arouse our attention.%结合江苏高校专利工作的现状与问题,如失效专利大量存在、专利市场转化率低、实施率低等,提出了江苏高校专利技术开发中基于市场主导视角的价值导向的研究.并从市场、政治、经济、社会和技术五个方面出发,选取了一系列指标,构建了相应的指标体系.进而应用了层次分析法对各指标进行分析,得出相应权重及指标重要性先后的排列次序.文章所建立的指标体系中市场居于最重要的地位,要尤其注重市场的各要素.

  20. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  1. EL CONFLICTO MAPUCHE Y EL RECONOCIMIENTO DESDE LA PESPECTIVA DE AXEL HONNETH: UNA CONCEPCIÓN MORAL Y ÉTICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Araya Anabalón

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación da cuenta de un enfoque del conflicto Mapuche-Estado de Chile, en el contexto de las luchas por el reconocimiento según Axel Honneth. En tal sentido las organizaciones mapuches y sus líderes, cuestionan el orden social prevaleciente en Chile y plantean una resistencia práctica, en la convicción moral de que sufren; devaluación cultural, exclusión social, y marginación política, que se traduce en la falta de justicia y negación de reconocimiento a su diferencia cultural. Estas injusticias culturales, están en los patrones sociales de representación, interpretación y comunicación de la sociedad chilena.

  2. Recent patents and designs on hip replacement prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derar, H; Shahinpoor, M

    2015-01-01

    Hip replacement surgery has gone through tremendous evolution since the first procedure in 1840. In the past five decades the advances that have been made in technology, advanced and smart materials innovations, surgical techniques, robotic surgery and methods of fixations and sterilization, facilitated hip implants that undergo multiple design revolutions seeking the least problematic implants and a longer survivorship. Hip surgery has become a solution for many in need of hip joint remedy and replacement across the globe. Nevertheless, there are still long-term problems that are essential to search and resolve to find the optimum implant. This paper reviews several recent patents on hip replacement surgery. The patents present various designs of prostheses, different materials as well as methods of fixation. Each of the patents presents a new design as a solution to different issues ranging from the longevity of the hip prostheses to discomfort and inconvenience experienced by patients in the long-term.

  3. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppresion - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson have proposed that pioneer patents of "broad" scope (where the claimed scope is typically broader than that strictly justified by the invention) enable their owners to "block" or "hold-up" downstream innovation.[1] They claim to have illustrated this thesis in such important cases...... of development as aircraft, the car, radio and electric lighting. Merges and Nelson quite logically use their work to question the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents,[2] a theory that emphasises that the social value of patents is that they enable the coordination of technological development....... This article re-examines Merges and Nelson's illustrative historical-empirical evidence and finds their thesis of downstream innovation suppression to be unwarranted by their empirical evidence.[3] Instead, Merges and Nelson have selected a number of important historical cases in which the administration...

  4. 'Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Fact or Fiction?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    1977), a theory that is a version of the classic justification for the award of the exclusive right - that it should protect the incentive to develop property. Merges and Nelson insist that their thesis should be supported by empirical evidence and they turn to historical accounts as an important form...... of that empirical evidence. They present alleged historical examples of downstream innovation suppression in such important technologies as: Edison's carbon filament light bulb; the automobile; radio; aircraft; the transistor; the computer. This paper presents a contrary interpretation of the role of patents......), when adequate historical context is included in the analysis, the more common problem is revealed to be that the patents at issue were not administered, for example by courts or the US Patent Office, to maintain their prospect function i.e, their ability to enable the coordination of development...

  5. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arti K

    2013-11-24

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software.

  6. Innovation Systems as Patent Networks: The Netherlands, India and Nanotech

    CERN Document Server

    Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    Research in the domain of 'Innovation Studies' has been claimed to allow for the study of how technology will develop in the future. Some suggest that the National and Sectoral Innovation Systems literature has become bogged down, however, into case studies of how specific institutions affect innovation in a specific country. A useful notion for policy makers in particular, Balzat & Hanusch (2004) argued that there is a need for NIS studies to develop complementary and also quantitative methods in order to generate new insights that are comparable across national borders. We use data for patents granted by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to map innovation systems. Groupings of patents into primary and secondary classes (co-classification) can be used as relational indicators. Knowledge from one class may be more easily used in another class when a co-classification relation exists. Using social network analysis, we map the co-classification of patents among classes and thus indicate wh...

  7. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  8. 基于社会网络分析的专利合著网络研究*--以风力发电技术领域在华专利为例%A Study on Patent Co-author Network Based on Social Network Analysis:Wind Power Technology Patents in China as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡金涛; 魏晓峰

    2013-01-01

    以中国专利数据库中收录的风力发电技术领域专利数据为研究样本,利用社会网络分析方法对该领域专利合著网络结构特征和连通体中心性进行计量分析,以探测其技术研发绩效水平、科研合作状况与核心技术人员分布等,进而提出一些有关未来该领域技术研发与科技人才发掘评价的建议,为相关研究提供必要的参考。%Based on the wind power patents in China Patent Information Database, this paper constructs a Patent Co-author Network ( PCN) of this specific field, and analyzes the degree distribution, cohesion, connectivity and other basic characteristics of the PCN. The degree distribution of the PCN follows power law; the network possesses notable clustering and follows small world features. There is a maximal connected subgraph in the PCN and the subgraph belongs to General Electric Company. Groups of core authors in the subgraph are discovered by centrality analysis. General Electric Company needs to work hard in training more core authors and in strengthening the relationships among the authors.

  9. Patent landscape for royalty-free video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Cliff

    2016-09-01

    Digital video coding is over 60 years old and the first major video coding standard - H.261 - is over 25 years old, yet today there are more patents than ever related to, or evaluated as essential to video coding standards. This paper examines the historical development of video coding standards, from the perspective of when the significant contributions for video coding technology were made, what performance can be attributed to those contributions and when original patents were filed for those contributions. These patents have now expired, so the main video coding tools, which provide the significant majority of coding performance, are now royalty-free. The deployment of video coding tools in a standard involves several related developments. The tools themselves have evolved over time to become more adaptive, taking advantage of the increased complexity afforded by advances in semiconductor technology. In most cases, the improvement in performance for any given tool has been incremental, although significant improvement has occurred in aggregate across all tools. The adaptivity must be mirrored by the encoder and decoder, and advances have been made in reducing the overhead of signaling adaptive modes and parameters. Efficient syntax has been developed to provide such signaling. Furthermore, efficient ways of implementing the tools with limited precision, simple mathematical operators have been developed. Correspondingly, categories of patents related to video coding can be defined. Without discussing active patents, this paper provides the timeline of the developments of video coding and lays out the landscape of patents related to video coding. This provides a foundation on which royalty free video codec design can take place.

  10. 从全球文化产业发展看科技创新趋势--专利分析视角%Research on the Trend of Scientiifc and Technological Innovation via the De-velopment of Global Cultural Industry:A View from Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晓昭; 张英杰; 赵辉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, bibliographic information of US patents which are relevant to culture industry and are issued between the year of 2004 and 2013 from the download of hTomson Innovation (TI) Database, has been retrieved, then cleansed and analyzed. In the next place, this paper calculated the number with timestamp and technology life cycle of patents issued on the whole, the accumulation quantity and annual change of patents belonged to each subclass, as well as the type structure and main information of assignees. On the statistical results above, the trend in development, the status of application and global competition of patents on world cultural industry has been deeply probed into. Some unbalance phenomena appear which can be attributed to technology and market. What is more, it has been proved that information technology is the main driving force of the development of contemporary culture industry from the perspective of IPC. Finally, the paper came up with several suggestions according to the research conclusions.%以Thomson Innovation(TI)数据库作为数据来源,对2004至2013年间授权的文化产业相关美国专利进行了检索、清洗和分析。从领域总体的逐年授权情况和技术生命周期,各子类的专利总量和年度变化,以及专利权人的类型结构和主要专利权人信息等角度深入考察了世界文化产业专利的发展趋势、应用态势以及竞争格局,并发现其中存在的一些不平衡现象,这一现象由需求拉动和技术推动两个因素导致。进而结合专利所属IPC(International Patent Classification)分类,验证了信息技术是当代文化产业发展的主要驱动力量,并依据研究结论提出一些对策建议。

  11. Search Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  12. Available Technologies | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our team of technology transfer specialists has specialized training in invention reporting, patenting, patent strategy, executing technology transfer agreements and marketing. TTC is comprised of professionals with diverse legal, scientific, and business/marketing expertise. Most of our staff hold doctorate-level technical and/or legal training.

  13. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  14. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  15. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  16. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    . The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...... of the transformation of academic science into patents, particularly how university scientists take a fragmented approach to the patenting process, while scientists employed in private companies can reap the benefits of close interaction with patenting experts ? experts who potentially can assume responsibility...

  17. Patents to Exclude vs. Include: Rethinking the Management of Intellectual Property Rights in a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pénin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional patent theory emphasizes the importance of patents for excluding imitators. This view is far too restrictive and is at odds with many empirical and theoretical works. Therefore, we propose an analysis of patent management that considers the properties of knowledge-based economies explicitly. Patents are thus shown to be critical instruments for coordinating innovative activities between firms. They not only exclude potential infringers, but also “include” all the heterogeneous stakeholders of the innovation process. Patents facilitate coordination via two mechanisms: they encourage the emergence of markets for technology (market coordination and they play an important role in formal and informal inter-firm collaboration (non-market coordination. We also link firms’ patenting strategy with the characteristics of the technological regime of their sector.

  18. Nineteen Patents Issued in 2012 for Inventions by Frederick Researchers | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Karen Surabian, Contributing Writer Patents provide a period of exclusivity and are a way to exclude others from making, using, or selling an inventor’s novel technology. For the National Institutes of Health (NIH), patents are an incentive for an outside party to license, develop, and commercialize NIH technologies that will benefit public health, especially those that require substantial further development by an outside party, such as therapeutics and diagnostics.

  19. Ontology-based Patent Licensing and Litigation Strategic Knowledge System for the Light Emitting Diode Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trappey, Amy J. C.; Yu-Hui Wang; Charles V. Trappey; Chun-Yi Wu; Tzu-Hsuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    This research studies the patents, intellectual properties and licensing landscape of the Light Emitting Diode (LED) industry. The ontology of LED technology is described and defined as four major sub-technology domains. The finding provides LED companies with consistent knowledge of their own and their competitors’ patents and intellectual property rights (IPR) ownership. Major LED companies often use their IPRs to gain and protect their market competitiveness, to form alliances, and to crea...

  20. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  1. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  2. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  3. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  4. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  5. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  6. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  7. Research use of patented inventions: opening remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Labastida, José M.

    2006-01-01

    Opening remarks for the 2006 conference in Madrid on the research use of patented inventions. The conference, which was held at CSIC on 18-19 May 2006, was jointly organised by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (OEPM) and the OECD, with support from the European Patent Office (EPO) through its European Patent Academy. The conference brochure is also included as an attachment to the Opening remarks file.

  8. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  9. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  10. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  11. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  12. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data......, confirming the importance of labor mobility for innovation in the economy....

  13. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA’S INVENTIVE OUTPUTS: INTERNATIONAL PATENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pouris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article aims to identify and analyse the inventive activity of South Africans as it is manifested in the form of patents. Patents are used internationally as indicators of national and corporate inventive activity, but they rarely are reported in the context of the South African reality. Inventive activity is analysed in terms of patents awarded to South African inventors by the USA patent office (USPTO. South African inventors are identified to apply and receive approximately 110 patents per year from the USPTO. Analysis of the patents according to technological classes identifies classes that indicate the country’s strengths. South Africa is ranked fourth internationally in technological class “Chemistry: Fischer- Tropsch Processes; or Purification or Recovery of Products Thereof”; and twelfth in “Specialised Metallurgical Processes”. It is argued that government should support further innovation in the country’s strong inventive areas. Corporate patent analysis identifies the most inventive organisations in the country; co-inventive analysis identifies the countries with which South Africans cooperates; and international comparisons set South Africa in an international context. An important finding is that South Africa appears not to have participated in the international explosion of patents during the last twenty years. It is suggested that neither the policy environment nor factors determining technological fertility have changed in South Africa during the last two decades.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel het ten doel om Suid-Afrika se innoverende aktiwiteite in die vorm van patente te identifiseer en te ontleed. Innoverende aktiwiteite word in terme van patente, wat aan Suid-Afrikaanse innoveerders deur die VSA se patente-kantoor ("US Patent Office – USPTO" toegeken word, ontleed. Suid-Afrikaanse uitvinders word genader om aansoek te doen en ongeveer 110 patente word jaarliks deur USPTO

  14. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  15. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.10 Patent applications. The information referred to in § 734.3(b)(3)(iv) of this part is: (a) Information contained in a patent application prepared wholly...

  16. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  17. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  18. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  19. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    has increased signifi- cantly in recent years (Figure S1 in File S1). Moreover, patent citations (a proxy for patent impact or quality [13,20]) have...however, prove relevant to the development of other technologies and to general theories of technological innovation. Materials and Methods Patent Data... bibliometric advantages of using keyword searches rather than patent codes or classes, including complete- ness, accuracy, and consistency across patent

  20. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  1. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  2. Open Invention Network: A Defensive Patent Pool for Open Source Projects and Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how patents impact innovation within free/libre open source software (F/LOSS businesses and projects. The number of software patent suits brought each year is increasing and is diverting millions of dollars in funds from developers to lawyers. With patent suits on the rise, the US Supreme Court has left the F/LOSS community in a position where it must either wait years for legislation or address the issue of patent suits itself. However, defending the Linux kernel and related technologies is a different challenge than the one that faces proprietary software businesses. This article describes Open Invention Network, an initiative that is designed to meet the particular challenges facing the F/LOSS community and businesses by providing a defensive patent pool.

  3. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated.

  4. Ontology-based Patent Licensing and Litigation Strategic Knowledge System for the Light Emitting Diode Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J.C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the patents, intellectual properties and licensing landscape of the Light Emitting Diode (LED industry. The ontology of LED technology is described and defined as four major sub-technology domains. The finding provides LED companies with consistent knowledge of their own and their competitors’ patents and intellectual property rights (IPR ownership. Major LED companies often use their IPRs to gain and protect their market competitiveness, to form alliances, and to create patent licensing or cross-licensing strategies. Newly established LED technology companies competing with global industry leaders face many challenges unaddressed in the research literature. This research focuses on the empirical and quantitative analysis of historical IP and patent related conduct in relation to corporate strategy. Based on the heuristic rules derived from historical conduct, the research establishes a standardized analytical procedure to use in the evaluation of patent licensing and litigation. The results help researchers effectively and consistently analyze their technical capabilities, evaluate their patent licensing strategies, and review litigation in view of the LED-related IP and patent marketplace.

  5. Studies of world carbon fiber industry from a perspective of patent analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳

    2016-01-01

    Patents are the manifestation of the industry R&D endeavor;therefore, World carbon fiber in-dustry from the perspective of patent analysis is studied .Findings from the analysis show a continual increase of carbon fibers patents since 1969 , and the growth rate began even faster after the year of 2005.Five countries (Japan, China, US, Germany and Korea) took dominant positions in global carbon fibers R&D , and the sum of patents applied in these five countries accounted for 80%of the total patents in the world .Corporations do play an active role in global carbon fibers R&D , and over 60%of patents were applied by corporations .Among them , the top 3 corporations were all from Ja-pan, which had much more patents than the other patent assignees .Furthermore, most corporations were not active in cooperation with others , except Toyota Motor Corp .Global carbon fibers R&D fo-cused on sheet manufacture cloth , core wire layer , heat connect provide and filter activated draw . And there is big difference between Japan and China in the R&D focus .China ’ s corporations have exhibited rapid growth in the number of patent applications in recent years , but there is still a large gap between China and foreign countries in view of global patent layout and influence .By providing the insight into the evolution of global carbon fibers industrial and technological development through the perspective of patent analysis , this study hopes to provide an objective statistic reference for fu-ture policy directions and academic researches .

  6. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  7. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  8. Connecting NSF funding to patent innovation in nanotechnology (2001-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zan [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Supply Chain and Information Systems, Smeal College of Business (United States)], E-mail: zanhuang@psu.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Li Xin [University of Arizona, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Nanotechnology research has experienced growth rapid in knowledge and innovations; it also attracted significant public funding in recent years. Several countries have recognized nanotechnology as a critical research domain that promises to revolutionize a wide range of fields of applications. In this paper, we present an analysis of the funding for nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its implications on technological innovation (number of patents) in this field from 2001 to 2004. Using a combination of basic bibliometric analysis and content visualization tools, we identify growth trends, research topic distribution, and the evolution in NSF funding and commercial patenting activities recorded at the United States Patent Office (USPTO). The patent citations are used to compare the impact of the NSF-funded research on nanotechnology development with research supported by other sources in the United States and abroad. The analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and patents authored by them have significantly higher impact based on patent citation measures in the four-year period than other comparison groups. The NSF-authored patent impact is growing faster with the lifetime of a patent, indicating the long-term importance of fundamental research.

  9. Fourth of The Reports for Satelite Navigation Patent Analysis——Satelite navigation hybrid location technology(Ⅰ)%卫星导航专利分析报告之四──卫星导航混合定位技术(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石蕊; 刘清泉; 丁文佳

    2015-01-01

    集成全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)和地面网络的卫星导航混合定位技术是定位技术发展的重要分支.本文以大量精确的数据统计为基础,全面呈现了全球及国内卫星导航混合定位专利申请的态势、申请人特点及技术分支分布,并以专利信息为切入点,对其产业现状和技术发展路线进行梳理.%Satellite navigation hybrid location technology which integrating Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) and ground network is a important branch of location technology. Based on masses of precise data statistics, this paper comprehensively presents patent application situation for Satellite navigation hybrid location technology, applicant characteristics, as well as technical branch distribution in China and all over the world. Furthermore, it reviews its current status in industry and technical development route with patent information as an entry point.

  10. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?.

  11. A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamabhai Inthira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS, there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. Methods A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. Results The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI is equivocal. Conclusions Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection.

  12. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  13. Study on Indicator System for Patent Information Collection of Science & Technology Program%科技计划项目专利信息采集指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海燕; 陶鹏

    2013-01-01

    According to the object of the management department of S&T , the paper carries out the patent statistics and e-valuation work , and establishes an indicator system for patent information collection of S&T program based on the system , science, rationality and feasibility design standard.%对科技管理部门开展专利信息采集及评价工作的目的进行分析,从专利数据采集的系统性、科学性、合理性和可操作性角度出发,研究提出科技计划专利信息采集指标体系。

  14. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    WITH END 3.8=2410 7/1974 Moay ............... 331/94S PE TAPERED WIGGLER STENT OTHER PUBLICATIONS [75] In ventors: John M. J. Malley, Palo Alto; Lo R...34, Oct. 7, 1966, pp. 267-284. 9 Claims, 3 Drawing Figares to: U.S. eettn fteArI=A19 MO.Hdf Stmet S.W. Wah.. 11C I02 Mpies of this patent are satilable W

  15. Unveiling the geography of historical patents in the United States from 1836 to 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Sergio; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Rigby, David L

    2016-08-30

    It is clear that technology is a key driver of economic growth. Much less clear is where new technologies are produced and how the geography of U.S. invention has changed over the last two hundred years. Patent data report the geography, history, and technological characteristics of invention. However, those data have only recently become available in digital form and at the present time there exists no comprehensive dataset on the geography of knowledge production in the United States prior to 1975. The database presented in this paper unveils the geography of historical patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 1836 to 1975. This historical dataset, HistPat, is constructed using digitalized records of original patent documents that are publicly available. We describe a methodological procedure that allows recovery of geographical information on patents from the digital records. HistPat can be used in different disciplines ranging from geography, economics, history, network science, and science and technology studies. Additionally, it is easily merged with post-1975 USPTO digital patent data to extend it until today.

  16. Carrying capacity in agriculture: environmental significance and some related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre M

    2009-06-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important and possibly the oldest economic activity developed by humans. This activity was developed extensively and is becoming more and more dependent on development of technologies. The goal of this manuscript was examining some patents related to technologies developed for improving crop yields. Such patents are mainly related to more efficient formulations of agrochemicals and management techniques of plants, cattle and natural resources. A brief comment is carried out about bioprospection and related problems, relating, for example the case of Cupuaçu. The article is concluded mentioning that the development of policies and management strategies that increase agricultural yield and simultaneously preserve or conserve natural resources should also be prioritized, because certainly this is the only way we have to get the real sustainability and to improve life quality abroad the world.

  17. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  18. Importance of Patent Document Drafting as Shown in Langke v. Huaqi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ On 16 September 2002,the Shenzhen Langke Science and Technology Co., Ltd.(Langke) sued the Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Code Science and Technology(affiliated to the Taiwan Acer Group), the Shenzhen Fuguanghui Electronics Co.,Ltd. and the agencies concerned in the Shenzhen Municipal Intermediate People's Court on the grounds of infringement of its Invention Patent 99117225.6 (hereinafter referred to as the Langke's patent). This lawsuit was taken by the media as one of the ten major IP cases in 2002.On 25 September 2002, the Patent Reexamination Board(PRB) of the State Intellectual Property Office accepted the request filed by Huaqi for invalidation of Langke's patent.On 1 June 2004, the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court made the first-instance ruling before PRB, establishing that the defendants'infringement was constituted.

  19. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  20. 稻茬地双轴驱动防堵式小麦免耕播种机%No-till Wheat Seeder with Two-axel Drive Anti-blocking in Rice Stubble Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠斌; 李洪文; 何进; 王庆杰; 李慧; 卢彩云

    2013-01-01

    针对稻茬地土壤粘重、根茬量大韧性强的特点和免耕播种作业的要求,基于旋转部件的铣切、冲击、破碎和抛撒原理,应用带状旋耕和粉碎技术,设计了稻茬地双轴驱动防堵式小麦免耕播种机,一次完成切茬、开沟、防堵、主动覆土和镇压等功能.田间播种性能试验表明,带状旋耕能较好地完成切茬、开沟作业,粉碎装置将收集到的土壤进行了有效的二次粉碎和抛撒,实现了均匀覆土的功能,播种深度和施肥深度变异系数分别为4.33%和2.73%,机具的通过性满足农艺要求.%In order to solve the serious problems of clay soil and large amount of rice stubble with strong toughness,a no-till wheat seeder with two-axel drive anti-blocking mechanism was designed to meet the requirements of no-till seeder.Based on the work principle of rotating parts,including milling,impacting,crushing and throwing,the seeder could accomplish stubble chopping,furrow opening,antiblocking,active covering soil and compacting at one time with strip rotary tillage and crushing technology.The results of field seeding experiments showed that stubble cutting and furrowing could be well finished by strip rotary tillage.The collected soil was effectively chopped twice,so the soil could be well-covered.The variation coefficient of sowing depth and fertilizer depth were 4.33% and 2.73%,respectively.The passing ability of seeder satisfied the agronomic requirements.

  1. A justiça das instituições sociais: uma crítica da reconstrução normativa de o direito da liberdade de Axel Honneth = The justice of social institutions: a critique of Axel Honneth’s Freedom’s Right normative reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simim, Thiago Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como propósito analisar a construção crítica teórica de Axel Honneth das instituições sociais como efetivação da liberdade social que oferece condições para a autorrealização e a justiça. O método do trabalho consiste em se realizar a leitura interna do desenvolvimento na obra do autor à luz de sua consonância com a teoria crítica. Como conclusão discute-se em que medida o progresso moral dessas instituições se relaciona com a efetivação de seu princípio interno, de forma imanente, ou de uma pressão externa normativa da igualdade a partir do direito e da democracia

  2. Patenting and the Transfer of Knowledge from Public Research Institutions to Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Marie F

    2006-01-01

    This thesis has its point of departure in the changes in research policy that have happened in Europe lately. The focus is on the Danish Act on inventions at public research institutions, which provide public research institutions with an opportunity to patent research results. The objective of the Act is to increase the transfer of research results to industry. This thesis investigates if patents of public research institutions have a positive impact on technology transfer, an assumption tha...

  3. The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere VI. Analysis of fossil resins from Axel Heiberg Island Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States); LePage, B.A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Ambers are well known and abundant in terrestrial sediments all over the world; however, due largely to the absence of definite morphological characteristics, the precise botanical origin of most amber samples, are at best, often a matter of speculation. This has severely restricted the usefulness of amber in paleobotanical and paleoecological interpretations. The molecular composition and structural characteristics of fossil resins however, may preserve evidence of their botanical origin, which could be of great value in both geochemical, paleobotanical, and paleoenvironmental studies. The remains of a number of exceptionally well-preserved Taxodiaceae-dominated swamp-forest communities have been identified in the sediments of the middle Eocene (45 million years old) Buchanan Lake Formation of Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The amber collected from these ancient in situ forests provides a unique opportunity to characterize these resins chemically and taxonomically. Resinite associated with Metasequoia, Pinus and Pseudolarix has been characterized using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. This method provides a direct analysis of the molecular structure and composition of the resin. In several cases, both bled resin and cone-resin samples have been characterized. The results of these analyses are presented and discussed. The implications of these results for the botanical origins of other ambers represented in the fossil record (including succinite) will also be discussed.

  4. LA PERMANENCIA DE BÉASSE. UNA REVISIÓN DE LA CRÍTICA DE AXEL HONNETH A MICHEL FOUCAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Abril

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo abordo la interpretación que Axel Honneth realiza, en su libro Crítica del poder, de la propuesta de Michel Foucault. Honneth señala, a modo de crítica, la existencia de una contradicción entre lo que denomina la teoría del poder de Foucault y sus estudios históricos –en particular, los reunidos en Vigilar y Castigar–. Uno de mis objetivos es explicar esta contradicción y, a partir de ella, proponer una lectura alternativa. En contraposición a Honneth, para quien las instituciones disciplinarias que analiza Foucault terminarían desplazando la acción y la lucha social, intento mostrar –y este es el aporte que busco realizar en el trabajo a partir de una reconstrucción conceptual– que las disciplinas y por añadidura las instituciones disciplinarias deben considerarse tácticas que nunca alcanzan del todo su objetivo. Son tácticas que no logran bloquear, de manera definitiva, las expresiones de resistencia y conflictividad. Esta lectura alternativa que aquí propongo permitiría, en principio, ensayar al menos dos puntos de contacto entre Foucault y la teoría crítica que aún no han sido elucidados. 

  5. Two attempts at grounding social critique in „ordinary“ actors’ perspectives: The critical theories of Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary, „third-generation“ perspectives within critical theory - Nancy Fraser’s and Axel Honneth’s - with the aim of examining the degree to which the two authors succeed in grounding the normative criteria of social critique in the perspectives of ’ordinary’ social actors, as opposed to speculative social theory. To that end, the author focuses on the influential debate between Fraser and Honneth Redistribution or Recognition? which concerns the appropriate normative foundations of a „post-metaphysical“ critical theory, and attempts to reconstruct the fundamental 29 disagreements between Fraser and Honneth over the meaning and tasks of critical theory. The author concludes that both critical theorists ultimately secure the normative foundations of critique through substantive theorizations of the social, which frame the two authors’ „reconstructions“ of the normativity of everyday social action, but argues that post-metaphysical critical theory does not have to abandon comprehensive social theory in order to be epistmologically „non-authoritarian“. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Ethics and Politics of Environment: Institutions, Techniques and Norms Facing the Challenge of Environmental Change

  6. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  7. Knowledge transfer and university patents in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Calderón-Martínez; José García-Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of increasing interest as channels for the transfer of knowledge from universities to firms. Design/methodology/approach A review of the international literature on the main factors that explain the production of patents was undertaken. On the basis of this information, a database for 80 Mexican universities was built and a mod...

  8. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  9. Marketing of Patents for Innovation: A Study in Brazilian Multicase Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Almeida Malvezzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ways to make patents Brazilian universities in innovation has been discussed both by academia and by the funding agencies in order to generate, in addition to knowledge, social and economic benefits to the university and to society in general. In this sense, this research aimed to understand the strategies and marketing practices developed by Brazilian universities for the promotion and commercialization of patent records, aiming at innovation. The assumption for this research is that the use of marketing strategies is a necessary and fundamental for the successful transfer of patents when it sees technological innovation. The research is exploratory qualitative approach based on references, interviews and multi case study. After gathering and analyzing data involving UNICAMP, USP and UFMG in promoting and marketing your patents, it was observed that the main marketing practices identified were: inventory and classification of patents, agents of innovation, integrated marketing communication, technological showcase, executive summary of patents, event promotion and institutional visits. We also conclude, in the context of marketing innovation management at the university, the biggest challenge is to work radical and incremental innovation differently and simultaneously, since both are necessary for scientific and technological development in the short and long term. 

  10. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  11. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  12. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  13. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  14. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  15. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  16. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  17. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  18. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of patent information. 314.53 Section... of patent information. (a) Who must submit patent information. This section applies to any applicant...)(2) of this section. (b) Patents for which information must be submitted and patents for...

  19. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  20. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  1. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-30

    MPOSITIONS3.340.233 9/1967 Leavilt................260/590 D) [75] Inventors: Fred E. Arnold, Centerville; 3.458.548 7/,969 Carlson ...... .. . ....... 260/590 D...l1969 Colt tiu 356/112 x 1,564,257 2/i971 9-rrye tl1 250,.211 1731 Inventor: Theodor E. Wlrtsa, Chelmsford, ’.116.00D 6/1474 Fiedler . 356/12 Man...1561 References Cited HETEROCYCLIC POLYMERS U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS Inventors: Fred E. Arold, Centerville. Ohio; 3,376,257 4/1968 Nakanishi el at

  2. Law machines: scale models, forensic materiality and the making of modern patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Early US patent law was machine made. Before the Patent Office took on the function of examining patent applications in 1836, questions of novelty and priority were determined in court, within the forum of the infringement action. And at all levels of litigation, from the circuit courts up to the Supreme Court, working models were the media through which doctrine, evidence and argument were made legible, communicated and interpreted. A model could be set on a table, pointed at, picked up, rotated or upended so as to display a point of interest to a particular audience within the courtroom, and, crucially, set in motion to reveal the 'mode of operation' of a machine. The immediate object of demonstration was to distinguish the intangible invention from its tangible embodiment, but models also'machined' patent law itself. Demonstrations of patent claims with models articulated and resolved a set of conceptual tensions that still make the definition and apprehension of the invention difficult, even today, but they resolved these tensions in the register of materiality, performativity and visibility, rather than the register of conceptuality. The story of models tells us something about how inventions emerge and subsist within the context of patent litigation and patent doctrine, and it offers a starting point for renewed reflection on the question of how technology becomes property.

  3. Gauging a Firm's Innovative Performance Using an Integrated Structural Index for Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this contribution we try to find new indicators to measure characteristics of a firm's patents and their influence on a company's profits. Design/methodology/approach: We realize that patent evaluation and influence on a company's profits is a complicated issue requiring different perspectives. For this reason we design two types of structural h-indices, derived from the International Patent Classification (IPC. In a case study we apply not only basic statistics but also a nested case-control methodology. Findings: The resulting indicator values based on a large dataset (19,080 patents in total from the pharmaceutical industry show that the new structural indices are significantly correlated with a firm's profits. Research limitations: The new structural index and the synthetic structural index have just been applied in one case study in the pharmaceutical industry. Practical implications: Our study suggests useful implications for patentometric studies and leads to suggestions for different sized firms to include a healthy research and development (R&D policy management. The structural h-index can be used to gauge the profits resulting from the innovative performance of a firm's patent portfolio. Originality/value: Traditionally, the breadth and depth of patents of a firm and their citations are considered separately. This approach, however, does not provide an integrated insight in the major characteristics of a firm's patents. The Sh(Y index, proposed in our investigation, can reflect a firm's innovation activities, its technological breadth, and its influence in an integrated way.

  4. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; D. Kushnir; I. Rafols

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  5. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  6. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  7. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL...

  8. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  9. Valuable Patents for U.S. Businesses: A Catalog of DTRC Patents Available for Licensing by the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Veazey PATENT NO: 4,553,037 DATE OF PATENT Nov. 12, 1985 TITLE: Transverse Waterjet Propulsion with Auxiliary Inlets and Impellers INVENTOR(S): John G...Lee PATENT NO: 4,398,687 DATE OF PATENT: Aug. 16, 1983 DTRC-91 /CT07 19 Valuable Patents, A Catalog TITLE: Mono-Element Combined Supercritical High

  10. 工业机器人传感控制技术研究现状及发展态势--基于专利文献计量分析视角%Research Status and Development Trends for Sensing and Control Technologies of Industrial Robot from the Viewpoint of Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳倩; 桂建军; 杨小薇; 曲艳丽

    2016-01-01

    The research status and development trends for sensing and control technologies of industrial robot are ob-jectively analyzed based on patent metrology methods in terms of development history, R&D layout, research hotspots and development venation. R&D problems existing in sensing and control technologies of industrial robot in China are discussed on the basis of Chinese patent activity analysis. The results show that the global research and application of sensing and control technologies of industrial robot are experiencing a period of rapid growth. Technical constitution of patents includes manipulators, sensing and control, welding and semiconductor devices, development venation centers on sensing and control devices and methods, and hot domains include mobile robots and multi-robot cooperation control. Most key technologies for sensing and control of industrial robot have been mastered by developed countries, while development and application of industrial robots in China is restricted by lacks of innovation, low transformation ration of scientific achievements, and weak ability in protection and utilization of intellectual property.%从专利文献计量分析的角度客观揭示工业机器人传感控制技术的研发历程、技术研发布局、研究热点,梳理技术发展脉络;通过分析在华专利透视我国工业机器人传感控制技术研发存在的问题。分析结果表明,工业机器人传感控制技术进入快速发展期,研究、应用规模不断扩大;传感控制技术领域专利的技术构成主要包括机械手、传感控制、焊接、半导体器件等;技术发展脉络以传感控制装置、方法为主线,近年来研究热点为移动机器人、多机器人协作控制等。工业机器人传感控制核心技术仍掌握在发达国家手中;国内存在创新能力不足、科研成果转化率不高、知识产权保护和运用能力较弱等问题,成为制约国产工业机器人研制、应用的瓶颈。

  11. Investigation of Strategic Changes Using Patent Co-Inventor Network Analysis: The Case of Samsung Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a method to investigate a firm’s strategic changes. Technologies or technological capabilities are a major resource for achieving competitive advantages, so a firm’s R&D effort to improve capabilities on specific technologies is aligned with strategic direction. Therefore, this research analyzes changes in R&D efforts by identifying key R&D personnel using patent co-inventor network and social network analysis. Based on characteristics of application and granted patents, the method analyzes current and future R&D efforts and so identifies strategic changes of a firm. We conducted an empirical analysis using the patents of Samsung Electronics. Our method analyzed the current and future strategies of Samsung Electronics and the result shows clear strategic changes in their focal technologies and business.

  12. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing.

  13. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  14. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Self Organizing Map (SOM for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy modeling for technology marketing. Also PCA and SOM are used to analyze patent data in STP modeling. To verify improved performance of our study, we make experiments using patent data from USPTO.

  15. Mapping Technology Space by Normalizing Technology Relatedness Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Yan, Bowen; Luo, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Technology is a complex system, with technologies relating to each other in a space that can be mapped as a network. The technology relatedness network's structure can reveal properties of technologies and of human behavior, if it can be mapped accurately. Technology networks have been made from patent data, using several measures of relatedness. These measures, however, are influenced by factors of the patenting system that do not reflect technologies or their relatedness. We created technology networks that precisely controlled for these impinging factors and normalized them out, using data from 3.9 million patents. The normalized technology relatedness networks were sparse, with only ~20% of technology domain pairs more related than would be expected by chance. Different measures of technology relatedness became more correlated with each other after normalization, approaching a single dimension of technology relatedness. The normalized network corresponded with human behavior: we analyzed the patenting his...

  16. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating pat...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  17. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  18. An Exploratory Comparison Study of Inventor-authors with Their Non-patenting Peers in Research Productivity and Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-chia Scarlett Lo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the possible link between industrial technology development and scientific research, with specific focus on the development of industrial technology influences the inventor-authors’ performance on scientific research. In this study, patenting activity was seen as representation of output of industrial technology; advised theses, funded research projects and journal articles were used as indicators of scientific research outcome. The author tried to examine the patents granted to and research output generated by members affiliated with Taiwanese Universities to reveal the productivity distribution and research performances of inventor-authors and non-patenting peers by taking bibliometrics approach. Patenting Activity Index and Academic Activity Index were used for presenting research output. Results showed that Inventor-authors performed above average both in technology development and research activities. However, it is worth a closer look at the impact of collaboration and research strategies for future researches.

  19. Specification Patent Management for Web Application Platform Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Yoshiaki; Isshiki, Masao; Takeda, Hideaki; Ohmukai, Ikki; Kokuryo, Jiro

    Diversified usage of web applications has encouraged disintegration of web platform into management of identification and applications. Users make use of various kinds of data linked to their identity with multiple applications on certain social web platforms such as Facebook or MySpace. There has emerged competition among web application platforms. Platformers can design relationship with developers by controlling patent of their own specification and adopt open technologies developed external organizations. Platformers choose a way to open according to feature of the specification and their position. Patent management of specification come to be a key success factor to build competitive web application platforms. Each way to attract external developers such as standardization, open source has not discussed and analyzed all together.

  20. 75 FR 17380 - Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... contact the various help desks for assistance (e.g., the Patents Electronic Business Center (EBC) for any assistance on electronic filings), rather than contacting the ombudsman. See Manual of Patent Examining... complaints to ensure each is handled within ten business days; (3) to provide feedback and early...

  1. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  2. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  3. Disambiguation of Patent Inventors and Assignees Using High-Resolution Geolocation Data

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Greg; Pammolli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Patent data represent a significant source of information on innovation and the evolution of technology through networks of citations, co-invention and co-assignment of new patents. A major obstacle to extracting useful information from this data is the problem of name disambiguation: linking alternate spellings of individuals or institutions to a single identifier to uniquely determine the parties involved in the creation of a technology. In this paper, we describe a new algorithm that uses high-resolution geolocation to disambiguate both inventor and assignees on more than 3.6 million patents found in the European Patent Office (EPO), under the Patent Cooperation treaty (PCT), and in the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). We show that our algorithm has both high precision and recall in comparison to a manual disambiguation of EPO assignee names in Boston and Paris, and show it performs well for a benchmark of USPTO inventor names that can be linked to a high-resolution address (but poorly for inventors...

  4. Using publicly available internet tools to teach patent research and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    The management of Intellectual property rights is becoming increasingly important in the 21st century knowledge society. Patents are especially important for engineering design and R&D teams. However, there is a lack of educational resources in this area. There is an increasing need to enhance...... efficiency is especially important within the context of the economic challenges which are drastically limiting the financial resources of all universities. In a previous contribution presented at the ICEIRD 2012 conference we have discussed our finding that technology entrepreneurs in general are interested....... With the advancement of the internet a number of patent offices are offering online tools that can be utilized in the teaching of the patent system, we will provide a review and analysis of these tools resulting in a suggestion for a patent course syllabus corresponding to an average student workload of 5 ECTS....

  5. The Patent and the Paper: a Few Thoughts on Late Modern Science and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hemmungs Wirtén

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marie and Pierre Curie's decision not to patent the discovery (1898 and later isolation (1902 of radium is perhaps the most famous of all disinterested decisions in the history of science. To choose publishing instead of patenting and openness instead of enclosure was hardly a radical choice at the time. Traditionally, we associate academic publishing with 'pure science' and Mertonian ideals of openness, sharing and transparency. Patenting on the other hand, as a byproduct of 'applied science' is intimately linked to an increased emphasis and dependency on commercialization and technology transfer within academia. Starting from the Curies' mythological decision I delineate the contours of an increasing convergence of the patent and the paper (article from the end of the nineteenth-century until today. Ultimately, my goal is to suggest a few possible ways of addressing the hybrid space that today constitute the terrain of late modern science and intellectual property.

  6. Hydrogen patent portfolios in the automotive industry - the search for promising storage methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the development of hydrogen vehicle technologies, the automotive industry adopts a portfolio approach; a multitude of technological options is developed for hydrogen storage and conversion. Patent portfolios of car manufacturers are used as indicators of the variation and selection dynamics of di

  7. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society.

  8. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  9. Patent for Invention of Guilin Rubber Machinery Transla- tional Vulcanizer Awarded the Honorary Title of China Excel- lent Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wenguang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the results of the 13th China Patent Awards were publicized. The patent for invention of "translational vulcanizer" applied by Guilin Rubber Machinery Factory was appraised as China Excellent Patent.

  10. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...... containing 421 EPO-patenting firms in Denmark....

  11. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  12. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons.

  13. Luta por reconhecimento e a formação da identidade na teoria crítica de Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo explora os principais conceitos que compõe a teoria do reconhecimento de Axel Honneth, a fim de compreender os propósitos imbricados na idéia de luta por reconhecimento e suas contribuições à nova concepção de identidade surgida a partir da modernidade. No padrão pós-convencional, apresentado por Honneth, o indivíduo é reconhecido em sua individualidade. A identidade subjetiva é constituída de forma intersubjetiva e não mais determinada pelo grupo social. O reconhecimento recíproco é condição para a formação prática da identidade, permitindo ao sujeito participar efetivamente na esfera pública. Contudo, por possuir uma estrutura fundamentalmente intersubjetiva, a identidade individual e coletiva é afetada negativamente pelas diferentes situações de desrespeito presente nos processos de interação social. A negação do reconhecimento de modo injustificado, por meio da violação de expectativas normativas de comportamento, da origem a reações emocionais negativas. Por este motivo, as experiências de desrespeito integram a base motivacional da luta por reconhecimento, dando origem ao conflito social. O tema do conflito em Honneth está vinculado aos processos de formação da identidade prática do sujeito e aos progressos na vida social. O conflito social, traduzido na forma de luta por reconhecimento, caracteriza-se como uma expressão altamente positiva, por contribuir significativamente com a autorrealização individual e coletiva.

  14. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdeo R Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have been widely designed to increase its bioavailability and for treatment of cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on. The common nanoformulated herbal medicines are Panax ginseng, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Withania somnifera, Gymnema sylvestre, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the like, having a profound future potential.

  15. 辨明Patent Troll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建朋

    2012-01-01

    它,究竟是凶恶的巨怪,还是可爱的精灵? 它,竟究是正当的手段,还是无赖的工具? 长久以来,patent troll便是国外学术圈、实务界探讨的焦点话题之一,如今其又转到了国内,而近来表现的越发激烈。各派对其是否应当存在、存在合法与否等等进行了持续不休的讨论与争吵,

  16. The Impact of Patent Applications Filed on Sustainable Development of Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Saini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity underpins economic productivity and growth. Countries that generate innovation, create new technologies, and encourage adoption of these new technologies grow faster than those that do not. In some industries patenting is identified as the most important means of protecting IP and is increasingly used as a strategic asset by companies to create sustainable competitive advantage – although, in others, secrecy is used to safeguard proprietary knowledge. The basic purpose of this paper is to see the impact of patent filing on economic growth of the country leading to sustainable development of the economy. For this, the paper analyzed and tested the data of 9 countries for the period of 10 years (2000-2009. The results concluded that it was a mixed result in case of Asian countries. Only, technology based countries’ economies were affected by patent applications filed.

  17. Assessing the Inventiveness of Bio-Pharmaceuticals under European and US Patent Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    “The implications and applications of biotechnology continue to be at the centre of public debate. In the light of rapid scientific advances and novel insights, the multi-faceted discussions are particularly fierce with regard to patents on DNA–related technology. In the often very emotionally...... specifically, it investigates how the European and US patent systems interpret and apply the so called "inventive step" (Europe) or "non-obviousness" requirement (U.S.) vis-à-vis bio-pharmaceutical technology with a special emphasis on DNA-and protein related inventions. In addition to evaluating the de lata...... basically followed this line of thinking. Thus, the grant of patents on DNA- and protein- related technology had become routine. While it almost seems impossible to reconcile these fundamentally diverging views, the purpose of this thesis is related to a third area of debate. It focuses on the fierce...

  18. A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-01-01

    In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors, developing and supplying standardized licences, collecting royalties, monitoring whether users respect licensing conditions, and providing dispute resolution services such as mediation and arbitration. In this way, it might function as an effective model for users to facilitate access to and use of the patented inventions. However, it remains to be seen whether patent holders with a strong patent portfolio will be convinced by the advantages of the royalty collection clearing house and be willing to participate. PMID:16710543

  19. Origen y evolución de las patentes y marcas en biomecánica deportiva. (Origin and evolution of patents and trademarks in sports biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. González-Montesinos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Biomecánica es una disciplina científica cuyo origen se remonta varios siglos atrás, cuando distintos precursores utilizaron diferentes ciencias para analizar el movimiento humano y animal. El desarrollo tecnológico ha propiciado la invención de distintos dispositivos los cuales han sido utilizados en estudios biomecánicos. Dichos dispositivos han facilitado la toma y análisis de datos relacionados con el movimiento y sus causas. La Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas (O.E.P.M. es el organismo encargado de registrar y patentar las invenciones en España. Para ello, la patente presentada debe de cumplir con unos requisitos y superar una evaluación técnica. Actualmente podemos encontrar distintas patentes para realizar análisis cinemáticos y cinéticos del movimiento, formadas por emisores y receptores de láser, cámaras de alta velocidad, sensores de presión, etc. Numerosas investigaciones relacionadas con la biomecánica deportiva utilizan estos dispositivos para obtener datos más precisos, mejorando la calidad de la investigación y, en algunos casos, posibilitando la mejora del rendimiento físico y/o deportivo. El propósito del presente artículo, consiste en exponer la evolución de la biomecánica en general y deportiva en particular, realizar una revisión sobre patentes relacionadas con la biomecánica del deporte, y reflejar sobre cómo y donde registrar las invenciones. Para ello se han utilizado las plataformas digitales y bases de datos Esp@cenet, Invesnes para la revisión de patentes con origen español, y Google Patent para otras patentes registradas en oficinas de fuera de España.AbstractThe biomechanics is a science discipline that originated centuries ago when various precursors used different sciences to analyze human and animal movement. Technological development has led to the invention of various devices which have been used in biomechanical studies. Such devices have facilitated the collection

  20. Scale-free network analysis of big data for patent litigation cases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Kim, Jinhyeong; Shin, Jungwoo

    2017-02-01

    This study empirically analyzes the structure and behavior of the patent litigation network in the U.S. by introducing complex network theory characterized as growth and preferential attachment rules. In this study, we draw a log-log plot of the probability distribution for both the plaintiff and the defendant sides and use a log-transform regression to verify that the patent litigation network degree distribution follows a power-law distribution. We also graph the structure of the network to explore the origin of its asymmetrical pattern. In addition, we investigate the behavior of the patent litigation network over time by calculating the Shannon entropy for each year from 2005 to September 2016. We find the power-law degree distribution, and a few hubs of the patent litigation network are like other real-world networks. We also find that the asymmetrical pattern of the patent litigation network is largely driven by non-practicing entities and the major information technology firms. We conclude that the patent litigation network is becoming more asymmetrical over time based on our finding that its Shannon entropy is decreasing.

  1. MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM AND THEIR PATENT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udhan Ravindra Radhakisan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Now days the researchers are focusing on the fast dissolving dosage form (FDDF’s.The fast dissolving dosage forms includes the mouth dissolving tablets, mouth dissolving thin films .The alternative words used for these dosage forms are fast disintegrating, orodispersible, fast dissolving. The oral thin film technology (OTF’s is a dissolvable film technology have evolved from a purely confectionery novelty from a drug delivery platform. The OTH dosage form dissolves in the moth without need of water and within 10-15 seconds is the novelty of this dosage form. On the basis of this novelty many patents are available in the US country. Intraoral delivery is particularly beneficial to patients with special needs that are unable to tolerate traditional oral (entral/through GI track administration due to nausea, vomiting or dysphasia. Many pharmaceutical companies focusing on this Oral thin film technology. Today, this film technology is approved by is approved by FDA.

  2. Gobernanza y gestión del conocimiento: las patentes, un instrumento de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents play a significant role in innovation. In this essay they are used as tools for studying and analysing knowledge management. Most of the research done on patents is related to measuring and quantifying patents in the market. The aim of this paper is to present patents as instrumental intermediary agents between technoscientific production and its social uses. Scientists, scientific institutions, centres of technology transfer and industrial firms are all actors at play in this process. In this occasion, CSIC (Spanish National Research Council patens are analysed so as to check this kind of interaction between science and technology policies, and society This analysis, together with specific case studies, will allow an evaluation of how CSIC patents contribute to technology develoment and transfer, how they reflect previous science policies, and how the new knowledge arising from patents generates new management models.

    Las patentes juegan un importante papel en el proceso innovador de cualquier país. El presente estudio quiere presentar las patentes como agentes fundamentales de intermediación entre la producción tecnocientífica y el uso que de ella hace la sociedad. El hecho de que las patentes incorporen a todos los actores que forman parte de este proceso (los investigadores, las instituciones científicas, los organismos de gestión del conocimiento, las empresas, etc. las hace fundamentales a la hora de abordar este estudio. Partiendo de los datos en materia de patentes que genera el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, se estudiará el uso inmediato que se hace de la tecnología patentada como ayuda necesaria para el desarrollo de I+D. Se estudiará la incidencia, que a más largo plazo, pueden tener las patentes en la industria y en las administraciones públicas a la hora de planificar actividades o diseñar de estrategias a seguir. Los estudios realizados hacen pensar en una posible relación directa

  3. Patenting in Europe: The Jurisdiction of the CJEU over European Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minn Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will deal with EU competence over patent law, especially in the context of the TRIPS Agreement with reference to the ruling of CJEU in the Daiichi Sankyo case (CJEU case C-414/11 Daiichi Sankyo v DEMO Anonimos. The first part will explain the process of claiming patents at the national as well as the European level in order to understand the complexity of patent law, the second part will deal with the implications of jurisdiction and developments in EU patent regulations, the third part will deal with the effects of EU competence over the TRIPS patent provisions and the forth part will deal with the interpretation of substantive patent law in the light of the Daiichi Sankyo case.

  4. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Megan E. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Casman, Elizabeth [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@cmu.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the 'Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies' (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative 'snapshot' of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially 'risky' nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  5. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Megan E.; Casman, Elizabeth; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2012-12-01

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the "Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies" (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative "snapshot" of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially "risky" nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  6. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Records and Files of the Patent and Trademark Office § 1.14 Patent applications preserved in confidence... published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b) are generally preserved in confidence pursuant to 35 U.S.C....

  7. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  8. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  9. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... following methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``Patent and Trademark Resource...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  11. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for...

  12. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  13. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 41 RIN 0651-AC86 Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is correcting...

  14. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  15. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  16. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of practice to implement...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  18. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  19. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  20. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  1. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  3. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  4. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities...

  5. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  6. Patent law in dentistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  7. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  8. Axel Olrik’in Epik Yasaları Işığında Oğuz Kağan Destanı’na Bir Bakış A Glance At Oghuz Khagan Saga In The Light Of Axel Olrik’s Epic Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human beings’ relation with time and space has very ancientoffsets. It would be reasonable to seek the first data of these offsets innationalization processes as human beings realized their existencethrough social consensus. This social consensus has certainphenomena which mainly appear in cultural forms. The first data andassigning meanings during nations’ presenting their social existence aremainly found in epics. Therefore, it would be reasonable to focus onepics with a view that they are the codes of nations’ social memories. Itis a known fact that, beginning from their first ancestors, human beingshave always acted in accordance with some main purposes and themes.Therefore the importance of epics is paramount in terms of thearchetypes they accommodate. It is known that these archetypes notonly provide a means to read the past, but also shed light on ourpresent. This provides a remarkable opportunity to reach the roots ofthe cultural phenomena of nations and societies. When we look at theTurkish epics, we are welcomed by Oghuz Khagan Saga, which can becounted as an important leap forward in terms of Turks’ nationalizationprocess. There are different methods to understand and explain orassign meanings to epics. One of these methods is Axel Olrik’s “EpicLaws Theory”, one of the methods of Historical-Geographical FinnishSchool. This theory aims at approaching mythological works with auniversal standardization and evaluating these mythological workswithin the frame of certain principles. The aim of the present article isto read Oghuz Khagan Saga, fraught with symbols in terms of Turkishhistory’s mythical offsets, in the light of Axel Olrik’s epic laws and todiscuss the data obtained thereof in the context of the epic and itsnature. İnsanoğlunun zaman ve mekânla olan ilişkisi oldukça kadim uzantılara sahiptir. Bu uzantıların ilk verilerini milletleşme süreçlerinde aramak gerekir. Çünkü insanoğlu, yery

  9. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    that the patent specification should disclose sufficient information to identify the invention with respect to the prior art and therefore make the patent defensible against rival patents in court - they need not enable the making of the invention. Our research design gathers data on how firms use the information...... disclosed in patent specifications and relates this to the predictions of the different types of current theories of patent function. We intend to test and refine theory in one current patent controversy, that concerning patent information usage. [ii] [i] See Cohen, W., A. Goto, et al. (2002). "R...

  10. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State......While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  11. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  12. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request...@uspto.gov . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment@ in the subject line of the... examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse...

  13. Fame and Obsolescence: Disentangling growth and ageing dynamics of patent citations

    CERN Document Server

    Higham, K W; Jaffe, A B; Zülicke, U

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of citations accrued over time by cohorts of patents from specific technology sectors (e.g., Electrical and Electronic) granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office in 1998. In contrast to previous studies that did not differentiate patents by technology category, we observe an intrinsic citation rate that clearly separates into an ageing function and a completely time-independent preferential-attachment-type growth kernel. In the long run, the aging function turns out to be an exponential function of time. Relevant parameters for the ageing and growth functions are reliably extracted. The time-dependent citation distribution is obtained analytically for the general case of a separable citation rate, thus establishing a useful framework for the quantitative investigation of general knowledge-propagation dynamics.

  14. A Test of Technology Spatial Spillover and Economic Catch Up among Regions Based on Patent Data and Spatial Econometrics Model%技术的空间维度溢出与经济追赶——基于省份专利数据和空间计量的验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛欣; 陈向东; 张古鹏

    2012-01-01

    利用区域技术创新倾向来测度各区域技术水平,结合空间计量经济相关理论改进了Pigliaru包含外生倾向增长模型,构建加入地理空间因素的知识生产函数模型和包含创新空间溢出的外生增长模型;基于我国省份专利数据验证了区域间技术创新倾向的空间关联性和空间维度的溢出及其对区域间经济追赶的正向作用.%This paper defines the regional technology propensities to innovate on behalf of the difference of technology among regions, combines the spatial econometrics theory to improve Pigliaru (1999)'s growth model and establish the new growth model with exogenous propensity to innovate; It tests the spatial correlation and spillovers of technology propensities to innovate based on the regional data of patent applications to, and the results show that it has positive effect on economic convergence among regions.

  15. 基于专利共被引方法的技术聚类分析--以苹果公司专利为例%Technology Clustering Analysis Using Patent Co-citation Analysis:A Case Study of Apple Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤文; 刘趁; 毛文莉

    2014-01-01

    在激烈的市场竞争中,专利作为企业技术能力的重要表征,同时也为人们提供了对企业技术研究唯一的信息源。苹果公司在电子和通讯行业占据着重要地位,其专利技术代表着行业的研究前沿。基于德温特专利数据库,本研究以苹果公司发表专利为研究对象,进行专利共被引网络分析,识别苹果公司的主要技术聚类和关键性技术。%As the symbol of technological abilities of company, patents offer the unique information resource for studying the corporate technologies in the fierce market competition. Apple inc plays an important role in electronic and communications industries, patens of Apple company are the research front of the electronic industry. We detect the major technology and significant clusters from the co-citation networks using the Derwent database.

  16. The Analysis of Hood Noise Reduction Technology in the Field of Patent%吸油烟机降噪技术在专利申请领域的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴; 陈金山; 张岩

    2015-01-01

    降噪是吸油烟机的发展必须要解决的问题。该文总结了近30年来中外的专利申请,进而了解到中国在吸油烟机降噪方面的专利申请占据了绝大部分,并且得出了风机结构的安装、吸声材料、消音板、导流装置是最常用的几种降噪的方法。%The problem of noise reduction must be to resolve in development of range hood.This paper summarizes the nearly 30 years of patent applications at home and abroad,learned that china ocuppies the most,and concluded that the installation of fan, sound absorption, silencers, guide vanes are the most commonly used methods for noise reduction.

  17. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  18. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  19. Severallssues in the Practice of Design Patent Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Subject Matter Protected by the Design Patent Right For any legal relation to be viable there must be three elements; the subject,subject matter and content. What the subject matter protected by the design patent right is one of the basic issues of the design patent system in China. However,in the design patent examination, we have found that many parties and even senior patent attorneys have many misconceptions about the issue.

  20. Empirical studies on the private value of Finnish patents

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted fact that innovation is important for economic growth and that a well-designed patent system increases research and development investments. Patents are unfortunately a second best solution. While the benefits of the patent system are increased incentives to innovation, diffusion of new knowledge, and easier commercialization of patented innovations; the drawback of the patent system is the monopolies it creates. Therefore, the fundamental question that has intereste...