WorldWideScience

Sample records for axel patents technology

  1. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Luciano; Newman, Nils; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new global patent map that represents all technological categories and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This overlay map technique may support competitive intelligence and policy decision making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. Th...

  2. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  3. Measuring Technological Distance for Patent Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Bowen; Luo, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Recent works in the information science literature have presented cases of using patent databases and patent classification information to construct network maps of technology fields, which aim to aid in competitive intelligence analysis and innovation decision making. Constructing such a patent network requires a proper measure of the distance between different classes of patents in the patent classification systems. Despite the existence of various distance measures in the literature, it is...

  4. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties. PMID:24499438

  5. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  6. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  7. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  8. Nanotechnology Patents : The next technological revolution and the future of the patent system

    OpenAIRE

    Helwegen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Experiences from ICT and biotechnology have shown that the current patent system has increasing difficulties with the numbers and complexity of patent applications. As a result, the patent system, which ultimate goal is to promote technological innovation and to reward the inventors, has been the subject of increasing criticism. Despite being in an early stage of development, nanotechnology is already the subject of a high amount of patents, and as noted by the European Parliament, the curre...

  9. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Luo, Shenq-Yih

    2007-01-01

    Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index) and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office) was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellec...

  10. Social and Technological Efficiency of Patent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas VALLEE (LEN - IAE Nantes); Yildizoglu, Murat

    2004-01-01

    This article develops an evolutionary model of industry dynamics in order to carry out a richer theoretical analysis of the consequences of a stronger patent system. The first results obtained in our article are rather consistent with the anti-patent arguments and they do not favour the case for a stronger patent system: higher social welfare and technical progress are observed in our model in industries with milder patent systems (lower patent height and patent life).

  11. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  12. Advances in CO2 capture technology: A patent review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Timely updates on carbon capture technologies: More than 1000 patents on solvent, sorbent, and membrane. ► More patents on solvent and sorbent compared to membrane. ► Environmental and health concerns exist regarding carbon capture technologies. -- Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are believed to be a major contributor to global warming. As a consequence, large anthropogenic CO2 sources worldwide will eventually be required to implement CO2 capture and storage technologies to control CO2 emissions. In order to guide the establishment of policies for CO2 removal, we reviewed the current status of CO2 capture patents and technologies based on the Espacenet patent database and found that more than 1000 patents have been published on sorbent, solvent, and membrane. More than 60% of these patents were published since the year 2000, and a sharp increase in patent numbers was seen in the last several years; ∼25% patents were published in the last 2 years. Substantially more patents on CO2 removal and separation technologies are expected in the coming years. Meanwhile, the top four major types of patents, which consist of more than 2/3 of these patents, were patents granted by Japan (JP), United States (US), World Intellectual Property Organization (WO), and China (CN), and approximately half of the patents were JP and US patents. Unfortunately, no current technologies for removing CO2 from large sources like coal-based power plants exist which satisfy the needs of safety, efficiency, and economy; further enhancement and innovation are much needed.

  13. The diffusion of patented oil and gas technology with environmental uses: A forward patent citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relevant advances in the mitigation of environmental impact could be obtained by the appropriate diffusion of existing environmental technologies. In this paper, we look at the diffusion of knowledge related to environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. To assess knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions as a measure of technology diffusion, we rely on forward patent citations methodology. Results show that there is a strong likelihood that the citing patent will be eventually linked to environmental technologies if the original oil and gas invention has already environmental uses. Moreover, both intra and intersectoral spillovers produce a “turnabout” effect, meaning that citing patents show the opposite quality level of the cited patent. Our results support the idea that more sector-specific environmental policies, with an emphasis on diffusion, would significantly improve the use of environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. -- Highlights: •Knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions are of an intrasectoral nature. •Environmental uses in original patents diffuse to patents with environmental uses. •The “turnabout” effect converts low quality patents into high quality citing patents. •Diffusion of oil and gas inventions need more ad hoc instruments

  14. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers. PMID:20948289

  15. Domestic Enterprise Awarded Overseas Patents On Fiber Optical Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Beijing Aerospace Times Optical-Electronic Technology Corp. Ltd was granted a patent for a fiber optical gyroscope using a low-polarization and polarization-maintaining hybrid light path in Ukraine. After filling an ordinary patent application for the technology domestically in 2006, the company filed a Paris Convention application in Ukraine to collaborate with a Ukrainian technical center in 2007.

  16. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  17. EPA-developed, patented technologies available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  18. Patent Strategy at the Age of High Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper is a summary of the lecture which the author presented at the 5th Hokuriku Workshop for Study of Scientific and Technological Information Activities on the 17th of January in 1986. The author analyzed the present situation and made some suggestions on them ; (1) the role of patent system has shifted from introduction of foreign technologies to independent technological development at the age of high technology, (2) circumstances of rapidly increasing international patent war, particularly patent conflict between U.S. and Japan concerning U.S. ITC, (3) as the service of soft aspects of economy has been closed up, the new business has come to the fore front, and the move to consider technology as a good has been activated, (4) how patent specification should be written, the way of obtaining and protecting patent successfully, (5) basic pattern of patent strategy and what the strategy should be to respond to the enterprises level, (6) present situation of patent information service, effective use of patent maps and information strategy.

  19. Quantitative determination of technological improvement from patent data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Benson

    Full Text Available The results in this paper establish that information contained in patents in a technological domain is strongly correlated with the rate of technological progress in that domain. The importance of patents in a domain, the recency of patents in a domain and the immediacy of patents in a domain are all strongly correlated with increases in the rate of performance improvement in the domain of interest. A patent metric that combines both importance and immediacy is not only highly correlated (r = 0.76, p = 2.6*10(-6 with the performance improvement rate but the correlation is also very robust to domain selection and appears to have good predictive power for more than ten years into the future. Linear regressions with all three causal concepts indicate realistic value in practical use to estimate the important performance improvement rate of a technological domain.

  20. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place.

  1. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  2. Advanced Analyses of Technology Innovations, Patents, and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A good indicator of the technical competitiveness of a country or an enterprise is the number of high quality international patents it owns. The latest statistics from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO showed that USA, Japan, Germany, China, and South Korea are among the top patent filing countries [1]. WIPO data indicate that these countries and their global companies are directing significant resources toward engineering innovations, design inventions, and technology R&D. The end result will be to capitalize their intellectual assets for competitive advantage. The huge and ever growing data and knowledge content of international patent (cyber- depositories creates great challenges for engineers, researchers, and technology strategists to fully utilize the wealth of knowledge [2]. Most critically, engineers must make correct R&D decisions based on the complex sets of patent information. This special issue features research papers focusing on the advances of representing, modeling, reasoning, analyzing, and synthesizing knowledge related to innovations, intellectual property (IP, patents, and technology adoptions. For industries with short life cycles and technical products (e.g., semiconductor, LED, and consumer electronics, state-of-the-art knowledge engineering approaches for IP and patent analysis are essential for sustaining competitive advantage. We have accepted five articles in this special issue and each has developed methodologies using industrial cases for verification. The papers are highlighted briefly as follows. The article “Applying Hybrid-Quantity Analysis in the Asia Semiconductor Industry,” co-authored by Chin-yuan Fan, Ming-Fong Lai, and Shu-Hao Chang, provides an integrated approach to explore competing technological and strategic-group relationships within the semiconductor industry in the Asia-Pacific region. They use a combination of patents, multidimensional scaling, and K-means clustering to

  3. Advanced Analyses of Technology Innovations, Patents, and Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Trappey, Amy J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A good indicator of the technical competitiveness of a country or an enterprise is the number of high quality international patents it owns. The latest statistics from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) showed that USA, Japan, Germany, China, and South Korea are among the top patent filing countries [1]. WIPO data indicate that these countries and their global companies are directing significant resources toward engineering innovations, design inventions, and technology R&...

  4. Another brick in the wall? Technology leaders, patents, and the threat of market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Heger, Diana; Zaby, Alexandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Technology leaders protecting a technological headstart with a patent are provided with a powerful legal measure to restrict market entry. We analyze the impact of knowledge spillover on the decision to patent and the effect of varying patent breadth on the threat of market entry. An empirical test of our theoretical results suggests that (i) a large technological lead is protected by a patent only in industries with high knowledge spillover, and that (ii) patent breadth can mitigate the mark...

  5. Technology Convergence and Divergence in China's Electronic Industries: Evidence from Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang-dong; LIU Xiao-qing

    2006-01-01

    By thoroughly reviewing international studies on technology convergence and divergence, four kinds of hypothesis are proposed based on patent data Herfindhal Index (HI)measurement. The main finding is that technology convergence does exist, based on patent technology records in China, primarily driven by overseas companies' strategic behavior, such as field intensiveness, competition during technology maturity session, and patent technology growth.

  6. Image Science Technology Forecasting on offset printing:A Patent Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaojen

    2004-01-01

    Technology forecasting is a important approach which can help researcher to point out what will be of technology in the future. There are many well-developed approaches and methodologies can do technology forecasting well, for example S-curve analysis. Patent analysis is another way to analyze technology development trend. Patent is a kind of intellectual property right can help researcher avoid to infringe patent owned by competitor. Patent analysis can help researcher and corporate find out what are major technology trends and point out what field has low patent infringement risk.It will describe what patent analysis is briefly and how to process, and use patent analysis to analysis image reproduction technology trend. Offset printing technology is the main field discussed. When running analysis will follow the international patent classification (IPC) category and use USPTO patent database.

  7. Patent Donations: Making Use of the Gift of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talnack, G. Marie

    2010-01-01

    The lines between basic and applied research and the sectors of the U.S. economy responsible for each type have begun to blur. No better case for the blurring of these lines and the benefits of technology transfer among research institutions can be provided than the recent phenomenon of corporate patent donations to non-profit research…

  8. A new patented building technology based on ancient Roman knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chains is a new patented building technology by means of which you can build houses, bridges, tunnels, and even ships with longer spans, less material-, and energy consumption, without scaffolding, and making the use of arches, vaults, domes, ribbed shells, and new...

  9. Research Funding, Patent Search Training and Technology Transfer: a collaboration

    KAUST Repository

    Tyhurst, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on the collaboration efforts of three different university departments to create, teach and evaluate the benefits of a joint patent training series, as well as the future directions this collaboration will take. KAUST has as one of its goals the diversification of the Saudi economy. There is a strong focus at the university on developing entrepreneurial ideas and commercializing research done. The University Library supports this goal through the provision of electronic resources and introductory patent search training skills. However, the patent training class offered by the University Library is only one step in a process that faculty and students need when starting or taking their research to the next level. In the Fall of 2015, I met with representatives of the two major stakeholders in the patent arena, the office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO), to develop a patent training program to meet the needs of researchers. The OSR provides funding to researchers who have demonstrated that their ideas have merit with potential applications, the TTO works with researchers who are at the point of needing IP protection. The resulting discussion led us to collaborate on creating a workshop series that benefit the researcher’s information needs and each of our departments as well. In the first of the series of three 2 hour workshops, the Manager of TTO and the Lead Integrative Specialist from the OSR presented a workshop on an overview of Intellectual Property and the patenting process. These presentations focused on when and how to determine whether research is potentially patentable, why a researcher needs to protect his/her research and how to go about protecting it. The second workshop focused on introductory patent search skills and tools, how to expand a literature search to include the information found in patents, and how this kind of research will improve not only the literature search but the research

  10. Prediction of Emerging Technologies Based on Analysis of the U.S. Patent Citation Network

    OpenAIRE

    Érdi, Péter; Makovi, Kinga; Somogyvári, Zoltán; Strandburg, Katherine; Tobochnik, Jan; Volf, Péter; Zalányi, László

    2012-01-01

    The network of patents connected by citations is an evolving graph, which provides a representation of the innovation process. A patent citing another implies that the cited patent reflects a piece of previously existing knowledge that the citing patent builds upon. A methodology presented here (i) identifies actual clusters of patents: i.e. technological branches, and (ii) gives predictions about the temporal changes of the structure of the clusters. A predictor, called the {citation vector}...

  11. Innovation and diffusion of clean/green technology: Can patent commons help?

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, B.H.; Helmers, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 94 "inventions" contributed by major multinational innovators to the "Eco-Patent Commons", which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented climate change related innovations. By comparing the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same multinationals, we investigate the motives of the contributing firms as well as the potential for such commons to encourage innovation and diffusion of c...

  12. 48 CFR 970.2770-3 - Technology transfer and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights. 970.2770-3 Section 970.2770-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2770-3 Technology transfer and patent rights. The National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act...

  13. Patent law--balancing profit maximization and public access to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman-Rodau, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses the contemporary issue of balancing the need for patent protection for intellectual property with the resulting restriction of public access to new technology. The author argues that patent law protects private property rights rather than creating monopolies. Additionally, the author discusses how restricting access to patented technology, such as pharmaceuticals, can affect public health problems, such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic in developing nations. The author then concludes with some proposals for making patented technology available to people in developing nations who need access to such technology but who are unable to afford its high costs due to patent protection. PMID:15977333

  14. Technology and industrialization in Spanish economy from 1950 to 1960: the patents as technological activity indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research is to study the innovative activity developed in the fifties by the Spanish industry focussing on the foreign technology incorporated in the activity of several industrial sectors. The structure of innovation in each sector has been characterized by using patents as technological activity indicators. The data of patents registered in Spain belonging to the 1950-1960 period have been obtained taking into account the research developed by the Department of Business Administration of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid through a subsidy granted by the Spanish Patent Office. (Author)

  15. Patent Portfolio Races in Concentrated Markets for Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Jell; Joachim Henkel

    2010-01-01

    Patent application numbers grow exponentially in many industries, a phenomenon that has been linked to high fragmentation of patent ownership. Contradicting these findings and theoretical arguments, we show that such fragmentation is not a precondition for sudden and strong increases in patenting. We describe and analyze a patent portfolio race in an industry with highly concentrated patent ownership, namely the newspaper printing machines oligopoly. Triangulating data from patent analysis, i...

  16. AXEL-2016: Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    AXEL-2016 is the latest in a yearly lecture series on particle accelerators given at CERN within the framework of the 2016 Technical Training Programme. As part of the BE department's Operation group’s shutdown lecture series, this general accelerator physics module has been offered since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE department and the Technical Training team and is open to the wider CERN community.    The lecturer is Rende Steerenberg, deputy leader of the Operation group and PS section leader. Programme: basic mathematics; transverse optics; lattice calculations; resonances; longitudinal motion; transfer lines, injection and ejection; longitudinal and transverse beam instabilities; colliders. A detailed programme is available on the AXEL-2016 webpage. Target audience: designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but also open to technicians, engineers and physicists interested i...

  17. 75 FR 34988 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a.... Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 84,557.//U.S. Patent No....

  18. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  19. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triest, van Sander; Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The pat

  20. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  1. Monitoring innovation in electrochemical energy storage technologies: A patent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Grid effects of intermittent sources show increasing need for decentralized storage. • Novel patent classification is applied to monitor competing technologies. • Up-to-date geographical, organizational, and qualitative insight is given. • Redox flow patenting shows strong growth, lithium also strong absolute numbers. • Revealed patents allow the expectation of improved modules in the future. - Abstract: Due to the suitability to balance the intermittency in decentralized systems with renewable sources, electrochemical energy storage possibilities have been analyzed in several studies, all highlighting the need for improvements in relevant techno-economic parameters. Particularly a reduction in the costs per cycle is much needed, which could either come from innovation in more cost-efficient manufacturing methods, a higher endurance of charge/discharge sequences or higher capacities. Looking at patent applications as a metric allows us to determine whether the necessary technological progress is indeed occurring, as the mandatory publication of the underlying inventions provides access to otherwise hidden R and D activities. Our paper contributes to the literature with a compilation of technological classes related to important battery types in the novel Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC), which can be used to identify relevant patent applications of the competing technologies. Using the worldwide patent statistical database (PATSTAT), we find that promising technologies have been showing increasing patent counts in recent years. For example, the number of patent applications related to regenerative fuel cells (e.g. redox flow batteries) doubled from 2009 to 2011. Nevertheless, the volume of patent filings in technologies related to lithium remains unchallenged. Patent applications in this area are still growing, which indicates that the introduction of improved modules will continue. Using citation analysis, we have identified

  2. International trends in technological progress: stylized facts from patent citations, 1980-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Soonwoo; Lee, Jihong; Lee, Sokbae

    2014-01-01

    We analyze cross-country trends in technological progress over the period of 1980-2011 by examining citations data from almost 4 million utility patents granted by the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Our estimation results on patent quality and distance to the knowledge frontier reveal the following stylized facts. The emerging Asian economies of Korea, Taiwan and China have indeed achieved substantial catch-up towards the technology frontier. In the case of Korea and Taiwan, progress...

  3. Prizes, Patents, and Technology Procurement: A Proposed Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Timothy J.; Macauley, Molly; Whitefoot, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Policy and entrepreneurial communities are increasingly promoting innovation by using prizes but their distinguishing features remain inadequately understood. Models of patents treat winning a patent as winning a prize; other models distinguish prizes primarily as public lump-sum (re)purchase of a patent. We examine advantages of prizes based on the ability to customize rewards, manage competition, generate publicity, and cover achievements otherwise not patentable. We compare prizes to paten...

  4. A Survival Analysis on Fuel Cell Technology Patent Maintenance and Values Exploration between 1976 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng-Su Tsang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cell R&D activities desirably arrive in patents; the costly maintenance fee challenges managers as well as researchers to whether or not renew existing patents. The key is, will the fuel cell patent’s value be worth renewing? Thus assessment of patent value is essential. Our study focus online searching was made available after 1976, as the initial year to conduct the patent search. Up to 2001, there are 2269 patents classified in the H01M 008/00~H01M 008/24 category, which is the category concerning fuel cell under the classification of the International Patent Classification. Effective exploitation of technology values is subject to the complementarities of organizational resources. The present study used the emerging technology of Fuel Cells as an example to show that firms may commercialize the values of technology according to their organizational resources. By aligning firms’ patenting strategies and the imparities between book values and market values this study concludes a technological ambidexterity with respect to firms’ technology development. The exploitative firms tend to file patents to defend their leadership in the product market as a result their technology is constrained within a firm’s boundaries. The results show that patent renewing decisions are consequence of firm’s constraints of complementary resources.

  5. 48 CFR 18.119 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Requirement to obtain authorization prior to use of patented technology may be waived...

  6. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to waste that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  7. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to pollution prevention that are available for licensing.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  8. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to water monitoring and remediation that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  9. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to air quality that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  10. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to vehicles and fuel emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  11. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    . The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  12. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  13. Patent Opposition Considerations for the Technology Transfer Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark B.; Alge, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including the European Patent Office (EPO), have opposition proceedings in which an interested third party can challenge the validity of the claims of an issued patent. The United States Congress is considering legislation that would introduce opposition proceedings in the USA. This paper reviews the existing EPO and proposed…

  14. NIH Patent Policy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Public Health Service (PHS) may determine that it is necessary to seek patent protection on its inventions, when doing so would facilitate the commercial development of products or services that will benefit the public health, or when a patent will advance another PHS objective.

  15. A Short Course on Patent Reference for Science and Technology Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackle, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Now that the full text of patents as well as patent searching tools are available for free on the Internet, every librarian who is responsible for assisting people with science and technology information should have a basic knowledge of this aspect of intellectual property. Whether a school librarian helping children discover the world of…

  16. Delineating the scientific footprint in technology: Identifying scientific publications within non-patent references.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Grouwels, J.; Looy, van B.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Indicators based on non-patent references (NPRs) are increasingly being used for measuring and assessing science–technology interactions. But NPRs in patent documents contain noise, as not all of them can be considered ‘scientific’. In this article, we introduce the results of a machine-learning alg

  17. 77 FR 73456 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a... described in U.S. Patent No. 7,020,354: Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No....

  18. Patterns of technological innovation and evolution in the energy sector: A patent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the ever-increasing pace and complexity of technological innovation in the energy sector, monitoring technological changes has become of strategic importance. One of the most common techniques for technology monitoring is patent analysis, which enables the identification of technological trends over time. However, few previous studies have carried out patent analysis in the energy sector. This study aims to explore patterns of innovation and of evolution in energy technologies, particularly focusing on similarities and differences across technologies. For this purpose, we first defined the relevant energy technologies and extracted the associated patent data from the United States Patents and Trademark Office (USPTO) and then adopted six patent indices and developed six patent maps to analyze their innovation characteristics. We then clustered energy technologies with similar characteristics, so defining innovation categories, and analyzed the changes in these characteristics over time to define their evolution categories. As one of the few attempts to investigate the overall trends in the energy sector's innovation and evolution, this study is expected to help develop an in-depth understanding of the energy industry, which will be useful in establishing technology strategies and policy in this rapidly changing sector. - Highlights: • We examined the patterns of innovation and evolution of energy technologies. • Six types of innovation patterns such as “competitive” or “mature” were identified. • Six types of evolution patterns such as “towards closed innovation” were identified. • The patterns of evolution were related to the patterns of innovation

  19. Technological and Social Costs and Benefits of Patent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildizoglu; Thomas Vallée

    2004-01-01

    "If we did not have a patent system, it would be irresponsible, on the basis of our present knowledge of its economic consequences, to recommend instituting one. But since we have had a patent system for a long time, it would be irresponsible, on the basis of our present knowledge, to recommend abolishing it." Machlup (1958) - cited by Hall (2002) The demand for a stronger patenting system has become in the recent period a major source of tension between the U.S. government and the E.U. The U...

  20. A Study on Diffusion Pattern of Technology Convergence: Patent Analysis for Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Young Choi; Seongkyoon Jeong; Kyunam Kim

    2015-01-01

    Technology convergence indicates that technologies of different application areas are converted into a new and common unity of technology. Its range spans from inter-field, whereby technologies are converged between heterogeneous fields in homogeneous sector, to a wider inter-sector, whereby technologies belong to heterogeneous technology sector are converged. This paper determined the definition of technology convergence from previous literature and classified patents into technology catego...

  1. Holding a candle to innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Frauke G. [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hooper, Elizabeth, E-mail: lizhooper@cantab.ne [School of Management, University of Bradford (United Kingdom); Wand, Robert [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fachgebiet Wirtschafts- und Infrastrukturpolitik (WIP) (Germany); Zloczysti, Petra [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Improved understanding of the innovative pathways of renewable energy technologies is vital if we are to make the transition to a low carbon economy. This study presents new evidence on innovation and industry dynamics in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Though CSP is undergoing a renaissance, existing innovation studies have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and CSP technologies. This study, based on patent data, examines the level and dynamics of innovative activity in CSP between 1978 and 2004. Our unique contribution, based on engineering expertise and detailed datawork, is a classification system mapping CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. The innovation performance of CSP is found to be surprisingly weak compared to the patent boom in other green technologies. Performance was strong around 1980 before falling dramatically, and has only recently begun to show signs of recovery. Innovation and R and D are concentrated in high-tech countries; the US, Germany and Japan, which do not necessarily have high domestic CSP potential. Large CSP potential is, therefore, not a sufficient condition for innovation. Innovators must possess economic and scientific capabilities. - Research highlights: {yields} We develop a new classification system which allows us to map innovation in CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification System. {yields} Evidence of innovation patterns in concentrating solar power technologies is presented. {yields} Innovation performance in CSP is surprisingly weak compared to patenting in other green technologies, despite its strong potential as a low carbon power generation technology.

  2. Holding a candle to innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved understanding of the innovative pathways of renewable energy technologies is vital if we are to make the transition to a low carbon economy. This study presents new evidence on innovation and industry dynamics in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Though CSP is undergoing a renaissance, existing innovation studies have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and CSP technologies. This study, based on patent data, examines the level and dynamics of innovative activity in CSP between 1978 and 2004. Our unique contribution, based on engineering expertise and detailed datawork, is a classification system mapping CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. The innovation performance of CSP is found to be surprisingly weak compared to the patent boom in other green technologies. Performance was strong around 1980 before falling dramatically, and has only recently begun to show signs of recovery. Innovation and R and D are concentrated in high-tech countries; the US, Germany and Japan, which do not necessarily have high domestic CSP potential. Large CSP potential is, therefore, not a sufficient condition for innovation. Innovators must possess economic and scientific capabilities. - Research highlights: → We develop a new classification system which allows us to map innovation in CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification System. → Evidence of innovation patterns in concentrating solar power technologies is presented. → Innovation performance in CSP is surprisingly weak compared to patenting in other green technologies, despite its strong potential as a low carbon power generation technology.

  3. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  4. DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE BASES OF THE WORLD PATENT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. KAMENEVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the innovative growth and progressive economic performance in high-technology industries, or at least to keep them at a fixed level it is necessary for the industrial enterprises to conduct scientific research and inventive activities through developing technological innovations and also through supporting, completing, replenishing, updating one of the most important intangible components of the business – patent resources: protective documents on inventions, industrial designs, utility models, trademarks etc. Scientific-and-engineering information, contained in international patent funds, allows determining the world state of the art, registering and securing the company’s exclusive patent rights to the innovations. This work presents the method of obtaining patent information in Russia by means of using various Russian and international databases and abstract journals that can help to investigate the world state of art in a given technological field.

  5. Patent Analysis with Innovative Patent Map System

    OpenAIRE

    Rain Chen; Chao-Chun Chen; Bei-Bei Yau

    2013-01-01

    Among the research on patents, the applications of Patent Map to Patent Analysis have been gradually emphasized. For three years, the researchers have applied Patent Map Theory Model to establishing Patent Map System (PMS) assisting decision-makers in Patent Analysis. Based on the system requirements, relevant function components are planned, and UML technology is utilized for the design and establishment of Patent Map Database. In the actual case study on non-glue rubber mat design, the rese...

  6. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  7. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 27.204-1 Section 27.204-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Patents and Copyrights 27.204-1 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement...

  8. Patent Network Analysis and Quadratic Assignment Procedures to Identify the Convergence of Robot Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Won Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Because of the remarkable developments in robotics in recent years, technological convergence has been active in this area. We focused on finding patterns of convergence within robot technology using network analysis of patents in both the USPTO and KIPO. To identify the variables that affect convergence, we used quadratic assignment procedures (QAP). From our analysis, we observed the patent network ecology related to convergence and found technologies that have great potential to converge with other robotics technologies. The results of our study are expected to contribute to setting up convergence based R&D policies for robotics, which can lead new innovation. PMID:27764196

  9. Linkage between Public Science and Technology Development of Genetic Engineering : preliminary study on patents granted to Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Szu-Chia

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the basics of the research productivity and linkage between public science and technology development in Genetic Engineering Research by taking the patent bibliometrics approach. The research productivity is demonstrated by patent count and the research linkage is examined by tracing the non-patent citations. 1,048 USPTO patents granted to Japan, Korea and Taiwan from 1976 to 2004 in genetic engineering including gene mutation, cell fusion, genetic modi...

  10. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Masatsura; Okazaki, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). Reported findings include: (1) Nanotechnology is a multifaceted technology, currently consisting of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field;…

  11. 78 FR 17187 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation, a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive... its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a revocable,...

  12. Energy prices, technological knowledge and green energy innovation. A dynamic panel analysis of patent counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the e.ect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.

  13. Energy prices, technological knowledge and green energy innovation. A dynamic panel analysis of patent counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Juergen; Wetzel, Heike [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-07-15

    We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the e.ect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.

  14. Innovation in Concentrating Solar Power Technologies: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    OpenAIRE

    Frauke G. Braun; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...

  15. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  16. What Drives the International Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies? Empirical Evidence from Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using patent data from 66 countries for the period 1990-2003, we characterize the factors which promote or hinder the international diffusion of climate-friendly technologies on a global scale. Regression results show that technology-specific capabilities of the recipient countries are determinant factors. In contrast, the general level of education is less important. We also show that restrictions to international trade - e.g., high tariff rates - and to a lesser extent lax intellectual property regimes negatively influence the international diffusion of patented knowledge. A counter-intuitive result is that barriers to foreign direct investments can promote transfers. We discuss different possible interpretations. (authors)

  17. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation. PMID:26372160

  18. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  19. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Technology Applications, ATTN: ] RDRL-DB/Bldg. 434, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425, Telephone: (410) 278-5028. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: None. Brenda S. Bowen... following listing of intellectual property in the Federal Register on January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3118)....

  20. Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of US State-Level Patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Frenken, K.; Los, B.

    2015-01-01

    Castaldi C., Frenken K. and Los B. Related variety, unrelated variety and technological breakthroughs: an analysis of US state-level patenting, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how variety affects the innovation output of a region. Borrowing arguments from theories of recombinant innovation

  1. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to contaminated sites and hazardous substances that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  2. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  3. An Economics of Nano technology: The relative importance of Governmental funding and filing of patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr KVS Raxit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The non technology applications are taking the business applications are increasing. Private activities coupled with governmental funding bestows competitive advantage on nations. Unless India gears up fast and quick it would lose yet one more business race especially in the context of liberation, globalization and privatization reforms that it has entered.The nanotechnology patent applications published in different countries’/regions’ patent offices have been evaluated by using the esp@cenet ‘‘worldwide’’ database. A longitudinal analysis is done on nanotechnology patent applications data from 1991-2008. Indian data and contributions are revealed as sparse. Semiconductor devices; electric solid state devices not otherwise provided for’’ (H01L ranked first, followed by ‘‘Preparations for medical, dental, or toilet purposes’’ (A61K.

  4. New patent in sight for CERN-made technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    A portable gamma and beta radiation survey meter capable of operating in a strong magnetic field is the most recent subject of a CERN patent application. Developed by members of the HSE Unit, the new instrument may find applications not only in research laboratories but also in hospitals where radioactivity is managed in the presence of magnetic fields.   The new instrument consists of two parts: an active probe and a counting unit. Inside the probe, a scintillating crystal sends its signal to a photo detection module, which in turn is connected to the electronics. The counting unit is a portable box to be fixed on the operator’s waist. Tested in a magnetic field up to 1 Tesla, this innovative radiation survey meter has an operating range of a fraction of µSv/h to 1 mSv/h for the ambient dose equivalent rate, and 45 keV – 1.3 MeV for photon energy, with a fast response. “The instrument is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Milan Politecnico ...

  5. Computer-Aided Analysis of Patents for Product Technology Maturity Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanhong; Gan, Dequan; Guo, Yingchun; Zhang, Peng

    Product technology maturity foresting is vital for any enterprises to hold the chance for innovation and keep competitive for a long term. The Theory of Invention Problem Solving (TRIZ) is acknowledged both as a systematic methodology for innovation and a powerful tool for technology forecasting. Based on TRIZ, the state -of-the-art on the technology maturity of product and the limits of application are discussed. With the application of text mining and patent analysis technologies, this paper proposes a computer-aided approach for product technology maturity forecasting. It can overcome the shortcomings of the current methods.

  6. Understanding the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies: A patent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Governments’ strategies set important frameworks to develop and sustain low-carbon energy technologies. • Commercial activities play a key role in the low-carbon energy technologies’ development. • The number of patents that are based upon basic research is growing. - Abstract: Eco-innovations are being recognized as fundamental means to foster sustainable development, as well as to create new business opportunities. Nowadays, the eco-innovation concept is gaining ground within both academic and practitioner studies with the attempt to better understand the main dynamics underlying its nature and guide policymakers and companies in supporting its development. This paper contributes to the extant literature on eco-innovation by providing a comprehensive overview of the evolution of a specific type of eco-innovations that are playing a crucial role in the current socio-economic agenda, namely low-carbon energy technologies. Accordingly, we focus our attention on the related patenting activity of different countries and organizations over time, as well as on influencing policy initiatives and events. Hence, we collected 131,661 patents granted at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (U.S.PTO.) between 1971 and 2010, and belonging to the “Nuclear power generation”, “Alternative energy production”, and “Energy conservation” technological classes, as indicated by the International Patent Classification (IPC) Green Inventory. Our findings report the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies, as well as identify major related environmental programs, historical events, and private sector initiatives explaining those trends, hence revealing how these different circumstances have significantly influenced their development over time

  7. Technical training: AXEL-2012 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2012: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2012 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the Technical Training Program. Being part of BE Department’s Operation Group Shutdown Lecture series, the general accelerator physics module is organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE Department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2012 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 16th – 20th of January 2012, and given in English with ...

  8. Technical training: AXEL-2008 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2008: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2008 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the AB Operation Group Shut-down Lectures. Since 2003, this course has been organized as a joint venture between the AB Department and Technical Training and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2008 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from 29th January to 1st February 2008, and given in English with questions and answers als...

  9. Technical Training: AXEL-2005 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2005 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the 'PS Shutdown Course', now AB/OP), the general accelerator physics section is organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2005 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to all people (technicians, engineers, physicists) interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course will be given in French on course supports in English; questions and answers possible in both languages. AXEL-2005 - I...

  10. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Godoy Daiha

    Full Text Available The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis.

  11. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibl

  12. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every c

  13. The Technology Trend of Japanese Patent for the Nuclear Fuel Assembly Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Jeong, Kyung Min; Suh, Yong Chil; Kim, Chang Hoi; Shin, Jung Cheol

    2008-06-15

    Japanese technology patents for the nuclear fuel assembly inspection unit, from the year 1993 to the year 2006, were investigated. The fuel rods which contain fissile material are grouped together in a closely-spaced array within the fuel assembly. Various kinds of reactor including the PWR reactor are being operated in Japan. There are many kinds of nuclear fuel assemblies in Japan, and the shape and the size of these nuclear fuel assemblies are various also. As the structure of these various fuel assemblies is a regular square as the same as the Korean one, the inspection method described in Japanese technology patent can be applied to the inspection of the nuclear fuel assembly of the Korea. This report focuses on advances in VIT(visual inspection test) of nuclear fuel assembly using the state-of-the-art CCD camera system.

  14. Technology and industrialization in Spanish economy from 1950 to 1960: the patents as technological activity indicators; Tecnologia e industrializacion en la economia espanola de 1950 a 1960: Nueva evidencia a partir de datos de patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Molero Zayas, J.; Granda Gayo, I.

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this research is to study the innovative activity developed in the fifties by the Spanish industry focussing on the foreign technology incorporated in the activity of several industrial sectors. The structure of innovation in each sector has been characterized by using patents as technological activity indicators. The data of patents registered in Spain belonging to the 1950-1960 period have been obtained taking into account the research developed by the Department of Business Administration of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid through a subsidy granted by the Spanish Patent Office. (Author)

  15. X线机专利技术分析%Analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To make the better understanding on the status of patent application to technical staff and enterprises worked on X-ray field,provide reference for technical development and patent application though the analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument.Methods:Combined international patent classification with keywords for searching the patents related X-ray instrument both in domestic and international and analyzed patent application amount,area distribution,principal applicant and important technology for the searched patents.Results:Some information about global amount of patent application over the years,country and area distribution of the patent technology,patent application status of principal applicant is obtained in the X-ray technology field.Conclusion:The amount of patent application in the field of X-ray instrument technology is rising year by year both around the world and in china.There is a big gap between domestic corporations and large foreign companies in the amount of patent application,patent validity and integrity of patent layout.%目的:通过对X线机专利技术进行分析,使X线机技术领域人员以及相关企业了解该领域的专利申请状况,为国内申请人在该领域的技术开发以及进行专利申请提供参考.方法:结合国际专利分类号和关键词检索出国内外涉及X线机的专利,并对所检索的专利申请量、区域分布、主要申请人以及重点技术专利进行分析.结果:获得了全球X线机技术领域的历年专利申请量、专利技术的国家和地区分布、重点申请人的专利申请情况以及在中国申请的X线机技术的专利申请状况信息.结论:X线机技术领域中的专利申请量在全球和中国范围内均呈现逐年上升趋势,我国企业在专利数量、专利的有效性及布局的完整性等方面与国外大公司相比存在较大差距.

  16. An SAO-based approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information: Case study—graphene sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyin; HU; Shu; FANG; Ling; WEI; Yi; WEN; Xian; ZHANG; Min; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces an approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information based on Subject-Action-Object(SAO) structures.Design/methodology/approach: First, SAO structures were extracted from patent documents and were cleaned. Second, several dimension-reduction techniques were used to generate technology topics. Then, the hierarchical relationships between technology topics were calculated based on patent clustering. Finally, technology evolution maps were drawn by adding a timeline.Findings: This approach can reveal technology evolution processes from multiple perspectives than other approaches.Research limitations: The semantic annotation of an SAO type is not very accurate and the semantic types of technology topics need to be enriched.Practical implications: The approach can be applied to draw technology evolution maps using different types of technology topics such as problem or solution.Originality/value: This approach offers an analytical dimension and more details than existing techniques, and it helps identify fundamental and emerging technologies more accurately and comprehensively.

  17. 新一代通信技术专利概况%Patent Survey about New Grade Communication Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the patents about new grade communication technology .Based on the exact technology clas-sification, the paper completely searches the patents of new grade communication technology in patent databases , acquires the global and Chinese patent distribution about new grade communication technology , and puts forward suggestions for gov-ernment decision .%对新一代通信技术进行专利信息分析。在准确技术分类的基础上,在数据库中检索新一代通信的专利文献,并进行专利信息分析,介绍新一代通信全球的专利布局概况,提供新一代通信技术领域的专利预警建议,为政府决策提供建议。

  18. Measuring science–technology interactions using patent citations and author-inventor links: an exploration analysis from Chinese nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article contributes to the growing study on the interactions between science and technology with China’s evidence in the field of nanotechnology, based on the database of United States Patent and Trademark Office. The analysis is focused during the period of 1991–2008, a rapid increasing period for the development of nanotechnology. Using the non-patent references cited by patents, we first investigate the science–technology connections in the context of Chinese nanotechnology, especially in institutional sectors and its application fields. Those patents, produced by academic researchers and directed towards basic scientific knowledge, generally cite more scientific references with a higher proportion of self-citations. It is interesting to find that patents contributed by collaborations between public organizations and corporations seldom contain scientific references. Following an interesting path on matching the data of publications and patents, we establish the author-inventor links in this emerging field. Author-inventors, who are co-active in publishing and patenting, are at the very top of the most prolific and highly cited researchers. Finally, we employ social network analysis to explore the characteristics of scientific and technological networks generated by co-authorship and co-invention data, to investigate the position and the role of patenting–publishing scientists in these research networks.

  19. Dendritic-cell-based technology landscape: Insights from patents and citation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjun; Hu, Yuanjia; Cai, Zhifang; Yang, Fengqing; Zhang, Qianru

    2015-01-01

    As the most potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal players in regulating immune responses. DC-based technologies have generated a series of typical and promising therapeutic options, especially after the first DC-based cancer vaccine was approved by US. Food and Drug Administration (US. FDA). In this context, this paper employs patents and citation networks to conduct a fundamental analysis in order to show overall landscape of DC-based technologies. The results in this research can be used as references for decision-making in developing efficacious DC therapeutic products. PMID:25714961

  20. [Strategy and core technologies for the secondary development of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagn, Bo-Li; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Chegn, Yi-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Secondary development of Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM) is an effective and innovation-driven way for the leaping development of Chinese medicine industry with less investment and faster return. Aim to improving the efficacy, safety and batch-to-batch consistency of CPMs, the theory and methodology for the secondary development of CPMs, mode for cultivating superior CPM, approaches to reforming the pharmaceutical technology and the corresponding core technologies were proposed in this paper, which is summarized as 'One objective, Three analyses, Five definitudes and Seven improvements'. PMID:24558853

  1. Contorno e limites do conceito do social em Axel Honneth

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Philipe de Caux

    2015-01-01

    Em particular em seus textos anteriores a Luta por reconhecimento, Axel Honneth se vale com frequência do adjetivo substantivado "o social" (das Soziale), sem jamais explicitar diretamente o significado que lhe atribui. Todavia, este conceito, sempre pressuposto, tanto está na base de sua conhecida crítica do déficit sociológico da tradição crítica frankfurtiana quanto orienta clandestinamente todo o desenvolvimento de sua obra até o modelo maduro da reconstrução normativa. Trata-se, aqui, de...

  2. RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth

    OpenAIRE

    STÉPHANE HABER

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order to argue for the superiority of the latter over the formerEste ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005) y su relación con la...

  3. 相机防抖技术的专利分析%Patents Analysis for Camera Anti-shake Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 李婉怡; 卢浩

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the patents for camera anti-shake technology which is applied in China, the patent application situation, the patent quantity of different anti-shake technology, the important applicants and the patent development trend of the camera anti-shake technology are all analyzed in detail, and in-depth studied. Finally the characteristic of those patents for camera anti-shake technology is summarized by the introduction of the patent status and development trend of the field.%基于在中国申请的相机防抖技术的专利文献,给出了在该领域专利情况的统计分析,其中针对专利申请情况、采用不同技术的专利数量、重要申请人以及专利发展趋势进行了详细的分析和研究.通过介绍这一领域专利的现状和发展趋势,总结出一些涉及相机防抖技术专利的特征.

  4. Recognition of Emerging Technology Trends. Class-selective study of citations in the U.S. Patent Citation Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bruck, Péter; Szente, Judit; Tobochnik, Jan; Érdi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    By adopting a citation-based recursive ranking method for patents the evolution of new fields of technology can be traced. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the laser / inkjet printer technology emerged from the recombination of two existing technologies: sequential printing and static image production. The dynamics of the citations coming from the different "precursor" classes illuminates the mechanism of the emergence of new fields and give the possibility to make predictions about future technological development. For the patent network the optimal value of the PageRank damping factor is close to 0.5; the application of d=0.85 leads to unacceptable ranking results.

  5. Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: Geographic and technological perspectives on "photovoltaic cells"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; F. Alkemade; G. Heimeriks; R. Hoekstra

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) provide new options for an informed delineation of samples in both USPTO data and the Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PatStat) of EPO. Among the "te

  6. Technical training: AXEL-2011 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2011: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2011 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2011 Technical Training Program. As part of the BE Department’s Operation Group Shutdown Lecture series, the general accelerator physics module has been organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE Department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2011 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic knowledge of magnetism would be an advantage. The series will be composed of 10 one-hour courses (Monday 10.01.2011 – Fri 14.01.2011, from 09:00 to 10:30 and from 14:00 to 15:...

  7. AXEL-2015 - Introduction To Particle Accelerators | starting 19 January

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2015: Learning for the LHC AXEL-2015 is a lecture series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2014 Technical Training Programme. As part of the BE Department’s Operations Group Shutdown Lecture series, the general accelerator physics module has been organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE Department and Technical Training, and is open to the general CERN community. The AXEL-2015 course is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations and some basic knowledge of magnetism would be an advantage. The series will consists of 10 one-hour sessions (Monday 19 January 2015 – Friday 23 January 2015, from 9 a.m. to 10.15 a.m. and ...

  8. Technical training: AXEL-2006 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2006: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2006 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2006 Technical Training Programme. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the 'PS Shutdown Course'), the general accelerator physics module is organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2006 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) during the week 6-10 February March 2006, and given in English...

  9. Technical training: AXEL-2008 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2008: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2008 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the AB Operation Group Shut-down Lectures. Since 2003, this course is organized as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2008 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 29th of January to the 1st February 2008, and given in English with questions and answers also possible in French. The lecturer is Rende Steerenberg, engineer and sup...

  10. Technical training: AXEL-2009 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2009: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2009 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2009 Technical Training Program. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the ‘PS Shutdown Course’), the general accelerator physics module is organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2009 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 19th – 23rd of January 2009, and given in English with...

  11. Technical training: AXEL-2010 - Introduction to particle accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2010: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2010 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2010 Technical Training Program. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the ‘PS Shutdown Course’), the general accelerator physics module is organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the BE department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2010 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from the 1st – 5th of February 201...

  12. Technical training: AXEL-2009 - Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2009: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2009 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2009 Technical Training Program. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the ‘PS Shutdown Course’), the general accelerator physics module as been organized since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB Department and Technical Training Service, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2009 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is also open to technicians, engineers, and physicists interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge of accelerators. However, some basic knowledge of trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) from 19 to 23 January 2009, and will be given i...

  13. Technical Training: AXEL-2005: Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! AXEL-2005 is a course series on particle accelerators, given at CERN within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the 'PS Shutdown Course', now AB/OP), the general accelerator physics section is organised since 2003 as a joint venture between the AB department and Technical Training, and is open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2005 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to all people (technicians, engineers, physicists) interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course series will be composed of 10 one-hour lectures (mornings and afternoons) during the week 14-18 March 2005, given in Fr...

  14. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN; Condicionantes do potencial de exploracao comercial da patente: a implantacao de um sistema de oferta publica de tecnologia na CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila, Daniela Lima Cerqueira

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  15. Scientific production and technological production: transforming a scientific paper into patent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cleber Gustavo; de Almeida, Roberto Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil has been presenting in the last years a scientific production well-recognized in the international scenario, in several areas of knowledge, according to the impact of their publications in important events and especially in indexed journals of wide circulation. On the other hand, the country does not seem to be in the same direction regarding to the technological production and wealth creation from the established scientific development, and particularly from the applied research. The present paper covers such issue and discloses the main similarities and differences between a scientific paper and a patent application, in order to contribute to a better understanding of both types of documents and help the researchers to chose and select the results with technological potential, decide what is appropriated for industrial protection, as well as foster new business opportunities for each technology which has been created. PMID:23579737

  16. The Role of Technological Rarity and Environmental Uncertainty in Explaining Patent Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Lauto, Giancarlo;

    hydrocracking are based on the combination of elementary technologies relative to three technology areas: feeds and products, catalyst preparation, and refinery processing.Using detailed patent information, we find that rarity has a curvilinear effect in an U-shape on innovation value, that environmental......It is well known that knowledge circulates and diffuses in an industry through spillover mechanisms. Building on the insights offered by the Resource Based View that only rare and inimitable resources contribute to value we study how rarity to the market affects innovation value. Furthermore we...... explore how environmental uncertainty affects innovation value, and whether environmental uncertainty has a moderating effect on the relation between rarity and innovation value. We take as our empirical case hydrocracking, a mature technology widely applied in the oil industry. Innovations in...

  17. Innovation in the U.S. building sector: An assessment of patent citations in building energy control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings are crucial to addressing energy problems because they are large consumers of end-use energy, and potential exists to dramatically improve their efficiencies. However, the pace of innovation in buildings is generally characterized as inadequate, despite the implementation of an array of policy instruments aimed at promoting efficiency. The literature on innovation in the building industry provides several explanations including: fragmented decision-making, principal agent problems, inadequate information, and limited learning across heterogeneous projects. We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. with a case study of patenting in energy management control systems (EMCS) for commercial buildings and programmable thermostats (PT) for residential buildings. Using U.S. patent data, we find that: (1) patenting activity peaked around 1980, subsequently declined, and then increased considerably in the past decade; (2) commercial, rather than residential, buildings account for the recent increase; and (3) building control technologies have benefitted from inventions originating outside the industry, notably from electronics and computers, with a shift toward the latter in recent years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. using patents. ► We use commercial and residential building controls technology as a case study. ► Patenting peaked around 1980, declined, and then increased in the past decade. ► Commercial building control patents account for most of the recent increase. ► Inventions in electronics and computers have led to innovation in building controls.

  18. Patterns of technology diffusion Spanish. An identification through the information contained in patents; Pautas de difusion de la tecnologia espanola. Una identificacion a traves de la informacion contenida en las patentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Sero, M.; Coronado Guerrero, D.; Fernandez Perez, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to answer the following research questions: What countries are the geographical destinations of technological knowledge generated by Spanish inventors? What sectors take advantage of the technological knowledge produced in a different sector? What are the characteristics of the patented knowledge more intensively diffused? Our methodology rests on a biblio metric analysis of patent granted by the Patent Office from the US (USPTO) to Spanish inventors. We found some relevant aspects that might be useful to think about technological policy favouring knowledge diffusion. (Author) 27 refs.

  19. What drives innovation in nuclear reactors technologies? An empirical study based on patent counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the evolution of innovation in nuclear power reactors between 1974 and 2008 in twelve OECD countries and assesses to what extent nuclear innovation has been driven by economic incentives, political decisions and safety regulation considerations. We use priority patent applications related to Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) as a proxy for innovating activity. Our results highlight that nuclear innovation is partly driven by the conventional paradigm where both demand-pull, measured by NPPs constructions in the innovating country and in the rest of the world, and technology-push, measured by Research and Development (R and D) expenditures specific to NPPs, have a positive and significant impact on innovation. Our results also evidence that the impact of public R and D expenditures and national NPPs construction on innovation is stronger when the quality of innovation, measured by forward patent citations, is taken into account, and have a long run positive impact on innovation through the stock of knowledge available to innovators. In contrast, we show that political decisions following the Three Miles Island and Chernobyl nuclear accidents, measured by NPPs cancellations, have a negative impact on nuclear innovation. Finally, we find that the nuclear safety authority has an ambivalent effect on innovation. On one hand, regulatory inspections have a positive impact on innovation, one the other hand, regulatory decisions to temporarily close a NPP have an adverse impact on innovation. (author)

  20. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discriminat...

  1. ChemicalVia: a CERN-patented technology for use in high-density circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    High-density multilayer printed circuits such as those pictured here are found in miniaturized modern equipment from video cameras to mobile phones. Adjacent layers in these circuits are electrically connected by microvias, consisting of a small-diameter hole (usually 50 µm) with a thin metal-deposited surface covering their cylindrical walls to ensure local conductivity between the two layers. ChemicalVia is a new method, patented by CERN, to make microvias on high-density multilayer printed circuits using chemicals rather than complex laser, plasma or photoimaging technology. The process is compatible with all standard printed-circuit assembly lines, and has the advantages of low initial investment and reduced manufacturing costs. http://www.cern.ch/ttdatabase

  2. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  3. 碳纤维制造产业的专利分析%Analysis of patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀小强; 易方方

    2012-01-01

    对碳纤维制造技术专利文献进行了检索统计,分别从年度发展趋势、专利申请国分布、申请人状况和中美日欧四局共同申请的重点专利布局等方面对碳纤维制造产业的国内外技术专利进行了分析,揭示了国内外碳纤维专利申请的现状,分析了主要专利申请人专利的国际专利分类领域和技术重点,为我国科研院所和企业提出了专利申请布局的相关建议.提出了我国应利用已公开的专利技术,研发特种碳纤维的制造技术,强化碳纤维的应用技术,促进碳纤维的产业化和工程化.%The relevant patents of carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were retrieved. The China and international patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were analyzed from the aspects of annual trend and geographical spread of patent applications, statistics of patent applicants, distribution of key patents filed in US, Japan, Europe and China patent offices. The status of carbon fiber patent application was explored is China and abroad. The international classification and focal points of patent technology were analyzed according to the dominant patent applicants. Some suggestion on the patent application strategy was put forward for China science research institutes and enterprises. It was pointed out that China should develop the manufacturing technology of special carbon fiber, strengthen the application technology and stimulate the industrialization and engineering technology of carbon fiber using the published patent technologies.

  4. A Hybrid Method of Analyzing Patents for Sustainable Technology Management in Humanoid Robot Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid, which refers to a robot that resembles a human body, imitates a human’s intelligence, behavior, sense, and interaction in order to provide various types of services to human beings. Humanoids have been studied and developed constantly in order to improve their performance. Humanoids were previously developed for simple repetitive or hard work that required significant human power. However, intelligent service robots have been developed actively these days to provide necessary information and enjoyment; these include robots manufactured for home, entertainment, and personal use. It has become generally known that artificial intelligence humanoid technology will significantly benefit civilization. On the other hand, Successful Research and Development (R & D on humanoids is possible only if they are developed in a proper direction in accordance with changes in markets and society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze changes in technology markets and society for developing sustainable Management of Technology (MOT strategies. In this study, patent data related to humanoids are analyzed by various data mining techniques, including topic modeling, cross-impact analysis, association rule mining, and social network analysis, to suggest sustainable strategies and methodologies for MOT.

  5. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  6. Examining the patterns of innovation in low carbon energy science and technology: Publications and patents of Asian emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on selected Asian emerging economies. The study employs publications and patents as proxies for science and technology, and its analysis is divided into three main parts: production trends, catching-up trends and patterns of convergence. The findings resulted in four salient points to be considered by policy makers: (1) ASEAN-4 lagged significantly behind the more advanced economies (Korea, Taiwan and China) even though their performance was identical in the early 1990s. China has forged ahead in terms of scientific publications and patents production, but lags behind in patents quality; (2) compared to the world average, the region as a whole has high potential to forge ahead in low carbon energy scientific production. (3) Advanced economies in Asia kicked off their low carbon energy science and technology development more from technological rather than scientific production, with no straightforward co-evolution between the two competencies. This demonstrates the need for a strong science-based technological foundation and a high level of dynamism for low carbon energy technology development; and (4) the economies demonstrated contrasting development trends in their focus between the supply and demand sides of energy technology development. The performance of the advanced economies is higher in ‘demand-side’ low carbon energy innovations

  7. Contorno e limites do conceito do social em Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Philipe de Caux

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Em particular em seus textos anteriores a Luta por reconhecimento, Axel Honneth se vale com frequência do adjetivo substantivado "o social" (das Soziale, sem jamais explicitar diretamente o significado que lhe atribui. Todavia, este conceito, sempre pressuposto, tanto está na base de sua conhecida crítica do déficit sociológico da tradição crítica frankfurtiana quanto orienta clandestinamente todo o desenvolvimento de sua obra até o modelo maduro da reconstrução normativa. Trata-se, aqui, de um esforço de torná-lo explícito enquanto compromisso social-ontológico assumido pela teoria crítica honnethiana. Conclui-se que o social de Honneth é senão idêntico, ao menos coextensivo às normas se constituem a partir de interações de reconhecimento intersubjetivo, o que emprestará tanto a força relativa de seu modelo crítico quanto determinará seus limites.

  8. [Overview of patents on targeted genome editing technologies and their implications for innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyu, Fan; Yanping, Lin; Guojian, Liao; Jianping, Xie

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease are important targeted genome editing technologies. They have great significance in scientific research and applications on aspects of functional genomics research, species improvement, disease prevention and gene therapy. There are past or ongoing disputes over ownership of the intellectual property behind every technology. In this review, we summarize the patents on these three targeted genome editing technologies in order to provide some reference for developing genome editing technologies with self-owned intellectual property rights and some implications for current innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities.

  9. [Overview of patents on targeted genome editing technologies and their implications for innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyu, Fan; Yanping, Lin; Guojian, Liao; Jianping, Xie

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease are important targeted genome editing technologies. They have great significance in scientific research and applications on aspects of functional genomics research, species improvement, disease prevention and gene therapy. There are past or ongoing disputes over ownership of the intellectual property behind every technology. In this review, we summarize the patents on these three targeted genome editing technologies in order to provide some reference for developing genome editing technologies with self-owned intellectual property rights and some implications for current innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities. PMID:26704951

  10. The university-industry knowledge relationship: Analyzing patents and the science base of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Via the Internet, information scientists can obtain cost-free access to large databases in the hidden or deep web. These databases are often structured far more than the Internet domains themselves. The patent database of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office is used in this study to examine the science base of patents in terms of the literature references in these patents. University-based patents at the global level are compared with results when using the national economy of the Netherlands as a system of reference. Methods for accessing the on-line databases and for the visualization of the results are specified. The conclusion is that 'biotechnology' has historically generated a model for theorizing about university-industry relations that cannot easily be generalized to other sectors and disciplines.

  11. A Study on the patent application strategy for China from the viewpoint of the patent application procedure and patent application conditions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaji, Kazufumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines strategies for patent applications in China, focusing on the differences between Chinese patent law and Japanese patent law about the process of filling patent applications and the data on the number of patent applications to China in various technology fields. Strategies for patent applications in China for Japanese companies are proposed taking account of differences between Chinese patent law and Japanese patent law and the viewpoint of patent application data.

  12. A Theory of Patent Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    CHOI, Jay Pil; GERLACH, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of patent portfolios in which firms accumulate an enormous amount of related patents in diverse technology fields such that it becomes impractical to develop a new product that with certainty does not inadvertently infringe on other firms' patent portfolios. We investigate how litigation incentives for the holders of patent portfolios impact the incentives to introduce new products and draw welfare implications. We also consider a patent portfolio acquisition game...

  13. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  14. 77 FR 34030 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Navy Case No. 101330: Tuning Fork Gyroscope Time Domain Inertial Sensor.//Navy Case No. 101472: Auto... Integrated Clock.//U.S. Patent Application No. 11/272588: Auto-Ranging for Time Domain Inertial...

  15. Research and Development of Hepatitis B Drugs: An Analysis Based on Technology Flows Measured by Patent Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian-bo; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of available therapies, the Hepatitis B virus infection continues to be one of the most serious threats to human health, especially in developing countries such as China and India. To shed light on the improvement of current therapies and development of novel anti-HBV drugs, we thoroughly investigated 212 US patents of anti-HBV drugs and analyzed the technology flow in research and development of anti-HBV drugs based on data from IMS LifeCycle databases. Moreover, utilizing the patent citation method, which is an effective indicator of technology flow, we constructed patent citation network models and performed network analysis in order to reveal the features of different technology clusters. As a result, we identified the stagnant status of anti-HBV drug development and pointed the way for development of domestic pharmaceuticals in developing countries. We also discussed about therapeutic vaccines as the potential next generation therapy for HBV infection. Lastly, we depicted the cooperation between entities and found that novel forms of cooperation added diversity to the conventional form of cooperation within the pharmaceutical industry. In summary, our study provides inspiring insights for investors, policy makers, researchers, and other readers interested in anti-HBV drug development. PMID:27727319

  16. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  17. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola;

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  18. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao-Chan; Yao, Ching-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks...

  19. The missing link between technological standards and value-chain governance: the case of patent-distribution strategies in the mobile-communication industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Wen; Daniel You-Ren Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effects of technological standards on the governance structure of production networks by investigating patent-distribution strategies in the global mobile-communication industry. Through a comparative analysis of two mobile-communication technology standards—GSM and CDMA—we find that there exist significantly different patent-distribution strategies which result in varied governance structure as well as power relations within seemingly similar production networks....

  20. A Clustering Method of Highly Dimensional Patent Data Using Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2012-01-01

    Patent data have diversely technological information of any technology field. So, many companies have managed the patent data to build their RD policy. Patent analysis is an approach to the patent management. Also, patent analysis is an important tool for technology forecasting. Patent clustering is one of the works for patent analysis. In this paper, we propose an efficient clustering method of patent documents. Generally, patent data are consisted of text document. The patent documents have...

  1. RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STÉPHANE HABER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order to argue for the superiority of the latter over the formerEste ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005 y su relación con la teoría del reconocimiento avanzada por el mismo autor. El ensayo examina críticamente la nueva hipótesis de Honneth sobre las raíces existenciales del reconocimiento, y hace una comparación entre dos conceptos clave de la teorí crítica, la cosificación y la alienación, para argumentar la superioridad teórica de esteúltimo concepto

  2. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    A methodological approach to patent landscaping for nanotechnology is considered in this paper. In the opinion of the authors, nanotechnologies have precedence over other technology trends that are confirmed by evaluation of the present and future market size of nanotechnology productions. An analysis of patent activity in Russia and the world is performed using patent landscape for nanotechnology as well as for metallurgy in the field of nanotechnology. A new metho...

  3. 国内外无线充电技术专利分析%Patent Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Wireless Charging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝毓

    2015-01-01

    This patent analysis report uses Thomson Innovation Patent Database and Chinese Patent Informa‐tion Analyzing System to search and analyze the patent data ,then draws the patent maps to describe the cur‐rent situation and development trend at home and abroad of wireless charging technology development ,regional structure and enterprise competition .%分析报告应用Thomson Innovation专利数据库和知识产权出版社中外专利数据库检索平台进行专利数据搜索及分析,从技术发展、区域格局、竞争机构等角度绘制专利地图,描绘国内外无线充电技术发展的全景状况,揭示技术竞争的最新动向。

  4. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Dara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR: India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade

  5. Axel Honneth's Idea of a Drawn-Out Process of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhela, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Axel Honneth's interpretation of Hegel's "ethical life" as a conception of a "drawn-out" process of education. Honneth's formulations of ethical life, namely "personal relationships", "market economy" and "the democratic will-formation", are an interesting…

  6. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  7. A Study on the Issues of Patent Trolls for Technology Companies%科技公司Patent Trolls相关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘溪

    2015-01-01

    Patent Trolls是我国科技公司面临的一个重要问题.文章为科技公司解决以下问题提供参考:(1) Patent Trolls的内涵及运行;(2)防御专利侵权诉讼的时间与成本;(3)应对Patent Trolls的选择——谈判vs.诉讼;(4)谈判战略;(5)益于诉讼的建议.

  8. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  9. Research on Patenting Technology Transfer of Public Research Institutions in Denmark%丹麦公共研发机构专利技术转移研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶凯; 孟宪飞; Andrea Piccaluga; 陈绮

    2011-01-01

    专利技术转移是公共研发机构进行技术转移活动的重要方式之一.作为技术转移活动开展得比较好的欧盟国家之一,丹麦公共研发机构的专利技术转移活动十分活跃.首先介绍了丹麦关于技术转移的法律法规、公共研发机构的概况以及丹麦国家技术转移协会,并分析了丹麦技术转移中心的全职人员数量和知识背景情况;然后研究了专利申请和专利技术转移的具体情况,包括了专利申请数量、专利授权数量、有效的专利数量、专利许可协议数量、有效的专利许可数量和专利许可收入这6个方面;最后,指出了其对我国大学和科研机构专利技术转移活动的启示.%Patenting technology transfer is one of the important ways for public research institutions to perform technology transfer activities.As one of the European countries which are on the top list of technology transfer activities performance, the public research institutions in Denmark are very dynamic in patenting technology transfer activities.Firstly, the paper introduced the Danish laws and regulations on technology transfer, the summary of public research institutions and Danish national technology transfer association.Then, the number of full-time equivalent employees and the knowledge background of the employees are analyzed.Furthermore, the details of patent application and patent technology transfer are studied, including patent application number, patent issued number, number of patent portfolio, and patent licensed agreements number, number of license portfolio and gross revenues from patent technology transfer.At last, referential experiences are drawn for patenting technology transfer activities of Chinese universities and public research institutions.

  10. 经编领域专利技术发展趋势%Development Trends of Patented Technologies in Warp Knitting Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑树华; 周适; 王秋丽

    2013-01-01

    Through searching and analyzing the patents in warp knitting area, this paper summarized the warp-knitting technologies from the angle of patent applications at home and abroad, and anticipated the its development trends.%通过对国内外经编领域专利的检索和分析,总结了目前国内外这方面的专利技术发展状况以及未来发展趋势。

  11. Economics of Patent Pools When Some (but not all) Patents are Essential

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Quint

    2006-01-01

    Patent pools are agreements by multiple patent owners to license certain patents to third parties as a package, and often in conjunction with the development of a technological standard. A key distinction made by regulators—between patents essential to a standard and patents that are suitable substitutes—has not been captured in existing economic models. I present a model of competition among differentiated technologies, in which some patents are essential and some are not. I show that pools ...

  12. 轮胎技术领域中国发明专利分析%Analysis on Chinese Patents of Tire Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会景; 凌锋

    2014-01-01

    通过对中国发明专利进行数据检索,分析中国轮胎技术领域的专利逐年申请趋势、申请人地域和属性构成,结果表明中国轮胎产业处于快速发展期,企业是轮胎技术领域的创新主体。结合重点轮胎制造企业的专利申请量、专利授权率、专利维持时间、发明人数量、技术分布等因素,分析重点企业的专利竞争情况。%The whole situation of tire technology in China was reviewed by searching and analyzing Chinese patents of invention. Patent application trend and regional distribution of applicant were analyzed. The results show that the tire technology and its application in China has good development prospect, and applicants from a few countries or districts have applied a lot of patents in China. The amount of patent application, authorization ratio, patent maintenance, total number of inventors, vital technology layout of the key companies as patent applicants were discussed.

  13. 粉末冶金技术的专利情报分析%Patent Information Analysis of Powder Metallurgy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨功楠

    2015-01-01

    Taking powder metallurgy as the keywords,powder metallurgy technology patents of china were obtained from 1985 to 2013.This search was based on the patent database of state intellectual prop-erty office patent search and service systems.With the method of the patent intelligence analysis,the o-verall situation from the patent,the patent research institutions,focusing on technical areas,etc.The current and development trends of powder metallurgy technology in China were obtained.It can provide a reliable reference for grasping the trends of powder metallurgy technology innovation and management in-novation.%以粉末冶金为关键词建立检索式,通过检索国家知识产权局专利检索与服务系统的专利数据库,得到1985年至2013年我国粉末冶金技术专利。借助专利情报分析的方法,从专利整体情况、专利研发机构、重点技术领域等角度分析,得出我国粉末冶金技术的发展现状及趋势,为全面掌握粉末冶金技术创新动向与管理创新提供可靠的参考依据。

  14. Essentials of the successful drafting of invention applications on nuclear technology in the view of patent examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, there has been a comparatively low ratio of domestic authorization in terms of invention applications in the field of nuclear technology. In this paper, the main reasons according to my experience in the patent examination are revealed in the following three aspects: (1) there is a lack of novelty or inventive step; (2) the scope of some claims is not clearly defined; (3) the description is improperly drafting. Common problems are shown and analyzed. Suggestion for avoiding the problems and corresponding solutions are given. (author)

  15. Patent licensing and selling to China as a strategy of technology transfer in a New Era: A perspective of European firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert;

    2010-01-01

    International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience...... the primary concern despite the recently adaption of the new Patent Law in China; (4) EU firms are most interested in selling obsolete technologies and licensing state-of-art technologies to China....

  16. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  17. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  18. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  19. 国外抽油机技术专利分析%The patent analysis of pumping unit technology of foreign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚男

    2015-01-01

    Based on DWPI database(Derwent World Patents Index database),by searching patents involving pumping unit of foreign,the relevant patents about pumping unit technology was analyzed and summarized. Full range of statistical analysis and research was done,mainly on patent application year's distribution of domestic and foreign patents,technology theme distribution,regional distribution,distribution of original country perspective. Technology situation,development,and future trends were explained from the patent perspective. Suggestions were provided from development direction of the pumping unit technology and patent layout etc,for innovative bodies of our country.%基于DWPI数据库(德温特世界专利索引数据库),通过对国外涉及抽油机的专利文献进行检索,对抽油机技术的相关专利进行分析和总结;重点从国外专利申请的年代分布、技术主题分布、区域分布、原创国别分布等角度进行全方位的统计分析和研究;从专利角度解读国外抽油机技术的技术现状、发展情况、未来趋势,为我国创新主体在抽油机技术的研发方向、专利布局等方面提供建议.

  20. Evidence from Patents and Patent Citations on the Impact of NASA and Other Federal Labs on Commercial Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Michael S. Fogarty; Banks, Bruce A.

    1997-01-01

    We explore the commercialization of government-generated technology by analyzing patents awarded to the U.S. government and the citations to those patents from subsequent patents. We use information on citations to federal patents in two ways: (1) to compare the average technological impact of NASA patents, other Federal' patents, and a random sample of all patents using measures of importance' and generality;' and (2) to trace the geographic location of commercial development by focusing on ...

  1. Modification of the Brink-Axel Hypothesis for High Temperature Nuclear Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Misch, G Wendell; Brown, B Alex

    2014-01-01

    We present shell model calculations of electron capture strength distributions in A=28 nuclei and computations of the corresponding capture rates in supernova core conditions. We find that in these nuclei the Brink-Axel hypothesis for the distribution of Gamow-Teller strength fails at low and moderate initial excitation energy, but may be a valid tool at high excitation. The redistribution of GT strength at high initial excitation may affect capture rates during collapse. If these trends which we have found in lighter nuclei also apply for the heavier nuclei which provide the principal channels for neutronization during stellar collapse, then there could be two implications for supernova core electron capture physics. First, a modified Brink-Axel hypothesis could be a valid approximation for use in collapse codes. Second, the electron capture strength may be moved down significantly in transition energy, which would likely have the effect of increasing the overall electron capture rate during stellar collapse...

  2. Axel Klein, O’Kelly: An Irish Musical Family in Nineteenth-Century France

    OpenAIRE

    Scahill, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Axel Klein has made a significant contribution to scholarship on music and Ireland, with the main concentration of his work to date being on the twentieth century. For this extensive volume, however, he has shifted focus away from Ireland and to an earlier period, for a study of the O’Kellys, an extended family of French musicians and composers of Irish origin. Almost nothing has been written on the family since the nineteenth century, so Klein is breaking ...

  3. Patent thickets and the market for innovation: evidence from settlement of patent disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Alberto; Schankerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We study how fragmentation of patent rights ('patent thickets') and the formation of the Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) affected the duration of patent disputes, and thus the speed of technology diffusion through licensing. We develop a model of patent litigation which predicts faster settlement agreements when patent rights are fragmented and when there is less uncertainty about court outcomes, as was associated with the 'pro-patent shift' of CAFC. The model also predicts tha...

  4. Looking for a new HIT. Sanyo's patents for the HIT technology has expired, and competitors hope for new profits; Suche nach dem neuen HIT. Sanyos Patente fuer die HIT-Technologie sind ausgelaufen, die Konkurrenz frohlockt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunduri, Shravan K.; Haase, Christian

    2010-11-15

    With their hybrid cells, Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. had covered a solar niche market. The HIT technology offers high efficiency at low production cost. Now, however, the most relevant patents of the Japanese producer have expired, and competitors working on similar concepts are out for their chance. For example, Swiss manufacturer Roth and Rau have been taking orders for turnkey hybrid cell production from January 2011. (orig.)

  5. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  6. Patente como instrumento competitivo e como fonte de informação tecnológica Patent as a competitive tool and as a source of technological information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antônio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    fatores mais motivadores estão relacionados à obtenção de vantagens competitivas de um monopólio temporário concedido pela patente adquirida e à importância da criação do conceito de empresa inovadora. Em contrapartida, o surgimento de uma eventual tecnologia substituta num processo de difusão da informação é um fator inibidor porque pode vir a encurtar o período de rendimentos extraordinários propiciados pela patente.Current globalized markets, due to their intense competition and several technological innovations, raise two questions: why Brazilian companies do not pay attention to the importance of patents as competitive tools and why do they not consider the exploration of patents as a source of technological information? This paper addresses both issues. A field research was developed to answer four specific questions: What are the motivating and inhibiting factors of the use of patents as competitive tools and what are the motivating and inhibiting factors of the exploration of patents as sources of technological information? In addressing these issues, the relevance of ten motivating and ten inhibiting factors was assessed. A bibliographic review and a preliminary research aimed at the elaboration of an electronic questionnaire, which was distributed among the companies members of ANPEI - Associação Nacional de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia das Empresas Inovadoras, a Brazilian Association for the innovative enterprises. The answers were recorded in a database, which helped the management of information and allowed the analysis according to company size.

  7. Patents and Technological Progress in a Globalized World-Liber Amicorum Joseph Straus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    and teaching, but also in creating the Munich Intellectual Property Law Centre and in leading, developing and administering academic endeavors at the famous Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law with its tremendous library and research net-work. In over 900 pages this so......-called liber amicorum comprises 60 (!) articles written by friends, colleagues and pupils from more than 15 different countries in Asia, America and Europe. The articles address a wide range of legal, economic and policy perspectives on various challenges related to the title of the book: "Patents...... on biotechnology and the interface of IPR with competition law, the book also features contributions discussing various procedural, multi-jurisdictional and public policy aspects from a more general perspective....

  8. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  9. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechezlepretre, A.; Glachant, M.; Hascic, I.; Johnstone, N.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-07-01

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  10. Patent Examination Decisions and Strategic Trade Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Palangkaraya; Paul Jensen; Elizabeth Webster

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether strategic trade behavior can explain the fact that the US, Japanese and European Patent Offices – the USPTO, the JPO and the EPO – often make different decisions about whether to grant (or reject) a given patent application. We analyse this issue by considering whether examination decisions across the patent offices vary systematically by inventor nationality, patent quality and technology area using a matched sample of 33,305 non-PCT patent applications granted ...

  11. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  12. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  13. An Empirical Analysis on the Patent Activities of Cloud Storage Technology Worldwide%国内外云存储技术专利实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友华; 周素芳

    2014-01-01

    基于国内外云存储技术现有研究,利用“Innography专利信息检索分析平台”和“国家知识产权局专利信息检索平台”,对国内外云存储技术领域的专利进行全面检索,形成专利研究数据库,从年度趋势、申请人、发明人、技术域分布等多个角度,对该技术领域的专利活动进行统计和分析,得出该技术领域的专利现状、发展趋势以及竞争态势等信息,进而为云存储领域的创新活动提供参考。%This paper first summarizes the existing study on cloud storage technology at home and abroad. Then, using the"State Intellec-tual Property Office ( patent information) platform" and the "INNOGRAPHY" to facilitate the formation of Patent Database, the paper makes a comprehensive search for the patents in the area of cloud storage technology domestically and overseas. Moreover, the patent ac-tivities in relation to cloud storage technology are explored and analyzed from a wide perspective ranging from annual trends, patent appli-cant, patent inventor to technical components.

  14. Quality patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K

    1994-01-01

    Watermark Patent and Trademark Attorneys has recently been accepted by the Council of National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia as operating a Quality Management System that complies with the requirements of AS3901/ISO9001 for the creation and servicing of Australian and overseas patents, trademarks and designs and provision of related advice. It is believed that Watermark is the first firm of Patent Attorneys in the world to achieve this. PMID:7765675

  15. How a patent eligibility case could affect personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougher, Joanna T

    2010-01-01

    Personalized medicine may be in danger as the doctrine of patent eligibility -which determines technological innovations that warrant patent protection -faces legal challenges. Diagnostic tests, gene patents, and more are at stake. PMID:22478808

  16. Chasing Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Flavio Marques; Pitchford, Rohan

    2002-01-01

    We examine the problem faced by a company that wishes to purchase patents in the hands of two di¤erent patent owners. Complementarity of these patents in the production process of the company is a prime e¢ciency reason for them being owned (or licenced) by the company. We show that this very same complementarity can lead to patent owners behaving strategically in bargaining, and delaying their sale to the company. When the company is highly leveraged, such ine¢cient delay is limited. Comparat...

  17. 技术专利保护强度反思--基于技术伦理的视角%Reflections on Technology Patent Protection Intensity:From the Perspective of Technology Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方园

    2014-01-01

    对技术专利实行完全定价,进行强有力的保护,只能导致寡头垄断,阻碍技术的传播与扩散,进而阻碍技术的创新。因此,为了鼓励竞争,从伦理学的角度出发对技术专利保护强度进行初探。应提倡对技术专利进行非完全定价。%Fully pricing for technology patents and strong protection can only lead to monopoly, and thus hindering technology dissemination and diffusion, which further hinders the technology innovation. Therefore, in order to encourage competition, from the perspective of ethics, this article makes a preliminary study of the strength of technogy patent protection. Non-complete pricing should be advocated to the technology patents.

  18. 基于技术生命周期的专利组合判别研究%Patent Portfolio Analysis Based on Technology Life Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华; 邓辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on the introduction on the patent portfolio analysis, the paper establishes a model of patent portfolio analysis based on technology life cycle. It carries out an empirical study on HBV pharmaceutical enterprise, uses the logistic model to generate S curves, and draws a constitutional diagram that combined the patent portfolio and the technology life cycle theory together. It can help the organizations to monitor competitors' relative patent position and find out the relative advantages in the technology fields.%对专利组合理论进行介绍,构建基于技术生命周期的专利组合判别模型,并以抗HBV制药企业为实证研究对象,利用Logistic模型生成S曲线进行技术生命周期判断。在此基础上,绘制技术生命周期与专利指标相结合的组合判断图,从而辅助组织监测竞争对手的相对专利地位和认识技术领域的发展优势。

  19. Perfecting Patent Files for Science and Technology Development and Patent Exploitation%完善专利档案为科技开发和专利转化服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金子明

    2011-01-01

    Patent files is an important part of university archives, and reflects the result of scientific research of colleges and universities and the promotion of patent technology, is the important reference for evaluating and employing teacher and carrying out scientific research activities,is also the important basis of assessing the scientific research level of school and school-running ability. So, establishing a set of scientific and complete patent files is important to the school's innovation and development.%专利档案是高校档案的一个重要组成部分,是高校科研工作中产生专利技术和专利技术推广过程的真实写照,是评聘教师职务及开展科研活动的重要基础资料,是评价学校科研水平和办学能力的重要依据之一.建立一套科学的完整的专利档案,为学校的创新和发展做好此项工作是档案工作者义不容辞的责任.

  20. Variety of technological trajectories in low emission vehicles (LEVs): a patent data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oltra, Vanessa; Saint-Jean, Maïder

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity of engine technologies for Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs) that are developed by car manufacturers in order to substitute for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Our purpose is to analyse the competition between the various technologies for LEVs as well as the innovative strategy of car manufacturers. We first propose to define and to represent these technological trajectories in order to compare their performances and to identify their streng...

  1. [Industry of traditional Chinese patent medicine science and technology development and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed. PMID:22741452

  2. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  3. Technology transfer opportunities: patent license: electrochemical technique for introducing and redistributing ionic species into the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinz, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have expanded applications of the Chim electrode, technology used to perform partial geochemical extractions from soils. Recent applications of the the improved electrode technology show that geochemical extraction efficiencies can be improved by 2 orders of magnitude or better to about 30%.

  4. Anticipating emerging genomics technologies: The role of patents and publication for research and policy strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Wouter

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in scanning and assessing the science and technology landscape for emerging technologies – such as those based on genomics knowledge – because innovations are beneficial to businesses and nations, and because of the Collingridge dilemma. The latter concerns the uncert

  5. AXEL: High pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng

    2016-05-01

    AXEL is a high pressure xenon gas TPC detector being developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay search. We use proportional scintillation mode with a new electroluminescence light detection scheme to achieve very high energy resolution with a large detector. The detector has a capability of tracking which can be used reduce background. The project is in a R&D phase, and we report current status of our prototype chamber with 10 L and 8 bar Xe gas. We also present the results of the photon detection efficiency measurement and the linearity test of silicon photomultiplier(SiPM).

  6. High-quality patents for emerging science and technology through external actors: community scientific experts and knowledge societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Rodriguez, Victor; Groenendijk, Nico; Bonaccorsi, A.; Borras, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores one type of administrative mechanism to achieve high-quality patents: Article 115 of the European Patent Convention, which permits the inclusion of third parties to provide input to the prior art search and to communicate relevant information to the examiner in charge. Our empi

  7. 基于专利分析的技术预测概念模型%Conceptual Model of Technology Forecast Based on Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韵君; 柳飞红

    2014-01-01

    国内外研究者对技术预测给予了不同的阐释。专利分析作为技术预测的一种有效工具,可以为技术创新提供有力的决策支持。针对特定技术领域的预测,是基于“专利三性”隐含的技术发展方向、技术发展水平和技术发展潜力的特征所作出的判断。因此,可以建立一个基于专利分析的技术预测概念模型。概念模型在纵向层次上分为总预测层、预测综合层、预测分析层和预测信息层。在此基础上,选择和运用相应的专利分析指标和方法,形成一个技术预测的专利分析方法框架,以指导实际的技术预测活动。技术预测的效用可以用技术的发展方向、发展水平和发展潜力这三个变量予以描述。但专利分析也存在局限性,需要与其它方法配合使用。%There are different definitions for technology forecast domestically and abroad. Being an effective tool for technology forecast, patent analysis is very helpful to technological innovation decision-making. Because the forecast in specific technology fields is based on features of technology development direction, level and potential implicated in the “three natures of patent”, so a conceptual model of technology forecast can be built on the basis of patent analysis. The proposed model consists four layers of overall forecast, forecast con-solidated, predictive analysis and forecast information from a longitudinal level. Based on this, corresponding indicators and methods of patent analysis can be chosen and used to build a patent analysis frame for technology forecast to guide the actual activities of technology forecast. The effectiveness of technology forecast can be described with the three variables of development direction, level and potential of technology. And it is suggested that other methods be used together with patent analysis because of its limitations.

  8. Navigating the Patent Thicket: Cross Licenses, Patent Pools and Standard Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Carl

    2004-01-01

    In several key industries, including semiconductors, biotechnology, computer software, and the Internet, our patent system is creating a patent thicket: an overlapping set of patent rights requiring that those seeking to commercialize new technology obtain licenses from multiple patentees. The patent thicket is especially thorny when combined with the risk of hold-up, namely the danger that new products will inadvertently infringe on patents issued after these products were designed. The need...

  9. Validity of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis in $^{238}$Np

    CERN Document Server

    Guttormsen, M; Görgen, A; Renstrøm, T; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G; Tveten, G M

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed primary $\\gamma$-ray spectra of the odd-odd $^{238}$Np nucleus extracted from $^{237}$Np($d,p\\gamma$)$^{238}$Np coincidence data measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The primary $\\gamma$ spectra cover an excitation-energy region of $0 \\leq E_i \\leq 5.4$ MeV, and allowed us to perform a detailed study of the $\\gamma$-ray strength as function of excitation energy. Hence, we could test the validity of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, which, in its strictest form, claims no excitation-energy dependence on the $\\gamma$ strength. In this work, using the available high-quality $^{238}$Np data, we show that the $\\gamma$-ray strength function is to a very large extent independent on the initial and final states. Thus, for the first time, the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis has been experimentally verified for $\\gamma$ transitions between states in the quasi-continuum region, not only for specific collective resonances, but also for the full strength below the neutron separation energy. B...

  10. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC! : AXEL-2003  -  Introduction to Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    AXEL-2003 is a course given at CERN within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will present an introduction to particle accelerators. Known in the past as the PS Complex Operation Course (or the "PS Shutdown Course"), and organised by the ex-PS division until last year, it is now organised as a joint venture between the AB division and Technical Training, and open to a wider CERN community. The AXEL-2003 course series is designed for technicians who are operating an accelerator, or whose work is closely linked to accelerators, but it is open to all people (technicians, engineers, physicists) interested in this field. The course does not require any prior knowledge on accelerators. However, some basic knowledge on trigonometry, matrices and differential equations, and some basic notions of magnetism would be an advantage. The course and the course supports will be in English, with questions and answers also in French. Lectures will be recorded and available online via the Web Lectu...

  11. Innovation through exaptation and its determinants : The role of technological complexity, analogy making & patent scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiorgio, Mariano; Gilsing, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of exaptation has been recently introduced in innovation studies. Previous empirical studies have only focused on the organization-level conditions of exaptation. This paper fills the gaps by focusing on invention and inventor-level conditions such as technological complexity, inventors'

  12. Inventions shaping technological trajectories: do existing patent indicators provide a comprehensive picture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Sam; Appio, Francesco Paolo; Looy, van B.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Since Schumpeter’s (The theory of economic development, 1934) seminal work on economic development, innovation is considered as one of the main drivers of firm performance and economic growth. At the same time, technological innovations vary considerably in terms of impact with only a minority of ne

  13. Tendências tecnológicas de polietilenos e polipropileno através da prospecção em documentos de patente nos Estados Unidos e Europa - 1990/1997 Technological trends for polyethylene and polypropylene through the study of patent documents in the United States and Europe - 1990/1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide M. S. Antunes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo fornece uma avaliação estratégica da tecnologia de produção de polímeros à base de etileno, principalmente o polietileno, bem como dos polímeros a base de propileno, principalmente o polipropileno, mostrando a tendência em relação a novos produtos, mercados e de concorrentes, com base em informações extraídas de documentos de patentes publicados a partir de 1990. O termo documento de patente abrange pedidos de patente publicados ou patentes concedidas. Da análise dos documentos de patente recuperados nesta pesquisa resultou uma visualização das tendência tecnológicas na indústria de poliolefinas nos mercados europeu e norte-americano, identificando e quantificando quatro indicadores tecnológicos: catalisadores, características da molécula, tipo de produto e campo de aplicação. Uma conclusão importante diz respeito à concentração de tecnologia, onde se observa que 6% das empresas com atividade em patenteamento detêm cerca de 40% do total de documentos, sendo que somente as quatro maiores depositárias dominam mais de 20% do total. Nota-se uma tendência de as empresas em buscar a inovação nas etapas finais da cadeia produtiva, com uma grande concentração de patentes em produtos e melhoria de aplicação.This article offers a strategic assessment of the technology for the production of polymers based on ethylene and propylene (mainly polyethylene and polypropylene, demonstrating the trends related to new products, markets and competitors, based on information extracted from patent documents published since 1990. The term "patent document" covers published patent applications or granted patents. A vision of the technological trends in the polyolefin industry in Europe and North America has been elucidated based upon the analysis of the patent documents studied during this research, and four technological indicators were identified and quantified: catalysts, molecular attributes, product type and

  14. 失效专利在企业技术创新中的应用%Application of Invalid Patent in the Enterprise Technology Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆鹏; 李祥松

    2015-01-01

    The patent invalidation is not equal to technical failure. Aiming at the problem that how to effec-tively use invalid patent and make it play a major role in the modern enterprise technology innovation, this paper, based on an in-depth analysis of the cause, value and invalid patent acquisition means, summarizes the means and methods to reuse and continuously process the invalid patent in enterprise innovation.%专利失效不等于技术失效,如何有效利用失效专利,使其在现代企业技术创新中发挥重大作用,本文针对这个问题,在深度剖析失效专利的成因、价值及获取手段的基础上,总结出了在企业创新中继续加工、再利用失效专利的手段和方法。

  15. Patent Office Governance and Patent System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Pierre; Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  16. Control and optimization of new patented induction carburizing technology by infrared temperature controlling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Induction Carburizing Technology is a simple, short, and inexpensive processing method for metal surface layer properties improving. The Part to be carburized along with an inductive heater are immersed in a liquid active medium and its surface is heated by high-frequency current. Processing time estimates in seconds or minutes only. Thickness, chemical composition, structure and properties of the protective diffusion surface layers can be adjusted for various applications by control and optimization of treatment parameters. It was done by infrared temperature controlling system which peculiarities are explained in this presentation. (author)

  17. Overcoming Social Pathologies in Education: On the Concept of Respect in R. S. Peters and Axel Honneth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Krassimir

    2009-01-01

    The concept of respect plays a central role in several recent attempts to re-actualise the programme of a critical social theory. In Axel Honneth's most prominent version of that concept, respect is closely tied to the sphere of law, and it is limited to the recognition of a Kantian-type moral autonomy of the individual. So interpreted, the…

  18. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how...

  19. Contribuições de Axel Honneth aos debates da teoria crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Costa Lerbach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende apresentar alguns dos debates e propostas teóricas que caracterizam a tradição sociológica conhecida como Teoria Crítica. Para tanto, aborda o pensamento de Max Horkheimer e de Theodor Adorno, ambos ligados à sua origem; as críticas e proposições realizadas por Jürgen Habermas; e, em seguida, as elaboradas por seu sucessor, Axel Honneth. Por fim, traremos as formulações deste último autor no livro “Luta por reconhecimento: a gramática moral dos conflitos sociais”, o qual aborda elementos importantes para a compreensão dos movimentos sociais no século XXI. E, como buscaremos argumentar, mantém vivos, de maneira atualizada, os propósitos presentes na origem da Teoria Crítica.   Abstract: This article aims to present some of the debates and theoretical proposals that characterize the sociological tradition known as Critical Theory. Therefore, it approaches Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno’s thought, both related to its origin; the critics and propositions made by Jürgen Habermas; and, subsequently, those elaborated by his successor, Axel Honneth. Finally, we are going to handle on this last author’s formulations in the book “The struggle for recognition: the moral grammar of social conflicts”, which approaches important elements for social movements’ comprehension in the XXI century. And, as we’ll try to argue, they keep alive, in an upgraded way, the purposes from Critical Theory’s origin. Resumen: Este artículo presenta algunos de los debates y posiciones teóricas que caracterizan la tradición sociológica conocida como Teoría Crítica. Por lo tanto, explora el pensamiento de Max Horkheimer y Theodor Adorno, ambos vinculados a su origen; las críticas y las propuestas realizadas por Jürgen Habermas; y, después,  las elaboradas por su sucesor, Axel Honneth. Por último, traeremos las formulaciones de este último autor en el libro “La lucha por el reconocimiento: la gram

  20. The worldwide patent portfolio analysis of AMOLED technology%AMOLED技术钡域全球专和布局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佳秀; 范兵

    2012-01-01

    Based the worldwide patent portfolio analysis of AMOLED technology, we found that the patent quantities of AMOLED technology have an stably increasing trend in recent years, and AMOLED is the major trend of OLED; South Korea, Japan and Taiwan of China occupied the dominant position; Samsung and LG are the leading companies; the patents mainly focused on electroluminescent light source, control devices, circuit and other technical areas.%本文通过对AMOLED技术领域的全球专利布局分析发现:AMOLED领域的专利量近年呈稳定增加趋势,是OLED产业的主要发展方向;韩国、日本、中国台湾占优势地位;三星和LG是此领域的龙头企业;主要集中在电致发光光源、控制装置和电路等技术领域。

  1. 深层网技术在专利数据提取中的应用%Using deep Web technology in patent search and download

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小龙; 李晓霞; 郭力

    2011-01-01

    深层网技术是获取隐藏在以表单为特征的网络数据库检索入口后的数据页面的提取技术,解决了通用搜索引擎不能有效索引深层网网页的问题.专利数据是一类重要的深层网数据资源,对其进行提取、挖掘具有重要意义.本文利用深层网技术开发了一个专利检索系统,实现了对中国和美国专利数据的本地检索、提取和下载,以及针对中国专利的法律状态检索.该软件支持专利的批量下载及文件管理,并根据中国和美国专利显示为多个单页TIFF格式图片不利于本地管理和浏览的特点,开发了实用性较强的TIFF格式图片多页合并和通用PDF格式转换功能.该专利检索系统采用面向用户的界面设计和功能开发,具有简单、易用的特点.%The Deep Web refers to the web pages which are buried far down on dynamically generated sites and could not be indexed by standard search engines. Online patent data are very important Deep Web data source of valuable technology information. A patent's software using Deep Web technology to search and download the patent data from Chinese and American government websites is presented here. Multi-file download and file management functions are provided. It can also check the legal status of the Chinese patent. To bring convenience to user in saving and browsing patents at local, this software provides TIFF mergence and PDF conversion capabilities which can merge multiple single-page TIFF format images of Patent into single multiple-page TIFF image and then convert it into PDF format.

  2. 基于专利文献的我国LED背光源技术态势分析%Analysis of Chinese LED Backlight Technology Based on Patent Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波

    2011-01-01

    Using official web site of Chinese patent database and patent information analysis systems, the paper searches, analyzes and summarizes the related patent data of LED backlight technology. Then from the perspectives of application a mount, key patents and patent holders, the paper analyzes the patents of LED backlight technology. Finally, the paper pro vides reference to the R&D and patent composition of LED backlight technology.%利用国家知识产权局网站上发布的中国专利数据库,采用专利信息分析系统,对LED背光源技术领域的相关专利数据进行检索、分析、归纳,从专利申请总量、重点专利技术和专利持有人等方面对LED背光源技术专利进行分析总结,为国内LED背光源产业技术研发和专利布局提供参考.

  3. 高校理工科专业实施专利教育的关键环节%Key Points of Patent Education to Science and Technology Students of University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彩君; 杨金田; 潘国祥

    2011-01-01

    在高校理工科专业开展专利教育,要着重抓好专利师资和教材建设,充分利用教育资源,积极营造专利氛围。应通过开设专利课程、鼓励师生申请专利、开设专利知识讲座等途径,利用文献检索课程、毕业论文(设计)、学生社团、学科竞赛与科研等载体与资源,积极推进大学生专利教育,提升大学生创新能力。%The patent education courses which provide instruction on patents, inventions, and intellectual property to students are imperative in universities of science and technology. This paper aims at some key points of patent education, such as patent teachers, teaching materi als, making full use of educational resources, cultivating a positive environment for creating patent. It is necessary to offer patent lectures or courses and carry out patent application, which not only improves patent consciousness hut also enhances the innovation ability of students, who take full advantage of literature search curriculum, graduation thesis, internet, students' associations, subject contests and students' scientific research.

  4. 太阳能技术的合作专利分析及对策%Analysis on Patent Cooperation in Chinese Solar Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红艳; 滕飞; 扆铁梅

    2014-01-01

    低碳经济已经成为国际经济发展的新要求,因此,低碳技术开发日益受到世界各国的重视。太阳能技术是一种典型的低碳技术,我国经过10几年的发展,在太阳能领域取得了举世瞩目的成就,但因缺乏核心技术,目前面临着严峻的挑战。由于专利分析能客观地评价技术创新与合作水平,因此,为更好地促进我国太阳能技术的发展,基于专利分析法,对我国太阳能合作专利数据进行了分析。结果表明:我国太阳能技术的跨机构技术联系较少,“产学研”创新体系尚不成熟;政策扶持对于太阳能这种新兴低碳技术有较大的影响力;国内太阳能专利授权的技术领域主要集中在太阳能热利用,而在光伏领域的合作较少;太阳能合作专利存在较大的区域差异,应该进一步加强区域之间的技术合作和技术转移;应该加强国际技术合作。%Solar technology is a typical low-carbon technology. After many years of development, China has made great achievements in solar technology. But China is still confronted with grave challenges due to the lack of core technology. Considering that the technology innovation and cooperation level can be evaluated by patent analysis, this paper, analyzes the data of patent cooperation of solar technology in China based on the method of patent analysis. The conclusions are: there are few technical connection in solar technology among institutions in China, which means the mature innovation system among industry, universities and research institutions has not been established; the policy support has great impact on the emerging low-carbon technologies including solar technology; the patent authorization in solar technology in China mainly concentrates in solar thermal industry with less cooperation in solar photovoltaic industry; regional differences of solar patent cooperation are still obvious, and we should strengthen the

  5. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  6. Comparative Research on Chinese and Foreign Nuclear Power Technology Based on Patents%基于专利的核电技术中外对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄岩; 杨培培; 黄鲁成; 苗红

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] Nuclear energy as an economic and efficient energy for easing the worldˊs energy crisis has many ad-vantages, so it gets more and more attention. Nuclear power generation is a very important application of nuclear energy, the development of nuclear power technology has also caused widespread concern around the world. [ Method/Process] In the study of nuclear power tech-nology it can be divided into patent research and non-patent research, and the patent research on nuclear power technology is few in Chi-na. So this article discusses nuclear power technologyˊs current situation from the perspective of patent and analyses nuclear power technol-ogy from the macro and micro levels, using the patents to find issues in the field of research and development. [ Result/Conclusion] Re-search shows that although the growth rate of patents is increasing in recent years, research of nuclear energy started late, and the number of patents is small, also the exchanges link with research institutions in other countries are less. Finally, concerning the existing problems of the nuclear industry, some suggestions that aim at promoting the development of Chinaˊs nuclear power industry, are given.%[目的/意义]核能作为缓和世界能源危机的一种经济有效的能源有很多优点,因此受到越来越多的关注。核能发电是核能一项很重要的用途,核电技术的发展也受到了世界各国的关注。[方法/过程]对核电技术的研究可以分为专利研究与非专利研究,但国内关于核电技术的专利研究相对较少。从专利的角度来研究核电技术的现状,从宏观和微观两个层面对核电技术进行分析,发现我国该技术领域在研发中存在的问题。[结论/结果]研究表明,尽管我国近年专利增长率不断提高,但是对核电的研究起步较晚,申请专利数量较少,与其他国家的研究机构交流联系较少等问题。最后针对我国核电

  7. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  8. 工信部直属高校发明专利状况分析%Patent for Invention Statistical Analysis of Universities Directly under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭剑坤; 姚静; 韩薇

    2013-01-01

    Based on patents for invention application data of universities directly under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology from 1985 to 2012, this essay analysed and put forward proposals accordingly on actualities of patent of universities from trends of patent application, constitution of IPC of patent of invention, technological cooperation status, technical backbone status, etc.%文章以1985年至2012年工信部直属高校申请的发明专利数据为基础,从专利申请趋势、发明专利IPC构成、技术合作情况、技术骨干情况等角度分析了专利现状,并提供建议。

  9. The Patent Infringement Judgment in Networking Technologies ---from the Perspective of Patent on Cloud Computing Technology%技术网络化背景下的专利侵权判定--以云计算技术专利权为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强

    2014-01-01

    以云计算为代表的技术网络化趋势对专利侵权判定规则及其适用带来了新的挑战。网络化技术实施过程中的分离式侵权行为和跨境侵权行为均难以根据现有规则被认定为专利保护范围,并由被告承担侵权责任。方法专利举证责任倒置规则也难以在网络化技术专利侵权诉讼中为权利人带来有效的救济。专利权人获得司法救济的法律障碍在制度设计时未能有效预见和应对,导致维权难度较传统技术领域显著增大。因此,必须克服专利侵权判定中的形式主义,以实质性侵权作为判定侵权行为成立的价值取向,以期克服由于网络化技术发展而带来的利益平衡格局遭到破坏的状况,实现专利制度的价值和目标。%The trend of networking technologies represented by the cloud computing has brought new chal-lenge to rules on patent infringement judgment and their applications .The divided infringement and extraterri-torial infringement in the operation of networking technologies can barely be subject to patent protection scope in accordance with current rules , thus the defendant can escape the tortious liabilities .The reverse burden of proof doctrine in the process patent also fails to offer effective relief for patentees in networking technologies . The legal obstacle of remedies for patentees could not be foreseen and coped with during legislation , resulting in more difficulties for patentees than in traditional technology fields .Thus the formalism in patent infringe-ment judgment should be overcome and the substantive judgment on patent infringement should be applied as the goal of value , so as to correct the imbalance of interest caused by networking technologies and to accom-plish the aim and value of patent system .

  10. An Empirical Analysis on the Patent Activities of Railway Transportation Technology in China%中国轨道交通技术领域专利活动实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱洪华; 漆芳

    2012-01-01

      在概括中国轨道交通发展和现有研究的基础上,利用“上海知识产权(专利信息)公共服务平台”和“Innog-raphy专利信息检索分析平台”,从年度趋势、专利类型、申请人、发明人、生命周期、技术构成等角度,对整个中国轨道交通产业的专利活动进行多角度的分析和研究,从而剖析中国轨道交通领域专利保护现状、发展趋势以及竞争态势。%  The status quo of Chinese railway transportation technology was briefly introduced, the previous research of patent protection for Chinese railway transportation technology was summarized, and the patent information was searched from the Shanghai Intellectual Property (patent information) platform and INNOGRAPHY, on the basis of the above, a comprehensive investigation about the patent ac-tivities of railway transportation technology in China was carried out from the perspective of patent types, annual trend, applicants, invent-ors, patent life-cycle and patent IPC, and so on. The status quo and the developing trend as well as the competitive situation of patent pro-tection for Chinese railway transportation technology were concluded finally.

  11. Reflection on Two Important Issues in Patent Management of Science & Technology Program%对科技计划专利管理工作两个重要问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海燕

    2013-01-01

    Science&technology program is the basic form of government organization of science and technology innovation activity.The current patent management work of the science & technology program is faced with two important problems , such as what kind of policy -oriented should be done and how to evaluate the quality of patent output of S&T program .Ac-cording to the current development stage and strategy of Chinese science and technology , the patent management of S&T program should increase patent quantity and improve patent quality , and lay heavy stress on the improvement of patent qual-ity.When the science&technology administrative department evaluates the patent quality , it should comprehensively take the technical level , innovation and commercial value into account according to the objectives of the national science and technology programs and major projects.%科技计划是政府资助科技创新活动的基本形式。当前我国科技计划专利管理工作面临着应采取何种政策导向,对计划所产出专利的质量应如何评价的问题。根据当前我国科技发展所处的阶段和发展策略,科技计划的专利管理应采取数量与质量并举,着重强调提升专利质量的政策导向;应根据国家科技计划及重大专项设立的宗旨和目标综合考虑专利的技术水平、创新性、技术影响力和商业价值等因素对计划专利产出的质量进行评价。

  12. Numerical simulation of a patent technology for sealing of deep-sea oil wells using nonlinear finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelal, Gasser F.; Robotham, Antony; Carragher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years bridge plugs and cement have been used for well abandonment and work over and are still the material of choice. However the failures of cement abandonments using bridge plugs has been reported on many occasions, some of which have resulted in fatal consequences. A new patented product is designed to address the shortcomings associated with using bridge plugs and cement. The new developed tools use an alloy based on bismuth that is melted in situ using Thermite reaction. The ...

  13. Humour and the locus of control in The Gruffalo (Julia Donaldson & Axel Scheffler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van der Westhuizen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is firstly to distinguish between the notions “external locus of control” and “internal locus of control”, secondly to indicate ways in which the locus of control in humour in “The Gruffalo” by Julia Donaldson and Axel Scheffler can be identified and thirdly to indicate possible ways in which emphasis on the internal locus of control in the young reader can assist him/her in the development of a general mental/- psychological well-being. Different kinds of literary humour contribute to the ways in which young listeners/readers can identify with stories, poems, dramas and films. The young listener/reader can recognise him/herself in humorous situations, in the humorous use of imagery, wordplay and illustrations/visuals. He/she can also identify with or distance him-/herself from or reject the characters, the values represented and the author who created the text. When in interaction with the works of authors who use negative as well as positive kinds of humour to point out the dos and don’ts, the rights and the wrongs in life, the horizon of a young listener’s/reader’s experience can be expanded. Such a reading would contribute to the development of the young reader’s cognitive, emotional, social and moral values as it links up with an unconscious or conscious decision about the locus of control in his/her life.

  14. The concept of social domination in axel Honneth’s critical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reconstruct the concept of social domination articulated in the early works of Axel Honneth, a key figure of the ‘third generation’ of critical theory. The author argues that one of the key ambitions of the early Honneth, expressed through his critique of Jurgen Habermas, was to theorize the process of societal reproduction in contemporary capitalism in ‘action-theoretic’ terms, i.e. as determined by the inter-group dynamics of social conflict and domination, as opposed to Habermas’ systems-theoretic approach. The author analyzes Honneth’s criticism of Habermas developed in ‘The Critique of Power’, and focuses more narrowly on Honneth’s conceptualization of social domination outlined in the early article ‘Moral Conscioussness and Class Domination’. The analysis grounds the author’s subsequent reconstruction of the early Honneth’s conception of social domination as a two-dimensional phenomenon that encompasses an ‘intentional’ and a ‘structural’ dimension. Turning towards Honneth’s mature perspective, the author argues that a critique of social domination no longer occupies a central place in Honneth’s influential theory of recognition. Finally, the author considers Honneth’s only recent attempt at theorizing domination presented in the article ‘Recognition as Ideology’, and argues that Honneth has so far missed the opportunity to integrate the early social-theoretical perspective on domination into his mature theoretical system.

  15. SUBJECTION AND RECOGNIZABILITY: AGAINST RECOGNITION’S INNOCENCE IN AXEL HONNETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Gorriti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical reading of Axel Honneth’s work “Recognition as ideology” (2006, built upon Judith Butler’s theory of subjection. It attempts to show that because of not considering here enough the dimension of power, the German thinker does not confront successfully the stances that question recognition’s critical potential. This work suggests that such an absence is linked to Honneth’s definition of recognition as being the opposite of practices of domination or subordination. However, Honneth affirms that these skeptical stances are based on the idea that every recognitional praxis reproduces in some way the dominating social order. This article offers then, a critical look upon this idea, warning that an analysis about the way power works on daily recognition practices does not necessarily entail a resignation of the critical function of recognition. More likely, as the Butlerian (and Foucauldian notion of critique suggests, only by framing recognition in the normative horizon that defines it, it can become the basis of social inquiry.

  16. Årets gang i ord og sang, med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lise Charlotte Sanders; Lefmann, Else

    "Årets gang i ord og sang med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla" henvender sig til de 5-8 årige i skole, hjem eller daginstitution - og består af: En illustreret bog med: 14 historier, der følger en familie, bestående af far, mor og tre børn. Gennem et helt år, måned for måned, hører vi om deres liv......, deres oplevelser, glæder og skuffelser. 14 sange, der ligeledes følger familiens liv gennem årstidernes skiften. Til sangene er der såvel noder som becifringer En CD Her er sangene først fuldt arrangeret med musik, børne- og voksenstemmer. Dernæst kommer musikken alene, således at Cd'en også kan bruges...... som akkompagnement, når man synger sangene. Materialet kan bruges på mange måder: Rent pædagogisk kan det bruges til at lære om årets gang og månedernes navne og rækkefølge Som en oplagt mulighed for at lære nye børnevenlige årstids sange i forskellige genre Som samtalestof med gode...

  17. 奇虎360科技有限公司专利管理地图分析%Analysis of Patent Management Map of Qihoo 360 Technology Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏书慧

    2014-01-01

    专利战略对于企业取得经济利益、获取竞争优势有着重要作用。本文运用专利管理地图分析方法,对奇虎360科技有限公司的专利类型、专利年代趋势、技术领域构成、主要发明人和主要竞争对手进行了分析:奇虎科技专利申请以发明专利为主,专利申请质量较高;主要集中在电学和物理两大技术领域;奇虎360发明人研发实力较强,其专利技术生命周期正处在由发展期向成熟期转变阶段。在互联网安全专利竞争领域,奇虎科技相对直接竞争对手占较大优势。文章最后对未来360专利战略的专利申请数量质量、专利人力资源管理、专利竞争对手监控、以及应对专利侵权纠纷方面提出相关建议。%Patent strategies plays an important role for enterprises to obtain economic benefits and competitive advantage. By the method of patent management map, this paper analyzes the type and era trend of the patent, composition of technical field, the main inventor and the main competitors of Qihoo 360 Technology Co., Ltd.. Patent application of Qihoo technology is mainly the invention of the patent, which is in high quality and mainly in the electrical and physical technology field; Qihoo 360 inventors have a strong development strength, its patent technology life cycle are in a changing stage from development period to maturity. In the field of Internet security of patent competition, Qihoo has a great advantage against other competitors. Finally, suggestions about the quantity and quality of the patent, human resource management of the patent, competitor monitoring as well as infringement disputes of the patent strategy of 360 in the future are propose.

  18. 自吸附式防尘口罩专利技术研究%Study of Patent Technology for Self-adsorption Dust Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎; 沈婷婷; 曹志强

    2015-01-01

    The dust removal rate,masks tightness and permeability of self-adsorption dust mask jointly affect the per⁃formance of dust masks,the author combed the development of patent technology from the four aspects,a brief intro⁃duction of self-adsorption dust mask technology development route was conducted.%自吸附式防尘口罩的除尘率、口罩的密封性、透气性四者共同影响防尘口罩的性能,笔者从这四个方面对专利进行技术发展脉络梳理,简要介绍自吸附式防尘口罩技术的发展路线。

  19. Swiss Patent Jurisprudence 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rigamonti, Cyrill

    2013-01-01

    The new Swiss Federal Patent Court, with nationwide first-instance jurisdiction over all civil patent matters, has been operating since 1 January 2012. This article reviews and contextualizes the most important patent cases the Swiss Federal Patent Court and the Swiss Federal Supreme Court. It concludes that the revamped Swiss patent litigation system has the potential of turning Switzerland into a competitive venue for the adjudication of patent matters in Europe.

  20. 环境核辐射监测重点技术专利分析与思考%Patent Analysis and Measurement for Major Technology in Monitoring System of Environmental Nuclear Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷爱梅; 王海军; 张建国

    2014-01-01

    应用专利分析软件对国家专利局七国两组织数据库及欧洲专利局数据库中的环境核辐射监测系统进行检索,在出入口控制、区域环境控制、流出物监测等技术方面进行了专利分布和技术特点分析,就今后我国环境核辐射监测系统在上述技术领域的专利战略构建提出了初步的建议。%This article researched on related patents literature on the major technology in monitoring system of the environmental nuclear radiation by applying patent analysis software in the database of National patent of -fices and seven countries and two organizations and the European Patent Office .Analyses the patent distribution of quantity and technology , and gave some recommendations on the future of the intellectual property of the ma -jor technology in the monitoring system of the environmental nuclear radiation ,including entrance control ,Re-gional environmental control ,effluent monitoring .

  1. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  2. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  3. Analysis of globle patents on controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology%全球控轧控冷技术专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琴琴; 蒋玲; 马广程

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the global patents on controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology applied before 2013,and revealed the technical progress,the patent layout,the development and evolution,the development situation at home and abroad, the advantages and gap between competitions etc.It could provide information support to build research and development direction,explore the competitors,establish strategic alliance decisions for enterprises and research institutions.%对2013年前申请的控轧控冷技术领域全球专利文献进行分析研究,揭示了自该技术开发以来的技术进步、专利布局、发展演化、国内外发展状况、竞争对手之间的优势及差距等,以期为企业和科研机构建立研究发展方向、发掘竞争对手、建立战略联盟决策提供信息支持。

  4. 中美纳米传感器技术专利申请对比研究%Sino -US Comparison on Nano -sensor Technology Patent Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳; 雷孝平; 赵蕴华; 崔伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on nano - sensor patents collected by Derwent Innovation Index database from 1962 -2009, this paper e-laborates and compares the innovation status and development trends of nano - sensor technology in US and China through the quantitative analysis of patent distribution in the year, the company and the application in hope of providing an objective statistic reference for future policy directions and academic researches.%以德温特专利数据库收录的1962 -2009年间在中国和美国申请的纳米传感器技术专利为研究对象,通过对专利在年度分布、公司分布、应用领域分布等方面的计量分析,对中美两国纳米传感器技术创新现状和发展趋势进行全面分析与比较,从而为我国政府、科研机构与企业制定纳米传感器技术科技发展计划、开展相关技术研发等提供决策支持与事实依据.

  5. Review on Technology Evolution Research from Patent Citation Perspective%专利引证视角下的技术演化研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娴; 方曙; 王春华

    2016-01-01

    专利引文信息因反映技术传承关系、容易获取、便于定性定量化研究等特点,已越来越多地应用于技术演化分析。首先从专利引证角度对技术演化研究相关理论成果进行了系统梳理,将主要研究内容总结为技术主题演化趋势分析、技术前沿变迁比较、技术发展主路径识别、技术演化网络形态特征刻画与发展预测等四类,将涉及的主要研究方法总结为专利引文分析、文本挖掘、技术生命周期经典模型、TRIZ理论、网络分析等五类;分别针对各项研究内容与研究方法进行评述,逐一总结了各自的优势与局限;最后从研究思想、研究内容、研究方法、研究手段四个方面提出未来技术演化研究的发展方向:体现系统性思想、关注动态性与未来预测性、探索多元化方法体系、开发具有强大计算能力的软件。%The behavior of patent citation is a significant and measurable approach of technology evolution. First-ly, the significance of patent citation analysis for technology evolution research was elaborated, and then a compre-hensive literature review of the technology evolution research based on patent citation information was conducted. The research achievements were summarized as four aspects, which involves five major research methods. For each research aspect and method, the advantages and limitations in current were discussed. Finally, the possible re-search work in the future was suggested.

  6. Trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar de saúde como um espaço de reconhecimento: contribuições da teoria de Axel Honneth Interdisciplinary health care teamwork as a space of recognition: contributions of Axel Honneth's theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Miranda; Francisco Javier Uribe Rivera; Elizabeth Artmann

    2012-01-01

    O presente estudo teórico tem como objetivo relacionar uma discussão sobre o trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar nos serviços públicos de saúde com os principais conceitos do filósofo contemporâneo Axel Honneth, dentre eles aquele que denominou Luta por Reconhecimento. Para tanto, partimos da revisão da noção de sujeito na teoria honnethiana, sobretudo a partir do diálogo que faz com a psicanálise de Donald Winnicott. Destacamos que se trata de um sujeito eminentemente social, cuja constituiç...

  7. Disrecognition, moral progress and “second order disorders”: on Axel Honneth’s new theory of recognition = Desreconhecimento, progresso moral e “desordens de segunda ordem”: sobre a nova teoria do reconhecimento de Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Luiz Gustavo da Cunha de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition as it has been exposed in his more recent book, Das Recht der Freiheit. Throughout the paper his attempts to describe injustices within modern capitalist societies using the notions of pathologies and anomie will be analyzed and criticized, especially from the viewpoint of their inability to deal with processes and contexts of disrecognition (Aberkennung. With help of this category, Honneth’s diagnosis regarding the moral progress in modern societies, as well as his notion of second order disorders, as injustices will be confronted and, hopefully, complemented

  8. Study on Patent Portfolio Strategy and Its Impact on Technological Innovation Performance%专利组合策略及其对技术创新绩效的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 蒋振宇; 孙合林

    2015-01-01

    In the era of knowledge economy, enterprises manifest a strong motivation towards patent portfolios. Based on the context of patent fragmentization and patent thicket, this paper firstly dissects the features of patent portfolio strategies in terms of patent property, business scale and product flow, and then discusses the tactics’ impact on technological innovation performance from the perspective of pa-tent property according to existing theories, thus points out new orientations for further studies and provides modern corporations with theo-retical guidance concerning how to optimize the strategies of patent portfolio and enhance the capacity and performance of technological in-novation.%在知识经济时代,企业拥有强烈的专利组合动机。基于专利碎片化、专利“丛林”的发展背景,本文从专利属性、公司规模、产品流程三个视角剖析了企业专利组合策略及其特征,并结合现有研究探讨了基于专利属性的组合策略对企业技术创新绩效的影响,为深化该领域的学术研究提供了建议,同时也为我国企业优化专利组合、提升技术创新能力和绩效提供了理论指导。

  9. Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lupu, Mihai; Tait, John; Trippe, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Patents form an important knowledge resource --much technical information represented in patents is not represented in scientific literature -- and at the same time they are important, and economically highly relevant, legal documents. Between 1998 and 2008, the number of patent applications filed yearly worldwide grew by more than 50 percent. Yet still we see a huge gap between, on the one hand, the technologies that emerged from research labs and are in use in major Internet search engines or in enterprise search systems, and, on the other hand, the systems used daily by the patent search co

  10. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  11. Are There Enduring Patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  12. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  13. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  14. Bibliography of US patents on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granted patents are an important source of information on the potential commercialization of augmented heat transfer technology. This report presents a bibliography of US patents pertinent to that technology. The total number of patents cited is 321. They are presented in three separate lists: by patent number, alphabetically by first inventor, and by augmentation techniques

  15. Bibliography of US patents on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.L.; Bergles, A.E.; Junkhan, G.H.

    1983-12-01

    Patents are an important source of information on the potential commercialization of augmented heat transfer technology. This report presents a bibliography of US patents pertinent to that technology. The total number of patents cited is 454. They are presented in three separate lists: by patent number, alphabetically by first inventor, and by augmentation technique (with secondary arrangement according to mode of heat transfer).

  16. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re......-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory....

  17. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory.

  18. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppresion - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    of development as aircraft, the car, radio and electric lighting. Merges and Nelson quite logically use their work to question the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents,[2] a theory that emphasises that the social value of patents is that they enable the coordination of technological development...... of patents caused problems for the coordination of development. I argue that the pattern in the cases is that for idiosyncratic reasons the prospect function of patents has been "compromised" by the way the patents have been administered, variously by Congress, the Patent Office or the courts. [1] R. Merges...

  19. R&D Competition and Optimal Patent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Innchan Lee

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies on optimal patent design calls for diflerent patent breadth-length combinations. This is because their models are based on different nature of competition in the patented product market. This paper explores other key determinants of optimal patent design. This paper shows that optimal patent design depends not only on the nature of competition in the patented product market but also on the nature of R&D technology and the degree of R&D competition.

  20. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of...

  1. Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of U.S. state-level patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldi, C Carolina; Frenken, K Koen; B. Los

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how variety affects the innovation output of a region. Borrowing arguments from theories of recombinant innovation, we expect that related variety will enhance innovation as related technologies are more easily recombined into a new technology. However, we also expect that unrelated variety enhances technological breakthroughs, since radical innovation often stems from connecting previously unrelated technologies opening up whole new functionalities and applications. Using pate...

  2. 75 FR 63443 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  3. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  4. Mapping (USPTO) patent data using overlays to Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; L. Bornmann

    2012-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and the quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology anal

  5. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created

  6. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  7. 基于专利分析的替代性技术识别研究%Identification of Alternative Technology Based on Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄岩; 张赏; 黄鲁成; 苗红

    2014-01-01

    The identification of alternative technologies is the basis for technology strategy choice of enterprise. Currently, the research on alternative technologies is mostly confined to qualitative studies and lacks an exact quantitative method, much less uses the method of pa-tent analysis. After summarizing the characteristics of alternative technologies, this paper presents the identification framework from two aspects:core feature and similarity. It uses an integrated approach combining of text mining, co-occurrence of manual code and use&ad-vantage matrix to identify the alternative technologies progressively. The empirical research on baseband chip technology proves the feasi-bility of the suggested approach.%替代性技术识别是企业进行技术战略选择的基础。目前,对替代性技术识别的研究多集中于定性分析,很少采用定量方法,利用专利文献与技术的关联关系进行替代性技术识别的研究少之更少。笔者在总结了替代性技术特征的基础上,构建了替代性技术识别方法框架,从核心性和相似性两个视角,综合利用文本挖掘、德温特手工代码共现、应用功效矩阵等方法逐层递进式识别替代性技术。以基带芯片技术为研究对象,进行实际论证,验证了该方法的可行性。

  8. 卡尔迈耶公司专利申请以及经编技术分析%An Analysis on Karl Mayer Company’s Patent Application and its Warp Knitting Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晴; 路剑锋

    2014-01-01

    By searching application of warp knitting patents proposed by Karl Mayer Company in China Patent Database, this paper gives analysis on application status in the warp knitting field and knitting technologies includ-ing annual patent application distribution, the ratio of the invention application and the ratio of the entitled appli-cation. In addition, it analyses the technique development process, recent technique development trend and patent application strategy of the Karl Mayer Company in China patent database, which expects to provide some useful in-formation for the development of domestic warp knitting technique.%基于中国专利数据库中卡尔迈耶公司提出的经编领域专利申请数据,分析了该公司在经编领域的专利申请情况包括专利申请量年度分布分析、发明专利申请占比和授权率。最后梳理了该公司通过专利申请揭示的技术发展过程以及近几年的技术发展趋势和专利申请策略,以期对我国经编技术的发展提供一些有用的信息。

  9. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  10. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866...

  11. Review of Innovative Technology Forecasting Methods Based on Patent Analysis%基于专利信息分析的创新技术预测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷景明; 兰小筠

    2014-01-01

    Containing vast data of technology innovation and development, patent information is a very valuable information resource for innovation activities. Patent analysis is an effective tool for innovation forecasting. The paper reviewed the methods and applications of in-novation forecasting both in China and aboard, which are based on patent citation analysis, patent network analysis, patent map based on keywords and TRIZ theory. Moreover, the pros and cons of those methods are compared in the paper, aiming at promoting technological innovation and research activities by using the tools of patent analysis effectively.%专利信息包含着技术创新和发展的相关数据,是企业创新活动非常有价值的信息资源。专利分析是企业创新技术预测管理的有效工具。较为全面地综述了目前国内外基于专利引文分析、基于专利网络分析、基于关键词专利地图和基于TRIZ理论的创新预测研究方法及其应用进展,并在此基础上综合比较了这些方法的优势和操作的局限性,以期指导有效地利用专利分析工具来促进企业技术创新的研究活动。

  12. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  13. Have Chinese firms learned from their prior technology in-licensing? An analysis based on patent citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise of Chinese economy, now ranking as the second largest economy in the world in 2010, many Chinese firms have started taking technological lead in the global market. Nevertheless, whether Chinese firms have learned from their prior inlicensing technologies and accumulated techno...

  14. Patent Portfolio Analysis Application in the Enterprises Technology Competitiveness Evaluation:A Case Study Based on Hydrogen Storage Technology%专利组合分析在评价企业技术竞争力中的应用--以储氢技术为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相丽; 谭宗颖

    2013-01-01

    This article first introduces the theory, analysis model and function of the patent portfolio. Then, based on Professor Holger Ernst’s patent portfolio method, it uses patent relative technological advantage to define the strength of enterprises. Using attractive tech-nology, the patent relative position and relative technology strength as three indicators, we draw a patent portfolio chart. The revised indi-cators are applied in the patent portfolio at the technological level to assess company’s technologies in field of hydrogen storage. The re-sults show patent portfolio is an effective tool in enterprise’s technology competitiveness evaluation.%  首先介绍了专利组合的基本思路与分析模型,以及专利组合分析的相关功能。然后对Holger Ernst 教授的专利组合方法进行部分修正,利用专利相对技术优势来界定各研究公司的技术强度,以各公司主流技术的技术吸引力、专利相对位置和技术强度为指标,绘制专利组合图,并对储氢技术领域的重要企业进行实证分析,表明了专利组合分析是评价企业竞争力的有效方法。

  15. Analysis of state and technology for Chinese patents in metallocene catalyst used in olefin polymerization%烯烃聚合用茂金属催化剂中国专利态势及技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕; 徐典宏; 朱雅兰; 牛承祥

    2011-01-01

    通过采取不同的检索策略,从国家知识产权局专利数据库检索到截至2009年10月的与茂金属催化剂相关的中国专利912件.从时间分布、国别构成、技术构成及法律状态等方面对这些专利的态势进行了分析,并对国内外主要专利权人的技术特点进行了分析对比,提出国内烯烃聚合用茂金属催化剂领域的研究发展建议.%912 pieces Chinese patents on metallocene catalyst by october of 2009 were searched from the patents data base of state intellectual property ofrice of China by adopting different search tactics.The state of these patents was analyzed including application data distribution, nations formation, technology structure and law state et al, and the technological characteristics of the major patent owners at home and abroad were analyzed and compared. Some advices were proposed for the domestic research and development of the metallocene catalyst used in olefin polymerization.

  16. Science and Technology Output Indicators in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Case Study on the Relevance between Patents and Scientific Products of Iranian Inventors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alaee Arani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The output of scientific products represents the efforts of scientific and industrial communities. The study on this output shows scientific attitudes and approaches of a community towards world of science. Quantitative studies can give a representation of the size and extent of the scientific efforts of researchers in special occasions, or a particular society. Patents are one of these important outputs. In this study, the names of Iranian inventors were extracted by carrying a combined search and the analysis of patent data available through Europe Patent Office (EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO, Japan Patent Office (JPO, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO databases. Inventors amount of scientific products were also evaluated by using citation indexes in Thompson Reuters (formerly ISI Web of Science. Content analysis research method was adopted. Results of this study reported no significant correlation was found between scientific output and patent application. Findings also indicated a 6.5 percent contribution of patent researcher in comparison with non-patent researchers of Iranian indexed articles by Web of Science.

  17. On the Patent Information of 4 G Mobile Communication Technology Between China and the U. S.:A Comparative Study%中美4G移动通信技术专利信息比较研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱洪华; 刘晓丽

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the patent activities of 4G mobile communication technology based on patent map between China and the U. S. . Using the related patent documents collected from"The Platform of Innography", from the perspective of key technological stand-ards of 4G, the patent database was constructed, and then an analysis of the patent information of 4G mobile communication was made from the aspects of global distribution, annual trend, technological fields ( IPC) , leading applicants, main inventors, country distribution and comprehensive competitiveness of assignees. Some conclusions would be valuable for Chinese 4G mobile communication industry.%在概括移动通信技术发展历程的基础上,利用“Innography专利信息检索分析平台”从技术标准的角度,对中美两国受理的4G移动通信技术专利进行全面检索,并形成研究所需要的专利数据库,然后从年度趋势、技术领域(IPC)、申请人、发明人、国别分布和专利权人综合竞争力等方面,对中美两国4G移动通信技术专利布局进行比较研究,从而为中国4G移动通信技术的发展提供指导借鉴。

  18. A guide of patent map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  19. The Software Patent Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the proposed European Directive on the Patentability of Computer-Implemented Inventions and the subsequent debate that followed. Do software patents - as argued by policymakers' - result in increased innovation?

  20. Patent Database : A Methodology of Information Retrieval From PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patent document holds wealth of information in itself. A brief detail of Indian patent applicationinformation is published as eighteen month publication by Indian patent Office, in electronic gazetteweekly. To date, a proper database of Indian patents specifically for research determination has not beenavailable, making it complicated for researcher to use this data for measuring any kind of researchactivities in terms of patents in India. To facilitate this, we constructed a comprehensive patent databasewhich incorporates the information presented in the electronic gazette. This database includes informationsuch as technology class, applicant, inventor, country of origin etc., of the patent submitted. We present themethodology for the creation of this database, its basic features along with its accuracy and reliability inthis research paper. Patent based database has been developed and can be used for various innovationresearches and activities.

  1. Patent indicators for macroeconomic growth—the value of patents estimated by export volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietsch, Rainer; Neuhäusler, Peter; Jung, Taehyun; Looy, Van Bart

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linkage between patenting and export performance for selected countries at the level of technology fields. Some empirical studies show considerable correlation between the patenting behavior of countries and their economic success in international markets. Adding to the exist

  2. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  3. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both...... corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  4. Discussion on the Operation Mechanism of Patent Securitization, the Path of Industrialization of Patent Technology and Policy%专利资产证券化运行机理及专利技术产业化路径与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁华; 冯儒

    2016-01-01

    As a fusion of financial innovation and technology innovation ,the essence of patent securitization is to turn the future cash flow of patent into the present cash flow ,achieve the unity of use value and trade value of patent technology and help enterprise obtain the funds required for further development .this paper makes a deep analysis of the operation mechanism of patent securitization and brings forward some suggestions that explore new financing channels for the devel‐opment of small and mid‐sized enterprise to promote the improvement of technology research ability and the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure .%专利资产证券化作为技术创新与金融创新的融合,其本质在于将专利资产未来现金流转变为现在现金流,实现专利技术使用价值与交易价值的内在统一,获得企业进一步发展所需资金。在深入剖析专利资产证券化运行机理及专利技术产业化路径的基础上,提出为科技型中小企业发展开拓新的融资渠道,从而有效提升科技型中小企业技术研发能力,推动产业结构优化升级的政策建议。

  5. Patent Mapping of Technology Competition among Fortune 500 Enterprises Based on Global Patent Co-citation Analysis%基于全域专利共被引的世界500强企业技术竞争的专利地图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤文; 丁堃; 张曦

    2011-01-01

    Patent citations are generally used to provide support for specific statements of technology competition,when patentometrics has become one kind of main method to analyze competitive technical intelligence for companies. In this paper, the authors choose Fortune 500 enterprises, released in 2009 , as research objects. Using patent data ( 2000 ~2009 ) from Derwent Innovation Index , employing full network methods in social network analysis, the authors construct the global patent co-citation matrix of Fortune 500 companies based on the patent forward citation, and conduct patent mapping analysis using information visualization technology and social network analysis method, including clustering distribution,Kernel density, and co-citation network analysis, to study the technology clusters, technology competition structure of Fortune 500, and to find the pivotal enterprises in the technology competition network.%专利文献的引用行为表达的是技术之间的竞争关系,专利计量方法已经成为企业技术竞争情报研究的一种主要手段.本文选择杂志(Fortune)2009年评选的世界500强企业作为研究对象,利用数据库中2000~2009年的专利数据,基于社会网络分析中全网络方法的思想,从专利的前向引用分析角度构造企业的全域专利共被引矩阵,然后运用信息可视化技术和社会网络分析方法对世界500强企业进行技术竞争的专利地图分析,包括聚类分布、Kernel插值分布、共被引网络分析,研究500强企业的技术群聚类、技术竞争结构,挖掘技术竞争网络中的关键企业.

  6. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  7. Identification of frontier technologies in electronic health record based on a comparison between patents and literature%基于专利与文献对比的电子健康档案技术前沿探测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯佳; 张云秋

    2016-01-01

    通过检索中国知网核心期刊数据库和中国知网中国专利全文数据库,运用共词聚类分析方法,对档案文献与专利进行对比分析发现,社区卫生服务与社区健康管理、远程医疗实现技术、HL7、XML是较有前景的电子健康档案技术.%Papers on electronic health record ( EHR) were retrieved from CNKI core journals database and CNKI patents full-text database.The papers on HER and patent literature were comparatively analyzed by co-words clus-tering analysis, which showed that technologies used in community health service, remote medical treatment, HL7 and XML are the promise technologies used in EHR.

  8. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  9. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Fu Wu; Keng-Wei Chang; Wei Zhou; Juan Hao; Chien-Chung Yuan; Ke-Chiun Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regress...

  10. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...... - the Wright brothers' warped-wing patent; second, that strict development block, defined as the prevention, or retardation of the development of technology understood to be capable of useful development, was not illustrated by any of their examples. Therefore I conclude that their general thesis...

  11. Strategic patenting and software innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Schankerman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Strategic patenting is widely believed to raise the costs of innovating, especially in industries characterised by cumulative innovation. This paper studies the effects of strategic patenting on R&D, patenting and market value in the computer software industry. We focus on two key aspects: patent portfolio size, which affects bargaining power in patent disputes, and the fragmentation of patent rights (‘patent thickets’) which increases the transaction costs of enforcement. We develop a model ...

  12. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  13. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu Wu

    Full Text Available This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  14. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio. PMID:26098313

  15. A Study of Japanese New-energy Vehicle Technology Development Trend Based on the Patent Analysis%基于专利分析的日本新能源汽车技术发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞德良; 刘兆国

    2014-01-01

    Starting with the new-energy vehicle patents application, this study uses the transnational patents analysis method to assess the Japanese new-energy vehicle technology level. Then, the characteristics of the Japanese automotive company's new-energy vehicle tech-nology patents application, technology development direction and enterprise technology portfolio are further analyzed, with much emphasis being given to the trend of the technology route and the impacts of industrial policies designed by government. This study suggests that:Ja-pan keeps ahead of other countries in the development of new-energy vehicle technology; the technology route of Japanese new-energy vehicle industry is clear;the industry is developing on the path decided in government's plan in a orderly way under the national industrial policies and other market cultivation policies.%从新能源汽车技术专利申请入手,利用跨国专利比较方法对日本新能源技术的国际水平进行比较分析。在此基础上,对日本汽车企业新能源技术专利申请的阶段性特点、技术发展方向以及企业技术组合进行进一步探讨,重点分析其技术路线的变化方向以及国家产业政策的影响。研究表明,日本新能源汽车技术处于世界领先水平,在国家产业政策以及其他市场培育措施的促进下,新能源汽车产业按国家产业规划目标有序发展。

  16. Research Progress in Domestic Modified Starch-Based on Literature Analysis of Patent Technology%国内变性淀粉研究进展-基于专利技术的文献学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童丹; 韩黎明

    2015-01-01

    相对于原淀粉,变性淀粉具有更广泛的用途和更多的应用领域。为了解国内变性淀粉专利技术的现状,以“中国专利数据库(知网版)”为数据源,用文献计量学方法,对1986~2014年有关变性淀粉的专利进行统计分析,结果表明,1986年,中国第一个变性淀粉专利申请;企业是申请变性淀粉专利技术最多的单位;变性淀粉应用最多的学科领域是化学和有机化工。%Modified starch has a wider range of use and application fields compared with native starch. In order to know about the present situation of patent technology of domestic modified starch, modified starch patents were analyzed ranging from 1986 to 2014 using the method of metrology, taking"Chinese patent database (known network edition)"as the data source. The results showed that the first Chinese modified starch patent was applied in 1986, companies were the most applicants for patent of modified starch, and modified starch was used mainly in the field of chemistry and organic chemical industry.

  17. Preliminary Discussion on Current Status and Development of Technology of Marine Antifouling Coatings from the Chinese Patents Application%从中国专利申请浅析海洋防污涂料技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2011-01-01

    Quantity of application, major domestic/foreign applicants, general application status of major foreign countries and proportion of application of different domestic applicant of Chinese patents on marine antifouling coating from 1985 -2006 were searched and analyzed by using key words and international patent classification (IPC). And also major technology and overall development trend of Chinese patents in marine antifouling coating were analyzed, combining the specific patent application of domestic/foreign applicants.Meanwhile, the problems and suggestions for domestic patent application were discussed.%使用关键词和国际专利分类体系(IPC)对1985-2009年间关于海洋防污涂料方面的中国专利信息进行了检索,统计分析了国内海洋防污涂料专利申请量的总体变化、国内外主要申请人申请专利的数量、世界主要国家在我国的专利申请状况以及国内不同类型的申请人专利申请量所占的比例,并结合国内外重点申请人在中国的具体专利申请,对国内海洋防污涂料专利申请的技术构成、总体技术发展趋势进行了分析,同时给出了在该领域中国内专利申请存在的问题及发展建议.

  18. Whither ink jet? Current patent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Stephen F.; Karz, Robert S.

    1995-04-01

    The status and potential of ink jet technology is discernible in its major technical literature forum: worldwide patents. Most ink jet technical activity is focused in commercial research and development laboratories where proprietary considerations make patents the norm for publication. Currently there are about 2,000 ink jet disclosures issued annually with over 200 enterprises represented. Ink jet patent activity is increasing about 25% per year driven by a rapidly expanding base of products, applications, and revenue. An analysis of the ink jet patent literature reveals a few major themes (i.e. continuous ink jet, piezoelectric drop-on-demand, and thermal ink jet) and numerous minor ones (i.e. electrohydro-dynamic extraction, magnetic drop-on-demand, Hertz continuous, acoustic ink printing). Patents bear witness to transformations in the industry as dominant players of the 1970's have given way to new leaders in the 1990's. They also foretell important commercial developments in ink jet's near term future. When studied in aggregate, the patent record reveals patterns for the industry in general as well as for individual companies. It becomes possible to use the patent data base not only to identify technical approaches and problems for specific firms, but also to track progress and monitor changing strategies. In addition, international filing patterns can provide insights into industry priorities. This paper presents an overview of ink jet technology as revealed by the patent literature. It will include a 25 year perspective, a review of trends over the past five years, and a survey of today's most active companies and their technical approaches. With this analysis, it will be shown that the information inherent in the patent record is more than the sum of its individual disclosures. Indeed, by using it, we can outlook whither goes ink jet.

  19. Getting Patents & Economic Data to Speak to Each Other: An ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ Approach for Joint Analyses of Patenting & Economic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lybbert, Travis J.; Nikolas J. Zolas

    2012-01-01

    International technological diffusion is a key determinant of cross-country differences in economic performance. While patents can be a useful proxy for innovation and technological change and diffusion, fully exploiting patent data for such economic analyses requires patents to be tied to measures of economic activity. In this paper, we describe and explore a new algorithmic approach to constructing concordances between the International Patent Classification (IPC) system that organizes pate...

  20. Software Patents and the EPO: Should software patents be granted under the European patent system?

    OpenAIRE

    Drengur Óla Þorsteinsson 1981

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the European patent system under the European Patent Convention of 1977 in relation to software patents. Software patents and their granting is a matter of some controversy throughout the world and it is debated whether or not such patents should be granted at all. The central question this dissertation addresses is whether software patents should be granted under the European patent system. For the purpose of answering this question the definitions ...

  1. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  2. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy...... archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State...

  3. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

     This paper builds on the recommendation in the STOA Report (2007) to improve the European patent system to "Increase Access to Patented Inventions". The paper first provides some background information to the patent system and to the limitations on access to protected technology from "thickets......" and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...... this reluctance and to include measures in the European patent legislation which seek to increase access to patented inventions. Finally the paper presents and discusses three such measures: Compulsory licences, licences of rights, and behavioural rules...

  4. 基于移动互联背景下的GIS专利技术检索分析%Analysis on GIS Patent Technology Retrieval Based on Mobile Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周善明; 陈维斌; 宋进

    2015-01-01

    针对目前移动互联浪潮下O2O营销模式的兴起和热议,以及当下国内三家顶尖互联网企业BAT(百度、阿里巴巴、腾讯)都同时选择通过GIS技术构建O2O入口的现状,在检索BAT持有的GIS专利基础上,分析各自专利的技术分布和申请策略,获得当前BAT在GIS专利技术上的竞争态势,得出各自在移动互联网上布局的发力点。%At present, O2O marketing pattern is rising up with the advent of mobile Internet. Three top Internet enterprises at home BAT (Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent) simultaneously establish O2O entry based on GIS (Geographic Information System) technology. By retrieving GIS patents held by BAT, the technical distribution and application strategy of the patents were analyzed to obtain the competitive status of BAT in GIS patent technology and derive BAT’s advantages on the mobile Internet layout.

  5. Speeding up the patent achievement technology transfer form taking the venture capital as the link%以风险投资为纽带加快专利成果技术转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓

    2014-01-01

    Based on existence problem analysis to domestic patent achievement transformation, the thesis carries on the summary to the American silicon valley's experience, points out the prominent question of the domestic patent technology and the venture capital fusion aspect, proposes the venture capital organization is the link of speeding up the patent achievement technology transfer and the intermediary of the coordination innovation to produces-study-research, and discusses measures including of development the imbark finance, the enlargement venture capital professional manager vigorously raises, the enlargement finance support dynamics, arrangement legal regime, and duplicating silicon valley's successful pattern.%在对我国专利成果转化存在的问题分析基础上,对美国硅谷的经验进行总结,指出国内专利技术与风险投资融合方面存在的突出问题,提出风险投资机构是加快专利成果技术转移的纽带和产学研协同创新中介,并探讨大力发展创业金融、加大风险投资职业经理人培养、加大财政扶持力度、健全法律制度安排、复制硅谷的成功模式的五点措施。

  6. Patents and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs. PMID:17716180

  7. 科技型中小企业专利行为分析--上海、慕尼黑四家中小企业案例比较研究%An Analysis of Shanghai's Scientific and Technological SMEs' Patent Behavior:A Case Study of Four SMEs from Shanghai and Munich

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玮

    2013-01-01

    This research consists of four case studies on the patent behavior of different technological SMEs from Shanghai and Munich. Part of Shanghai’s SMEs’ patent behavior is driven by the strategic motivation. However, the expensive patent fees and limited internal resources are the main obstacle of the patent behavior. The dissertation puts forward suggestions on technological SMEs’ patent policies which focus on the patent fee sponsorship and personnel guidance, in order to solve the contradiction between technological SMEs’ patent strategy demand and the resources shortage.%  对上海、慕尼黑四家科技型中小企业专利行为进行案例研究,发现上海市部分科技型中小企业的专利行为受战略驱动,但专利费用高昂及有限的内部资源阻碍了企业的专利行为。建议向我国科技型中小企业提供专利战略服务支撑,并将专利费用资助与人员指导相结合,以解决我国科技型中小企业专利战略需求增加与资源缺乏之间的突出矛盾。

  8. GM Crops: Patently Wrong?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of the paper critiques David Resnik’s recent arguments in favor of patents on GM crops. Resnik argues that we should take a consequentialist approach to the issue, and that the best way to do s...

  9. Further Development of Artificial Pancreas: Blocked by Patents?

    OpenAIRE

    Erdin, Nils; Robin, Franck; Heinemann, Lutz; Brandt, Derek; Hovorka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Patent activity in the field of medical device technology and especially in the area of artificial pancreas development has surged in recent years. According to the search presented in this article, the number of granted U.S. patents in the area of closed-loop glucose control (CLGC) increased from 24 filed in 1991 to 247 filed in 2001. A company active in the area of diabetes technology development will likely need to understand a patent landscape consisting of hundreds of patents. Currently,...

  10. Trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar de saúde como um espaço de reconhecimento: contribuições da teoria de Axel Honneth Interdisciplinary health care teamwork as a space of recognition: contributions of Axel Honneth's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teórico tem como objetivo relacionar uma discussão sobre o trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar nos serviços públicos de saúde com os principais conceitos do filósofo contemporâneo Axel Honneth, dentre eles aquele que denominou Luta por Reconhecimento. Para tanto, partimos da revisão da noção de sujeito na teoria honnethiana, sobretudo a partir do diálogo que faz com a psicanálise de Donald Winnicott. Destacamos que se trata de um sujeito eminentemente social, cuja constituição depende do reconhecimento do outro em relação a sua alteridade e da legitimação do seu pertencimento a um grupo social. Mostramos que esse reconhecimento se dá através de um processo de luta, essencial para o desenvolvimento da capacidade de amar e se relacionar com o outro. Em seguida, defendemos que o trabalho em equipes interdisciplinares pode ser um espaço para o reconhecimento dos profissionais, tal como discutido por Honneth. Consequentemente, as equipes podem facilitar o desenvolvimento de trabalhos criativos e inovações na organização da assistência oferecida aos pacientes.This theoretical study aims to correlate the discussion about interdisciplinary teamwork in public health institutions with the key concepts of contemporary philosopher Axel Honneth with regards to what he called the Struggle for Recognition. We start by revising the notion of subject in Honneth's theory, especially based on his dialogue with Donald Winnicott's psychoanalysis. We highlight that this subject is eminently social; its constitution depends on the recognition of others regarding its otherness and the legitimacy of its belonging to a social group. Next, we show that this recognition occurs through a process of struggle, which is essential for developing the capacity to love and to relate to others. We then argue that the work in interdisciplinary teams can be configured as a potent space for the recognition of professionals, as discussed by

  11. Review of Patent Technology Related to Phase Change Memory%相变存储器专利技术现状和趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范崇飞; 杨燕; 张思秘; 王丽

    2013-01-01

    选择相变存储器作为主题,通过标准的检索方式,使用关键词并结合国际专利分类号,对中国专利检索数据库中的中国发明专利申请进行了全面的检索,得到相关的发明专利申请,对上述数据进行细致的手工筛选分类,并作了深入的研究分析,揭示了中国相变存储器领域内发明专利申请的当前状况和未来的发展趋势.%The Chinese patent and patent application were reviewed in the field of phase change memory through standard searches using key words and international patent classification.These dates of Chinese PCM patents were analyzed by computer search and manual sorting.The results reveal the current patent deployment status and the future development trend within the field of phase change memory in China.

  12. Prostitution in Deutschland zwischen Missachtung und Anerkennung: Eine normative Betrachtung der Sexarbeit im Kontext der anerkennungstheoretischen Aspekte aus der kritischen Theorie Axel Honneths.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Janella, Renik

    2014-01-01

    This project report is investigating the societal consequences of prostitution in Germany. In this, we focus on the most recent developments since its’ legalization in 2002. We are investigating who is benefitting the most from this business and furthermore in which ways the involved women are being marginalised and violated. The social consequences of these phenomena are being critically analyzed through the theory of recognition as articulated by Axel Honneth. The main issue are psychologic...

  13. Research on the evaluation of urban technological innovation capability based on patent analysis%基于专利视角的城市科技创新能力评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓梅; 张岩; 綦晓卿; 丁海德

    2012-01-01

    The quantity and quality of patents that a city owns and the capability of managing patent institutions indicate urban technological innovation capability and core competitiveness.In this paper,starting from patent analysis,we construct a capability evaluation system of urban technological innovation.This paper makes a model research on collected patent data sampling from 15 vice-provincial cities by factor analysis method.The results show that the coastal cities in South China have distinct advantages over the others in innovation vitality,innovation strength,and innovation viability and innovation contribution.In the mean time,some old industrial bases own superiority in innovation cooperation and potentials.%城市拥有专利权的数量和质量以及运用专利制度的能力与水平,是城市综合科技实力、核心竞争力的重要体现。从专利角度入手,构建城市科技创新能力评价指标体系,运用因子分析法对全国15个副省级城市的专利信息进行实证研究。结果表明,南方沿海地区的城市在创新活力、创新实力、创新存活力和创新贡献力等方面具有相对优势,而一些老工业基地城市在创新合力和创新潜力等方面具有相对优势。

  14. Monetary value estimation model for patent and patent application

    OpenAIRE

    Akaslan, Muhammed Fatih

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to estimating economic value of a patent/patent application for Biotechnology companies. To be able to perform a solid portfolio management of patents and patent applications, it is necessary to obtain an approximate economic value of patent/project in question. In this manner, this study seeks to answer the questions of how the value evolves throughout the filing process, what the value determinants of a patent are and how they affect...

  15. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  16. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of ...

  17. The stem cell patent landscape as relevant to cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-10-01

    Cancer vaccine targeting cancer stem cells is proposed to serve as a potent immunotherapy. Thus, it would be useful to examine the main trends in stem cell patenting activity as a guide for those seeking to develop such cancer vaccines. We found that a substantial number of stem cell patents were granted up to the end of 2010, including ~2000 issued in the US. Many of these have been filed since 2001, including 7,551 applications in the US. Stem cell development, as evidenced by the numbers of PubMed articles, has matured steadily in recent years. However, the other metrics, such as the number of patent applications, the technology-science linkage and the number of patent assignees, have been stagnant. Moreover, the ownership of stem cell patents is still quiet fragmented across multiple organizations, and the number of stem cell patent assignees from the business sector has not increased significantly. Academic and nonprofit institutions not only account for a large share of stem cell patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of stem cell resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to the ban on government funding of embryonic stem cell research. Furthermore, the patent prosecution or technical barriers in the field of stem cells would be another main reason that the number of US-issued stem cell patents for each application have been in gradual decline since 2000. Therefore, we consider stem cell technology to still be under development. PMID:21957493

  18. 基于DII的半导体激光加工领域专利分析%Analysis on the Patents of the Field of Semiconductor Laser Processing Technology Based on DII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩霞; 单美玉; 王戴尊

    2015-01-01

    Based on the patent information resources in the DII database,and using the patent analysis research method,this paper carries out an analysis on the semiconductor laser processing research patents collected in the period of 1963—2014 aiming to know the development trend,nations distribution,technical hot spots and main competition organizations of the field of semiconductor laser processing technology in the world. The analysis shows that patent applications in the field of semiconductor laser processing technology had maintained the growth in recent years,the patent application number of China ranks the third place in the world, the main competitors are Japan and United States,the main competition organizations are almost dominated by Japan,and the main technology field is focused on the semiconductor devices,welding and utilization of stimulated devices.%利用DII数据库的专利信息资源,采用专利分析的研究方法,对1963—2014年收录的有关半导体激光加工领域的专利进行了分析,以了解全球半导体激光加工制造领域的研发趋势、国家布局、技术热点和主要竞争机构. 分析表明,半导体激光加工技术领域专利申请量近年始终保持增长的趋势;中国申请专利数量处在全球排名第三的位置,主要的竞争对手为日本和美国;主要的竞争机构几乎被日本所垄断;主要的技术领域集中在半导体器件、焊接和利用受激发的器件等方面.

  19. Blackberries and Barnyards: Patent Trolls and the Perils of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Magliocca, Gerard N

    2007-01-01

    This Essay provides some perspective on the troll issue by pointing out a historical parallel that has received no attention. It turns out that these opportunistic licensors were also active in the nineteenth century. Called “patent sharks,” they bought dormant agricultural patents and then sued farmers who were unknowingly using protected technology. This brass knuckles tactic outraged rural activists and led to the same calls for sweeping patent reform that we hear now. At that time,...

  20. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  1. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation. PMID:26812756

  2. First Joint U.S.-Canada Polar Expedition for Educators, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada: Planetary Analogue Research and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, M.; Pollard, W. H.; McKay, C. M.; Coe, L.; Steinberg, M.; Clement, J.

    2008-12-01

    From July 20 to August 2, 2008, joint activities sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA - Space Learning) and NASA (Spaceward Bound) were carried out at the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) in the Canadian High Arctic. Established in 1960, MARS consists of two sites located on western Axel Heiberg Island along the shore of Expedition Fiord (lower camp), and 8 km inland, at Colour Lake (upper camp). The MARS upper camp is one of the longest-operating seasonal field research facilities in polar regions. The lower camp was established in 2007 through infrastructure support provided by the CSA. The station is located in a mountainous area dominated by ice caps, outlet and valley glaciers, polar desert, arctic tundra, and permafrost, and is internationally recognized for research on cold, perennial springs associated with the presence of evaporite domes. Six educators from the U.S. and Canada participated in field surveys and hands-on demonstrations with the following objectives: (1) join a team of scientists and engineers to explore the topics of Physical Geography, Geoscience, Astrobiology, and Robotics through experiential learning; (2) discover how remote and extreme polar environments on Earth are used by planetary scientists to better understand the evolution of the Moon and Mars, and to potentially train future planetary explorers; (3) bring that experience back to their classrooms, and assist in the development of space curriculum related to science, technology, and engineering projects carried out at planetary analogue sites. In this paper, we present a summary of operational planning and field surveys that led to successful scientific experiments by 16 participants during the Expedition. Research topics explored prior to, and during the arctic mission include Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Geology, Seismology, Earth Observation, Astrobiology, and Terrain Characterization with implications for future human and robotic exploration missions to the

  3. 三维专利技术生命周期模型构建与实证研究%The Distinguishing Methods of Three-Dimensional Patented Technology Life Cycle and Empirical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯元元

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Patent intelligence is an important assistant tool for technical competitive intelligence and competitive strategy research. This pa-per constructs a three-dimensional patented technology life-cycle model, and researches the stage of technology development through a comprehensive analysis. Finally, it presents us a case study in the fuel cell technology of China and shows us the stage and trend of devel-opment of the technology by using the model proposed.%  专利情报是技术竞争情报和竞争战略研究的重要手段。构建了三维专利技术生命周期模型,通过综合集成分析来研究专利技术所处的发展阶段。并以我国燃料电池技术为例,利用三维专利技术生命周期模型,分析该技术所处的发展阶段及趋势。

  4. Exclusion by inclusion? : on difficulties with regard to an effective ethical assessment of patenting in the field of agricultural bio-technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    In order to take ethical considerations of patenting biological material into account, the so-called ‘‘ordre public or morality clause’’ was implemented as Article 6 in the EC directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, 98/44/EC. At first glance, this seems to provide a signifi

  5. Patent Technology Competitor Group Analysis Method Based on IPC%基于专利IPC分类号的技术竞争对象的群组分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红旗; 付媛; 朱礼军

    2015-01-01

    技术竞争对象群组是产业技术内的技术研发实体因为技术上接近而形成的集群。发现技术竞争对象群组,可以从较高层次上掌握产业技术领域内的竞争态势,给产业技术参与者和政策制定者提供有价值的情报信息。首先概述了主要的群组分析方法,然后引入了可视化的LinLog图形聚类分析方法,从研发机构、省份和国家三个层面,提出了以IPC分类号为特征的技术竞争对象群组的识别流程模型。采集了燃料电池技术领域的专利数据作为实验研究,对数据进行了预处理,采取提出的方法对该领域的竞争对象群组进行了识别,验证了该方法的有效性。%It is crucial to understand the technical groups of intra-industry and to master the competition in the field of technology. In order to provide valuable information to industry participants and policymakers, the Patent technology competitor group analysis method based on IPC is introduced. Firstly, the analysis method of groups is summarized. The recognition model of technological competitor groups characterized by the IPC classification number and the technical terms is put forward. Then, obtain patent data for this research in the field of fuel cell technology through multi-threaded Chinese patent data acquisition system. Finally, invoking LinLog visualization tools to do graphical clustering for research and development institutions, provinces and countries and the patent technology competitor analysis method is validated.

  6. Chinese Patent Analysis on Air puriifer Technology%我国空气净化器技术现状专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴日欣; 凌锋; 刘会景

    2015-01-01

    2003年以来全球范围SARS的蔓延、新型流感的流行以及近年来人们对雾霾(PM2.5)的广泛关注,使空气净化器得到了快速发展,众多厂商纷纷跻身这个快速成长的领域,如老牌国产空气净化企业沃泰克、远大,外资品牌夏普、飞利浦,国内知名空调厂家美的、格力、海尔等,健康产品渠道商安利,互联网公司小米,以及新兴环保企业青岛川山硅藻泥、爱芯环保科技等。最新数据显示,2014年我国空气净化器的市场零售量达到580万台,比2013年的240万台有大幅增长。本文从我国空气净化器相关技术的专利分析入手,从发展趋势、技术领域分布、地区分布,竞争对手等多个角度揭示我国空气净化器的技术发展现状以及未来趋势。%Due to the outbreak of SARS and other new inlfuenza viruses in 2003, and increased public awareness of PM2.5 in recent years, air puriifcation technology has developed rapidly in China. As a result, many major manufacturers joined this industry: Major domestic air puriifer producers like Valtorc and Broad Group, foreign brands including Sharp and Phillips; famous domestic air-conditioner manufacturers like Midea, Gree, and Haier; health care products provider Amway, internet company Xiaomi, and environment protection technology providers Chuan Yue Shan, AirFC, etc. Latest data suggests that the retail market size for air puriifers has reached 5.8 million in the year 2014, and it has expanded greatly from the 2.4 million in 2013. This article intends to give a patent analysis of air puriifers and the related technology in China. It will give an interpretation of the current technical status as well as the future trend of air puriifers through evaluating their development trend, technical ifeld distribution, area distribution, and competitors in China.

  7. 脲醛缓释肥料的发展现状及专利技术%Present Development Situation for Slowly Releasing Fertilizer of Urea Formaldehyde and Patent Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2012-01-01

    Author has briefly described the present development situation for slowly releasing fertilizer of urea formaldehyde ; has introduced the patent technology for producing the slowly releasing fertilizer of urea formaldehyde ; has clarified the productive method for slowly releasing fertilizer of urea formaldehyde.%简述了脲醛缓释肥料的发展现状;介绍了生产脲醛缓释肥料的专利技术;阐明了脲醛缓释肥料的生产方法。

  8. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Guangyuan, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@mail.shufe.edu.cn, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@shufe.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, School of Public Economics and Administration (China); Liu, Weishu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Antai College of Economics and Management (China)

    2015-12-15

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  9. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average

  10. Research on Lexical Model of Construction of Patent Technology-Effect Matrix%专利技术功效矩阵构建词汇模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 张晓林

    2012-01-01

    针对目前专利技术功效矩阵结构中技术点、功效点相关词汇界定模糊、词汇来源较为广泛,缺乏系统梳理和定义等问题,定义了一个三维矩阵构建词汇模型。该模型能较好满足专利技术功效矩阵分析的多技术主题、分析任务临时性强、主题范围可选等特点。可在后续的矩阵构建关键技术,如区分技术词、功效词,优化技术词、功效词聚类效果及生成矩阵结构中发挥作用。%The article defines a three-dimensional matrix to construct the lexical model, thus overcoming the following problems in current patent technology-effect matrix: the fuzzy definition of the vocabulary concerning technology and effect aspects, the wide source of the words and lack of systematic arrangement and definition. The model can better suit the characteristics of patent technology-effect matrix analysis such as its multi-technology subject, the provisionality of the analysing task and the option of the subject scope. The model play a role in constructing matrix by follow-up key technology, distinguishing technology words, effect words, optimized technology words and effect words clustering effects, and generating matrix structure.

  11. Study on Technological Innovation Ability of Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center from China Patent%从国内专利申请分析广州大学城技术创新能力提升策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣晓

    2012-01-01

    专利文献是反映技术创新能力和实力的具有法律效力的文件.通过申请专利的总体情况、类型、IPC构成、技术发展情况、与企业联合研发等信息,可以分析广州大学城技术创新能力状况,并提出进一步提升其技术创新能力的产学研合作、集聚发展、政策激励和国际合作等策略.%Patent literature is a kind of document which has legal force and can reflect the capability of technologcial innovation. The paper analyzes the capability of technological innovation of Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center through the information about the general situation of patent application, type, IPC formation, technological development situation and researches with companies. The paper also puts forward strategies to further improve its capability of technological innovation like coopetation among industry, education and academy, cluster development, policy incentive and international cooperation.

  12. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  13. The Empirical Research on the Relationship between the Patent Technology and the Company Performance of the Sports Enterprises%体育用品企业专利技术与公司绩效关系的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华梅; 王兆红; 刘念

    2016-01-01

    在梳理专利技术与公司绩效相关文献的基础上 ,对我国体育用品企业专利技术的现状和特征进行描述.通过分析13家体育用品上市公司2007 -2014年专利申请情况 ,以体育用品企业的公司绩效指标为被解释变量 ,以专利技术数量为解释变量 ,构建多元线性回归模型实证分析专利技术对体育用品企业公司绩效的影响.研究结果表明 ,体育用品企业的专利类型以外观设计和实用新型专利为主 ,发明专利较少 ;专利总数与总资产周转率呈负相关关系 ,与净资产收益率和销售收入增长率呈正相关关系 ;外观设计专利、实用新型专利和发明专利与总资产周转率呈正相关关系 ,且外观设计专利与总资产周转率具有非常显著的正相关关系 ;外观设计专利与净资产收益率呈正相关关系 ,实用新型专利和发明专利与净资产收益率呈负相关关系 ;外观设计专利、实用新型专利和发明专利与体育用品销售收入增长率均呈负相关关系.%On the basis of combing the relevant literature of the patent technology and company performance ,this paper describes the status quo and characteristics of China's sporting goods enterprises patent technology .Through analysis the patent application of the13 sporting goods listing Corporation from 2007 to 2014 year ,The corporate performance index of sports goods enterprises is the explanatory variable ,and the number of the patented technology is the ex-planatory variable .Using the multiple linear regression model to empirical analysis of the im-pact of the patented technology on the performance of sports enterprise corporate performance . The results show that the patent types of sports enterprises are mainly based on the exterior design and utility model ,and the invention patent is less .The total number of patents was neg-atively related to the turnover rate of total assets ,and the return on equity and revenue grow th

  14. 基于专利地图的农业机器人技术发展态势研究%Studies on the Development Status of Agricultural Robot Related Technologies Based on Patent Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌凯; 林志坚; 应向伟; 仇秋飞; 吴巧玲; 赵云飞; 吴叶青

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural robot is an important potential development direction for agricultural machinery industry, which can improve the core competitiveness of relevant companies, drive technological innovations and promote the increase of agricultural production efficiency.In this article, based on the patent map of agricultural robot related technologies, the development status is investigated from five aspects, including development trend, key technology fields, regional distri-bution, rival agencies and highly cited patents, to provide intelligence support for further development of agricultural ro-bot industry and technologies by related government, companies, universities and research institutes.Research results in-dicate that agricultural robot related technologies began a rapid development around 1995 and up to now.End effector of manipulator, automatic guidance and target detection&location are key technologies of R&D.Harvesting robot, field op-eration robot and crop protection robot are key species of R&D.China has great R&D enthusiasm towards agricultural ro-bot related technologies in recent years, and has applied a large number of patents.However, compared to USA and Ja-pan, the patent quality of China is a bit lower and China lacks core patents.Thus, the technological level of China in ag-ricultural robot field needs further improvement.Moreover, countermeasures and suggestions are presented for the devel-opment of agricultural robot in China from three levels, including government, companies and industrial parks.%农业机器人是农机产业的重要潜在发展方向,可提升农机企业核心竞争力、驱动科技创新及促进农业生产效率提升。为此,针对农业机器人技术绘制专利地图,从发展趋势、重点技术领域、地域分布、竞争机构及高引专利等方面开展态势研究,以为相关政府部门、企业和高校院所进一步发展农业机器人产业和技术提供情报支撑。研究结果表明

  15. Patent Application Outcomes across the Trilateral Patent Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Paul H. Jensen; Alfons Palangkaraya; Elizabeth Webster

    2005-01-01

    While most developed countries apply the same criteria to determine whether an invention is eligible to be protected by a patent, there are substantial procedural differences in the way in which different patent offices examine a patent application. This means that a patent application may be granted in one jurisdiction but rejected in others, which raises welfare concerns about the ability of patents to provide an ex ante incentive for investment. In this article, we analyze whether there ar...

  16. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR... territories, possessions and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S....

  17. 77 FR 48130 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in Provisional Application for...

  18. The dynamics of patent citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of patent citations as a measure of patent "quality" increased dramatically in recent years. I estimate the hazard of patent citation, and find evidence of unobserved heterogeneity. Hazard estimation provides a means to separate patent quality from citation "inflation."

  19. Cómo encontrar patentes, setiembre 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bonich, Mònica; Cervera-Farré, Albert; Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Com es poden trobar les patents: què són les patents?, què es pot patentar?, qui assigna les patents? i com es poden trobar patents? Cómo encontrar patentes: ¿qué son las patentes?, ¿qué se puede patentar?, ¿quién asigna las patentes? y ¿cómo se pueden encontrar patentes? How to find patents: what are patents?, what can be patented?, who awards the patents? and how can patents be found?

  20. Responsibility Continuation of Engineering Education : University Technology Transfer and Patent Management%工程教育的责任延续:高校技术转移与专利管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 雷环

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,the development of engineering education in China has made remarkable achievements,but there are also some shortcomings,and the most prominent problem is the lack of engineering practice.Strengthening the university technology transfer and patent management is one of the measures to solve this problem,but it also reflects the responsibility continuation of the engineering education,that is,the service of national development strategies and progress of industries and enterprises.This paper made an analysis and comparison of the status quo of the development,incentives,institutional settings and personnel aspects of Sino-US university technology transfer and patent management,and made a number of policy recommendations to the strengthening of the social responsibility of the university engineering education and future patent management changes.%近年来,我国工程教育发展取得了显著的成绩,但也存在一些不足,最为突出的问题就是缺乏工程实践。加强高校技术转移和专利管理,是解决这一问题的措施之一,也体现了工程教育的责任延续,即服务国家发展战略和行业企业进步。本文从发展现状、激励政策、机构设置与人员队伍等方面对中美高校技术转移和专利管理工作进行了比较分析,并对加强我国高校工程教育的社会责任和未来专利管理模式的转变提出了若干政策建议。

  1. Patent Portfolio Race and Secrecy

    OpenAIRE

    Illoong Kwon

    2008-01-01

    When firms can protect their innovations by secrecy or lead-time, the additional effect of patent protection is not obvious. This paper shows that when firms compete for a single innovation, patent protection still increases R&D investment but decreases social welfare due to over-investment. However, when firms compete for multiple complementary patents (called a patent portfolio), patent protection decreases R&D investment and decreases social welfare due to under-investment. If firms cannot...

  2. 我国电动汽车技术领域专利网络研究%Research on Patent Network in China's Electronic Vehicle Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立国; 余翔; 周力虹; 周韵

    2012-01-01

      Electronic vehicle represents the development direction of vehicle industry. This paper introduces the whole patent situation in this technical area, builds the patent applicant and inventor network by using the social network analysis method, and makes in-depth anal-ysis of the inventor network with top-ranking applicants, finds the network attributions of the cooperation relationship among the applicants and inventors, and gets the"core inventors" and the"bridge inventors" in the patent network, then can provide the related suggestions for the policy making, industry cultivating, and individual development in this technical area in China.%  电动汽车代表着汽车产业的发展方向,介绍此技术领域专利整体情况,运用社会网络分析方法构建专利申请人和发明人网络,并对排名靠前的申请人和发明人网络进行深入分析,得到了申请人和发明人之间合作关系的网络特征,并寻找到了专利网络中的核心发明人和桥梁作用发明人,从而为我国该技术领域的政策制定、行业培育和个体发展提供相关建议。

  3. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    ; the rest of the patent application, etc.. Description of the invention The description of the invention aims to provide sufficient technical data and to further clarify and describe all the details of the invention for which protection is sought in the claims. The description should enable the average expert in the specific field of technology to perform  or to conduct a  procedure on the application and determine whether it meets the requirements for patentability. The description contains the following units: title of the invention; technology field; technical problem; state of technology; brief summary of the invention; a brief description of the figures of the draft; detailed invention description and the methods of industrial and other applications of the invention. The claims The claims are the most important part of the patent application and all other elements of the patent application are in a function of patent claims. The claims must define the invention solely by its technical characteristics. They are submitted on a separate sheet after the description of the invention under the title "The claims". Depending  on the protection sought, one or more claims can be placed. Abstract The abstract contains the title of the invention and a brief summary of the invention as shown in the description, the requirements and the draft. A brief review must indicate the technical field to which the invention relates and must allow a clear understanding of the technical problem, the essence of the problem and the basic way (ways of using the invention. The abstract contains a maximum of 150 words. Draft of the invention A draft of the invention is submitted on separate sheets, along with the title of the invention on each side. The reference signs given in the description, requirements and the draft must be the same throughout the application. Other documents with the patent application In addition to the above mentioned sections of the patent application, the following

  4. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  5. Supreme Court's Patent Ruling Could Spell Trouble For Blackboard and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Many college officials have criticized Blackboard Inc. for its patent on its course-management system, arguing that the patent is overly broad and seems to cover the entire concept of online learning. Critics of Blackboard and other companies that have patents on learning technology are welcoming a recent Supreme Court ruling that they hope may…

  6. 国防专利技术转移信息不对称及对策研究%Causes and Countermeasures of Information Asymmetry in Defense Patent Technology Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武剑; 郑绍钰

    2016-01-01

    转移主体双方信息不对称是制约国防专利技术向民用领域转移的主要障碍.在分析国防专利技术转移信息不对称表现的基础上,剖析其背后的原因,并从转移相配套的解密机制、信息平台业务拓展以及审批与评价机制的建立完善等方面针对性地提出解决对策.%The information asymmetry of transfer of both entities poses a major restriction for the transfer of national defense patented technology to civil applications.Based on the analysis on the in-formation asymmetry of main entities of national defense patented technology transfer,the paper ana-lyzes the reasons behind and brings out countermeasures of transfer of corresponding decryption mechanism,expansion of information platform business and the establishment and completion of ap-proval and evaluation mechanism.

  7. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  8. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  9. Test Collections for Patent-to-Patent Retrieval and Patent Map Generation in NTCIR-4 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; IWAYAMA, Makoto; Kando, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Patent Retrieval Task in the Fourth NTCIR Workshop, and the test collections produced in this task. We perform the invalidity search task, in which each participant group searches a patent collection for the patents that can invalidate the demand in an existing claim. We also perform the automatic patent map generation task, in which the patents associated with a specific topic are organized in a multi-dimensional matrix.

  10. Quantification of pneumothorax volume on chest radiographs: comparison between the collins' and the axel's methods with three-dimensional CT as the standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was twofold. In a preliminary study, we evaluated the accuracy of 3-D (three-dimensional) CT for the estimation of pneumothorax volume and for providing the optimal postprocessing method for clinical study. In the clinical study, we determined which of the two methods, Collins' and Axel's, was more accurate for the estimation of pneumothorax volume, as seen on chest radiographs, using 3-D CT as the standard of reference. In the preliminary study, 3-D CT was applied to phantoms and to four patients with pneumothorax using two different postprocessing methods, manual contour delineation and thresholding. In the clinical study, 3-D CT was performed in 13 patients with pneumothorax. For the purpose of evaluating conventional radiographs, a localizer scan was used for comparing the accuracy of Collins' method with that of Axel's method, with 3-D CT as the standard of reference. The preliminary study revealed that 3-D CT estimated pneumothorax volume with great accuracy and that manual contour delineation and thresholding measured volume equally well. Because of the shorter postprocessing time required with thresholding than with manual contour delineation (5 min versus 30 min), the former was used during clinical study. The results of this indicated close correlation between the measurements obtained using Collins' method on chest radiographs and those obtained by 3-D CT(r=0.95, p0.05). 3-D CT can estimate pneumothorax volume with great accuracy. Collins' method is superior to Axel's method for the quantification of pneumothorax volume as seen on chest radiographs

  11. 基于专利耦合的企业间技术相似性可视化研究%Visualization of technological similarity analysis for enterprises based on patent coupling approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪勇; 李英敏

    2013-01-01

    The technological similarity among enterprises is an important content of enterprises' technological intelligence analysis.Approach and process for technological similarity analysis for enterprises based on patent coupling is raised,in order to supply enterprises with effective decision-making information and help enterprises to search for technology competitive and cooperative objects worldwide.First,this paper compares some relate approaches in previous studies and points out that patent coupling analysis is a more accurate and real-time approach for reflecting technological similarity among enterprises.Secondly,the paper improves the method for calculating the coupling strength of the paired enterprises based on elaborating the principles of patent coupling analysis,in order to effectively distinguish the difference of coupling strength among several coupling pairs.Thirdly,the paper constructs a visualization and application process framework for analyzing technological similarity among enterprises,through applying correlation analysis and multiple -dimension scaling based on the coupling data.Finally,this paper reveals the technological similarity among the primary organizations in the field of flat panel display,it further demonstrates the visual analysis and application process of enterprises' technological similarity analysis based on patent coupling and can provide a guide for enterprises' technology intelligence analysis.%企业间技术相似性是企业技术情报分析的重要内容.为了给企业在全球范围内寻求技术竞争与合作对象提供有效的决策信息支持,提出基于专利耦合的企业间技术相似性分析方法与流程.首先,综合比较了目前理论研究中的相关方法,指出专利耦合分析能较为准确、实时地体现出企业间的技术相似性.然后,在阐释专利耦合分析基本原理的基础上,对企业间专利耦合强度的计算方法进行改进,以便有效区分多对耦合对象之

  12. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  13. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  14. AUTOMATIC PATENT DOCUMFNT SUMMARIZATION FOR COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Charles V.TRAPPEY; Chun-Yi WU

    2009-01-01

    Engineering and research teams often develop new products and technologies by referring to inventions described in patent databases. Efficient patent analysis builds R&D knowledge, reduces new product development time, increases market success, and reduces potential patent infringement. Thus, it is beneficial to automatically and systematically extract information from patent documents in order to improve knowledge sharing and collaboration among R&D team members. In this research, patents are summarized using a combined ontology based and TF-IDF concept clustering approach. The ontology captures the general knowledge and core meaning of patents in a given domain. Then, the proposed methodology extracts, clusters, and integrates the content of a patent to derive a summary and a cluster tree diagram of key terms. Patents from the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes B25C, B25D, B25F (categories for power hand tools) and B24B, C09G and H011 (categories for chemical mechanical polishing) are used as case studies to evaluate the compression ratio, retention ratio, and classification accuracy of the summarization results. The evaluation uses statistics to represent the summary generation and its compression ratio, the ontology based keyword extraction retention ratio, and the summary classification accuracy. The results show that the ontology based approach yields about the same compression ratio as previous non-ontology based research but yields on average an 11% improvement for the retention ratio and a 14% improvement for classification accuracy.

  15. Synthetic biology, patenting, health and global justice

    OpenAIRE

    Belt, van den, H.

    2011-01-01

    The legal and moral issues that synthetic biology (SB) and its medical applications are likely to raise with regard to intellectual property (IP) and patenting are best approached through the lens of a theoretical framework highlighting the “co-construction” or “co-evolution” of patent law and technology. The current situation is characterized by a major contest between the so-called IP frame and the access-to-knowledge frame. In SB this contest is found in the contrasting approaches of Craig...

  16. Patent Bibliometrics Analysis on the Technology System Development and Evolution of Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.%三星电子技术体系发展演变的专利计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付大军; 乔小勇

    2015-01-01

    三星电子作为通信设备制造业的领先企业,其技术体系演变过程对中国通信企业具有一定的借鉴和指导意义。对三星电子技术体系的发展演变进行专利计量分析,研究不同时期三星专利的技术领域分布及技术共现情况。研究发现,三星电子专利的技术交叉度在不断增强;三星的技术体系经历了从没有明显技术集群到形成相对独立的技术集群,再到技术领域间联系紧密,不存在明显技术集群界限的发展过程;从不同大类个体网结构的演变看,U大类(半导体与电子电路技术)的度数和共现强度均大于平均值,L大类(玻璃-制陶-电镀技术)的度数较低, W大类(通信技术)和T大类(计算-控制技术)共现强度较低。%As a leading firm of the telecommunication equipment manufacturing industry, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. ’ s technology system development has a guiding significance for Chinese telecommunication enterprises. The paper analyzes the patents information of Samsung Electronics of technology system development and evolution, studied its technology fields distribution and technology co-occur-rence network. The results show that technology co-occurrence of Samsung’ s patents is on the rise. Samsung has developed from having no technology cluster to having relatively independent technology clusters, then to having close correlation among its different technology fields without clear dividing line among the technology clusters. From the evolution of individual network of different classes, the degree number and strength of Class U are larger than average value, the degree number of Class L is smaller, and strength of Class W and T are even smaller, in summary, the degree number of technology co-occurrence in hardware fields is larger than that of software fields.

  17. Patent Information Analysis on Low Temperature Multi-effect Seawater Desalination Technology%低温多效海水淡化技术专利信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁明

    2013-01-01

      采用专利公开数据对低温多效海水淡化技术的专利情况进行全面检索,在多效蒸馏海水淡化技术领域,专利分布较宽,基本涵盖了蒸发器、压缩机、换热器等关键设备的结构、海水淡化工艺系统、预处理系统、设备防腐剂、装置控制方法等各个海水淡化过程。日本、法国、以色列等国家研究起步较早,近年来该技术在我国快速发展,我国目前已成为该技术领域专利(申请)量最多的国家。%Low temperature multi-effect seawater desalination technology is researched entirely through public data. The technological development in this field is welled handled in view of fully understood. Patents distributes widely in multi-effect distillation for seawater desalination technology. Basically, it covers construction of evaporimeter, structure of compressor, formation of heat exchanger, and other key devices and construction. And it also covers each seawater desalination process, like seawater desalination system, pre-treatment system, equipment anticorrosion, auxiliaries and device control methods. Japan, France, Israel and other countries research early. In recently years, the technology develops rapidly at home, and China becomes a nation which has the largest number of patent application in this field at present.

  18. 国际移动支付领域专利技术态势研究%The Research on the Patent Technology Situations of International Mobile Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 袁顺波; 苏保朵

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, over three thousand patent records on the mobile payment from DII were analyzed through the self-made pro-grams, TDA and Citespace in terms of quantitative measurement and visualization analysis. The results show that the most important cited patent documents are mainly from developed countries, nowadays the patent outputs of South Korea are plenty and the Samsung Electronics Company owns high patent productivity and strong international influence in the field of mobile payment. The mobile payment architec-ture, plan and agreement the electronic funds transferring and the payment by handheld devices are the main research areas, but the new re-search areas on the servers, user permissions/password system and mobile ecommerce are worth focusing on. China is developing rapidly in recent years, but China faces some problems on how to support research strength, improve the level of research and expand the interna-tional market.%利用自编程序、TDA、Citespace等工具,对来自德温特数据库中的3535条关于移动支付方面的专利文献记录进行了定量计量和可视化分析。研究表明,在移动支付领域,较重要的被引专利主要来自发达国家,但近年来韩国实力强劲,三星电子公司更是具有较强的专利生产能力和国际影响力;移动支付体系结构、方案、协议以及利用手持设备进行支付及电子资金转移等方面的专利文献较多,但有关服务器、用户权限/口令系统、移动商务等领域的专利研究,还需要引起各国的重点关注;我国在移动支付领域发展迅速,但还面临如何扶持研究力量、提高研究水平、扩大国际市场竞争力等问题。

  19. Edison's vacuum coating patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the over one thousand patents bearing Thomas A. Edison's name are several for vacuum coating processes including chemical vapor deposition, evaporation, and sputter deposition. Beginning in 1880 Edison applied for patents that described carbon deposition processes that would now be called pyrolytic chemical vapor deposition. In 1884 Edison applied for a patent (granted in 1894) that described coating by evaporation in a vacuum by direct resistance heating or arc heating using a continuous current. Edison called the process 'electro vacuous deposition'. He prophetically wrote, 'the uses of the invention are almost infinite'. Edison also employed sputter deposition and in 1900 applied for a patent on a 'Process of Coating Phonograph Records'. Issued in 1902, the patent describes using a 'silent or brush electrical discharge' produced by an induction coil. The National Phonograph Company, one of Edison's many enterprises, used the sputtering process to deposit a thin layer of gold on wax phonograph cylinder masters that could then be electroplated to form molds to mass produce celluloid duplicates. The method was used for 20 years, from 1901 to 1921. It enabled the reproduction of cylinder grooves less than 0.001 in. deep at a density of 200 grooves per in. From 1913 to 1921, 10-in.-diameter Edison Diamond Disc phonograph records were made using the same method. Sputtering was abandoned in 1927, as it could not be scaled up to produce the 12 in. disks that were then introduced

  20. Patenting humans: clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2005-01-01

    The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current conflict over the moral status of the early human embryo. In this essay, recent evidence from embryological studies is considered and the unbroken continuity of organismal development initiated at fertilization is asserted as clear and reasonable grounds for moral standing. Within this frame of analysis, it is proposed that through a technique of Altered Nuclear Transfer, non-organismal entities might be created from which embryonic stem cells could be morally procured. Criteria for patenting of such non-organismal entities are considered.

  1. 基于专利引用的碳捕获与封存技术发展研究%Research on Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Development Based on Patent Citation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗红; 张伟; 黄鲁成

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an emerging low carbon technology. Grasping the development process and trend of CCS technology has great significance to enterprise R&D investment and the development of low carbon technology related industries. In view of the present insufficient research in this field, this article puts forward the research ideas based on patent citation analysis approach. The da-tabase of the United States Trademarks Office (USPTO) is utilized. We draw the CCS development map and identify the main develop-ment paths of CCS by applying the algorithm of patent development path recognition, which is based on patent citation. We also analyze the characteristics and development paths of CCS according to its sectional view in different development stages. This study finds the main technologies, development path characteristics, trends and hotspots in CCS field.%  碳捕获与封存(CCS)技术是一项新兴的低碳技术,把握 CCS 技术的发展过程及发展趋势对于企业研发投资、对于低炭技术相关产业的发展具有重要意义。针对目前这一领域研究的不足,提出了基于专利引用分析方法的研究思路,即选取 USPTO 专利库,运用专利发展路径识别算法从专利引用的角度,绘制 CCS 技术发展图,识别 CCS主要发展路径;并按不同发展阶段的 CCS 技术状态截面图分析 CCS 技术的特征和发展路径。研究发现了 CCS 领域的主要技术、发展路径特点、发展趋势及热点。

  2. Patent-backed debt finance: should company law take the lead to provide a "true and fair" view of SME patent assets?

    OpenAIRE

    Denoncourt, Janice A.

    2015-01-01

    The most important high technology intellectual property (IP) rights in terms of innovation are patents,a form of intangible property right. Even though these corporate assets drive 21st century technological innovation, patent-backed lending to UK SMEs remains underdeveloped. One reason is that the value of their internally generated patents is under-reported in traditional financial statements due to the application of International Accounting Standard 38 Intangibles. The accounting prob...

  3. 从专利角度看全球纳米传感器技术创新现状与趋势%Global Innovation Status and Trends of Nano - sensor Technology from a Perspective of Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 郑佳

    2011-01-01

    以德温特专利数据库收录的1962 ~ 2009年间世界范围内申请的纳米传感器技术专利为研究对象,通过对专利在年度分布、国家分布、机构分布、应用领域分布等方面的计量分析,全面揭示纳米传感器技术创新现状和发展趋势,从而为我国政府、科研机构与企业制定科技发展计划、开展相关技术研发等提供决策支持与事实依据.%Based on global nano -sensor patents collected by Derwent Innovation Index database from 1962 -2009, this paper elaborates innovation status and development trends of nano - sensor technology, through the quantitative analysis of patent distribution in the year, the state, the institution and the application , in hope of providing an objective statistic ref-erence for future policy directions and academic researches.

  4. Security Interests in Patents and Patent Applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stevens

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a question mark in the title of this article because more questions than answers have been encountered in researching the topic. The relative certainty with which owners of furniture, equipment, accounts and most other personal property can obtain credit by granting a security in their property rapidly dissipates when the property in question is intellectual property. Owners of patents and other intellectual property find barriers to obtaining secured credit that are not faced by other property owners because there is a historical gap between the federal law protecting rights of intellectual property owners and state laws addressing secured transactions. The increasing importance of intellectual property to the economy of the United States (patent filings having increased by seventy percent since 19962 raises the visibility of this gap and urges consideration of changes in law. This would permit owners of intellectual property access to the same financing opportunities that are available to owners of other personal property. There seems to be no public policy that justifies the current situation.

  5. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  6. Determinants of patent citations in biotechnology: An analysis of patent influence across the industrial and organizational boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio; Rotolo, Daniele; Albino, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present paper extends the literature investigating key drivers leading certain patents to exert a stronger influence on the subsequent technological developments (inventions) than other ones. We investigated six key determinants, as (i) the use of scientific knowledge, (ii) the breadth of the technological base, (iii) the existence of collaboration in patent development, (iv) the number of claims, (v) the scope, and (vi) the novelty, and how the effect of these determinants varies when pa...

  7. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  8. Handbook of technology law. General funamentals, environment law, genetic engineering act, energy act, telecommunication act and media act, patent act, computer act. 2. ed.; Handbuch des Technikrechts. Allgemeine Grundlagen Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Martin; Schroeder, Rainer (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2011-07-01

    On the boundaries between technology sciences, jurisprudence, social sciences and economic science the technology law proves as a cross-sectional area par excellence. The bases of the technology law are presented: individual, particularly important scopes of the technology law (appliance safety regulations, technology law and environment law, genetic engineering act, energy right, telecommunications law and media law, patent law, computer law, data security, legally binding telecooperation) are analyzed in detail. The manual contacts all lawyers who want to provide a first in-depth insight of this new field of law. [German] Im Grenzbereich von Technik-, Rechts-, Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften erweist sich das Technikrecht als Querschnittsmaterie par excellence. Die Grundlagen des Technikrechts werden dargestellt; einzelne, besonders wichtige Bereiche des Technikrechts (Geraetesicherheitsrecht, Technik und Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht, Datensicherheit, Rechtsverbindliche Telekooperation) werden eingehend analysiert. Das Handbuch wendet sich an alle in Wissenschaft und Praxis mit dem Technikrecht befassten Juristen, die sich einen ersten vertieften Einblick in dieses neue Rechtsgebiet verschaffen wollen. (orig.)

  9. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... both aspects constitute major challenges for the appropriation of returns to inventive activity, extant literature suggests that participation in the market for technology might actually resolve or at least alleviate these problems. In this paper, we investigate the effect of patent blocking...... and infringement on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1000 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to patent blocking and in both in- and cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects...

  10. Development of patent technology for brushless doubly fed motor%无刷双馈电机专利技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖超

    2015-01-01

    近年来,作为可再生能源的风力发电受到了全球范围的广泛关注,人们越来越重视适用于风力发电的新型电机,无刷双馈电机以其简单的结构,高可靠性,具有异步和同步电机两种电机的综合特点,通过控制激磁绕组的电压和频率易于实现变速恒压恒频发电,是一种适合风力发电运行环境的新型电机。本文主要以DWPI、SIPOABS专利数据库以及CNTXT数据库中的检索结果为分析样本,从专利文献的视角对无刷双馈电机的发展进行了全面的统计分析,总结了与无刷双馈电机相关的国内和国外专利的申请趋势、主要申请人分布以及其转子结构的发展路线做了一定的分析,并从中得到一定的规律。%In recent years,wind power as the renewable energy by widespread concern in the global scope, people pay more and more attention to applicable to wind power as a new kind of motor, brushless doubly fed machine with its simple structure,high reliability,with the comprehensive characteristic of asynchronous and synchronous motor,two kinds of motor,by controlling the voltage and frequency of the excitation winding is easy to realize the variable speed constant frequency and constant voltage power,is a suitable for wind power generation operating environment as a new kind of motor.This paper mainly to DWPI,SIPOABS patent database and CNTXT database retrieval results for the analysis of the sample,from the patent literature from the perspective of the development of brushless doubly fed machine were comprehensive statistical analysis,summarized and brushless doubly fed machine related domestic and foreign patent application trend, mainly distributed in the applicant and the rotor structure of the development route do some analysis, and the obtained certain rules.

  11. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  12. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  13. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  14. 75 FR 17380 - Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... procedure. See Request for Comments on Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program, 74 FR 55212 (Oct. 27, 2009), 1348... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent... Patents Ombudsman Pilot Program. The majority of the written comments from the patent community...

  15. Patent foramen ovale

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent foramen ovale URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  16. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent ductus arteriosus URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  17. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  18. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  19. Research Progress on Construction of Patent Technology- effect Matrix%专利技术功效矩阵构建研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 张晓林

    2011-01-01

    从专利技术功效矩阵构建流程和矩阵词汇来源方面;专利中技术词、功效词的界定、区分、抽取方面;词聚类及专利技术功效矩阵结构生成方面分析总结目前研究,指出存在的问题和面临的挑战。%This paper discusses and analyzes the current research status from the following three aspects : the construction process and lexical source of the matrix ; the definition, differentiation and extraction of the technical and effect words in patents ; words clustering and the generation of matrix structure. Then, it points out the problems and challenges of current rsearch.

  20. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  1. Patent Analysis for Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of foreign and domestic patents for pyroprocessing technology of spent nuclear fuels was carried out in this study. The current status of pyroprocessing technology development in such countries as Korea, USA, Japan and EU was analyzed by classifying the patents for 1975 through 2009 according to registration country, assignee, calendar year and technology area. The major assignees' activity indices were compared in order to find out whether there is any concentrated area of technical details. Technology competitiveness of the countries was also investigated from the information of patent citation number and family size. Furthermore, some essential unit technologies required for the commercialization of pyroprocessing were derived and examined in the aspect of the state of art as well as the trend of technology development.

  2. Quality and quantity: Can we have both within the European patent system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Scrutiny of patent systems is never far away. The European Patent Office has long faced rising levels of 'inventive activity'. Fast, fluid technologies and strategic firm behavior add to the difficulties faced in trying to reward inventions with commensurate rights. Analysis suggests stronger...... patent protection does not necessarily equate with more innovation and greater diffusion of knowledge; nor do more patents lead to or reflect more innovation. This article focuses on improving the fundamental workings of the European system as is stands, and proposes a focus on quality and patent...

  3. 第六次科技革命的“核心专利争夺”已悄然展开——2001年以来第六次科技革命的十种前兆%Core Patent Competition of Sixth Scientific and Technological Revolution:10 Omens of Sixth Scientific And technological Revolution since 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何传启

    2012-01-01

    2001年以来,关于第六次科技革命的十种前兆涉及自然人、网络人、仿生人和再生人等多个领域.而第六次科技革命的核心专利争夺,主要涉及信息转换器技术、人格信息包技术、仿生技术、创生技术、再生技术等.%There are about 10 omens of the sixth scientific and technological revolution in the fields on the natural, networked, bionic and regenerated person since 2001. The core patent champion of sixth revolution of science and technology has appeared in the fields of Information Exchange Machine, Information Packet of Personality, Bionic Technology, Bio-Creation Technology, Bio-Regeneration Technology, etc.

  4. Patent Valuation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deger Alper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the knowledge economics grows rapidly, businesses increasingly invest intellectual property and the value of intellectual property; patent, trademark, copyright etc., more emphasized in business nowadays. Thus, the valuation of intellectual property, specifically patents, has been one of the most difficult investment problems both for practitioners and academics. Traditional valuation methods fail to account for the unique characteristics of patents; uncertainty and management flexibility. Patents are option-like assets that give the owner a bundle of options; to commercialize the products, to file foreign application, to license the innovation etc. Real options represent the application of options methodology to strategic business decisions, and real option method provides a richer framework to analyse the issues that confront the valuation of patent. This paper uses real option model as a framework to correctly evaluate patent and contains real option model application to patent valuation.

  5. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  6. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  7. Literaturhinweise / Axel Bormann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bormann, Axel

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Klauberg, Theis. Gesellschaftsrecht in Estland, Lettland, Litauen : eine Einführung mit vergleichenden Tabellen. Heidelberg [etc.] : Rehm, 2004. - XIV, 116 lk. - (Gesellschaftsrecht - international)

  8. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  9. Conflict resolution, public goods and patent thickets

    OpenAIRE

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Post-grant validity challenges at patent offices rely on the private initiative of third parties to correct mistakes made by patent offices. We hypothesize that incentives to bring post-grant validity challenges are reduced when many firms benefit from revocation of a patent and when firms are caught up in patent thickets. Using data on opposition against patents at the European Patent Office we show that opposition decreases in fields in which many others profit from patent revocations. More...

  10. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article...

  11. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impac...

  12. Eastern European patenting activities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, D. [Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia). Inst. of Sustainability & Technological Policy

    2001-09-01

    The patenting activities of the former centrally planned economies in the US between 1976 and 1999 are examined. The technological performance of Eastern Europe is assessed and compared with that of the OECD countries. A sharp decline is observed as a consequence of the economic changes undergone by these countries in recent years. The study reveals some common technological strengths, such as in the areas of petroleum, coal, chemicals and other related products, and country-specific advantages, such as in mining in the former USSR, Poland and Bulgaria, textiles, clothing, footwear and leather in the former Czechoslovakia, printing, publishing and recorded media in the former East Germany, health in the former Yugoslavia, energy in Romania and design in Slovenia. Recommendations are made for the future use of foreign patents.

  13. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  14. An Analysis of High-speed Railway Technology Competition Based on Patent Information%基于专利数据的全球高速铁路技术竞争态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鲁成; 高姗; 吴菲菲; 苗红

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the technology competition of the global high-speed railway, this paper conducts an all-round scanning of the countries, organizations and technological fields based on patent information by analyzing the general situation and specif-ics. The analysis results show that China has become a powerful competitor in high-speed railway technology;however it has less core pa-tents, many R&D institutions with weaker competitive strength, and gets involved in the core areas of R&D hotspots less compared to the established countries such as Japan, France and Germany. Therefore, this study is attempting to provide reference for government policy-making, researchers R&D direction-setting and investors decision-making, on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the technology competition of the global high-speed railway.%利用专利数据对全球高速铁路技术的国家、机构、技术领域进行全面扫描,通过总体技术概况和具体技术内容的分析,掌握全球高速铁路的技术竞争态势。分析结果表明,我国在高铁技术领域内已经成为一个强有力的竞争者,但是与老牌高铁强国日本、法国和德国相比,核心专利较少,企业与研发机构虽然多,但是竞争实力不强,在技术研发热点的核心领域涉及较少。因此,对高速铁路技术的竞争态势进行分析,以期为政府制定政策、研发者确定方向、以及投资者决策提供参考。

  15. The patents of 3D printing technology in medical apparatus in China%医疗领域三维打印技术专利状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿晶晶; 马克; 陈燕; 孙全亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨医疗领域三维打印技术的应用现状,确定技术应用重点和趋势。方法:通过分析相关专利数据,研究中国医疗领域三维打印技术的应用情况。结果:我国医疗领域三维打印技术增长较快,发展较好,国内专利申请占据数量优势。主要技术研发者以国内申请人为主,重点应用产品领域分别为植入性假体、组织工程支架、组织器官、给药系统、辅助用具及手术策划6个方向。结论:我国医疗领域三维打印技术应用发展迅速,技术研发者以高校科研机构为主,目前骨科和牙科是技术应用的重点领域。%Objective: Evaluating the tendency and major technical field of the application of three dimensional printing technology in Chinese medical apparatus. Methods:Investigating the application of Three dimensional printing technology in medical apparatus by analyzing the patent data. Result: The applications of three dimensional printing technology in medical apparatus rapidly increase recently. Most patents are applied by domestic applicant. The major application areas include implant, tissue engineering scaffold, artificial tissues and organs, drug delivery system and surgery assistant appliance. Conclusion:The three dimensional printing technology in medical apparatus is developing rapidly. Most of the techniques are owned by universities and research institutes. The implant and tissue engineering scaffolds are the major application fields.

  16. Analysis of Image Sensor Technology Patent: Analysis of Key Patentin CCD Image Sensor Technology%图像传感器技术的专利状况分析——CCD图像传感器技术的重点专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨隆鑫; 侯冠华; 左恬源

    2012-01-01

    图像传感器主要分为感光耦合元件(CCD)和互补式金属氧化物半导体有源像素传感器(CMOS)两种,其中感光耦合元件因诸多优点,其技术以及产业应用最为成熟.针对CCD图像传感器技术领域的专利文献,对该领域的重点专利进行了技术研究和分析,揭示了这些重点专利的技术要点.%Image sensors are mainly divided into Charged Coupled Device (CCD) and Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), where in the technology and industry of CCD are the most mature . In this paper, the important patents of the field are studied and analyzed, and the technical points of these important patents are shown based on the patents of the field of the image sensor of CCD.

  17. Research Progress on Patented Technology of Xnthan Gum Based Hydrogels%黄原胶水凝胶的专利技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光新; 王岩; 蔡培培; 张红城

    2015-01-01

    Xanthan gum based hydrogels have fine performance of hydrophilicity, nontoxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibilit, which can be used for superabsorbant resin, medicine carrier and microcapsules.The method technique of xanthan gum based hydrogels was the main object of study of domestic researchers.According to time, the preparation techniques of xanthan gum based hydrogels was reviewed by combining with domestic and foreign patent applications, and the future of their applications on artificial muscles, micro-machinery and bionic equipment was also forecasted.%黄原胶水凝胶具有亲水性强、无毒、可降解及生物相容性好等优点,常作超吸水性树脂、药物载体和微胶囊。黄原胶水凝胶的制备方法成为了国内研究者的主要研究对象。以时间为主线,结合国内外对该产品的专利申请,梳理黄原胶水凝胶制备方法的发展脉络,并对其在人工肌肉、微机械以及仿生器材发展做了展望。

  18. Patent Protection of Pharmaceutical Products in the Globalising World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ants Kukrus; Raul Kartus

    2005-01-01

    Patenting new products in pharmaceuticals industry is of greater importance than in the other high technology branches of industry nowadays. Concentration of manufacturing takes place in pharmaceuticals industry as well as in the other branches of industry and it is characterised by the joining of firms. However, there are several specific features in patenting pharmaceutical products. Enforcement of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) made...

  19. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov Kosana; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana; Anđelković Violeta; Babić Milosav

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because i...

  20. IPAT: a freely accessible software tool for analyzing multiple patent documents with inbuilt landscape visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Dara; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Patent Analysis Tool (IPAT) is an online data retrieval tool, operated based on text mining algorithm to extract specific patent information in a predetermined pattern into an Excel sheet. The software is designed and developed to retrieve and analyze technology information from multiple patent documents and generate various patent landscape graphs and charts. The software is C# coded in visual studio 2010, which extracts the publicly available patent information from the web pages like Google Patent and simultaneously study the various technology trends based on user-defined parameters. In other words, IPAT combined with the manual categorization will act as an excellent technology assessment tool in competitive intelligence and due diligence for predicting the future R&D forecast. PMID:26452016

  1. 基于专利引证网络的技术进化路线分析——以数据挖掘领域为例%Technological evolutionary trajectories based on patent citation network -By taking data mining domain as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琦; 顾新建; 陈芨熙

    2013-01-01

    应用搜索路径连接统计法和搜索路径节点对统计法计算引证路径的连接度,提出了一种基于专利引证网络的技术进化路线提取算法.从美国专利数据库中采集了5073项1975年至1999年授权的数据挖掘领域的相关专利,分析了专利的地区分布情况和年度分布情况.从专利数据集NBER中查询得到专利引证关系,利用网络分析软件Pajek构建专利引证网络,提取了数据挖掘领域的技术进化路线.由实验结果可知,技术进化路线包含创新、扩散和突破,是一个渐进式创新和根本性突破相结合的过程.根据专利内容将主要进化轨迹分为三段,从继承性和延续性的角度分析了各阶段技术的发展情况.最后对下一步的研究工作进行了展望.%Search path link count and search path node pair are applied to calculate the connectivity of citation path and a technological evolutionary trajectory extraction algorithm based on patent citation network is put forward. The 5,073 patents related to data mining which were granted during the period of 1975 - 1999 from database of United States Patent and Trademark Office are collected. The geographical distribution and annual distribution of the patents are analyzed. By querying the patent data set of NBER to get patent citation relations and the network analysis software of Pajek is used to build a patent citation network. The technological evolutionary trajectories of data mining domain are extracted. The experimental results show that the trajectories include innovation, diffusion, and breakthrough. It is a process combining incremental innovation with fundamental breakthrough. From the perspective of patent content, the top evolutionary path is divided into three sections. The technological development of each section is analyzed based on inheritance and continuity. Finally, the further research work is prospected.

  2. Imitation versus Innovation Costs: Patent policies under common patent length

    OpenAIRE

    ICHIDA Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between innovation and imitation costs for heterogeneous ideas (industries). It analyzes the effect of various patent-related policies under the common patent length across different industries. It also looks at a policy that will strengthen trade secrets such as the Soleau envelope policy. Under the common term of patent with moderate assumption about the joint distribution of costs, the model predicts the existence of imitating products which are succ...

  3. Analysis of opportunities and challenges in patenting of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Asokan, R; Rajasekaran, P E; Mahmood, Riaz; Nagesha, S N; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial control agent. The broad spectrum of susceptible hosts, production on artificial media and ease of application has caused the widespread use of this bacterium against several pests in agriculture, forest and vectors of human diseases. B.thuringiensis toxins are highly species specific which provide economic, environmental benefits, potential for future control and spread of the technology worldwide. This makes the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins an interesting tool for the implementation in integrated pest management programs. It has gained importance over the last 100 years for its biocontrol properties which is used in this review as a case study and analysis of the patents granted on B. thuringiensis was carried out. This study categorizes a number of patents related to B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins, application of B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins and the development of patentable technologies. The analyses were done using various criteria like patenting trends over the years, assignees playing a major role, comparison of the technology used in different patents and the patenting activity across the insect orders. Patent documents related to bacterium B.thuringiensis contain a trove of technical and commercial information and thus, patent analysis is considered as a useful tool for R management and techno economical development. Patent analysis also helps identifying and evaluating new and alternate technologies, keeping abreast with latest technologies for business interests, finding solutions to technical problems and ideas for new innovative trends.

  4. Analysis of opportunities and challenges in patenting of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Asokan, R; Rajasekaran, P E; Mahmood, Riaz; Nagesha, S N; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial control agent. The broad spectrum of susceptible hosts, production on artificial media and ease of application has caused the widespread use of this bacterium against several pests in agriculture, forest and vectors of human diseases. B.thuringiensis toxins are highly species specific which provide economic, environmental benefits, potential for future control and spread of the technology worldwide. This makes the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins an interesting tool for the implementation in integrated pest management programs. It has gained importance over the last 100 years for its biocontrol properties which is used in this review as a case study and analysis of the patents granted on B. thuringiensis was carried out. This study categorizes a number of patents related to B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins, application of B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins and the development of patentable technologies. The analyses were done using various criteria like patenting trends over the years, assignees playing a major role, comparison of the technology used in different patents and the patenting activity across the insect orders. Patent documents related to bacterium B.thuringiensis contain a trove of technical and commercial information and thus, patent analysis is considered as a useful tool for R management and techno economical development. Patent analysis also helps identifying and evaluating new and alternate technologies, keeping abreast with latest technologies for business interests, finding solutions to technical problems and ideas for new innovative trends. PMID:22239684

  5. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  6. Guidelines and Procedures for Patent Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Aster I.

    1991-01-01

    To educate Filipinos on IPR, this article provides a rigorous discussion on the Philippine patent system and patent law. It identifies the patentable grant, the requirements of patentability and records a step-by-step patent application. This article has been presented during the DOST-PIDS Seminar-Discussion on “Intellectual Property Rights: Policy Issues and Perspectives” on December 13, 1991.

  7. How Gene Patents May Inhibit Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.

  8. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system? PMID:24354803

  9. A Minimum Optimal Patent Term

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, John F

    2005-01-01

    Most investigations of the optimal patent term problem have followed Nordhaus's assumption that setting and optimal patent term requires balancing the incentives necessary to encourage innovation against the inefficiencies associated with longer lasting monopoly rights. Nordhaus, however, relied upon a static model in which all investments and innovations occur at a fixed time. If the times of investments and innovation are not fixed, the time of patent expiration becomes a "U-shaped" functio...

  10. 中国电动汽车技术水平国际比较研究——基于跨国专利的视角%The international comparative study of China' s electric vehicle technologies: Based on the view of transnational patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利锋; 陈凯华

    2013-01-01

    在利用主要国家专利机构的专利数据对电动汽车技术发展水平和趋势进行分析的基础上,引入跨国专利(transnational patents)概念,以避免在利用专利数据进行国际技术比较中“本土优势”的影响,客观评价主要国家电动汽车相对技术水平.构建跨国专利比例指标,对主要国家电动汽车技术的国际化程度进行比较研究,并引入专利比较优势指数分析主要国家电动汽车技术的比较优势.统计结果表明,中国电动汽车技术发展迅速,但是与日本、美国等国家依然存在较大差距,主要表现在国际专利申请数量少、专利国际化程度低等方面;中国在电池及电池控制技术领域存在比较优势,而电机及电机控制技术存在明显的比较劣势,中国需要进一步加强电机技术的研发以推动电动汽车产业的整体平衡发展.%On the basis of the study of levels and trends of Electric Vehicle ( EV ) technology development by using the patent data extracted from the patent organizations of major nations, a new indicator, namely, transnational patent, is novelly introduced to avoid the effect of domestic advantages in the international comparison of technology level by patent database analysis and to objectively evaluate international EV technology competititiveness of major EV countries. An indicator named as transnational patent proportion is constructed to measure the internationalization degree of EV technologies in different countries, and the comparative advantages of EV sub - category technologies in different countries are also analyzed by the indicator of revealed patent advantage. Statistical results show that China has experienced a rapid growth in EV technologies, whereas it still lags behind developed automotive countries, such as Japan and the US, it could be reflected by China' s relatively low quantitiy of international patent filings and low internationalization degree of patents. China

  11. Measuring Innovation Using Patent Data

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Firms and governments spend billions of dollars on R&D every year. To increase social welfare, the results of R&D must be commercialized so that consumers can benefit from improved products and lower prices. One measure of R&D output is patents; however, most patent databases contain no information on whether patents have been commercialized, i.e., whether innovations have been introduced in the market. This paper applies a new method to identify innovations in patent databases by relating tr...

  12. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department... (AIA), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent...

  13. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and...

  14. Patent statistics: a good indicator for innovation in China? Assessment of impacts of patent subsidy programs on patent quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Jangwei; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether patent subsidy programs aimed at promoting regional innovations have aroused a large number of low-quality applications in China and created biased patent statistics as an indicator for innovations. We found that patent filing fee subsidies encouraged filing of low-quality patent, resulting in a decreased grant rate. Though reward conditioned on grants increased patent grant rate, it also brought patents with narrow claim breadth. Our empirical results confirme...

  15. La cayorra sin patente

    OpenAIRE

    Herzovich, Guido

    2013-01-01

    En otro tiempo, tal vez la cayorra sin patente hubiera podido aspirar a las páginas del Manual de zoología fantástica de Borges, donde América Latina, generalmente tan prolífica en bestias, aportaba sin embargo únicamente una : la chancha con cadenas, oriunda de la ciudad de Córdoba. Para las autoridades (incluidas las literarias), la cayorra fue seguramente en aquel tiempo tan furtiva como la chancha, aunque sin duda más ubicua. Cuando se la quería avistar, también esta "cayorra" de la front...

  16. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  17. Patent citation network in nanotechnology (1976-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent citation networks are described using critical node, core network, and network topological analysis. The main objective is understanding of the knowledge transfer processes between technical fields, institutions and countries. This includes identifying key influential players and subfields, the knowledge transfer patterns among them, and the overall knowledge transfer efficiency. The proposed framework is applied to the field of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE), including the citation networks of patent documents, submitting institutions, technology fields, and countries. The NSE patents were identified by keywords 'full-text' searching of patents at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The analysis shows that the United States is the most important citation center in NSE research. The institution citation network illustrates a more efficient knowledge transfer between institutions than a random network. The country citation network displays a knowledge transfer capability as efficient as a random network. The technology field citation network and the patent document citation network exhibit a less efficient knowledge diffusion capability than a random network. All four citation networks show a tendency to form local citation clusters

  18. Patenting of Pharmaceuticals: An Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Mathur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Patent is one of the major forms of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs used in the pharmaceutical industry. Trade mark, industrial design, geographical indication and copyright are other forms of IPRs available in India. Grant of patent in India is governed under the Patents Act, 1970. Significant changes like provision of product patents and increase in the term of patent to 20 years were introduced in the Indian patent law, after India signed TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement in 1995. This review provides a brief overview of development of patent law in India as a consequence of TRIPS agreement. Criteria of patentability and different types of pharmaceutical patents currently being granted in India are described with the aim to provide the fundamental knowledge of pharmaceutical patenting to the researchers. Other relevant provisions related with patenting of pharmaceuticals like section 3(d, transfer of the patent rights, compulsory licensing etc. are explained with suitable example.

  19. Sources of inspiration? Making sense of scientific references in patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, Julie; Pellens, Maikel; Looy, Van Bart

    2013-01-01

    Scientific references in patent documents can be used as indicators signaling science-technology interactions. Whether they reflect a direct ‘knowledge flow’ from science to technology is subject of debate. Based on 33 interviews with inventors at Belgian firms and knowledge-generating institutes ac

  20. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... supported an ongoing forecasting program for patent application filings that includes the use of... using the survey as part of a comprehensive approach to forecasting, the USPTO is also using this tool... increased with expanding technological innovations. However, newly emerging technologies, evolving...

  1. Sequential Innovation and Optimal Patent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Riis; Xianwen Shi

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal patent design in a setting with sequential innovation. Firms innovate by undertaking "research" activities to generate new ideas and by undertaking "development" activities to transform these ideas into viable products. Both innovation incentives and the welfare costs of patent monopoly are multidimensional. We characterize optimal patent policy, and in particular, the tradeoff between patent length and patent breadth in this setting. The optimal size of the patent reward is ...

  2. Of Smart Phone Wars and Software Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Graham; Saurabh Vishnubhakat

    2013-01-01

    Among the main criticisms currently confronting the US Patent and Trademark Office are concerns about software patents and what role they play in the web of litigation now proceeding in the smart phone industry. We will examine the evidence on the litigation and the treatment by the Patent Office of patents that include software elements. We present specific empirical evidence regarding the examination by the Patent Office of software patents, their validity, and their role in the smart phone...

  3. Patent based innovation and development: issues, challenges and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent to which science and technology (S and T) policy has been integrated to patent based innovation within the context of national development objective. Could the institutionalisation of patent based innovation in Malaysia be effectively implemented ? The main argument is that patent based innovation must be integrated into the national S and T policy as a dynamic and proactive system. This paper argued that the dependency has an effect to the consequent of relationship imbalance between Malaysia and advanced nations as the main technology supplier within the international business economy. This paper adopts the interdisciplinary of social sciences using system-oriented analysis. The objective of the S and T is to enhance the capacity of national S and T resources as well as to develop the capacity of the local to select, negotiate, adopt, modify, and improve imported technology. Nevertheless, even though the S and T policy was launched in 1986, the impetus of government commitment towards the realisation of S and T policy became more pronounced only in the middle of the 90s. The Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment recognises the importance of creating a climate of science and technology as a critical prerequisite for national development. Various activities at the state and national levels have been organised to promote awareness and adoption of technology to the community. The Ministry that acts as the secretariat to the National Science and Development Council aims to reinforce the foundation based on S and T activities. Malaysia also should encourage activities that general technical innovations that would be integrated into patent based innovation as one of the component in the national innovation system. While this is so, an effective assimilation of technical innovation that is developed within the framework of the national innovation system is yet to be realised. Patent based innovation as a

  4. International distribution of dental materials publications and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, H H; Herman, S S; Lipton, J A

    1992-01-01

    International patterns of research and development in the field of restorative dental materials were examined with data on publications (1981-85) and patents (1979-88). It was found that United States-based authors produced approximately one-half of all dental materials journal articles published worldwide, while US inventors had nearly the same share of the US dental materials patents. During the periods studied, the share of US patents in dental materials awarded to US inventors declined, while the share of US patents awarded to Japanese inventors rose. The role of the United States in research (as measured by journal articles) remained stable. Nations differed in the degree to which their researchers specialized in particular research areas. US-based authors and inventors were relatively over-represented in prosthetic materials and under-represented in dental cements, an area in which the British and the Japanese concentrated more of their activity. There was some, but not complete, agreement in the patterns of national specialization as indexed by patent and publication data. When dental materials data were compared with data for broader fields of science and technology, important differences were found. For publications, US-based authors displayed greater dominance in dental materials than in the fields of dentistry, chemistry, and materials science. US-based inventors' share of US dental materials patents was smaller than their share of all US patents. These analyses demonstrated that it was possible to use indicators derived from publication and patent data files to conduct insightful studies of a discrete specialty of science and technology. PMID:1521683

  5. A SURVEY ON SOFTWARE PATENTS AND THEIR LINKAGE TO PROMOTING INNOVATION: INDIA PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    ANKITA TYAGI; OMNI YADAV; AJAI KUMAR GARG

    2013-01-01

    Personal computers (PC) have significantly increased demand for mass market software. Computer software has also now become an enabler for all fields of technology; innovation is inevitable for growth of this fast emerging industry. For economic viability for such innovations, there is an increased advocacy for incorporating software as a patentable subject matter forcing countries to make computer software patentable either completely or in limited form. However, patenting of computer softwa...

  6. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:21496469

  7. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  8. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a subject search…

  9. Achieving clinical equality in an influenza pandemic: patent realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Eileen M

    2009-01-01

    A twenty-first century novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic is currently unfolding, and the eventual scope of this public health crisis is not clear. In addition, ongoing surveillance of the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus reveals outbreaks of human-to-human transmission of the virus, with significant mortality. Effective pandemic management depends on pharmaceutical intervention with two different clinical objectives: the generation of an immune response to specific viral strains (vaccination) and the reduction of viral replication in an infected individual (antiviral administration). The ability to offer pharmaceutical interventions for a public health crisis depends on three factors: development, capacity, and access. Pharmaceutical measures must be developed, capacity must be established, and access must be ensured. The article discusses the three nodes of patenting that influence the availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures in an influenza pandemic. Identification of the causative influenza virus is the first step in pandemic management and precedes vaccine design, and the virus and its RNA sequence are both knowledge assets and inputs for vaccine design. Vaccine development, therefore, will be influenced by any patents on the genetic sequences or proteins of the pandemic virus, as well as on novel methods for vaccine production, the actual vaccine or adjuvant technology, all of which are relevant to the assembly of a working vaccine on short notice. Pharmaceutical treatment of influenza infection during a pandemic could also rely on use of patented antiviral drugs, whose efficacy may be revealed as the pandemic unfolds. Unlike vaccines, these are not generally developed de novo for a pandemic, but their availability could be dependent on the exercise of patent rights by market incumbents. Patent rights could control capacity, which may determine access. Pandemic planning must consider how patenting can influence development, capacity and access to

  10. 东盟五国有色金属领域的技术创新能力研究——基于专利信息的视角%Analysis on Technological Innovation Capability of Nonferrous Metal Industry in Five ASEAN Countries:From Perspective of Patent Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the technological innovation capability of nonferrous metal industry in five ASEAN countries from the perspective of patent information. The statistic data about patent shows as follows:Singapore and Thailand have more technical advantages and stronger innovation capabilities than other ASEAN countries;both Indonesia and Philippines have certain technical foundations the patent application of Vietnam is the fewest.but the annual application amount and innovation activities are increasing obviously; multinational corporations arc the main patent applicant in ASEAN, and possess most of core technologies. China's enterprises in nonferrous metal industry should take patent strategies.and strengthen independent innovation so as to obtaina active status in international competition.%从专利信息的角度,对东盟五国有色金属领域的技术创新能力进行分析.专利信息统计数据显示:在东盟五国的有色金属领域,新加坡和泰国的技术领先优势明显、技术创新能力强,而印尼和菲律宾具有一定的技术基础,越南的专利申请量最少,不过近年来其年度申请量增幅明显、技术创新活动增多;东盟五国有色金属领域的专利申请主要来自于美、日、德等国,技术创新能力实为跨国公司所拥有.对此,我国企业应当明确技术创新目标,采取相应的专利战略,加强自主创新,以使企业在国际竞争中获得主动地位.

  11. A contribuição de patentes para a inovação sustentável: o caso de um trocador de calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mamori Kono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are useful indicators of innovation, although still of a very limited use. In patenting, the need for the precise registration of a method, process, or system facilitates understanding it and eventually motivates the scientific community to carry out research in a given area, thus accelerating technological progress. Patent data are not static; patents cite other connected patents, providing a dynamic view of technological antecedents and descendants leading to state-of-the-art knowledge. This article is an exercise on the usefulness of patents as a source of technological innovation. To do this, we searched patent databases considered as sources of technological innovation in order to introduce improvements in a heat-exchanging device coupled to an electric shower. The results enabled finding the state-of-the-art of the technology and led to suggestions of possible innovations for the product. This allowed us to improve the sustainability potential of this technology.

  12. 基于专利分析的转基因农作物技术布局态势研究%Patent Layout and Status Analysis of Genetically Modified Crop Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵霞; 王玉光; 胡瑞法

    2014-01-01

    Thomson Data Analyzer and SPSS were used to perform data cleaning and mining of patents on genetically modified crop re-search from 1993 to 2013 in DII database. Then the global development trend, core countries and institutions distribution and comparison, life cycle analysis and research hotspot of genetically modified crop technology were revealed.%以DII数据库为统计源,对1993-2013年间转基因农作物技术研究的专利文献进行统计分析,利用Thom-son Data Analyzer( TDA)和SPSS软件对数据清洗和挖掘,给出转基因农作物专利的整体发展态势、核心专利申请国家和机构力量分布和比较、专利技术生命周期分析以及技术热点研究情况。

  13. The Patent Technology Review Report of Preparation Method of Spinel Lithium Manganate%尖晶石型锰酸锂的制备方法专利技术综述报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽琴

    2015-01-01

    尖晶石型锰酸锂(LiMn2O4)能量密度高、成本低、无污染、安全性好、资源丰富,是最有发展潜力的锂离子电池正极材料之一. 尖晶石型锰酸锂的制备方法很多,主要有液相法和固相法,本文主要针对近年来涉及该产品的制备方法的中外专利技术进行收集和分析,梳理了尖晶石型锰酸锂制备方法的发展脉络.%Spinel lithium manganate (LiMn2O4) which has high energy density, low cost, no pollution, good safety, rich in resources, is one of the most development potential of lithium ion battery cathode material. The preparation methods of spinel lithium manganate are many, mainly with liquid phase method and solid phase method, this article mainly aims at in recent years relating to the preparation of the product patent technology to collect and analyze both at home and abroad, combing the spinel lithium manganate's preparation methods of development.

  14. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  15. 国际体育用品核心企业专利技术发展演化特征及对我国的启示--以阿迪达斯公司为例%On Patent Technology Development Characteristics Research of Core Sporting Goods Enterprises-Adidas Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司虎克; 张元梁; 蔡犁; 张建华; 朱昆

    2014-01-01

    以德温特专利数据库(DII)为数据源,选取阿迪达斯收录在该数据库的专利技术申请文献为研究对象,并借助大型的文献统计软件Bibexcel和文献可视化软件Citespace ,对阿迪达斯公司的专利技术分布以及专利集群的发展路径转变进行分析研究.结果显示:阿迪达斯公司的专利技术创新正处于快速发展阶段,特别是90年代以后专利申请量和参研发明人数量迅速增长,专利申请主要集中在了美国、德国、欧专局和日本,共占据了总量的71.1%,另外在中国的专利申请数量从2001年之后开始迅速增长以占据中国的技术市场.专利技术集群重心以2000年左右为界,专利技术由A大类的运动鞋、服装以及运动器材的聚合材料和设计技术向W ,T ,S等大类的计算机数据处理、传输技术与运动用品相结合的技术集群转变.此外,阿迪达斯公司研发合作呈现出了非常好的连续性,并且分工明确,合作网络的密度较高,这也极大地提高了专利技术研发的效率和质量.借助对体育用品核心企业阿迪达斯公司的专利技术发展特征分析,对中国体育用品企业的专利技术发展提供一定的启示和情报信息.%In this study ,with Derwent patent database (DII) as the data source ,patented technology appli-cation documents of Adidas included in this database for the study have been selected ,and ,with the large literature statistical software Bibexcelland literature visualization software Citespace ,the distribution of patented technology and patent development path of transformation for cluster analysis have also been studied .The results show that Adidas company's patented technology innovation is in the stage of rapid de-velopment ,especially after 1990s of patent applications and the rapid grow th of the number of parameters developed inventor .patent applications mainly in the United States

  16. A Patent Mapping-based Comparative Study of the Technological Innovation Ability of Chinese and Foreign Sports Goods Companies%基于专利地图的中外体育用品公司技术创新能力比较研究--以运动服装专利为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹龙; 李芳; 陈君; 司虎克

    2015-01-01

    运用专利地图理论对耐克、阿迪达斯、安踏、361°公司的运动服装专利进行比较分析。结果显示,耐克公司2004年后专利研发技术处于快速发展阶段,阿迪达斯公司一直处于缓慢发展阶段,两个公司的专利申请及专利布局主要集中在美国、加拿大、德国、奥地利、澳大利亚、日本、中国,而国内安踏和361°公司从2010年开始注重技术创新和专利申请,其专利申请地区局限于中国;耐克公司研发团队合作网络呈现“三大”特征,国内体育用品公司则呈现“三低”特征;特殊环境下运动服装的防护功能和高科技性是耐克和阿迪达斯公司的主要专利技术领域,国内公司则主要以实用新型专利和外观设计专利为主,专利质量明显低于耐克和阿迪达斯公司。通过对中外体育用品公司技术创新能力的比较和借鉴,为我国体育用品公司运动服装专利研发战略、专利战略等技术创新决策提供参考依据和情报信息。%The present article is a comparative analysis of sportswear patents received by Nike,Adidas,Anta,361 Degrees,using the patent map theory. The results show that while the Nike company has been experiencing a rapid patent research and development period since 2004,Adidas is in the stage of slow development. For both compa-nies,their patent applications and patent layout are mainly concentrated in the United States, Canada, Germany, Austria,Australia,Japan,and China. Domestically,Anta and 361 Degrees began their technological innovation and patent application in 2010,but their applications occurred only in China. The cooperation network of Nike research and development team shows three“big”characteristics,whereas the domestic sports goods companies are character-ized by three“lows”. The main patent technology of Nike and Adidas centers on the protective function of sportswear under special circumstances and high

  17. 基于论文-专利整合的3D打印技术研究热点分析%Research Focuses of 3 D Printing Technology Based on Paper-patent Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董坤; 吴红

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology plays a vital role in constructing China's new industrialization and promoting traditional industries' trans-formation and upgrading. In order to reveal the research focuses of 3D printing technology synthetically, this paper firstly takes the key-words as the entry point to integrate the papers and patents, and making a multidimensional scaling of the high frequency keywords. Then taking time dimension into account, the paper calculate the keywords frequency of the clustering results including information technology, precision machinery, process method and printing materials areas. Finally, it shows the research status and focuses according to the change of keywords frequency, The result shows:the research focuses of 3D printing technology are mainly concentrated in the field of informa-tion technology, and the research of precision machinery, process method, printing materials are all in the phases of continuous rising, which means it renders the trend of diversification.%3D打印技术对我国新型工业化建设和促进传统产业转型升级具有重要作用。为综合全面地揭示3D打印技术的研究热点,研究首先以关键词为切入点将期刊论文与专利文献进行整合,然后对高频关键词进行多维尺度聚类,并引入时间维度对聚类确定的信息技术、精密机械、工艺方法和打印材料4个主题领域的关键词词频进行阶段统计,最后依据领域词频的阶段变化对研究现状及热点进行了分析,分析认为:3D打印技术研究热点主要集中在信息技术领域,其他主题领域的研究也均处于持续上升阶段,呈现出多元化的发展趋势。

  18. 科技型中小企业专利工作现状及政策建议——基于上海市科技型中小企业实证调研的思考%The Status and the Policy Suggestion of Patent-Related Work of Scientific and Technological Small and Medium Sized Enterprises——Empirical Research on Scientific and Technological SMEs in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽荣

    2011-01-01

    Scientific and technological small and medium sized enterprises possess flexible innovation mechanism and more innovation efficiency, as well as a important carrier of fastening science and technology transformation. Consequently, they have become the indispensable important components of national economy. Intellectual property could become the core competence of scientific and technological SMEs, and patent is the embodiment of core competence. The paper performs empirical research on scientific and technological small and medium sized enterprises in Shanghai < and discusses how scientific and technological small and medium sized enterprises in shanghai to conduct basic patent-related work. The patent management model of enterprises is closely related with the industry. Meantime, different industry have different modes. This empirical research reveals that there exist problems and handicap in work of enterprises patent in Shanghai and gives political suggestion as well.%科技型中小企业具有灵活的创新机制和较高的创新效率,是我国加快科技成果转化的重要载体.知识产权是科技型中小企业获得竞争优势的重要基础,其中专利是企业核心竞争力的体现.通过对上海市科技型中小企业专利工作的调研,就目前科技型中小企业专利工作的现状进行了讨论.企业专利管理模式与行业密切相关,不同的行业专利工作具有不同的管理模式,企业要依据专利工作的要求制定切实可行的专利战略.

  19. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  20. Genetic improvement of biofuel plants: recent progress and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T Sudhakar; Badri, Jyothi; Sastry, R Kalpana; Shrivastava, Anshul; Kishor, P B Kavi; Sujatha, M

    2013-04-01

    Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels, political uncertainties, increase in demand of energy needs and growing concerns of environmental effects, bioenergy as an alternative source of energy needs had taken centre stage globally. In this report, we review the progress made in lignocellulose, cellulose and fermentation based biofuels in addition to tree borne oil seeds. Algae as a source of feedstock for the biofuel has also been reviewed. Recent efforts in genome sequencing of biofuel crops and molecular breeding approaches have increased our understanding towards crop improvement of major feedstocks. Besides, patenting trends in bioenergy sector were assessed by patent landscape analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in published patents during the last decade which is maximum during 2011. A conceptual framework of "transgenesis in biofuels to industrial application" was developed based on the patent analytics viz., International Patent Classification (IPC) analysis and Theme Maps. A detailed claim analysis based on the conceptual framework assessed the patenting trends that provided an exhaustive dimension of the technology. The study emphasizes the current thrust in bioenergy sector by various public and private institutions to expedite the process of biofuel production.

  1. 美国基因技术与专利制度的互动诉求及趋势--以Myriad Genetics案的起因为视角%Study the Interaction Demand and Trend of the Gene Technology and the U.S. Patent Regime:By analyzing the Reasons of the Case 'Association for Molecular Pathology et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀文; 肖冬梅

    2015-01-01

    The conflict between the high-value gene patents and the human life and health rights, the very strin-gent conditions of the research exemption of the US Patent Regime, the open-mind attitude on the subject matter of the U.S. Patent Regime, which is the root of Myriad Genetics case, but also revealed the interactive demand of gene technology and US Patent Regime. However, the Supreme Court of the United States held that the patent claims of the isolated DNA was invalid which can only temporarily quell the "Controversial" situation of the Patent Regime due to the gene technology, far from achieving benign interaction between gene technology and the Patent Regime. Through appropriate relaxation of the research exemption condition, limit the patentable subject matter of gene technology, in order to balance the interests of gene patentees and the people’human life and health rights, promote the optimization and trend of Patent Regime on gene technology.%高价值基因专利权人利益与人类生命健康权益的冲突、美国专利制度对科研豁免规定的严格条件、美国专利法对专利权客体所持的开放、包容态度,这既是Myriad Genetics案发生的根源所在,也传达了基因技术与专利制度的互动诉求。美国联邦最高法院作出的关于分离的DNA序列不具备可专利性的回应只是暂时平息基因专利争议的权宜之计,远未实现基因技术与专利制度的良性互动。通过适度放宽科研豁免条件、限缩基因类专利的客体范围,以平衡基因技术专利权人利益与人类生命健康权益,推动基因专利制度的优化趋势。

  2. 硅基太阳能电池专利技术现状及其发展趋势综述%Review of Patent Technology Related to Si-based Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马圆; 范崇飞; 武建刚

    2012-01-01

    本文从探究专利分布和布局的角度出发,选择硅基太阳能电池作为主题,通过标准的检索方式,使用关键词并结合国际专利分类号,对中国专利检索数据库中的中国发明专利申请进行了全面的检索,得到相关的发明专利申请,对上述数据进行细致的手工筛选分类,并作了深入的研究分析,揭示了我国硅基太阳能电池领域内发明专利申请的当前状况和未来的发展趋势.%This article reviews the Chinese patent and patent application in the field of silicon based solar cell, explores the distribution of related patent documents through standard searches using key words and international patent classification. In the study of Chinese PV patents, we conduct a computer search and manual sorting, and made an in-depth research and analysis, which reveals the current patent deployment status and the future development trend within the field of silicon solar cells in China.

  3. 我国专利制度变迁对企业技术战略的影响——以外资制药企业为例%Effects of China' s patent regime reform on firms' technology strategy --the case of foreign pharmaceutical firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何习; 陈向东

    2012-01-01

    我国专利法自1985年正式实施以来一共经历了三次变革,其中2000年的专利法改革是为了加入WTO做准备而将有关条款和TRIPs接轨,进一步加大了专利保护的强度,制药业作为典型的技术创新驱动型产业理应对专利制度变迁的反应很敏感。此研究利用中国1995至2005年间的专利数据,在定义企业整体技术范围的基础上,结合统计和计量方法从技术规模和技术范围两个角度研究了此次专利法改革对外资制药企业可能产生的影响。发现此次专利法改革使得中国本土企业的技术范围收敛,技术规模扩大;但是对美国、德国和日本企业的技术范围和技术规模基本没有影响。%Since its enforcement in 1985, Patent Law in China has gone through 3 reforms. The reform in 2000 was in preparation for China' s entry into WTO and it enhances patent protection. Pharmaceutical industry is supposed to be sensitive to this change because it is driven by technology innovation. Based on Chinese patent data from 1995 to 2005 and the definition of technology scope and technolo- gy size, this paper examines the effects of patent regime reform in 2000 on the technology strategies of foreign pharmaceutical firms in China. Our study reveals that this patent regime reform decreases the technology scope and increases the technology size of firms in Chi- na, however, this reform seems to have no influence on the technology strategies of foreign pharmaceutical firms in China.

  4. The diminishing signaling value of patents between early rounds of venture capital financing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenen, Sebastian; Kolympiris, Christos; Schoenmakers, Wilfred; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    A long stream of research has documented the positive effects that patents bring about to emerging firms in high technology industries. The general consensus is that patents contribute to firm growth because they confer monopolistic market rights, offer protection from competitors, increase the nego

  5. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  6. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal...

  7. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  8. 77 FR 16813 - Patent Processing (Updating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent Processing (Updating) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450....

  9. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  10. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  11. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  12. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  13. 稻茬地双轴驱动防堵式小麦免耕播种机%No-till Wheat Seeder with Two-axel Drive Anti-blocking in Rice Stubble Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠斌; 李洪文; 何进; 王庆杰; 李慧; 卢彩云

    2013-01-01

    针对稻茬地土壤粘重、根茬量大韧性强的特点和免耕播种作业的要求,基于旋转部件的铣切、冲击、破碎和抛撒原理,应用带状旋耕和粉碎技术,设计了稻茬地双轴驱动防堵式小麦免耕播种机,一次完成切茬、开沟、防堵、主动覆土和镇压等功能.田间播种性能试验表明,带状旋耕能较好地完成切茬、开沟作业,粉碎装置将收集到的土壤进行了有效的二次粉碎和抛撒,实现了均匀覆土的功能,播种深度和施肥深度变异系数分别为4.33%和2.73%,机具的通过性满足农艺要求.%In order to solve the serious problems of clay soil and large amount of rice stubble with strong toughness,a no-till wheat seeder with two-axel drive anti-blocking mechanism was designed to meet the requirements of no-till seeder.Based on the work principle of rotating parts,including milling,impacting,crushing and throwing,the seeder could accomplish stubble chopping,furrow opening,antiblocking,active covering soil and compacting at one time with strip rotary tillage and crushing technology.The results of field seeding experiments showed that stubble cutting and furrowing could be well finished by strip rotary tillage.The collected soil was effectively chopped twice,so the soil could be well-covered.The variation coefficient of sowing depth and fertilizer depth were 4.33% and 2.73%,respectively.The passing ability of seeder satisfied the agronomic requirements.

  14. 76 FR 80901 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Evaluation Committee. The United States Patent and Trademark Office will consider all timely nominations... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice and...

  15. 东盟五国农特产品加工业技术创新能力研究——基于专利信息分析的视角%Study on Technological Innovation Capability of Agricultural Product Processing Industries in Five ASEAN Countries:From Perspective of Patent Information Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2011-01-01

    通过检索新加坡、印度尼西亚,菲律宾、泰国及越南这东盟五国在国际专利分类号为C13(糖类产品制备技术)、A23F(茶叶产品制备技术)、A22(畜禽产品制备技术)和A01G(果蔬等栽培及设施技术)这4个农特产品加工技术领域的专利数据,统计其专利申请总量、领域分布、国别申请情况及年度变化趋势.在此基础上,对五国农特产品加工业的技术创新能力进行研究和评价.最后提出我国农特产品加工业在对东盟贸易中的技术创新目标及相应的专利战略.%Through searching the patent data of the agricultural product processing technology fields including preparation technique for sugar product(IPC of C13) ,tea product( IPC of A23F) ,animal product(IPC of A 22) ,cultivated and facilities of fruits and vegetables in Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, this paper studies the patent application statistics, the distribution area, the situation of application country and the annual trend so as to analyze the technological innovation capability of agricultural product processing industries in five ASEAN countries from the perspective of patent analysis.Then it gives some recommendations on technological innovation objective and patent strategies for agricultural product processing industry of China.

  16. The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere VI. Analysis of fossil resins from Axel Heiberg Island Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States); LePage, B.A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Ambers are well known and abundant in terrestrial sediments all over the world; however, due largely to the absence of definite morphological characteristics, the precise botanical origin of most amber samples, are at best, often a matter of speculation. This has severely restricted the usefulness of amber in paleobotanical and paleoecological interpretations. The molecular composition and structural characteristics of fossil resins however, may preserve evidence of their botanical origin, which could be of great value in both geochemical, paleobotanical, and paleoenvironmental studies. The remains of a number of exceptionally well-preserved Taxodiaceae-dominated swamp-forest communities have been identified in the sediments of the middle Eocene (45 million years old) Buchanan Lake Formation of Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The amber collected from these ancient in situ forests provides a unique opportunity to characterize these resins chemically and taxonomically. Resinite associated with Metasequoia, Pinus and Pseudolarix has been characterized using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. This method provides a direct analysis of the molecular structure and composition of the resin. In several cases, both bled resin and cone-resin samples have been characterized. The results of these analyses are presented and discussed. The implications of these results for the botanical origins of other ambers represented in the fossil record (including succinite) will also be discussed.

  17. Two attempts at grounding social critique in „ordinary“ actors’ perspectives: The critical theories of Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary, „third-generation“ perspectives within critical theory - Nancy Fraser’s and Axel Honneth’s - with the aim of examining the degree to which the two authors succeed in grounding the normative criteria of social critique in the perspectives of ’ordinary’ social actors, as opposed to speculative social theory. To that end, the author focuses on the influential debate between Fraser and Honneth Redistribution or Recognition? which concerns the appropriate normative foundations of a „post-metaphysical“ critical theory, and attempts to reconstruct the fundamental 29 disagreements between Fraser and Honneth over the meaning and tasks of critical theory. The author concludes that both critical theorists ultimately secure the normative foundations of critique through substantive theorizations of the social, which frame the two authors’ „reconstructions“ of the normativity of everyday social action, but argues that post-metaphysical critical theory does not have to abandon comprehensive social theory in order to be epistmologically „non-authoritarian“. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Ethics and Politics of Environment: Institutions, Techniques and Norms Facing the Challenge of Environmental Change

  18. Reificação e reconhecimento: um estudo a partir da teoria crítica da sociedade de Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúrion Melo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n2p231O conceito de reificação, originalmente formulado por Karl Marx e desenvolvido por Georg Lukács, foi incorporado como uma das categorias centrais da teoria crítica em sua tarefa de diagnosticar patologias sociais. Contudo, para a compreensão atual da utilização do conceito, tornou-se necessário libertar seu referencial originário meramente econômico. É isso o que pretende Axel Honneth ao reatualizar o conceito de reificação e seu potencial crítico-normativo a partir da teoria do reconhecimento. Além de retomar os principais aspectos do conceito de reificação segundo a análise do “fetichismo da mercadoria”, o artigo se concentra em apresentar a interpretação de Honneth para os processos sociais reificantes – nas relações dos sujeitos com o mundo circundante, nas relações sociais entre os sujeitos e nos efeitos patológicos da autoreificação sobre a autorealização ética – e para a produção inovadora do diagnóstico das patologias sociais decorrentes da reificação como “esquecimento do reconhecimento”.

  19. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  20. ROYALTY COLLECTION FOR PATENTED LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Allowing animal patents provides potential benefits and costs for livestock producers. Costs, considered here, are royalty payments and collection mechanisms, made more complex by the unknown future distribution of multiple patented traits in the herd. This article evaluates three proposed collection systems, Qualified Sales, registration and pooled royalties. The first two are imposed only on breeding stock and at first sale, creating a cash flow and risk factor for producers. The third coll...

  1. Analysis of patents on preeclampsia detection and diagnosis: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, M A; Bhutkar, S P; Hirwani, R R

    2013-01-01

    Computerized patent databases have made it possible to access a wealth of technological information contained in patent documents. Analysis of patent information can greatly help in monitoring technology trends and evolution as well as identification of research gaps. Detection and diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE) was chosen as a case study to emphasize the informative potential of patent analysis. PE complicates about 2-8% pregnancies, affecting a total of about 8.5 million women worldwide. PE can lead to potentially life threatening problems of the liver, kidneys, brain and blood clotting system of the mother. Risks for the baby include poor growth and prematurity. No effective ways of predicting or preventing PE have been found, which highlights the need for further research in this field. Some researchers believe that the incidence of PE is on the rise due to an increased prevalence of predisposing disorders, such as chronic hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. PE thus represents a huge health care burden world over. Complications of PE might be prevented to a certain extent if diagnosed early. Patents on detection and diagnosis of PE were analyzed to gain a better understanding of the technical approaches followed by various research groups around the world. PMID:23200058

  2. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  3. Patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Shunichi; Messé, Steven R; Rundek, Tatjana; Sun, Yee-Ping; Franke, Jennifer; Davidson, Karina; Sievert, Horst; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is the most common congenital heart abnormality of fetal origin and is present in approximately ∼25% of the worldwide adult population. PFO is the consequence of failed closure of the foramen ovale, a normal structure that exists in the fetus to direct blood flow directly from the right to the left atrium, bypassing the pulmonary circulation. PFO has historically been associated with an increased risk of stroke, the mechanism of which has been attributed to the paradoxical embolism of venous thrombi that shunt through the PFO directly to the left atrium. However, several studies have failed to show an increased risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients with a PFO, and the risk of stroke recurrence is low in patients who have had a stroke that may be attributed to a PFO. With the advent of transoesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography, as well as transcranial Doppler, a PFO can be routinely detected in clinical practice. Medical treatment with either antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy is recommended. At the current time, closure of the PFO by percutaneous interventional techniques does not appear to reduce the risk of stroke compared to conventional medical treatment, as shown by three large clinical trials. Considerable controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment strategy for patients with both cryptogenic stroke and PFO. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening, management and effects on quality of life of PFO. PMID:27188965

  4. Considerations on patent valuation based on patent classification and citation in biotechnological field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kenji

    Regarding innovation measurement utilizing patent information, a number of researchers are making great efforts to measure a "patent value (patent quality)." For patent valuation, patent classification and citation are often utilized as patent information. Also, biotechnological field is attracting attention from the viewpoint of application to environmental or medical study, and considerable researches on patent valuation are ongoing in this technical field. However, it is not enough recognized that researchers cannot be too careful when they deal with classification information in the biotech field because patent classification structure in this field is not well-established. And also, it is not known enough that citation patterns of both academic papers and patent documents are so complicated that the patterns cannot be easily generalized. In this article, the issues above were verified from a position based on working experiences of biotech patent examiner at Japan Patent Office, and considerations and implications were given on what patent valuation should be.

  5. An Initial Study of Relationships among the R&D Productivities of Patent Inventors in Patent, Academic Achievement and Professional Performances - An Example of Pixar Animation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Patent information is seen to be a kind of information with the features of exactitude and trustfulness, and it can be used as an indicator to measure the capability of research and development in a company. This research initially explores the relationships among the R&D productivities of patent inventors in patents, academic achievements and professional performances in terms of a patent production aspect. Our research object is the Pixar Company, which had been devoted to 3D animation production for a long time and become one of the key players in the industry. This paper presents a study to discover the technical human resource in the company based on inventor analyses from patent information. Three problems were addressed as follows: (1 Pixar’s key inventors and their active periods, (2 the collaboration among these inventors, and (3 their academic achievements and professional performances and then examined their relationships among the patents, academic achievements and professional performances. In the study, we produced a graph to depict the collaboration of patent inventors when they cooperated to develop technologies and applied patents, and finally we integrated the graph with the search results from the ACM database and the IMDB databases to synthesize another graph to demonstrate the relationships among the productivities of key patent inventors in patents, academic achievements and professional performances. The findings show that in the digital content industry the performances of patent producing of technical talents principally come from the accumulation of their academic ability. When they applied the knowledge and the competence to the industry, they not only achieved remarkable success but also gained confirmation from international awards. Finally, the study also approved the potential and the feasibility of applying knowledge and techniques of bibliometrics to industrial analysis. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Study on Construction of the Value Guidance Index System of Patent Technology Development in Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions Based on Market Leadership%江苏高校专利技术开发价值导向指标体系探析——基于市场主导视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金秀

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the present situation and the problems of patent work in Jiangsu universities, such as the massive existences of expiration patent, a low rate of patent market conversion, a low rate of implementation, and so on. And it proposes the research on the value guidance of patent technology development in Jiangsu higher education institutions based on market leadership. Considering the market, politics, economy, society and technology, the paper selects a series of indexes and constructs a corresponding indicator system. After applying the analytic hierarchy process to carry on the a-nalysis on various targets, it obtains the corresponding weight and the indicator' s ranking of importance. The market is the most important one in the indicator system of this article, so the various factors in the market should arouse our attention.%结合江苏高校专利工作的现状与问题,如失效专利大量存在、专利市场转化率低、实施率低等,提出了江苏高校专利技术开发中基于市场主导视角的价值导向的研究.并从市场、政治、经济、社会和技术五个方面出发,选取了一系列指标,构建了相应的指标体系.进而应用了层次分析法对各指标进行分析,得出相应权重及指标重要性先后的排列次序.文章所建立的指标体系中市场居于最重要的地位,要尤其注重市场的各要素.

  7. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    OpenAIRE

    S. Šarboh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are differe...

  8. The Effect of Patent Grant on the Geographic Reach of Patent Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Drivas, Kyriakos; Fafaliou, Irene; Fampiou, Elpiniki; Yannelis, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether patents increase the geographic reach of the market for ideas. By employing a dataset of 25,127 US patents traded between US located firms, we find that patents sold during application phase are less likely to be traded outside the seller‟s state than patents that have been issued. To tackle the endogeneity issues we employ coarsened exact matching techniques. We find that patent grant increases the likelihood of a patent to ...

  9. Blackboard Wins Payment from Competitor in Patent Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A federal jury in Texas awarded Blackboard Inc. $3.1-million last month, saying that a smaller Canadian competitor, Desire2Learn Inc., had infringed Blackboard's patent for a system of delivering course materials online. The case has been closely watched by campus-technology officials, many of whom feared that a Blackboard win could stifle…

  10. How Much are Flexibility and Uncertainty Worth in Patent Licensing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Oriani, Raffaele; Reichstein, Toke

    2015-01-01

    As patent licensing has become the prime driver of technology trade, understanding the rationales behind a properly-defined payment structure of the agreements is essential. Specifically, among the other remuneration components, upfront fees are critical in license negotiations since they imply a...

  11. Study on a Preliminary Survey and Analysis of HLW Management Technology Suitable for Nuclear Industrial Environment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to suggest development direction of related technologies to analyze patented technology filed as a leading technology and to identify the technology trend for developing HLW management technology suitable for atomic industrial environment in Korea. For patent analysis of HLW management technology, international patent data were collected. And international application number, patent share of applicant and nationality, annual number of applications, application trends of assignees and detail technology, and frequency of patent citations / citations-to were analyzed by statistical analysis. Technical level and competitiveness through quantitative analysis by indicators of patent analysis were confirmed. And technology developments of blank technology, similarity analysis, the point of the main patent and a range of patent rights were analyzed through in-depth analysis. Trends of the patented technology of our country and world patent technology in such results have been identified, and statistical data on patents were secured. Especially in HLW management technology, patent application in Korea compared ti United States, Japan and European Union was began much later for the '90s, and are showing the annual increase on trend of patent application. Patent trend in Korea corresponds to development generation, while declining in foreign patent. The result of this study will be usefully applied to setting a development direction and blank technology of patent technology to pursue future in Korea

  12. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  13. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  14. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because inventors who assert rights over DNA sequences obtain protection on all uses of the sequences. Extremely valuable to breeders in the national agricultural research system is the ability to genotype their collections to get a clear picture of their diversity and how diversity could be enhanced through sharing and access to global collections. The issue of the eligibility for patenting of DNA sequences needs to be reopened. Patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution. Rights over DNA sequences as research tools should be discouraged. That the best way to discourage the award of such patents is by stringent application of the criteria for patenting, particularly utility. A more equitable, ethically - based food and agricultural system must incorporate concern for three accepted global goals: improved well being, protection of the environment and improved public health (particular point food from GMO. To mitigate conflict one of the approach to solve problem is ethical and truthful label of GM food, because consumers have a right to choose whether to eat genetically modified foods or not. Interesting examples and risks as consequences of free availability of genetic resources utilization, its transformation, patenting of 'new' organism and selling it back to the genetic resource owner are presented. Society has obligations to raise levels of nutrition and

  15. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  16. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly ...

  17. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arti K

    2013-11-24

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software.

  18. 基于社会网络分析的专利合著网络研究*--以风力发电技术领域在华专利为例%A Study on Patent Co-author Network Based on Social Network Analysis:Wind Power Technology Patents in China as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡金涛; 魏晓峰

    2013-01-01

    以中国专利数据库中收录的风力发电技术领域专利数据为研究样本,利用社会网络分析方法对该领域专利合著网络结构特征和连通体中心性进行计量分析,以探测其技术研发绩效水平、科研合作状况与核心技术人员分布等,进而提出一些有关未来该领域技术研发与科技人才发掘评价的建议,为相关研究提供必要的参考。%Based on the wind power patents in China Patent Information Database, this paper constructs a Patent Co-author Network ( PCN) of this specific field, and analyzes the degree distribution, cohesion, connectivity and other basic characteristics of the PCN. The degree distribution of the PCN follows power law; the network possesses notable clustering and follows small world features. There is a maximal connected subgraph in the PCN and the subgraph belongs to General Electric Company. Groups of core authors in the subgraph are discovered by centrality analysis. General Electric Company needs to work hard in training more core authors and in strengthening the relationships among the authors.

  19. Patents to Exclude vs. Include: Rethinking the Management of Intellectual Property Rights in a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pénin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional patent theory emphasizes the importance of patents for excluding imitators. This view is far too restrictive and is at odds with many empirical and theoretical works. Therefore, we propose an analysis of patent management that considers the properties of knowledge-based economies explicitly. Patents are thus shown to be critical instruments for coordinating innovative activities between firms. They not only exclude potential infringers, but also “include” all the heterogeneous stakeholders of the innovation process. Patents facilitate coordination via two mechanisms: they encourage the emergence of markets for technology (market coordination and they play an important role in formal and informal inter-firm collaboration (non-market coordination. We also link firms’ patenting strategy with the characteristics of the technological regime of their sector.

  20. Technology and the diffusion of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider investment in wind, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, and electricity from biomass and waste across 26 OECD countries from 1991 to 2004. Using the PATSTAT database, we obtain a comprehensive list of patents for each of these technologies throughout the world, which we use to assess the impact of technological change on investment in renewable energy capacity. We consider four alternative methods for counting patents, using two possible filters: weighting patents by patent family size and including only patent applications filed in multiple countries. For each patent count, we create knowledge stocks representing the global technological frontier. We find that technological advances do lead to greater investment, but the effect is small. Investments in other carbon-free energy sources, such as hydropower and nuclear power, serve as substitutes for renewable energy. Comparing the effectiveness of our four patent counts, we find that both using only patents filed in multiple countries and weighting by family size improve the fit of the model.

  1. Nineteen Patents Issued in 2012 for Inventions by Frederick Researchers | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Karen Surabian, Contributing Writer Patents provide a period of exclusivity and are a way to exclude others from making, using, or selling an inventor’s novel technology. For the National Institutes of Health (NIH), patents are an incentive for an outside party to license, develop, and commercialize NIH technologies that will benefit public health, especially those that require substantial further development by an outside party, such as therapeutics and diagnostics.

  2. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  3. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  4. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  5. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  6. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  7. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  8. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  9. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  10. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  11. The Myths and Facts of Patent Troll and Excessive Payment: Have Nonpracticing Entities (NPEs) Been Overcompensated?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing “Jack” Lu

    2012-01-01

    “Nonpracticing entities” (NPEs) own patents but do not practice the patented technologies. They are sometimes referred to as “patent trolls,” who hold up practicing companies to seek exorbitant payments. This paper conducts a review of the theoretical literature, which is inconclusive on whether NPEs have been systematically overcompensated. This study offers the first empirical study in license royalty rates, and its econometric analysis demonstrates that NPEs have not been overcompensated i...

  12. Practice Review of Confidentiality Examination System to the International Patent Application from the Perspective of Scientific Innovation and Technological Introduction%国际专利申请中保密审查制度的实践检视--基于科技创新和技术引进视角下的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冒婷婷; 吕苏榆

    2015-01-01

    专利法第三次修改对保密审查的规定做出调整,以促进多元主体下重大专利的保密,但实施过程中出现的审查效率低、缺乏补偿措施及制约科研发展等问题使向外申请保密审查制度在某种程度上偏离原先设定的功能,影响了专利申请人的合理利益和国内外先进技术的合作研发。为实现国家安全、专利权人合理利益及技术引进间的平衡,我国应借鉴国外的先进经验,简化审查程序,建立快速通道,提供救济途径,充分发挥保密审查在科技创新中的积极作用。%The third revision of patent law stipulated provisions on confidentiality examination for international patent appli-cations to better regulate major inventions under multiple subjects and safeguard national security. However,there are some problems in the process of implementation,such as low efficiency,lack of compensation measures and restricting environ-ment for scientific research,which have made confidentiality examination system deviate from original designed functions and affected patent applicant's reasonable interests and domestic and international R&D cooperation. To balance national se-curity,technology innovation and reasonable interests of patent applicants,China’s patent office should draw on foreign practical experience,simplify the procedure,establish fast-track and provide relief ways to make the confidentiality exam-ination play a positive role in technological innovation.

  13. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  14. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  15. Patent analysis to identify shale gas development in China and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas has become an increasingly important form of hydrocarbon energy, and related technologies reflect the geographical characteristics of the countries where the gas is extracted and stored. The United States (U.S.) produces most of the world’s shale gas, while China has the world’s largest shale gas reserves. In this research, we focused on identifying the trends in shale-gas related technologies registered to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and to the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO) respectively. To cluster shale-gas related technologies, we text-mined the abstracts of patent specifications. It was found that in the U.S., the key advanced technologies were related to hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, and slick water areas, whereas China had a focus on proppants. The results of our study are expected to assist energy experts in designing energy policies related to technology importation. - Highlights: • We analyzed shale gas-related patent applications in the USPTO and SIPO. • We clustered shale gas patents by text mining patent abstract. • Differences were observed in shale gas technologies developed in the U.S. and China. • We proposed the policies of shale gas exploration and development based on patent analysis

  16. Estigmatización, invisibilización y cosificación de las personas con diversidad funcional. Una aproximación desde la justicia como reconocimiento de Axel Honneth

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Aparicio Payá

    2016-01-01

    Axel Honneth propone, inspirándose en el joven Hegel, una concepción de la justicia basada en la idea de reconocimiento. Dicha concepción parte del previo acercamiento a una serie de fenómenos negativos, los cuales define como fallas en el reconocimiento. Desde la óptica de Honneth los fenómenos negativos constituyen patologías sociales y formas de injusticia, debido a la falta de calidad moral de las relaciones intersubjetivas. Las consecuencias socio-psicológicas en las personas que los suf...

  17. Technology of Polymer/Nano Clay Composite and Analysis About the Related Chinese Patent(CN)%聚合物/黏土纳米复合材料技术及相关中国专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秀妮

    2013-01-01

    The analysis for related field in patent application of China's patents,distribution of application time and applicant condition based on data of China's patents of polymer/nanoclay composite showed,that the demanded protections of patents are based from 3 aspects,i.e.,the polymer/nanoclay composite,the synthesis process for polymer/nanoclay composite and clay composite include clay and clay modifer; the key points of invents are the kind of the based,the composition of the clay modifering agent,and the synthesis process of composite.Among the patents demanded in China,the foreign applicants were mainly enterprises in principal and the applicant at home were mainly universities and research institutesy.%基于聚合物/黏土纳米复合材料专利数据,对中国专利中的专利申请的相关领域的申请时间分布、申请人情况和技术构成等角度进行分析表明,该领域的专利申请基本上从3个方面进行保护,即聚合物/黏土纳米复合材料、聚合物/黏土纳米复合材料的制备方法、黏土组合物(包括黏土和改性剂);专利申请的发明重点在于聚合物基体种类、黏土改性剂的组分,以及复合材料制备方法.在中国申请的专利中,外国申请人一般企业居多,中国申请人主要是高校和科研院所.

  18. The Transaction Cost Benefits of Electronic Patent Licensing Platforms: A Discussion at the Example of the PatentBooks Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Current mechanisms to compensate inventors and improve legal access to their inventions remain ineffective. Manufacturers encounter significant transaction costs in the process of licensing the multitude of patent rights implicated in their products. High-technology product manufacturing requires access to a diverse pool of technologies that are owned by different organizations all over the world. The transaction costs of licensing these disparate rights are inhibiting unlicensed manufacturer...

  19. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  20. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  1. A quality index for patent systems

    OpenAIRE

    VAN POTTELSBERGHE Bruno; de Saint-Georges, Matthis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quality index for patent systems. The index is composed of nine operational design components that help shape the transparency of patent systems and affect the extent to which they comply with patentability conditions. Seven factors are related to rules and regulations (e.g., grace period, opposition process and continuation-inparts), while two factors measure patent offices’ resource allocation (i.e., workload per examiner and incentives). The index is computed for 32 n...

  2. Why Don't Inventors Patent?

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Moser

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the ability to keep innovations secret may be a key determinant of patenting. To test this hypothesis, the paper examines a newly-collected data set of more than 7,000 American and British innovations at four world's fairs between 1851 and 1915. Exhibition data show that the industry where an innovation is made is the single most important determinant of patenting. Urbanization, high innovative quality, and low costs of patenting also encourage patenting, but these infl...

  3. 技术标准下的专利池对我国企业自主创新机制的影响研究%Impact of Technology Standard' s Patent Pool on Self-determined Innovation Mechanisms of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2013-01-01

    专利池作为现代技术联盟的一种高级形式,对技术标准的推广和专利技术的扩散具有重要作用,是企业自主创新的重要战略,也是提升企业自主创新能力的重要方式.企业自主创新机制由自主创新的能力子系统、动力子系统和激励子系统构成.分析了各子系统之间的相互关系,从理论上探讨了专利池对企业创新机制各组成部分的影响,并通过对闪联专利池的案例研究,阐述了闪联专利池对联盟企业自主创新的影响.%Patent pool as an advanced form of modern technology alliance plays an important role in extending technology standards and patent technology. It is not only an important strategy of self - determined innovation of enterprises, but also an important way to promote the enterprise self - determined innovation ability. Enterprises self - determined innovation mechanisms consist of self - determined innovation' s ability system, power system and incentives system. The correlation between each subsystem is analyzed and patent pools impact on the component part of enterprise self-determined innovation is discussed theoretically. Through the case analysis of IGRS, the paper analyses the influence of IGRS on the alliance membersf self - determined innovation.

  4. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated. PMID:21552000

  5. Open Invention Network: A Defensive Patent Pool for Open Source Projects and Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how patents impact innovation within free/libre open source software (F/LOSS businesses and projects. The number of software patent suits brought each year is increasing and is diverting millions of dollars in funds from developers to lawyers. With patent suits on the rise, the US Supreme Court has left the F/LOSS community in a position where it must either wait years for legislation or address the issue of patent suits itself. However, defending the Linux kernel and related technologies is a different challenge than the one that faces proprietary software businesses. This article describes Open Invention Network, an initiative that is designed to meet the particular challenges facing the F/LOSS community and businesses by providing a defensive patent pool.

  6. [Application of ultrasound counter currentextraction in patent of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-ni; Wu, Bin; Yue, Xue-lian

    2015-07-01

    The patent information of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese medicine was analyzed in this paper by the samples from Derwent World Patent Database (DWPI) and the Chinese Patent Abstracts Database (CNABS). The application of ultrasound countercurrent was discussed with the patent applicant,the amount of the annual distribution, and the pharmaceutical raw materials and other aspects. While the technical parameters published in the patent was deeply analyzed, such as material crushing, extraction solvent, extraction time and temperature, extraction equipment and ultrasonic frequency. Thought above research, various technical parameters of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese was summarize. The analysis conclusion of the paper can be used in discovering the technical advantages, optimizing extraction conditions, and providing a reference to extraction technological innovation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. [Application of ultrasound counter currentextraction in patent of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-ni; Wu, Bin; Yue, Xue-lian

    2015-07-01

    The patent information of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese medicine was analyzed in this paper by the samples from Derwent World Patent Database (DWPI) and the Chinese Patent Abstracts Database (CNABS). The application of ultrasound countercurrent was discussed with the patent applicant,the amount of the annual distribution, and the pharmaceutical raw materials and other aspects. While the technical parameters published in the patent was deeply analyzed, such as material crushing, extraction solvent, extraction time and temperature, extraction equipment and ultrasonic frequency. Thought above research, various technical parameters of ultrasound countercurrent extraction used in traditional Chinese was summarize. The analysis conclusion of the paper can be used in discovering the technical advantages, optimizing extraction conditions, and providing a reference to extraction technological innovation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26666026

  8. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated.

  9. Ontology-based Patent Licensing and Litigation Strategic Knowledge System for the Light Emitting Diode Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J.C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the patents, intellectual properties and licensing landscape of the Light Emitting Diode (LED industry. The ontology of LED technology is described and defined as four major sub-technology domains. The finding provides LED companies with consistent knowledge of their own and their competitors’ patents and intellectual property rights (IPR ownership. Major LED companies often use their IPRs to gain and protect their market competitiveness, to form alliances, and to create patent licensing or cross-licensing strategies. Newly established LED technology companies competing with global industry leaders face many challenges unaddressed in the research literature. This research focuses on the empirical and quantitative analysis of historical IP and patent related conduct in relation to corporate strategy. Based on the heuristic rules derived from historical conduct, the research establishes a standardized analytical procedure to use in the evaluation of patent licensing and litigation. The results help researchers effectively and consistently analyze their technical capabilities, evaluate their patent licensing strategies, and review litigation in view of the LED-related IP and patent marketplace.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL FIELDS AND CONCENTRATION OF INNOVATION AMONG FOOD AND BEVERAGE MULTINATIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Alfranca, Oscar; Rama, Ruth; von Tunzelmann, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    With a sample of nearly 18,611 utility patents, this paper studies the technology mix of 90 of the world's leading food and beverage multinationals (FBMs) over 1969-1994. It explores the statistical association between patenting in food technology and in non-food technological fields. Food patenting is always associated with patenting in Biotech, Chemistry, Machinery and Other patenting, whatever the home country of the company. The strength of the association, however, could vary. Herfindahl...

  11. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  12. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  13. India's Journey Toward an Effective Patent System

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The decade following India's accession to the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property ushered in numerous changes to the country's patent system, culminating in a series of amendments in 2005. But a functioning patent system is more than a statute. This paper discusses the steps that India must still take to develop an effective, functioning patent syste...

  14. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  15. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  16. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  17. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  18. Fourth of The Reports for Satelite Navigation Patent Analysis——Satelite navigation hybrid location technology(Ⅰ)%卫星导航专利分析报告之四──卫星导航混合定位技术(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石蕊; 刘清泉; 丁文佳

    2015-01-01

    集成全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)和地面网络的卫星导航混合定位技术是定位技术发展的重要分支.本文以大量精确的数据统计为基础,全面呈现了全球及国内卫星导航混合定位专利申请的态势、申请人特点及技术分支分布,并以专利信息为切入点,对其产业现状和技术发展路线进行梳理.%Satellite navigation hybrid location technology which integrating Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) and ground network is a important branch of location technology. Based on masses of precise data statistics, this paper comprehensively presents patent application situation for Satellite navigation hybrid location technology, applicant characteristics, as well as technical branch distribution in China and all over the world. Furthermore, it reviews its current status in industry and technical development route with patent information as an entry point.

  19. Connecting NSF funding to patent innovation in nanotechnology (2001-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology research has experienced growth rapid in knowledge and innovations; it also attracted significant public funding in recent years. Several countries have recognized nanotechnology as a critical research domain that promises to revolutionize a wide range of fields of applications. In this paper, we present an analysis of the funding for nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its implications on technological innovation (number of patents) in this field from 2001 to 2004. Using a combination of basic bibliometric analysis and content visualization tools, we identify growth trends, research topic distribution, and the evolution in NSF funding and commercial patenting activities recorded at the United States Patent Office (USPTO). The patent citations are used to compare the impact of the NSF-funded research on nanotechnology development with research supported by other sources in the United States and abroad. The analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and patents authored by them have significantly higher impact based on patent citation measures in the four-year period than other comparison groups. The NSF-authored patent impact is growing faster with the lifetime of a patent, indicating the long-term importance of fundamental research

  20. Axel Olrik’in Epik Yasaları Işığında Oğuz Kağan Destanı’na Bir Bakış A Glance At Oghuz Khagan Saga In The Light Of Axel Olrik’s Epic Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human beings’ relation with time and space has very ancientoffsets. It would be reasonable to seek the first data of these offsets innationalization processes as human beings realized their existencethrough social consensus. This social consensus has certainphenomena which mainly appear in cultural forms. The first data andassigning meanings during nations’ presenting their social existence aremainly found in epics. Therefore, it would be reasonable to focus onepics with a view that they are the codes of nations’ social memories. Itis a known fact that, beginning from their first ancestors, human beingshave always acted in accordance with some main purposes and themes.Therefore the importance of epics is paramount in terms of thearchetypes they accommodate. It is known that these archetypes notonly provide a means to read the past, but also shed light on ourpresent. This provides a remarkable opportunity to reach the roots ofthe cultural phenomena of nations and societies. When we look at theTurkish epics, we are welcomed by Oghuz Khagan Saga, which can becounted as an important leap forward in terms of Turks’ nationalizationprocess. There are different methods to understand and explain orassign meanings to epics. One of these methods is Axel Olrik’s “EpicLaws Theory”, one of the methods of Historical-Geographical FinnishSchool. This theory aims at approaching mythological works with auniversal standardization and evaluating these mythological workswithin the frame of certain principles. The aim of the present article isto read Oghuz Khagan Saga, fraught with symbols in terms of Turkishhistory’s mythical offsets, in the light of Axel Olrik’s epic laws and todiscuss the data obtained thereof in the context of the epic and itsnature. İnsanoğlunun zaman ve mekânla olan ilişkisi oldukça kadim uzantılara sahiptir. Bu uzantıların ilk verilerini milletleşme süreçlerinde aramak gerekir. Çünkü insanoğlu, yery