WorldWideScience

Sample records for awake rats achieving

  1. Optimised motion tracking for positron emission tomography studies of brain function in awake rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Z Kyme

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a non-invasive molecular imaging technique using positron-emitting radioisotopes to study functional processes within the body. High resolution PET scanners designed for imaging rodents and non-human primates are now commonplace in preclinical research. Brain imaging in this context, with motion compensation, can potentially enhance the usefulness of PET by avoiding confounds due to anaesthetic drugs and enabling freely moving animals to be imaged during normal and evoked behaviours. Due to the frequent and rapid motion exhibited by alert, awake animals, optimal motion correction requires frequently sampled pose information and precise synchronisation of these data with events in the PET coincidence data stream. Motion measurements should also be as accurate as possible to avoid degrading the excellent spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art scanners. Here we describe and validate methods for optimised motion tracking suited to the correction of motion in awake rats. A hardware based synchronisation approach is used to achieve temporal alignment of tracker and scanner data to within 10 ms. We explored the impact of motion tracker synchronisation error, pose sampling rate, rate of motion, and marker size on motion correction accuracy. With accurate synchronisation (20 Hz, and a small head marker suitable for awake animal studies, excellent motion correction results were obtained in phantom studies with a variety of continuous motion patterns, including realistic rat motion (<5% bias in mean concentration. Feasibility of the approach was also demonstrated in an awake rat study. We conclude that motion tracking parameters needed for effective motion correction in preclinical brain imaging of awake rats are achievable in the laboratory setting. This could broaden the scope of animal experiments currently possible with PET.

  2. Meal-contingent intestinal lymph sampling from awake, unrestrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Myrtha; Dai, Yunting; Tso, Patrick; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2012-06-15

    Standard procedures for intestinal lymph collection involve continuous, quantitative drainage of the lymph fluid in anesthetized or restrained animals that are often euthanized within 48 h. We here describe a novel technique for the nonocclusive cannulation of the major intestinal lymph duct in rats that allows for repetitive in vivo sampling of intestinal lymph from unrestrained, awake, and ad libitum-fed animals. The distinctive feature of this novel technique is that a 5- to 7-mm long piece of Vialon tubing (OD/ID: 0.8/0.7 mm) with a small hole in its wall is first implanted into the major intestinal lymph duct for stabilization. The tapered tip (OD: ≈0.1 mm) of the catheter is then inserted into the hole of the tubing and fixed in place with a polyamid suture and a drop of tissue glue. In our hands, catheters implanted this way remain patent for up to 6 wk after surgery. In an initial experiment we collected lymph from six adult rats before (0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, and 180 min (120 μl, each) after the onset of isocaloric (12.5 kcal) low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) test meals and measured active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Intestinal lymphatic GLP-1 concentration increased (P < 0.05) from ≈4 pmol/l (0 min) to a peak of 33 ± 6 (means ± SE) or 22 ± 4 pmol/l at 15 (HF) or 30 min (LF) after meal onset and gradually returned to baseline levels by 180 min. With this new technique fewer animals are required to generate physiologically relevant data for various aspects of gastrointestinal physiology that involve the lymphatic system. Furthermore, the advantage of this system is that the animal can act as its own control when the effect of different experimental protocols is tested. PMID:22513747

  3. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Motility in Awake Rats: A Learning Exercise for Undergraduate Biomedical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M. A. N.; Souza, M. H. L. P.; Palheta, R. C., Jr.; Cruz, P. R. M.; Medeiros, B. A.; Rola, F. H.; Magalhaes, P. J. C.; Troncon, L. E. A.; Santos, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Current medical curricula devote scarce time for practical activities on digestive physiology, despite frequent misconceptions about dyspepsia and dysmotility phenomena. Thus, we designed a hands-on activity followed by a small-group discussion on gut motility. Male awake rats were randomly submitted to insulin, control, or hypertonic protocols.…

  4. The Neural Consequences of Repeated Cocaine Exposure Revealed by Functional MRI in Awake Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Febo, Marcelo; Segarra, Annabell C.; Nair, Govind; Schmidt, Karl; Duong, Timothy Q.; Ferris, Craig F.

    2005-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in animal models of cocaine addiction is an invaluable tool for investigating the neuroadaptations that lead to this psychiatric disorder. We used blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI in awake rats to identify the neuronal circuits affected by repeated cocaine administration. Rats were given an injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle for 7 days, abstained from injections for 1 week, and challenged with an intracerebrovent...

  5. Layer-specific high-frequency spiking in the prefrontal cortex of awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimbo Saroeni Raymond Maria Boudewijns

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal neurons show irregular in vivo action potential (AP spiking with high frequency bursts occurring on sparse background activity. Somatic APs can backpropagate from soma into basal and apical dendrites and locally generate dendritic calcium spikes. The critical AP frequency for generation of such dendritic calcium spikes can be very different depending on cell-type or brain area involved. Previously, it was shown in vitro that calcium electrogenesis can also be induced in L(ayer 5 pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC. It remains an open question whether somatic burst spiking and resulting dendritic calcium electrogenesis also occur in morphologically more compact L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, it is not known whether critical frequencies that trigger dendritic calcium electrogenesis occur in PFC under awake conditions in vivo. Here, we addressed these issues and found that pyramidal neurons in both PFC L2/3 and L5 in awake rats spike APs in short bursts, but with different probabilities. The critical frequency for calcium electrogenesis in vitro was layer-specific and lower in L5 neurons compared to L2/3. Taking the in vitro critical frequency as predictive measure for dendritic electrogenesis during in vivo spontaneous activity, supracritical bursts in vivo were observed in a larger fraction of L5 neurons compared to L2/3 neurons but with similar incidence within these subpopulations. Together, these results show that in PFC of awake rats, AP spiking occurs at frequencies that are relevant for dendritic calcium electrogenesis and suggest that in awake rat PFC, dendritic calcium electrogenesis may be involved in neuronal computation.

  6. Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Jung

    Full Text Available Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs, reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.

  7. Algorithmic complexity as an index of cortical function in awake and pentobarbital-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, F Z; Chen, R F; Tsao, H W; Yen, C T

    1999-11-15

    This study introduces algorithmic complexity to measure characteristics of brain functions. The EEG of the rat was recorded with implanted electrodes. The normalized complexity value was relatively independent of data length, and it showed a simpler and easier calculation characteristic than other non-linear indexes. The complexity index revealed significant differences among awake, asleep, and anesthetized states. It may be useful in tracking short-term and long-term changes in brain functions, such as anesthetized depth, drug effects, or sleep-wakefulness.

  8. Technical and conceptual considerations for performing and interpreting functional MRI studies in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eFebo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies in rodents have the potential to provide insight into neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. The strength of the technique lies in its non-invasive nature that can permit longitudinal functional studies in the same animal over its adult life. The relatively good spatial and temporal resolution and the ever-growing database on the biological and biophysical basis of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal make it a unique technique in preclinical neuroscience research. Our laboratory has used imaging to investigate brain activation in awake rats following cocaine administration and during the presentation of lactation-associated sensory stimuli. Factors that deserve attention when planning fMRI studies in rats include technical issues, animal physiology and interpretability of the resulting data. The present review discusses the pros and cons of animal imaging with a particular focus on the technical aspects of studies with awake rats. Overall, the benefits of the technique outweigh its limitations and the rapidly evolving methods will open the way for more laboratories to employ the technique in neuroscience research.

  9. Neural correlates of sensorimotor gating: A metabolic positron emission tomography study in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin eRohleder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired sensorimotor gating occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and can be measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI paradigm of the acoustic startle response. This assay is frequently used to validate animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders and to explore the therapeutic potential of new drugs. The underlying neural network of PPI has been extensively studied with invasive methods and genetic modifications. However, its relevance for healthy untreated animals and the functional interplay between startle- and PPI-related areas during a PPI session is so far unknown. Therefore, we studied awake rats in a PPI paradigm, startle control and background noise control, combined with behavioral [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Subtractive analyses between conditions were used to identify brain regions involved in startle and PPI processing in well-hearing Black hooded rats. For correlative analysis with regard to the amount of PPI we also included hearing-impaired Lister hooded rats that startled more often, because their hearing threshold was just below the lowest prepulses. Metabolic imaging showed that the brain areas proposed for startle and PPI mediation are active during PPI paradigms in healthy untreated rats. More importantly, we show for the first time that the whole PPI modulation network is active during passive PPI sessions, where no selective attention to prepulse or startle stimulus is required. We conclude that this reflects ongoing monitoring of stimulus significance and constant adjustment of sensorimotor gating.

  10. Endocytic structures and synaptic vesicle recycling at a central synapse in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Christoph; Horstmann, Heinz; Sätzler, Kurt; Kuner, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle has been studied extensively in cultured cells and slice preparations, but not much is known about the roles and relative contributions of endocytic pathways and mechanisms of SV recycling in vivo, under physiological patterns of activity. We employed horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an in vivo marker of endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse in the awake rat. Ex vivo serial section scanning electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions revealed two categories of labelled structures: HRP-filled SVs and large cisternal endosomes. Inhibition of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 (AP-1, AP-3) by in vivo application of Brefeldin A (BFA) disrupted endosomal SV budding while SV recycling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) remained unaffected. In conclusion, our study establishes cisternal endosomes as an intermediate of the SV cycle and reveals CME and endosomal budding as the predominant mechanisms of SV recycling in a tonically active central synapse in vivo.

  11. Mapping the functional network of medial prefrontal cortex by combining optogenetics and fMRI in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhifeng; Watson, Glenn D R; Alloway, Kevin D; Lee, Gangchea; Neuberger, Thomas; Zhang, Nanyin

    2015-08-15

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in multiple cognitive and limbic functions. Given its vital importance, investigating the function of individual mPFC circuits in animal models has provided critical insight into the neural basis underlying different behaviors and psychiatric conditions. However, our knowledge regarding the mPFC whole-brain network stays largely at the anatomical level, while the functional network of mPFC, which can be dynamic in different conditions or following manipulations, remains elusive especially in awake rodents. Here we combined optogenetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (opto-fMRI) to reveal the network of brain regions functionally activated by mPFC outputs in awake rodents. Our data showed significant increases in blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signals in prefrontal, striatal and limbic regions when mPFC was optically stimulated. This activation pattern was robust, reproducible, and did not depend on the stimulation period in awake rats. BOLD signals, however, were substantially reduced when animals were anesthetized. In addition, regional brain activation showing increased BOLD signals during mPFC stimulation was corroborated by electrophysiological recordings. These results expand the applicability of the opto-fMRI approach from sensorimotor processing to cognition-related networks in awake rodents. Importantly, it may help elucidate the circuit mechanisms underlying numerous mPFC-related functions and behaviors that need to be assessed in the awake state.

  12. Salicylate induced tinnitus: behavioral measures and neural activity in auditory cortex of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lobarinas, Edward; Zhang, Liyan; Turner, Jeremy; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard; Sun, Wei

    2007-04-01

    Neurophysiological studies of salicylate-induced tinnitus have generally been carried out under anesthesia, a condition that abolishes the perception of tinnitus and depresses neural activity. To overcome these limitations, measurement of salicylate induced tinnitus were obtained from rats using schedule induced polydipsia avoidance conditioning (SIPAC) and gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS). Both behavioral measures indicated that tinnitus was present after treatment with 150 and 250 mg/kg of salicylate; measurements with GPIAS indicated that the pitch of the tinnitus was near 16 kHz. Chronically implanted microwire electrode arrays were used to monitor the local field potentials and spontaneous discharge rate from multiunit clusters in the auditory cortex of awake rats before and after treatment with 150 mg/kg of salicylate. The amplitude of the local field potential elicited with 60 dB SPL tone bursts increased significantly 2h after salicylate treatment particularly at 16-20 kHz; frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Field potential amplitudes had largely recovered 1-2 days post-salicylate when behavioral results showed that tinnitus was absent. The mean spontaneous spike recorded from the same multiunit cluster pre- and post-salicylate decreased from 22 spikes/s before treatment to 14 spikes/s 2h post-salicylate and recovered 1 day post-treatment. These preliminary physiology data suggest that salicylate induced tinnitus is associated with sound evoked hyperactivity in auditory cortex and spontaneous hypoactivity.

  13. Nitric oxide modulates the cardiovascular effects elicited by acetylcholine in the NTS of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Liana Gouveia; Dias, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Furlan, Elaina; Colombari, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Microinjection of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of awake rats caused a transient and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia. Because it is known that cardiovascular reflexes are affected by nitric oxide (NO) produced in the NTS, we investigated whether these ACh-induced responses depend on NO in the NTS. Responses to ACh (500 pmol in 100 nl) were strongly reduced by ipsilateral microinjection of the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 nmol in 100 nl) in the NTS: mean arterial pressure (MAP) fell by 50 +/- 5 mmHg before L-NAME to 9 +/- 4 mmHg, 10 min after L-NAME, and HR fell by 100 +/- 26 bpm before L-NAME to 20 +/- 10 bpm, 10 min after L-NAME (both P NTS also reduced responses to ACh: MAP fell from 42 +/- 3 mmHg before TRIM to 27 +/- 6 mmHg, 10 min after TRIM (P NTS of conscious rats induces hypotension and bradycardia, and these effects may be mediated at least partly by NO produced in NTS neurons.

  14. Noradrenergic inhibitory modulation in the caudal commissural NTS of the pressor response to chemoreflex activation in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Oliveira, Luciana C; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-10-30

    In the present study we evaluated the possible modulatory role of noradrenaline on the neurotransmission of the peripheral chemoreflex afferents in the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats. To reach this goal we performed a dose-response curve to microinjection of increasing dose of noradrenaline into the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats and then the threshold dose, which produces minor changes in the baseline mean arterial pressure, was selected to be used in the chemoreflex experiment. The peripheral chemoreflex was activated with KCN before and after bilateral microinjections of noradrenaline (5 nMol/50 nL, threshold dose) into the NTS. The data show that microinjection of noradrenaline into the caudal NTS produced a significant reduction in the pressor response to the chemoreflex 30 s after the injection when compared to the control response (30+/-6 vs. 49+/-3 mm Hg) but no significant changes in the bradycardic response. The data indicate that noradrenaline in the caudal commissural NTS of awake rats may play an important inhibitory neuromodulatory role on the processing of the pressor/sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex.

  15. Neuropeptides in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate central cardiovascular reflex responses in awake male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quagliotto, E. [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Casali, K.R. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Dal Lago, P. [Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rasia-Filho, A.A. [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-11-21

    The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) links emotionally charged sensory stimuli to social behavior, and is part of the supramedullary control of the cardiovascular system. We studied the effects of microinjections of neuroactive peptides markedly found in the MePD, namely oxytocin (OT, 10 ng and 25 pg; n=6/group), somatostatin (SST, 1 and 0.05 μM; n=8 and 5, respectively), and angiotensin II (Ang II, 50 pmol and 50 fmol; n=7/group), on basal cardiovascular activity and on baroreflex- and chemoreflex-mediated responses in awake adult male rats. Power spectral and symbolic analyses were applied to pulse interval and systolic arterial pressure series to identify centrally mediated sympathetic/parasympathetic components in the heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial pressure variability (APV). No microinjected substance affected basal parameters. On the other hand, compared with the control data (saline, 0.3 µL; n=7), OT (10 ng) decreased mean AP (MAP{sub 50}) after baroreflex stimulation and increased both the mean AP response after chemoreflex activation and the high-frequency component of the HRV. OT (25 pg) increased overall HRV but did not affect any parameter of the symbolic analysis. SST (1 μM) decreased MAP{sub 50}, and SST (0.05 μM) enhanced the sympathovagal cardiac index. Both doses of SST increased HRV and its low-frequency component. Ang II (50 pmol) increased HRV and reduced the two unlike variations pattern of the symbolic analysis (P<0.05 in all cases). These results demonstrate neuropeptidergic actions in the MePD for both the increase in the range of the cardiovascular reflex responses and the involvement of the central sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on HRV and APV.

  16. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  17. Vincristine delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Peixoto Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of vincristine on the gastrointestinal (GI motility of awake rats and correlated them with the course of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine or saline was injected into the tail vein of male Wistar rats (180-250 g on alternate days: 50 µg/kg (5 doses, N = 10, 100 µg/kg (2, 3, 4 and 5 doses, N = 49 or 150 µg/kg (1, 2, or 5 doses, N = 37. Weight and stool output were measured daily for each animal. One day after completing the vincristine treatment, the animals were fasted for 24 h, gavage-fed with a test meal and sacrificed 10 min later to measure gastric emptying (GE, GI transit and colon weight. Sensory peripheral neuropathy was evaluated by hot plate testing. Chronic vincristine treatments with total cumulative doses of at least 250 µg/kg significantly decreased GE by 31-59% and GI transit by 55-93%. The effect of 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg on GE did not persist for more than 1 week. Colon weight increased after 2 and 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Fecal output decreased up to 48 h after the fifth dose of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Vincristine decreased the heat pain threshold 1 day after 5 doses of 50-100 µg/kg or after 3-5 doses of 150 µg/kg. This effect lasted for at least 2 weeks after the fifth dose. Chronic intravenous vincristine treatment delayed GE and GI transit of liquid. This effect correlated with the peak increase in colon weight but not with the pain threshold changes.

  18. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  19. An Experimental Model of Vasovagal Syncope Induces Cerebral Hypoperfusion and Fainting-Like Behavior in Awake Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W.; Reis, Cesar; Frank, Ethan; Klebe, Damon W.; Zhang, John H.; Applegate, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Vasovagal syncope, a contributing factor to elderly falls, is the transient loss of consciousness caused by decreased cerebral perfusion. Vasovagal syncope is characterized by hypotension, bradycardia, and reduced cerebral blood flow, resulting in fatigue, altered coordination, and fainting. The purpose of this study is to develop an animal model which is similar to human vasovagal syncope and establish an awake animal model of vasovagal syncope. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS). Blood pressure, heart rate, and cerebral blood flow were monitored before, during, and post-stimulation. sGVS resulted in hypotension, bradycardia, and decreased cerebral blood flow. One cohort of animals was subjected to sGVS while freely moving. sGVS in awake animals produced vasovagal syncope-like symptoms, including fatigue and uncoordinated movements; two animals experienced spontaneous falling. Another cohort of animals was preconditioned with isoflurane for several days before being subjected to sGVS. Isoflurane preconditioning before sGVS did not prevent sGVS-induced hypotension or bradycardia, yet isoflurane preconditioning attenuated sGVS-induced cerebral blood flow reduction. The sGVS rat model mimics elements of human vasovagal syncope pathophysiology (hypotension, bradycardia, and decreased cerebral perfusion), including behavioral symptoms such as fatigue and altered balance. This study indicates that the sGVS rat model is similar to human vasovagal syncope and that therapies directed at preventing cerebral hypoperfusion may decrease syncopal episodes and reduce injuries from syncopal falls. PMID:27658057

  20. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulation of the neural correlates of motivation and emotion: results from functional MRI studies in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Ferris, Craig F

    2014-09-11

    Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate a range of species typical behavioral functions that include social recognition, maternal-infant attachment, and modulation of memory, offensive aggression, defensive fear reactions, and reward seeking. We have employed novel functional magnetic resonance mapping techniques in awake rats to explore the roles of these neuropeptides in the maternal and non-maternal brain. Results from the functional neuroimaging studies that are summarized here have directly and indirectly confirmed and supported previous findings. Oxytocin is released within the lactating rat brain during suckling stimulation and activates specific subcortical networks in the maternal brain. Both vasopressin and oxytocin modulate brain regions involved unconditioned fear, processing of social stimuli and the expression of agonistic behaviors. Across studies there are relatively consistent brain networks associated with internal motivational drives and emotional states that are modulated by oxytocin and vasopressin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  1. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats. No

  2. Electrical stimulation of the substantia nigra reticulata : Detection of neuronal extracellular GABA in the ventromedial thalamus and its regulatory mechanism using microdialysis in awake rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Westerink, BHC

    1997-01-01

    A combination of electrical stimulation and microdialysis was used to study the nigrothalamic gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system and its regulatory mechanisms in awake rats. Extracellular GABA levels in the ventromedial nucleus of the thalamus were detected in S-min fractions collected befor

  3. Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondim F. de-A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT on gastric emptying (GE and on gastrointestinal (GI and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65 weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05 by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05 by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05 by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.

  4. Effect of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by lipid-infusion in awake rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Gang-Yi Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the influence of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by a lipid infusion in awake rats.METHODS: A hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was established in awake chronically catheterized rats. Two groups of rats were studied either with a 4-h intraarterial infusion of lipid/heparin or saline. Insulin-mediated peripheral and hepatic glucose metabolism was assessed by hyperinsulinaemiceuglycaemic clamp combined with [3-3H]-glucose infusion.RESULTS: During hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp,there was a significant increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA, from 741.9±50.6 to 2346.4±238.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in lipid-infused group. The glucose infusion rates (GIR) in the lipid infusion rats, compared to control rats, were significantly reduced (200-240 min average: lipid infusion; 12.6±1.5 vs control; 34.0±1.6 mg/kg.min, P<0.01), declining to - 35%of the corresponding control values during the last time of the clamp (240 min: lipid infusion; 12.0±1.9 vs control;34.7±1.7 mg/kg.min, P<0.0001). At the end of clamp study,the hepatic glucose production (HGP) in control rats was significantly suppressed (88%) from 19.0±4.5 (basal) to 2.3±0.9 mg/kg.min (P<0.01). The suppressive effect of insulin on HGP was significantly blunted in the lipid-infused (P<0.05). The rate of glucose disappearance (GRd) was a slight decrease in the lipid-infused rats compared with controls during the clamp.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that lipid infusion could induces suppression of hepatic glucose production, impairs the abilities of insulin to suppress lipolysis and mediate glucose utilization in peripheral tissue. Therefore, we conclude that lipid-infusion induces an acute insulin resistance in vivo.

  5. Spontaneous Changes in Taste Sensitivity of Single Units Recorded over Consecutive Days in the Brainstem of the Awake Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Joshua D.; Weiss, Michael S.; Escanilla, Olga D.; Fooden, Andrew F.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    A neuron’s sensitivity profile is fundamental to functional classification of cell types, and underlies theories of sensory coding. Here we show that gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) of awake rats spontaneously change their tuning properties across days. Rats were surgically implanted with a chronic microwire assembly into the NTS or PbN. Following recovery, water-deprived rats had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli while cellular activity was recorded. In 12 rats for the NTS and 8 rats for the PbN, single units could be isolated at the same electrode on consecutive days (NTS, 14 units for 2–5 consecutive days, median = 2 days; PbN, 23 units for 2–7 days, median = 2.5 days). Waveforms were highly similar (waveform template correlation > 0.99) across days in 13 units in NTS and 13 units in PbN. This degree of similarity was rare (0.3% of pairs in NTS, 1.5% of pairs in PbN) when the waveforms were from presumed-different neurons (units recorded on nonconsecutive days with at least one intervening day in which there were no spikes, or from different wires or rats). Analyses of multi-day recordings that met this criterion for “same unit” showed that responses to taste stimuli appeared, disappeared, or shifted in magnitude across days, resulting in changes in tuning. These data imply, generally, that frameworks for cell classification and, specifically, that theories of taste coding, need to consider plasticity of response profiles. PMID:27479490

  6. Spontaneous Changes in Taste Sensitivity of Single Units Recorded over Consecutive Days in the Brainstem of the Awake Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Escanilla, Olga D; Fooden, Andrew F; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    A neuron's sensitivity profile is fundamental to functional classification of cell types, and underlies theories of sensory coding. Here we show that gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) of awake rats spontaneously change their tuning properties across days. Rats were surgically implanted with a chronic microwire assembly into the NTS or PbN. Following recovery, water-deprived rats had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli while cellular activity was recorded. In 12 rats for the NTS and 8 rats for the PbN, single units could be isolated at the same electrode on consecutive days (NTS, 14 units for 2-5 consecutive days, median = 2 days; PbN, 23 units for 2-7 days, median = 2.5 days). Waveforms were highly similar (waveform template correlation > 0.99) across days in 13 units in NTS and 13 units in PbN. This degree of similarity was rare (0.3% of pairs in NTS, 1.5% of pairs in PbN) when the waveforms were from presumed-different neurons (units recorded on nonconsecutive days with at least one intervening day in which there were no spikes, or from different wires or rats). Analyses of multi-day recordings that met this criterion for "same unit" showed that responses to taste stimuli appeared, disappeared, or shifted in magnitude across days, resulting in changes in tuning. These data imply, generally, that frameworks for cell classification and, specifically, that theories of taste coding, need to consider plasticity of response profiles. PMID:27479490

  7. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A; Powell, Frank L

    2014-08-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839-1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7-9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a "cocktail" of the GluR antagonists MK-801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15-min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats.

  8. Awake behaving electrophysiological correlates of forelimb hyperreflexia, weakness and disrupted muscular synchronization following cervical spinal cord injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick Daniel; Meyers, Eric Christopher; Sloan, Andrew Michael; Maliakkal, Reshma; Ruiz, Andrea; Kilgard, Michael Paul; Robert, LeMoine Rennaker

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury usually occurs at the level of the cervical spine and results in profound impairment of forelimb function. In this study, we recorded awake behaving intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from the biceps and triceps muscles of the impaired forelimb during volitional and reflexive forelimb movements before and after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) in rats. C5/C6 hemicontusion reduced volitional forelimb strength by more than 50% despite weekly rehabilitation for one month post-injury. Triceps EMG during volitional strength assessment was reduced by more than 60% following injury, indicating reduced descending drive. Biceps EMG during reflexive withdrawal from a thermal stimulus was increased by 500% following injury, indicating flexor withdrawal hyperreflexia. The reduction in volitional forelimb strength was significantly correlated with volitional and reflexive biceps EMG activity. Our results support the hypothesis that biceps hyperreflexia and descending volitional drive both significantly contribute to forelimb strength deficits after cSCI and provide new insight into dynamic muscular dysfunction after cSCI. The use of multiple automated quantitative measures of forelimb dysfunction in the rodent cSCI model will likely aid the search for effective regenerative, pharmacological, and neuroprosthetic treatments for spinal cord injury. PMID:27033345

  9. High estrogen and chronic haloperidol lead to greater amphetamine-induced BOLD activation in awake, amphetamine-sensitized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madularu, Dan; Kulkarni, Praveen; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Shams, Waqqas M; Ferris, Craig F; Brake, Wayne G

    2016-06-01

    The ovarian hormone estrogen has been implicated in schizophrenia symptomatology. Low levels of estrogen are associated with an increase in symptom severity, while exogenous estrogen increases the efficacy of antipsychotic medication, pointing at a possible interaction between estrogen and the dopaminergic system. The aim of this study is to further investigate this interaction in an animal model of some aspects of schizophrenia using awake functional magnetic resonance imaging. Animals receiving 17β-estradiol and haloperidol were scanned and BOLD activity was assessed in response to amphetamine. High 17β-estradiol replacement and chronic haloperidol treatment showed increased BOLD activity in regions of interest and neural networks associated with schizophrenia (hippocampal formations, habenula, amygdala, hypothalamus etc.), compared with low, or no 17β-estradiol. These data show that chronic haloperidol treatment has a sensitizing effect, possibly on the dopaminergic system, and this effect is dependent on hormonal status, with high 17β-estradiol showing the greatest BOLD increase. Furthermore, these experiments further support the use of imaging techniques in studying schizophrenia, as modeled in the rat, but can be extended to addiction and other disorders. PMID:27154458

  10. The Functional Networks of Prepulse Inhibition: Neuronal Connectivity Analysis Based on FDG-PET in Awake and Unrestrained Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Cathrin; Wiedermann, Dirk; Neumaier, Bernd; Drzezga, Alexander; Timmermann, Lars; Graf, Rudolf; Leweke, F. Markus; Endepols, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a neuropsychological process during which a weak sensory stimulus (“prepulse”) attenuates the motor response (“startle reaction”) to a subsequent strong startling stimulus. It is measured as a surrogate marker of sensorimotor gating in patients suffering from neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia, as well as in corresponding animal models. A variety of studies has shown that PPI of the acoustical startle reaction comprises three brain circuitries for: (i) startle mediation, (ii) PPI mediation, and (iii) modulation of PPI mediation. While anatomical connections and information flow in the startle and PPI mediation pathways are well known, spatial and temporal interactions of the numerous regions involved in PPI modulation are incompletely understood. We therefore combined [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) with PPI and resting state control paradigms in awake rats. A battery of subtractive, correlative as well as seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed a default mode-like network (DMN) active during resting state only. Furthermore, two functional networks were observed during PPI: Metabolic activity in the lateral circuitry was positively correlated with PPI effectiveness and involved the auditory system and emotional regions. The medial network was negatively correlated with PPI effectiveness, i.e., associated with startle, and recruited a spatial/cognitive network. Our study provides evidence for two distinct neuronal networks, whose continuous interplay determines PPI effectiveness in rats, probably by either protecting the prepulse or facilitating startle processing. Discovering similar networks affected in neuropsychological disorders may help to better understand mechanisms of sensorimotor gating deficits and provide new perspectives for therapeutic strategies. PMID:27493627

  11. Performance Enhancement of the RatCAP Awake Rate Brain PET System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaska, P.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.; Schlyer, D.; Radeka, V.; O' Connor, P.; Park, S.-J.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, M.; Purschke, S.; Southekal, S.; Stoll, S.; Schiffer, W.; Neill, J.; Wharton, D.; Myers, N.; Wiley, S.; Kandasamy, A.; Fried, J.; Krishnamoorthy, S. Kriplani, A.; Maramraju, S.; Lecomte, R.; Fontaine, R.

    2011-03-01

    The first full prototype of the RatCAP PET system, designed to image the brain of a rat while conscious, has been completed. Initial results demonstrated excellent spatial resolution, 1.8 mm FWHM with filtered backprojection and <1.5 mm FWHM with a Monte Carlo based MLEM method. However, noise equivalent countrate studies indicated the need for better timing to mitigate the effect of randoms. Thus, the front-end ASIC has been redesigned to minimize time walk, an accurate coincidence time alignment method has been implemented, and a variance reduction technique for the randoms is being developed. To maximize the quantitative capabilities required for neuroscience, corrections are being implemented and validated for positron range and photon noncollinearity, scatter (including outside the field of view), attenuation, randoms, and detector efficiency (deadtime is negligible). In addition, a more robust and compact PCI-based optical data acquisition system has been built to replace the original VME-based system while retaining the linux-based data processing and image reconstruction codes. Finally, a number of new animal imaging experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the performance of the RatCAP in real imaging situations, including an F-18 fluoride bone scan, a C-11 raclopride scan, and a dynamic C-11 methamphetamine scan.

  12. Identifying the integrated neural networks involved in capsaicin-induced pain using fMRI in awake TRPV1 knockout and wild-type rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William; Caccaviello, John C; Gamber, Kevin; Simmons, Phil; Nedelman, Mark; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type vs. knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain. PMID:25745388

  13. Identifying the Integrated Neural Networks Involved in Capsaicin-Induced Pain Using fMRI in Awake TRPV1 Knockout and Wild-Type Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Richard Yee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1. Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type versus knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  14. The bradycardic and hypotensive responses to serotonin are reduced by activation of GABAA receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius of awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callera J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the GABA receptor agonists muscimol (GABA A and baclofen (GABA B into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS on the bradycardia and hypotension induced by iv serotonin injections (5-HT, 2 µg/rat in awake male Holtzman rats. 5-HT was injected in rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the NTS, before and 5, 15, and 60 min after bilateral injections of muscimol or baclofen into the NTS. The responses to 5-HT were tested before and after the injection of atropine methyl bromide. Muscimol (50 pmol/50 nl, N = 8 into the NTS increased basal mean arterial pressure (MAP from 115 ± 4 to 144 ± 6 mmHg, did not change basal heart rate (HR and reduced the bradycardia (-40 ± 14 and -73 ± 26 bpm at 5 and 15 min, respectively, vs -180 ± 20 bpm for the control and hypotension (-11 ± 4 and -14 ± 4 mmHg, vs -40 ± 9 mmHg for the control elicited by 5-HT. Baclofen (12.5 pmol/50 nl, N = 7 into the NTS also increased basal MAP, but did not change basal HR, bradycardia or hypotension in response to 5-HT injections. Atropine methyl bromide (1 mg/kg body weight injected iv reduced the bradycardic and hypotensive responses to 5-HT injections. The stimulation of GABA A receptors in the NTS of awake rats elicits a significant increase in basal MAP and decreases the cardiac Bezold-Jarisch reflex responses to iv 5-HT injections.

  15. Neuroplasticity to a Single-episode Traumatic Stress Revealed by Resting-state fMRI in Awake Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhifeng; King, Jean; Zhang, Nanyin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence has suggested that the brain structures of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala (AMYG) are implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. However, little is known with respect to the system-level adaptation of their neural circuitries to the perturbations of traumatic stressors. By utilizing behavioral tests and an awake animal imaging approach, in the present study we non-invasively investigated the impact of single-episode predator odor expos...

  16. Antagonism of glutamate receptors in the intermediate and caudal NTS of awake rats produced no changes in the hypertensive response to chemoreflex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Benedito H; Bonagamba, Leni G H

    2005-01-15

    The role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component of the chemoreflex (pressor response) in the intermediate and caudal aspects of the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of awake rats was evaluated. Microinjection of kynurenic acid, a non-selective antagonist of EAA receptors, into the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS produced a large increase in the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), which may reduce the magnitude of the pressor response to chemoreflex activation. To avoid this problem sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was infused (i.v.) after microinjections of kynurenic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) into the NTS, in order to normalize the MAP and then the chemoreflex was activated and the magnitude of the pressor response evaluated. Microinjection of kynurenic acid into the intermediate (bilaterally) and caudal (midline) commissural NTS (n=6) produced a significant increase in baseline MAP (103+/-5 vs. 137+/-6 mm Hg) normalized by SNP infusion (107+/-4 mm Hg) and under this experimental condition the pressor response to chemoreflex activation was not statistically different in relation to the control (37+/-7 vs. 44+/-6 mm Hg). Bilateral microinjections of kynurenic acid into the caudal NTS (n=8) also produced a significant increase in baseline MAP (109+/-4 vs. 145+/-6 mm Hg) normalized by SNP infusion (109+/-6 mm Hg). After normalization of MAP, the pressor response to chemoreflex activation at 3 (34+/-6 mm Hg) and 10 min (37+/-6 mm Hg) was also not different in relation to the control (46+/-5 mm Hg). These data indicate that the antagonism of EAA receptors simultaneously in the intermediate (bilateral) and caudal (midline) commissural NTS or only in the caudal commissural NTS (bilateral) of awake rats had no effect on the hypertensive response to chemoreflex activation. We suggest that neurotransmitter other than l-glutamate may take part in the neurotransmission of the sympathoexcitatory component

  17. Integrated wireless fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recording and electrical stimulation for reward-predictive learning in awake, freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Ting; Wickens, Jeffery R.; Huang, Yi-Ling; Pan, Wynn H. T.; Chen, Fu-Yu Beverly; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is commonly used to monitor phasic dopamine release, which is usually performed using tethered recording and for limited types of animal behavior. It is necessary to design a wireless dopamine sensing system for animal behavior experiments. Approach. This study integrates a wireless FSCV system for monitoring the dopamine signal in the ventral striatum with an electrical stimulator that induces biphasic current to excite dopaminergic neurons in awake freely moving rats. The measured dopamine signals are unidirectionally transmitted from the wireless FSCV module to the host unit. To reduce electrical artifacts, an optocoupler and a separate power are applied to isolate the FSCV system and electrical stimulator, which can be activated by an infrared controller. Main results. In the validation test, the wireless backpack system has similar performance in comparison with a conventional wired system and it does not significantly affect the locomotor activity of the rat. In the cocaine administration test, the maximum electrically elicited dopamine signals increased to around 230% of the initial value 20 min after the injection of 10 mg kg-1 cocaine. In a classical conditioning test, the dopamine signal in response to a cue increased to around 60 nM over 50 successive trials while the electrically evoked dopamine concentration decreased from about 90 to 50 nM in the maintenance phase. In contrast, the cue-evoked dopamine concentration progressively decreased and the electrically evoked dopamine was eliminated during the extinction phase. In the histological evaluation, there was little damage to brain tissue after five months chronic implantation of the stimulating electrode. Significance. We have developed an integrated wireless voltammetry system for measuring dopamine concentration and providing electrical stimulation. The developed wireless FSCV system is proven to be a useful experimental tool for the continuous

  18. Fos-like protein is induced in neurons of the medulla oblongata after stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve in awake and anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J T; Millhorn, D E

    1991-12-13

    The protooncogene c-fos is expressed rapidly, transiently and polysynaptically within neurons in response to synaptic activation and voltage-gated calcium entry into the cell. The nuclear protein product of this gene (Fos) is detectable immunohistochemically 20-90 min after cell activation and remains within the nucleus for hours after expression. The present study was undertaken to identify cells within the rat medulla oblongata that express Fos-like protein in response to stimulation of afferent fibers of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN). Direct electrical stimulation of the CSN in anesthetized animals or hypoxic stimulation in either anesthetized or awake animals resulted in a consistent and discrete distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI). Fos-LI was observed bilaterally within nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), within area postrema and nucleus raphe pallidus, and bilaterally along the ventral medullary surface. Unstimulated animals were devoid of Fos-LI within the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, neither the surgical preparations alone nor the effects of anesthesia could account for the extent of Fos-LI observed. We believe these cells represent second- and higher-order neurons within the baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex pathways. PMID:1815818

  19. Inhibitory modulation of chemoreflex bradycardia by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus is mediated by 5-HT3 receptors in the NTS of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissheimer, Karin Viana; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-03-30

    Several studies demonstrated the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its different receptor subtypes in the modulation of neurotransmission of cardiovascular reflexes in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Moreover, anatomic evidence suggests that nucleus raphe obscurus (ROb) is a source of 5-HT-containing terminals within the NTS. In the present study we investigated the possible changes in the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by potassium cyanide (KCN, i.v.) following ROb stimulation with L-glutamate (10 nmol/50 nL) and also whether 5-HT3 receptors in the caudal commissural NTS are involved in this neuromodulation. The results showed that stimulation of the ROb with L-glutamate in awake rats (n=15) produced a significant reduction in the bradycardic response 30 s after the microinjection (-182+/-19 vs -236+/-10 bpm; Wilcoxon test) but no changes in the pressor response to peripheral chemoreceptor activation (43+/-4 vs 51+/-3 mmHg; two-way ANOVA) in relation to the control. Microinjection of 5--HT3 receptors antagonist granisetron (500 pmol/50 nL), but not the vehicle, into the caudal commissural NTS bilaterally prevented the reduction of chemoreflex bradycardia in response to microinjection of L-glutamate into ROb. These data indicate that 5-HT-containing projections from ROb to the NTS play an inhibitory neuromodulatory role in the chemoreflex evoked bradycardia by releasing 5-HT and activating 5-HT3 receptors in the caudal NTS.

  20. Ex vivo evaluation of the serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist [³H]CUMI-101 in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Underwood, Mark D; Kumar, Dileep J S;

    2011-01-01

    -DL-phenylalanine, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, did not show any effect on the standardized uptake values (SUVs) in any region. Citalopram did alter SBR, but this was due to changes in cerebellar SUVs. Our results indicate that [³H]CUMI-101 is a good radioligand for imaging 5-HT(1A) high-density regions in rats; however...

  1. Taste coding of complex naturalistic taste stimuli and traditional taste stimuli in the parabrachial pons of the awake, freely licking rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that taste-responsive cells in the brainstem taste nuclei of rodents respond to sensory qualities other than gustation. Such data suggest that cells in the classical gustatory brainstem may be better tuned to respond to stimuli that engage multiple sensory modalities than to stimuli that are purely gustatory. Here, we test this idea by recording the electrophysiological responses to complex, naturalistic stimuli in single neurons in the parabrachial pons (PbN, the second neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Following electrode implantation and recovery, we presented both prototypical and naturalistic taste stimuli and recorded the responses in the PbN. Prototypical taste stimuli (NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and caffeine) and naturalistic stimuli (clam juice, grape juice, lemon juice, and coffee) were matched for taste quality and intensity (concentration). Umami (monosodium glutamate + inosine monophosphate) and fat (diluted heavy cream) were also tested. PbN neurons responded to naturalistic stimuli as much or more than to prototypical taste stimuli. Furthermore, they convey more information about naturalistic stimuli than about prototypical ones. Moreover, multidimensional scaling analyses showed that across unit responses to naturalistic stimuli were more widely separated than responses to prototypical taste stimuli. Interestingly, cream evoked a robust and widespread response in PbN cells. Collectively, these data suggest that natural foods are more potent stimulators of PbN cells than purely gustatory stimuli. Probing PbN cells with pure taste stimuli may underestimate the response repertoire of these cells.

  2. Taste coding of complex naturalistic taste stimuli and traditional taste stimuli in the parabrachial pons of the awake, freely licking rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that taste-responsive cells in the brainstem taste nuclei of rodents respond to sensory qualities other than gustation. Such data suggest that cells in the classical gustatory brainstem may be better tuned to respond to stimuli that engage multiple sensory modalities than to stimuli that are purely gustatory. Here, we test this idea by recording the electrophysiological responses to complex, naturalistic stimuli in single neurons in the parabrachial pons (PbN, the second neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Following electrode implantation and recovery, we presented both prototypical and naturalistic taste stimuli and recorded the responses in the PbN. Prototypical taste stimuli (NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and caffeine) and naturalistic stimuli (clam juice, grape juice, lemon juice, and coffee) were matched for taste quality and intensity (concentration). Umami (monosodium glutamate + inosine monophosphate) and fat (diluted heavy cream) were also tested. PbN neurons responded to naturalistic stimuli as much or more than to prototypical taste stimuli. Furthermore, they convey more information about naturalistic stimuli than about prototypical ones. Moreover, multidimensional scaling analyses showed that across unit responses to naturalistic stimuli were more widely separated than responses to prototypical taste stimuli. Interestingly, cream evoked a robust and widespread response in PbN cells. Collectively, these data suggest that natural foods are more potent stimulators of PbN cells than purely gustatory stimuli. Probing PbN cells with pure taste stimuli may underestimate the response repertoire of these cells. PMID:27121585

  3. Methamphetamine, morphine, and their combination: acute changes in striatal dopaminergic transmission evaluated by microdialysis in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Frederico C; Lourenço, Elita; Milhazes, Nuno; Morgadinho, Teresa; Ribeiro, Carlos F; Ali, Syed F; Macedo, Tice R

    2006-08-01

    The co-administration of methamphetamine (METH) and MOR (MOR)-like compounds is becoming increasingly popular among drug abusers. Recently, it was demonstrated that rats would self-inject METH-heroin combination and that this combination produced a greater rewarding effect than the identical doses of METH alone and it was further suggested that enhanced reward might underlie the popularity of this combination. However, there is null information on the effects of the MOR-METH combination on striatal dopaminergic transmission. In the present article, in vivo brain microdialysis was used to examine the effects of two METH doses (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.; [METH1: hyperlocomotion-inducing] and [METH5: stereotypy-inducing], respectively) and MOR (10 mg/kg, i.p. [MOR10]) either alone or in combination on dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in caudate putamen (CPu) in freely moving rats. METH1 evoked a transient threefold increase in DA overflow in only one-third of dosed rats. On the contrary, METH5 elicited a 11-fold increase in the extracellular DA levels 30 min after dosing and stayed significantly (P < 0.05) above control levels up to 1.5 h. On the other hand, MOR10 did not significantly change DA extracellular levels. MOR10-METH1 combination prolonged DA outflow for 1 h in all rats dosed without changing peak effect compared to METH1. On the other hand, MOR10-METH5 combination did not change the peak effect nor the DA outflow profile compared to METH5 alone. Consistently, there is a concentration-dependent decrease in DOPAC efflux evoked by METH: METH1 evoked a smaller decrease in DOPAC outflow showing a tendency for returning to basal values whereas METH5 kept DOPAC extracellular levels reduced throughout the experiment. Again, MOR10 did not significantly change DOPAC extracellular levels. MOR delayed the onset without changing METH effect on the DOPAC output. These findings provide suggestive evidence that MOR potentiated the increase in

  4. Ex vivo evaluation of the serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist [³H]CUMI-101 in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Underwood, Mark D; Kumar, Dileep J S;

    2011-01-01

    -DL-phenylalanine, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, did not show any effect on the standardized uptake values (SUVs) in any region. Citalopram did alter SBR, but this was due to changes in cerebellar SUVs. Our results indicate that [³H]CUMI-101 is a good radioligand for imaging 5-HT(1A) high-density regions in rats; however...... different challenge paradigms. [³H]CUMI-101 shows good uptake and good specific binding ratio (SBR) in frontal cortex 5.18 and in hippocampus 3.18. Binding was inhibited in a one-binding-site fashion by WAY100635 and unlabeled CUMI-101. The ex vivo B(max) of [³H]CUMI-101 in frontal cortex (98.7 fmol....../mg) and hippocampus (131 fmol/kg) agree with the ex vivo B(max) of [³H]MPPF in frontal cortex (147.1 fmol/mg) and hippocampus (72.1 fmol/mg) and with in vitro values reported with 8-OH-DPAT. Challenges with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, and 4-chloro...

  5. Stimulation of Perforant Path Fibers Induces LTP Concurrently in Amygdala and Hippocampus in Awake Freely Behaving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harry Blaise

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP which has long been considered a cellular model for learning and memory is defined as a lasting enhancement in synaptic transmission efficacy. This cellular mechanism has been demonstrated reliably in the hippocampus and the amygdala—two limbic structures implicated in learning and memory. Earlier studies reported on the ability of cortical stimulation of the entorhinal cortex to induce LTP simultaneously in the two sites. However, to retain a stable baseline of comparison with the majority of the LTP literature, it is important to investigate the ability of fiber stimulation such as perforant path activation to induce LTP concurrently in both structures. Therefore, in this paper we report on concurrent LTP in the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the dentate gyrus (DG subfield of the hippocampus induced by theta burst stimulation of perforant path fibers in freely behaving Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results indicate that while perforant path-evoked potentials in both sites exhibit similar triphasic waveforms, the latency and amplitude of BLA responses were significantly shorter and smaller than those of DG. In addition, we observed no significant differences in either the peak level or the duration of LTP between DG and BLA.

  6. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate and caudal NTS of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Vagner R; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2005-01-25

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the site of integration of the peripheral chemoreceptor afferents in the brainstem. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that microinjection of ATP into the intermediate NTS produced increases in arterial pressure and bradycardia. In the present study, we evaluated the hemodynamic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS. In the same group of rats the responses were compared with cardiorespiratory responses to chemoreflex activation (KCN, i.v.). The data show that microinjection of ATP into the intermediate NTS produced pressor and bradycardic responses similar to those observed in response to chemoreflex activation but apnoea instead of tachypnoea. Microinjection of ATP into caudal commissural NTS produced increase in arterial pressure and tachypnoea similar to the chemoreflex but a minor bradycardia. The data show that microinjection of ATP into different sub-regions of the NTS produces a diverse pattern of hemodynamic and respiratory responses and suggest the involvement of this purine in the neurotransmission of the cardiovascular reflex in the NTS.

  7. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 abolishes pitch-mediated deviance detection in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva eDigavalli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients exhibit a decreased ability to detect change in their auditory environment as measured by auditory event related potentials such as mismatch negativity. This deficit has been linked to abnormal NMDA neurotransmission since, among other observations, non-selective channel blockers of NMDA reliably diminish deviance detection in human subjects as well as in animal models. Recent molecular and functional evidence link NR2B receptor subtype to aberrant NMDA transmission in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if NR2B receptors participate in pre-attentive deviance detection. We recorded event related potentials from the vertex of freely behaving rats in response to frequency mismatch protocols. We saw a robust increase in N1 response to deviants compared to standard as well as control stimuli indicating true deviance detection. Moreover, the increased negativity was highly sensitive to deviant probability. Next, we tested the effect of a non-selective NMDA channel blocker (ketamine, 30 mg/kg and a highly selective NR2B antagonist, CP-101,606 (10 or 30 mg/kg on deviance detection. Ketamine attenuated deviance mainly by increasing the amplitude of the standard ERP. Amplitude and/or latency of several ERP components were also markedly affected. In contrast, CP-101,606 robustly and dose-dependently inhibited the deviant’s N1 amplitude and as a consequence, completely abolished deviance detection. No other ERPs or components were affected. Thus, we report first evidence that NR2B receptors robustly participate in processes of automatic deviance detection in a rodent model. Lastly, our model demonstrates a path forward to test specific pharmacological hypotheses using translational endpoints relevant to aberrant sensory processing in schizophrenia.

  8. An array of highly flexible electrodes with a tailored configuration locked by gelatin during implantation – initial evaluation in cortex cerebri of awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eAgorelius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the field of neural interfaces is to overcome the problem of poor stability of neuronal recordings, which impedes long-term studies of individual neurons in the brain. Conceivably, unstable recordings reflect relative movements between electrode and tissue. To address this challenge, we have developed a new ultra-flexible electrode array and evaluated its performance in awake non-restrained animals.MethodsAn array of eight separated gold leads (4 x10 μm, individually flexible in 3D, were cut from a gold sheet using laser milling and insulated with Parylene C. To provide structural support during implantation into rat cortex, the electrode array was embedded in a hard gelatin based material, which dissolves after implantation. Recordings were made during 3 weeks. At termination, the animals were perfused with fixative and frozen to prevent dislocation of the implanted electrodes. A thick slice of brain tissue, with the electrode array still in situ, was made transparent using methyl salicylate to evaluate the conformation of the implanted electrode array.ResultsMedian noise levels and signal/noise remained relatively stable during the 3 week observation period; 4.3 μV to 5.9 μV and 2.8 to 4.2, respectively. The spike amplitudes were often quite stable within recording sessions and for 15% of recordings where single-units were identified, the highest-SNR unit had an amplitude higher than 150 V. In addition, high correlations (>0.96 between unit waveforms recorded at different time points were obtained for 58% of the electrode sites. The structure of the electrode array was well preserved 3 weeks after implantation.Conclusions A new implantable multichannel neural interface, comprising electrodes individually flexible in 3D that retain its architecture and functionality after implantation has been developed. Since the new neural interface design is adaptable, it offers a versatile tool to explore the function of various

  9. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Attari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with left-sided body hypoesthesia since last 3 months and a 25-year-old with severe headache of 1 month duration were operated under craniotomy for brain tumors resection. An awake craniotomy was planned to allow maximum tumor intraoperative testing for resection and neurologic morbidity avoidance. The method of anesthesia should offer sufficient analgesia, hemodynamic stability, sedation, respiratory function, and also awake and cooperative patient for different neurological test. Airway management is the most important part of anesthesia during awake craniotomy. Tumor surgery with awake craniotomy is a safe technique that allows maximal resection of lesions in close relationship to eloquent cortex and has a low risk of neurological deficit.

  10. Awake operative videothoracoscopic pulmonary resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Eugenio; Mineo, Tommaso C

    2008-08-01

    The authors' initial experience with awake videothoracoscopic lung resection suggests that these procedures can be easily and safely performed under sole thoracic epidural anesthesia with no mortality and negligible morbidity. One major concern was that operating on a ventilating lung would render surgical maneuvers more difficult because of the lung movements and lack of a sufficient operating space. Instead, the open pneumothorax created after trocar insertion produces a satisfactory lung collapse that does not hamper surgical maneuvers. These results contradict the accepted assumption that the main prerequisite for allowing successful thoracoscopic lung surgery is general anesthesia with one-lung ventilation. No particular training is necessary to accomplish an awake pulmonary resection for teams experienced in thoracoscopic surgery, and conversions to general anesthesia are mainly caused by the presence of extensive fibrous pleural adhesions or the development of intractable panic attacks. Overall, awake pulmonary resection is easily accepted and well tolerated by patients, as confirmed by the high anesthesia satisfaction score, which was better than in nonawake control patients. Nonetheless, thoracic epidural anesthesia has potential complications, including epidural hematoma, spinal cord injury, and phrenic nerve palsy caused by inadvertently high anesthetic level, but these never occurred in the authors' experience. Further concerns relate to patient participation in operating room conversations or risk for development of perioperative panic attacks. However, the authors have found that reassuring the patient during the procedure, explaining step-by-step what is being performed, and even showing the ongoing procedure on the operating video can greatly improve the perioperative wellness and expectations of patients, particularly if the procedure is performed for oncologic diseases. Panic attacks occurred in few patients and could be usually managed through

  11. Awake fiberoptic or awake video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Thøgersen, Bente; Afshari, Arash;

    2012-01-01

    Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation (FFI) is the gold standard for management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to compare awake FFI to awake McGrath® video laryngoscope, (MVL), (Aircraft Medical, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom) intubation in patients...

  12. Blockade of NK-1 receptors in the lateral commissural nucleus tractus solitarii of awake rats had no effect on the cardiovascular responses to chemoreflex activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmission of the chemoreflex in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS, particularly of the sympatho-excitatory component, is not completely understood. There is evidence that substance P may play a role in the neurotransmission of the chemoreflex in the NTS. Microinjection of substance P (50 pmol/50 nl, N = 12, and 5 nmol/50 nl, N = 8 into the commissural NTS of unanesthetized rats produced a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (101 ± 1 vs 108 ± 2 and 107 ± 3 vs 115 ± 4 mmHg, respectively and no significant changes in heart rate (328 ± 11 vs 347 ± 15 and 332 ± 7 vs 349 ± 13 bpm, respectively 2 min after microinjection. Previous treatment with WIN, an NK-1 receptor antagonist (2.5 nmol/50 nl, microinjected into the NTS of a specific group of rats, blocked the pressor (11 ± 5 vs 1 ± 2 mmHg and tachycardic (31 ± 6 vs 4 ± 3 bpm responses to substance P (50 pmol/50 nl, N = 5 observed 10 min after microinjection. Bilateral microinjection of WIN into the lateral commissural NTS (N = 8 had no significant effect on the pressor (50 ± 4 vs 42 ± 6 mmHg or bradycardic (-230 ± 16 vs -220 ± 36 bpm responses to chemoreflex activation with potassium cyanide (iv. These data indicate that the activation of NK-1 receptors by substance P in the NTS produces an increase in baseline mean arterial pressure and heart rate. However, the data obtained with WIN suggest that substance P and NK-1 receptors do not play a major role in the neurotransmission of the chemoreflex in the lateral commissural NTS.

  13. High temporal resolution for in vivo monitoring of neurotransmitters in awake epileptic rats using brain microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Sandrine; Sauvinet, Valérie; Riban, Véronique; Depaulis, Antoine; Renaud, Bernard; Denoroy, Luc

    2004-12-30

    A method for high temporal resolution monitoring of five neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), l-aspartate (L-Asp), in freely-moving rats using microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIFD) was developed. An on-line device, including microdialysis and derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde, mixes the dialysate with derivatization reagents directly in the collection tube, i.e. with no reactor. Thereafter, collected derivatized samples are analyzed off-line with an automated CE system coupled to a LIFD using a 442 nm excitation. The sampling time was limited by the minimal volume required for the analysis by the automated CE system used: neurotransmitters could be determined in 667 nl dialysates (940 nl after derivatization), i.e. in samples collected every 20 s with a flow rate of 2 microl/min. The detection limits at the dialysis probe were 3 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-9), 1.9 x 10(-8), 4.2 x 10(-7), 2.1 x 10(-7) mol/l for DA, NA, GABA, Glu and L-Asp, respectively. The protocol was validated using in vitro/in vivo tests and the performances--repeatability, linearity, characteristics of the probes--were determined. Finally, the high temporal resolution allowed the simultaneous monitoring of these neurotransmitters in rats with genetic absence epilepsy and revealed, for the first time, increases in GABA concentrations concomitantly with the seizures, detected when our new microdialysis method was combined to electroencephalographic recordings.

  14. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance in vivo spectroscopy of the metabolic changes induced in the awake rat brain during KCN intoxication and its reversal by hydroxocobalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabid, A L; Decorps, M; Remy, C; Le Bas, J F; Confort, S; Leviel, J L

    1987-03-01

    Radiofrequency surface coils were chronically implanted in rats, which were subsequently subjected to 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations at 4.7 T. The implanted coil allowed study of the animals without need for anesthesia, which is a prerequisite for studies of normal brain metabolism. The animals may be kept in the NMR probe for several hours. During subsequent experiments, they may be placed in the same position, therefore allowing follow-up studies for periods as long as 2 months. This method has been used in the study of sublethal KCN intoxication. KCN, a cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, induces a blockade of cell respiratory processes, which is reflected, in a dose-dependent manner, by a decrease in phosphocreatine content and pH and an increase in inorganic phosphate content, whereas ATP levels remain constant until high doses of KCN (6 mg/kg i.p.) are reached. 31P NMR allows the time course of these metabolic changes to be followed. For high KCN doses, a new peak, termed X, is observed, which is interpreted as being due to a pool of inorganic phosphate at very low pH (5.65), corresponding to a subset of cells that did not survive KCN injury. Hydroxocobalamine, a specific antidote of KCN, suppresses the metabolic changes due to 6 mg/kg of KCN. PMID:3027259

  15. [The role of non-NMDA glutamate receptors in the EEG effects of chronic administration of noopept GVS-111 in awake rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, G I; Vorob'ev, V V

    2002-01-01

    Participation of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor subtype in the formation of the EEG frequency spectrum was studied in wakeful rats upon a long-term (10 x 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) administration of the nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 (noopept or N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethylate). The EEGs were measured with electrodes implanted into somatosensor cortex regions, hippocampus, and a cannula in the lateral ventricle. The acute reactions (characteristic of nootropes) in the alpha and beta ranges of EEG exhibited inversion after the 6th injection of noopept and almost completely vanished after the 9th injection. Preliminary introduction of the non-NMDA antagonist GDEE (glutamic acid diethyl ester) in a dose of 1 mumole into the lateral ventricle restored the EEG pattern observed upon the 6th dose of GVS-111. The role of glutamate receptors in the course of a prolonged administration of nootropes, as well as the possible mechanisms accounting for a difference in the action of GVS-111 and piracetam are discussed. PMID:12596524

  16. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance in vivo spectroscopy of the metabolic changes induced in the awake rat brain during KCN intoxication and its reversal by hydroxocobalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabid, A L; Decorps, M; Remy, C; Le Bas, J F; Confort, S; Leviel, J L

    1987-03-01

    Radiofrequency surface coils were chronically implanted in rats, which were subsequently subjected to 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations at 4.7 T. The implanted coil allowed study of the animals without need for anesthesia, which is a prerequisite for studies of normal brain metabolism. The animals may be kept in the NMR probe for several hours. During subsequent experiments, they may be placed in the same position, therefore allowing follow-up studies for periods as long as 2 months. This method has been used in the study of sublethal KCN intoxication. KCN, a cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, induces a blockade of cell respiratory processes, which is reflected, in a dose-dependent manner, by a decrease in phosphocreatine content and pH and an increase in inorganic phosphate content, whereas ATP levels remain constant until high doses of KCN (6 mg/kg i.p.) are reached. 31P NMR allows the time course of these metabolic changes to be followed. For high KCN doses, a new peak, termed X, is observed, which is interpreted as being due to a pool of inorganic phosphate at very low pH (5.65), corresponding to a subset of cells that did not survive KCN injury. Hydroxocobalamine, a specific antidote of KCN, suppresses the metabolic changes due to 6 mg/kg of KCN.

  17. In vivo portal-hepatic venous gradients of glycogenic precursors and incorporation of D-(3- sup 3 H)glucose into liver glycogen in the awake rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, G.P.; Veech, R.L.; Passonneau, J.V.; Huang, M.T. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1990-09-25

    Male Wistar fed rats were chronically cannulated and fed ground chow for 2 h for 6 days. On the 7th post-operative day, blood was simultaneously drawn from the portal and hepatic veins over a 2-h feeding period. The position of the hepatic vein cannula was verified using a tritiated water washout technique. In separate experiments, 200 microCi of (3-3H)glucose was added to the food in order to determine the contribution of D-glucose and 3-C precursors to newly synthesized glycogen. The 22-h fasting plasma portal vein concentrations of D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine were 4.8 +/- 0.03, 0.81 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively (n = 5). The fasting hepatic vein plasma concentrations were 5.1 +/- 0.2, 0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.19 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively. The portal-hepatic vein gradients after 22 h were -0.24, +0.16, and +0.01 mM for D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine, respectively. At 20 min after beginning the meal, the respective gradients were +2.2, +0.53, and +0.44 mM, indicating hepatic uptake of all glycogen precursors. Of the total carbon from the three major precursors entering the liver as C-6, D-glucose contributed 82%, while alanine and lactate contributed 18% at 20 min. As portal vein D-glucose and L-alanine levels exceeded 6.65 +/- 0.69 and 0.32 +/- 0.07 mM, respectively, the portal-hepatic venous gradient became positive and increased linearly with portal concentrations. The glycogen concentration in the liver increased from a 22-h fast value of 5 mumol of glucosyl units/g wet weight to 101 +/- 7 mumol/g 2 h after the meal. The mean specific activity of portal vein plasma of (3-3H)glucose was 11,490 +/- 1,180 dpm/mumol (+/- S.E.) and that in the glycogen isolated from liver was 8,175 +/- 785 dpm/mumol of glycosyl units 2 h after the meal. The specific activity of liver (3H)glycogen relative to glucose after the meal was 0.73 +/- 0.08.

  18. AWAKE starts the equipment installation phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    AWAKE is the proof-of-principle experiment whose aim is to use protons to generate powerful wakefields to accelerate an electron beam. With accelerator gradients hundreds of times higher than those used in current systems, this technique could revolutionise the field of particle acceleration. Installed in the tunnel previously used by the CNGS facility, AWAKE is completing the service installation phase and will receive the plasma cell in the coming months.   The AWAKE proton line with all the magnets installed. (Image: AWAKE collaboration.) AWAKE is the world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. In AWAKE, a beam of protons from the SPS will be travelling through a plasma cell and this will generate a wakefield that, in turn, will accelerate an electron beam. A laser will ionise the gas in the plasma cell and seed the self-modulation instability that will trigger the wakefield in the plasma. The project aims to prove that the plasma wakefield can be driv...

  19. The asleep-awake technique using propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia for awake craniotomy for cerebral tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2008-01-01

    to obtain a tight laryngeal mask. All of the 23 patients were awake as from when the mapping session began and throughout the rest of the operation. In five cases the resection of the tumour was modified as symptoms emerged. These symptoms all subsided in due course. No case of hypoxia was recorded....... In no case the respiratory rate was below 10 breaths min(-1) in the awake period. Complications were comparable to other studies. The patients in the present study were all satisfied with the method. Conclusions: Different methods of anaesthesia have been described, but no method has been shown......Background and objective: We retrospectively reviewed the first 25 planned cases of awake craniotomies using the 'asleep-awake' technique, an alternative to the often-used 'asleep-awake-asleep' technique. Methods: The patients were anaesthetized using propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia, a laryngeal...

  20. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. PMID:23562621

  1. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  2. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet

  3. AWAKE: Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E

    2014-01-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is a promising alternative reaching accelerating fields a magnitude of up to 3 higher (GV/m) when compared to conventional RF acceleration. AWAKE, world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield experiment, was launched at CERN to verify this concept. In this experiment proton bunches at 400 GeV/c will be extracted from the CERN SPS and sent to the plasma cell, where the proton beam drives the plasma wakefields and creates a large accelerating field. This large gradient of ~GV/m can be achieved by relying on the self-modulation instability (SMI) of the proton beam; when seeded by ionization through a short laser pulse, a train of micro-bunches with a period on the order of the plasma wavelength (~mm) develops, which can drive such a large amplitude wake from a long proton bunch (~12 cm). An electron beam will be injected into the plasma to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment is being installed at CERN in the former CNGS facility, which must be modified to mat...

  4. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability - a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in Gschwendtner et al. [1].

  5. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, A; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability --- a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in [1].

  6. 5-aminolevulinic acid guidance during awake craniotomy to maximise extent of safe resection of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Robert; Mukherjee, Soumya; Johansen, Anja; Sivakumar, Gnanamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Overall survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been consistently shown to improve when the surgeon achieves a gross total resection of the tumour. It has also been demonstrated that surgical adjuncts such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence--which delineates malignant tumour tissue--normal brain tissue margin seen using violet-blue excitation under an operating microscope--helps achieve this. We describe the case of a patient with recurrent left frontal GBM encroaching on Broca's area (eloquent brain). Gross total resection of the tumour was achieved by combining two techniques, awake resection to prevent damage to eloquent brain and 5-ALA fluorescence guidance to maximise the extent of tumour resection.This technique led to gross total resection of all T1-enhancing tumour with the avoidance of neurological deficit. The authors recommend this technique in patients when awake surgery can be tolerated and gross total resection is the aim of surgery. PMID:26177997

  7. Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Herskin, Mette S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Porcine skin exhibits a high degree of homology to human skin, and the pig has recently been used as a cutaneous pain model. However, before the full potential of this novel in vivo cutaneous pain model can be achieved, several methodological aspects related to the management of awake...... animal studies in a large species require further examination. This manuscript describes the initial development of a porcine model of cutaneous nociception and focuses on interactions between the sensory modality, body size and the anatomical location of the stimulation site. METHODS: Pigs of different...... body sizes (30 and 60 kg) were exposed to thermal (CO(2) laser) and mechanical (pressure application measurement device) stimulations to the flank and the hind legs in a balanced order. The median response latency and the type of behavioural response were recorded. RESULTS: Small pigs exhibited...

  8. CERN AWAKE Facility Readiness for First Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Butterworth, Andrew; Damerau, Heiko; Döbert, Steffen; Fedosseev, Valentin; Feldbaumer, Eduard; Gschwendtner, Edda; Höfle, Wolfgang; Pardons, Ans; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Vincke, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN was approved in August 2013 and since then a big effort was made to be able to probe the acceleration of electrons before the "2019-2020 Long Shutdown". The next steps in this challenging schedule will be a dry run of all the beam line systems, at the end of the HW commissioning in June 2016, and the first proton beam sent to the plasma cell one month later. The current status of the project is presented together with an outlook over the foreseen works for operation with electrons in 2018.

  9. Anaesthesia for awake craniotomy is safe and well-tolerated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    Awake craniotomy for tumour resection has been performed at Glostrup Hospital since 2004. We describe and discuss the various anaesthetic approaches for such surgery and retrospectively analyse the 44 planned awake craniotomies performed at Glostrup Hospital. The surgery falls into four phases: c...

  10. Preparing to perform an awake fiberoptic intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, M E

    2012-02-03

    Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can\\'t intubate, can\\'t ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased.

  11. Calculation of Theta Wave Direction Using Adaptive Beamforming in the Hippocampus of Awake Rats%清醒大鼠海马内theta波的自适应波束形成定向计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢康宁; 刘娟; 田越; 罗二平; 郑丽娟; 申广浩; 吴小明; 闫一力; 汤池; 孙涛

    2012-01-01

    To study the traveling pattern of theta wave in hippocampus of rats using beamforming method. Methods: Micro-wire electrodes in 8x2 array were implanted in 5 rats. An adaptive beamforming algorithm was utilized to calculate the direction of arrival (DO A) of theta wave, recorded from a neural signal recording system, relative to the linear array of recording electrodes when the rats were at rest, running and climbing. A video camera was applied to monitor the rats' activities. Results: When the rats were at rest, there was no theta rhythm; when the rats were moving, theta rhythms were apparent and the corresponding DO As were stable. This study provides additional evidence to the recent finding that theta wave is traveling inside hippocampus, and introduces the beamforming algorithm to the biological study of rats' brain. Conclusions: The proposed DOA method which has been widely used in radar and sonar may help locate the electrode in implantation surgery.%目的:利用波速形成算法研究大鼠海马中theta波的传播规律.方法:探讨了自适应波速形成算法在大鼠场电位中的应用.选取了5只大鼠,在大鼠的海马中植入8×2阵列的微丝电极阵列,训练大鼠做静止、跑动、攀爬等动作,利用视屏跟踪系统监视大鼠活动,神经信号记录仪记录大鼠的海马神经元放电和场电位,利用自适应波束形成算法分析theta波对记录电极的到达角.结果:在大鼠静止时无theta波,运动时存在明显的theta波,其传播角度保持稳定.本研究确认了theta波在海马中以行波的方式传播,传播的角度可以通过波束形成算法计算.结论:通过应用在雷达和声纳技术广泛使用的波束形成算法,能够简便的计算theta波相对于电极阵列的到达角,可能为手术电极定位提供辅助.

  12. Anesthesia management of awake craniotomy performed under asleep-awake-asleep technique using laryngeal mask airway: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitthal Shrinivas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asleep-awake-asleep technique of anesthesia is used during awake craniotomy with or without securing airway. We assessed this technique using laryngeal mask airway (LMA in two patients. Patients underwent awake craniotomy for epilepsy surgery and the removal of a frontotemporal glioma. After anesthesia induction, airway was secured using LMA. Anesthesia was maintained using oxygen, nitrous oxide and sevoflurane, supplemented with an infusion of propofol and remifentanil. Twenty minutes before corticography, anesthesia was discontinued and LMA removed. Both patients were awake and cooperative during the neurological assessment and surgery on eloquent areas. The LMA was reinserted before the closure of the dura and remained in place until the end of surgery. Both patients had no recall of events under anesthesia, although experienced mild pain and discomfort during awake phase of surgery. Both expressed complete satisfaction over the anesthetic management. Asleep-awake-asleep technique using LMA offers airway protection. The painful aspect of surgery can be performed under anesthesia, hence minimizing the duration of stress and pain. Patients remained awake and cooperative throughout the time of neurological testing.

  13. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Justin S.; Endres, Christopher J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Jung, Hyeyun; Goddard, James S.; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Smith, Mark F.; Stolin, Alexander V.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques.

  14. Real-Time Dopamine Measurement in Awake Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Schluter, Erik W.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electr...

  15. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Ming-yuan; Geng,Ying; Wang, Gang; HAN Ru-quan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC). Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic) undergoing general anesthesia (GA) in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigat...

  16. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Endres, Christopher J. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Foss, Catherine A. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Goddard, James S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lee, Seung Joon [JLAB; McKisson, John [JLAB; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland; Stolin, Alexander V. [West Virginia University; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Pomper, Martin G. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a ^99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, ^99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand ^123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of ^123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Endres, Christopher [Johns Hopkins University; Foss, Catherine [Johns Hopkins University; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins University; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins University; Goddard Jr, James Samuel [ORNL; Lee, Seung Joon [Jefferson Lab; McKisson, John [Jefferson Lab; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, The, Baltimore, MD; Stolin, Alexander [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Jefferson Lab; Pomper, Martin [Johns Hopkins University

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  18. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Justin S.; Endres, Christopher J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Jung, Hyeyun; Goddard, James S.; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Smith, Mark F.; Stolin, Alexander V.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake. PMID:23536223

  19. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Marie Belcher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to achieve a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or hubs, and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains functional connectivity hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2, higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM], posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31, thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a. lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain’s network topology.

  20. Investigation of cross-species translatability of pharmacological MRI in awake nonhuman primate - a buprenorphine challenge study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Seah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacological MRI (phMRI is a neuroimaging technique where drug-induced hemodynamic responses can represent a pharmacodynamic biomarker to delineate underlying biological consequences of drug actions. In most preclinical studies, animals are anesthetized during image acquisition to minimize movement. However, it has been demonstrated anesthesia could attenuate basal neuronal activity, which can confound interpretation of drug-induced brain activation patterns. Significant efforts have been made to establish awake imaging in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP. Whilst various platforms have been developed for imaging awake NHP, comparison and validation of phMRI data as translational biomarkers across species remain to be explored. METHODOLOGY: We have established an awake NHP imaging model that encompasses comprehensive acclimation procedures with a dedicated animal restrainer. Using a cerebral blood volume (CBV-based phMRI approach, we have determined differential responses of brain activation elicited by the systemic administration of buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg i.v., a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist, in the same animal under awake and anesthetized conditions. Additionally, region-of-interest analyses were performed to determine regional drug-induced CBV time-course data and corresponding area-under-curve (AUC values from brain areas with high density of µ-opioid receptors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In awake NHPs, group-level analyses revealed buprenorphine significantly activated brain regions including, thalamus, striatum, frontal and cingulate cortices (paired t-test, versus saline vehicle, p<0.05, n = 4. This observation is strikingly consistent with µ-opioid receptor distribution depicted by [6-O-[(11C]methyl]buprenorphine ([(11C]BPN positron emission tomography imaging study in baboons. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with previous buprenorphine phMRI studies in humans and conscious rats which collectively

  1. Coding odor identity and odor value in awake rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Li, Anan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, drastic changes in the understanding of the role of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex in odor detection have taken place through awake behaving recording in rodents. It is clear that odor responses in mitral and granule cells are strikingly different in the olfactory bulb of anesthetized versus awake animals. In addition, sniff recording has evidenced that mitral cell responses to odors during the sniff can convey information on the odor identity and sniff phase. Moreover, we review studies that show that the mitral cell conveys information on not only odor identity but also whether the odor is rewarded or not (odor value). Finally, we discuss how the substantial increase in awake behaving recording raises questions for future studies.

  2. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major...

  3. Commissioning Preparation of the AWAKE Proton Beam Line

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Janet; Bracco, Chiara; Goddard, Brennan; Gorbonosov, Roman; Gourber-Pace, Marine; Gschwendtner, Edda; Jensen, Lars; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika

    2016-01-01

    The AWAKE experiment at CERN will use a proton bunch with an momentum of 400 GeV/c from the SPS to drive large amplitude wakefields in a plasma. This will require a ~830 m long transfer line from the SPS to the experiment. The prepa- rations for the beam commissioning of the AWAKE proton transfer line are presented in this paper. They include the detailed planning of the commissioning steps, controls and beam instrumentation specifications as well as operational tools, which are developed for the steering and monitoring of the beam line. The installation of the transfer line has been finished and first beam is planned in summer 2016.

  4. Unassisted blood collection from unanesthetized rats and gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Kelly, Lisa M; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Greg W

    2012-05-21

    Blood collection is a common procedure in animal research. This column describes humane methods of collecting blood from the rat and the gerbil that can be carried out by a single person on an awake animal.

  5. A simple and novel method to monitor breathing and heart rate in awake and urethane-anesthetized newborn rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M Zehendner

    Full Text Available Rodents are most useful models to study physiological and pathophysiological processes in early development, because they are born in a relatively immature state. However, only few techniques are available to monitor non-invasively heart frequency and respiratory rate in neonatal rodents without restraining or hindering access to the animal. Here we describe experimental procedures that allow monitoring of heart frequency by electrocardiography (ECG and breathing rate with a piezoelectric transducer (PZT element without hindering access to the animal. These techniques can be easily installed and are used in the present study in unrestrained awake and anesthetized neonatal C57/Bl6 mice and Wistar rats between postnatal day 0 and 7. In line with previous reports from awake rodents we demonstrate that heart rate in rats and mice increases during the first postnatal week. Respiratory frequency did not differ between both species, but heart rate was significantly higher in mice than in rats. Further our data indicate that urethane, an agent that is widely used for anesthesia, induces a hypoventilation in neonates whilst heart rate remains unaffected at a dose of 1 g per kg body weight. Of note, hypoventilation induced by urethane was not detected in rats at postnatal 0/1. To verify the detected hypoventilation we performed blood gas analyses. We detected a respiratory acidosis reflected by a lower pH and elevated level in CO2 tension (pCO2 in both species upon urethane treatment. Furthermore we found that metabolism of urethane is different in P0/1 mice and rats and between P0/1 and P6/7 in both species. Our findings underline the usefulness of monitoring basic cardio-respiratory parameters in neonates during anesthesia. In addition our study gives information on developmental changes in heart and breathing frequency in newborn mice and rats and the effects of urethane in both species during the first postnatal week.

  6. Indirect self-modulation instability measurement concept for the AWAKE proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M.; Petrenko, A.; Biskup, B.; Burger, S.; Gschwendtner, E.; Lotov, K. V.; Mazzoni, S.; Vincke, H.

    2016-09-01

    AWAKE, the Advanced Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment, is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN using a 400 GeV / c proton beam from the CERN SPS (longitudinal beam size σz = 12 cm) which will be sent into a 10 m long plasma section with a nominal density of ≈ 7 ×1014 atoms /cm3 (plasma wavelength λp = 1.2 mm). In this paper we show that by measuring the time integrated transverse profile of the proton bunch at two locations downstream of the AWAKE plasma, information about the occurrence of the self-modulation instability (SMI) can be inferred. In particular we show that measuring defocused protons with an angle of 1 mrad corresponds to having electric fields in the order of GV/m and fully developed self-modulation of the proton bunch. Additionally, by measuring the defocused beam edge of the self-modulated bunch, information about the growth rate of the instability can be extracted. If hosing instability occurs, it could be detected by measuring a non-uniform defocused beam shape with changing radius. Using a 1 mm thick Chromox scintillation screen for imaging of the self-modulated proton bunch, an edge resolution of 0.6 mm and hence an SMI saturation point resolution of 1.2 m can be achieved.

  7. Feasibility Study of the Awake Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Pardons, A; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H; Velotti, F; Vincke, H

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Wakefield acceleration is a rapidly developing field which appears to be a promising candidate technology for future high-energy accelerators. The Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment has been proposed as an approach to eventually accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy range in a single plasma section. To verify this novel technique, a proof-of-principle demonstration experiment, AWAKE, is proposed using 400 GeV proton bunches from the SPS. Detailed studies on the identification of the best site for the installation of the AWAKE facility resulted in proposing the CNGS facility as best location. Design and integration layouts covering the beam line, the experimental area and all interfaces and services are shown. Among other issues, radiation protection, safety and civil engineering constraints are raised.

  8. Sonographically guided superior laryngeal nerve block during awake fiberoptic intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Andrew; Tang, Raymond; Vaghadia, Himat

    2015-04-15

    We report 5 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block before awake intubation and general anesthesia. We used a 8- to 15-MHz hockey stick-shaped ultrasound transducer (HST15-8/20 linear probe, Ultrasonix) to visualize the superior laryngeal nerve. A 3.8-cm 25-G needle was inserted in real time and directed toward the superior laryngeal nerve followed by circumferential placement of local anesthetic. All 5 patients tolerated subsequent awake fiberoptic intubation with either minimal or no sedation. Sonographically guided superior laryngeal nerve block may be useful in patients where identification of landmarks in the neck is difficult as a result of patient anatomy. PMID:25867195

  9. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  10. Coated minispheres of salmon calcitonin target rat intestinal regions to achieve systemic bioavailability: Comparison between intestinal instillation and oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Aversa, Vincenzo; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J

    2016-09-28

    Achieving oral peptide delivery is an elusive challenge. Emulsion-based minispheres of salmon calcitonin (sCT) were synthesized using single multiple pill (SmPill®) technology incorporating the permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10), or coco-glucoside (CG), or the pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres were coated with an outer layer of Eudragit® L30 D-55 (designed for jejunal release) or Surelease®/Pectin (designed for colonic release). The process was mild and in vitro biological activity of sCT was retained upon release from minispheres stored up to 4months. In vitro release profiles suggested that sCT was released from minispheres by diffusion through coatings due to swelling of gelatin and the polymeric matrix upon contact with PBS at pH6.8. X-ray analysis confirmed that coated minispheres dissolved at the intended intestinal region of rats following oral gavage. Uncoated minispheres at a dose of ~2000I.U.sCT/kg were administered to rats by intra-jejunal (i.j.) or intra-colonic (i.c.) instillation and caused hypocalcaemia. Notable sCT absolute bioavailability (F) values were: 5.5% from minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j), 17.3% with CG (i.c.) and 18.2% with C10 (i.c.). Coated minispheres administered by oral gavage at threefold higher doses also induced hypocalcaemia. A highly competitive F value of 2.7% was obtained for orally-administered sCT-minispheres containing CG (45μmol/kg) and coated with Eudragit®. In conclusion, the SmPill® technology is a potential dosage form for several peptides when formulated with PEs and coated for regional delivery. PK data from instillations over-estimates oral bioavailability and poorly predicts rank ordering of formulations. PMID:27480451

  11. Modeling of an Electron Injector for the AWAKE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, O; Apsimon, R; Burt, G; Doebert, S; Fiorito, R; Welsch, C

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations were performed by using PARMELA to characterise an electron injector with a booster linac for the AWAKE project in order to provide the baseline specifications required by the plasma wakefield experiments. Tolerances and errors were investigated. A 3 GHz travelling wave structure designed by using CST code. Particles were tracked by using the field maps acquired from these electromagnetic simulations. These results are pre- sented in comparison with the generic accelerating structure model within PARMELA.

  12. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Ming-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic undergoing general anesthesia (GA in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigated during telephone follow-ups, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 was adopted to evaluate the life quality of patients. Results Almost 73 pairs of patients fulfilled the survey of AC and GA group respectively. There were 21 patients and 28 patients with postoperative neurological deficits, and 12 patients and 8 patients with psychological disorders in AC and GA group respectively. Thirty patients of AC group had the recollection of being awake during the surgery. There were 9 patients in CA group having long-term ( > 6 months neurological deficits, which was less than the number of GA group (18 patients, P = 0.038. According to the assessment in short-term, medium-term and long-term postoperative neurological deficits, there was no significant difference in the quality-of-life scores between the two groups (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion Awake craniotomy can be the main method for removing the lesions located in or close to functional areas with lower incidence of long?term postoperative neurological deficits, and it has no significant impact on the psychological status and the quality of life postoperatively.

  13. [A Case of Psychogenic Tremor during Awake Craniotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujirai, Kazumasa; Kamata, Kotoe; Uno, Toshihiro; Hamada, Keiko; Ozaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman with a left frontal and parietal brain tumor underwent awake craniotomy. Propofol/remifentanil general anesthesia was induced. Following craniotomy, anesthetic administrations ceased. The level of consciousness was sufficient and she was not agitated. However, the patient complained of nausea 70 minutes into the awake phase. Considering the adverse effects of antiemetics and the upcoming surgical strategy, we did not give any medications. Nausea disappeared spontaneously while the operation was suspended. When surgical intervention extended to the left caudate nucleus, involuntary movement, classified as a tremor, with 5-6 Hz frequency, abruptly occurred on her left forearm. The patient showed emotional distress. Tremor appeared on her right forearm and subsequently spread to her lower extremities. Intravenous midazolam and fentanyl could not reduce her psychological stress. Since the tremor disturbed microscopic observation, general anesthesia was induced. Consequently, the tremor disappeared and did not recur. Based on the anatomical ground and the medication status, her involuntary movement was diagnosed as psychogenic tremor. Various factors can induce involuntary movements. In fact, intraoperative management of nausea and vomiting takes priority during awake craniotomy, but we should be reminded that some antiemetics potentially induce involuntary movement that could be caused by surgery around basal ganglia. PMID:27004392

  14. Real-time dopamine measurement in awake monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W Schluter

    Full Text Available Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc. We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation.

  15. Presurgical Rehearsals for Patients Considering "Awake" Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ramsey A; Rogers, Sean L; Brewer, Cristie M; Piscitani, Franco; Shenai, Mahesh B

    2016-01-01

    Simulated surgical environments are rapidly gaining adoption in training students, residents, and members of specialized surgical teams. However, minimal attention has been given to the use of simulated surgical environments to educate patients on surgical processes, particularly procedures that require the active participation of the patient. "Awake" neurosurgery provides a unique situation in which patients openly participate in their operation. We describe a case report, in which a 62-year-old male was referred for "awake" deep brain stimulation implantation, in relation to medically refractory Parkinson's disease. The patient had significant concerns regarding anxiety and claustrophobia, and toleration of the "awake" procedure. Consequently, we designed a simulated OR environment and process, to recreate the physical experience of the procedure, with minimal cost or risk. This experience was crucial in determining the care plan, as after this experience, the patient opted for an "asleep" alternative. Thus, in certain settings, presurgical rehearsals may have a dramatic impact in the overall course of care. PMID:27532036

  16. Awake tracheal intubation using Pentax airway scope in 30 patients: A Case series

    OpenAIRE

    Payal Kajekar; Cyprian Mendonca; Rati Danha; Carl Hillermann

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pentax airway scope (AWS) has been successfully used for managing difficult intubations. In this case series, we aimed to evaluate the success rate and time taken to complete intubation, when AWS was used for awake tracheal intubation. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the use of AWS for awake tracheal intubation in 30 patients. Indication for awake intubation, intubation time, total time to complete tracheal intubation, laryngoscopic view (Cormack and Lehane grade), to...

  17. Ventilation and respiratory pattern and timing in resting awake cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D B; Szlyk, P C

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variability and patterns of spontaneous respiratory behaviour in awake cats. Respiration was measured in six cats over 80 or 90 min by the plethysmographic technique. In three cats, arterial blood gases were measured. Breath frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT) varied considerably breath-to-breath, although on average, these measurements as well as average ventilation remained relatively constant. The incidence of breath ventilation (VT X 60/TTOT) and VT were distributed unimodally but the incidence of breath f had a bimodal distribution. In the low f range, average f was 22.5 breaths/min, and in the high f range, average f was 41.6 breaths/min. The latter range appeared to be associated with purring. Inspiratory duration (TI) was less than expiratory duration (TE) at low f but exceeded TE at high f. For a given breath ventilation there was a predictable f and VT. At shorter TI (higher f) mean inspiratory flow, an index of central respiratory drive, increased but VT decreased. This study indicates that "normal" control respiratory behaviour in awake cats is better described by the range and pattern of breathing than by average values.

  18. The King Vision™ video laryngoscope for awake intubation: series of cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaszynska E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Gaszynska, Tomasz GaszynskiDepartment of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, PolandAbstract: Intubation of patients with a supraglottic mass causing obstruction of the glottis remains a difficult problem for the experienced anesthesiologist. Awake fiberscopic endotracheal intubation is the recommended approach in such cases; however, use of a video laryngoscope for awake intubation can be an alternative to a fiberscope. Here we present two cases of awake intubation using a King Vision™ video laryngoscope in patients with a supraglottic mass, and a literature review on use of video laryngoscopes for awake intubation. After topical anesthesia and sedation with opioids, the patients were successfully intubated.Keywords: airway management, difficult airway, awake intubation, video laryngoscope

  19. Median effective dose of remifentanil for awake laryngoscopy and intudation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ya-chao; XUE Fu-shan; LUO Mad-ping; YANG Quan-yong; LIAO Xu; LU Yi; ZHANG Yan-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Awake intubation requires an anesthetic management that provides sufficient patient safety and comfort, adequate intubating conditions, and stable hemodynamics. In this prospective clinical study, our aim was to determine the median effective dose (ED50) of remifentanil in combination with midazolam and airway topical anesthesia for awake laryngoscopy and intubation.Methods Thirty-six female adult patients, scheduled for elective plastic surgery under general anesthesia requiring orotracheal intubation were included in this study. Ten minutes after intravenous administration of midazolam 0.1 mg/kg, patients were assigned to receive remifentanil in bolus, followed by a continuous infusion. The bolus dose and infusion rate of remifentanil were adjusted by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method. Patient's reaction score at laryngoscopy and an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S) were used to determine whether the remifentanil dosage regimen was accepted. During laryngoscopy, 2% lidocaine was sprayed into the airway to provide the topical anesthesia. EDso of remifentanil was calculated by the modified Dixon up-and-clown method, and the probit analysis was then used to confirm the results obtained from the modified Dixon's up-and-down method. In the patients who were scored as "accept", patient's OAA/S and reaction scores at different observed points, intubating condition score and patient's tolerance to the endotracheal tube after intubation were evaluated and recorded. Blood pressure and heart rate at different measuring points were also noted.Results ED50 of remifentanil for awake laryngoscopy and intubation obtained by the modified Dixon's up-and-down method was (0.62±0.02) pg/kg. Using probit analysis, ED50 and ED95 of remifentanil were 0.63 μg/kg (95% Cl, 0.54-0.70) and 0.83 μg/kg (95% Cl, 0.73-2.59), respectively. Nineteen patients who were scored as =accept" had an OAA/S of 15 and tolerated well laryngoscopy without significant

  20. Spike timing and synaptic dynamics at the awake thalamocortical synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadlow, Harvey A; Bezdudnaya, Tatiana; Gusev, Alexander G

    2005-01-01

    Thalamocortical (TC) neurons form only a small percentage of the synapses onto neurons of cortical layer 4, but the response properties of these cortical neurons are arguably dominated by thalamic input. This discrepancy is explained, in part, by studies showing that TC synapses are of high efficacy. However, TC synapses display activity-dependent depression. Because of this, in vitro measures of synaptic efficacy will not reflect the situation in vivo, where different neuronal populations have widely varying levels of "spontaneous" activity. Indeed, TC neurons of awake subjects generate high rates of spontaneous activity that would be expected, in a depressing synapse, to result in a chronic state of synaptic depression. Here, we review recent work in the somatosensory thalamocortical system of awake rabbits in which the relationship between TC spike timing and TC synaptic efficacy was examined during both thalamic "relay mode" (alert state) and "burst mode" (drowsy state). Two largely independent methodological approaches were used. First, we employed cross-correlation methods to examine the synaptic impact of single TC "barreloid" neurons on a single neuronal subtype in the topographically aligned layer 4 "barrel" - putative fast-spike inhibitory interneurons. We found that the initial spike of a TC burst, as well as isolated TC spikes with long preceding interspike intervals (ISIs) elicited postsynaptic action potentials far more effectively than did TC impulses with short ISIs. Our second approach took a broader view of the postsynaptic impact of TC impulses. In these experiments we examined spike-triggered extracellular field potentials and synaptic currents (using current source-density analysis) generated through the depths of a cortical barrel column by the impulses of single topographically aligned TC neurons. We found that (a) closely neighboring TC neurons may elicit very different patterns of monosynaptic activation within layers 4 and 6 of the aligned

  1. The electron accelerator for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepitone, K.; Doebert, S.; Burt, G.; Chevallay, E.; Chritin, N.; Delory, C.; Fedosseev, V.; Hessler, Ch.; McMonagle, G.; Mete, O.; Verzilov, V.; Apsimon, R.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE collaboration prepares a proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using the SPS beam at CERN. A long proton bunch extracted from the SPS interacts with a high power laser and a 10 m long rubidium vapour plasma cell to create strong wakefields allowing sustained electron acceleration. The electron bunch to probe these wakefields is supplied by a 20 MeV electron accelerator. The electron accelerator consists of an RF-gun and a short booster structure. This electron source should provide beams with intensities between 0.1 and 1 nC, bunch lengths between 0.3 and 3 ps and an emittance of the order of 2 mm mrad. The wide range of parameters should cope with the uncertainties and future prospects of the planned experiments. The layout of the electron accelerator, its instrumentation and beam dynamics simulations are presented.

  2. Pediatric awake craniotomy for seizure focus resection with dexmedetomidine sedation-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Veena; Chandramouli, B A

    2016-08-01

    Resection of lesions near the eloquent cortex of brain necessitates awake craniotomy to reduce the risk of permanent neurologic deficits during surgery. There are limited reports of anesthetic management of awake craniotomy in pediatric patients. This report is on use of dexmedetomidine sedation for awake craniotomy in a 11-year-old child, without any airway adjuncts throughout the procedure. Dexmedetomidine infusion administered at a dosage of 0.2 to 0.7μg kg(-1) h(-1) provided adequate sedation for the entire procedure. There were no untoward incidents or any interference with electrocorticography, intraoperative stimulation, and functional mapping. Adequate preoperative visits and counseling of patient and parents regarding course and nature of events along with well-planned intraoperative management are of utmost importance in a pediatric age group for successful intraoperative awake craniotomy. PMID:27290976

  3. Pediatric awake craniotomy for seizure focus resection with dexmedetomidine sedation-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Veena; Chandramouli, B A

    2016-08-01

    Resection of lesions near the eloquent cortex of brain necessitates awake craniotomy to reduce the risk of permanent neurologic deficits during surgery. There are limited reports of anesthetic management of awake craniotomy in pediatric patients. This report is on use of dexmedetomidine sedation for awake craniotomy in a 11-year-old child, without any airway adjuncts throughout the procedure. Dexmedetomidine infusion administered at a dosage of 0.2 to 0.7μg kg(-1) h(-1) provided adequate sedation for the entire procedure. There were no untoward incidents or any interference with electrocorticography, intraoperative stimulation, and functional mapping. Adequate preoperative visits and counseling of patient and parents regarding course and nature of events along with well-planned intraoperative management are of utmost importance in a pediatric age group for successful intraoperative awake craniotomy.

  4. The King Vision™ video laryngoscope for awake intubation: series of cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gaszynska E; Gaszynski T

    2014-01-01

    Ewelina Gaszynska, Tomasz GaszynskiDepartment of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, PolandAbstract: Intubation of patients with a supraglottic mass causing obstruction of the glottis remains a difficult problem for the experienced anesthesiologist. Awake fiberscopic endotracheal intubation is the recommended approach in such cases; however, use of a video laryngoscope for awake intubation can be an alternative to a fiberscope. Here we present two cases...

  5. The King Vision™ video laryngoscope for awake intubation: series of cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Ewelina Gaszynska, Tomasz GaszynskiDepartment of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, PolandAbstract: Intubation of patients with a supraglottic mass causing obstruction of the glottis remains a difficult problem for the experienced anesthesiologist. Awake fiberscopic endotracheal intubation is the recommended approach in such cases; however, use of a video laryngoscope for awake intubation can be an alternative to a fiberscope. Here we present two cases...

  6. Awake seizures after pure sleep-related epilepsy: a systematic review and implications for driving law

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Rhys H.; King, Will H; Johnston, Ann; Smith, Philip EM

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Who with sleep seizures is safe to drive? Driving law is controversial; ineligibility varies between individual US states and EU countries. Current UK driving law is strongly influenced by a single-centre study from 1974 where most participants were not taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, pure sleep-related epilepsy is often fully controlled on medication, and its withdrawal can provoke awake seizures. This systematic review asked, `What is the risk of awake se...

  7. Awake tracheal intubation using Pentax airway scope in 30 patients: A Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Kajekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Pentax airway scope (AWS has been successfully used for managing difficult intubations. In this case series, we aimed to evaluate the success rate and time taken to complete intubation, when AWS was used for awake tracheal intubation. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the use of AWS for awake tracheal intubation in 30 patients. Indication for awake intubation, intubation time, total time to complete tracheal intubation, laryngoscopic view (Cormack and Lehane grade, total dose of local anaesthetic used, anaesthetists rating and patient′s tolerance of the procedure were recorded. Results: The procedure was successful in 25 out of the 30 patients (83%. The mean (standard deviation intubation time and total time to complete the tracheal intubation was 5.4 (2.4 and 13.9 (3.7 min, respectively in successful cases. The laryngeal view was grade 1 in 24 and grade 2 in one of 25 successful intubations. In three out of the five patients where the AWS failed, awake tracheal intubation was successfully completed with the assistance of flexible fibre optic scope (FOS. Conclusion: Awake tracheal intubation using AWS was successful in 83% of patients. Success rate can be further improved using a combination of AWS and FOS. Anaesthesiologists who do not routinely use FOS may find AWS easier to use for awake tracheal intubation using an oral route.

  8. Carotid endarterectomy in awake patients: safety, tolerability and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Teixeira Mendonça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the results of 125 carotid endarterectomies under loco-regional anesthesia, with selective use of shunt and bovine pericardium patch. Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the internal carotid artery on duplex-scan + arteriography or magnetic resonance angiography underwent 125 carotid endarterectomies. Intraoperative pharmacological cerebral protection included intravenous administration of alfentanil and dexametasone. Clopidogrel, aspirin and statins were used in all cases. Seventy-seven patients were males (65.8%. Mean age was 70.8 years, ranging from 48 to 88 years. Surgery was performed to treat symptomatic stenosis in 69 arteries (55.2% and asymptomatic stenosis in 56 arteries (44.8%. Results: A carotid shunt was used in 3 cases (2.4% due to signs and symptoms of cerebral ischemia after carotid artery clamping during the operation, and all 3 patients had a good outcome. Bovine pericardium patch was used in 71 arteries ≤ 6 mm in diameter (56.8%. Perioperative mortality was 0.8%: one patient died from a myocardial infarction. Two patients (1.6% had minor ipsilateral strokes with good recovery, and 2 patients (1.6% had non-fatal myocardial infarctions with good recovery. The mean follow-up period was 32 months. In the late postoperative period, there was restenosis in only three arteries (2.4%. Conclusion: Carotid artery endarterectomy can be safely performed in the awake patient, with low morbidity and mortality rates.

  9. Stability of thalamocortical synaptic transmission across awake brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelzel, Carl R; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A

    2009-05-27

    Sensory cortical neurons are highly sensitive to brain state, with many neurons showing changes in spatial and/or temporal response properties and some neurons becoming virtually unresponsive when subjects are not alert. Although some of these changes are undoubtedly attributable to state-related filtering at the thalamic level, another likely source of such effects is the thalamocortical (TC) synapse, where activation of nicotinic receptors on TC terminals have been shown to enhance synaptic transmission in vitro. However, monosynaptic TC synaptic transmission has not been directly examined during different states of alertness. Here, in awake rabbits that shifted between alert and non-alert EEG states, we examined the monosynaptic TC responses and short-term synaptic dynamics generated by spontaneous impulses of single visual and somatosensory TC neurons. We did this using spike-triggered current source-density analysis, an approach that enables assessment of monosynaptic extracellular currents generated in different cortical layers by impulses of single TC afferents. Spontaneous firing rates of TC neurons were higher, and burst rates were much lower in the alert state. However, we found no state-related changes in the amplitude of monosynaptic TC responses when TC spikes with similar preceding interspike interval were compared. Moreover, the relationship between the preceding interspike interval of the TC spike and postsynaptic response amplitude was not influenced by state. These data indicate that TC synaptic transmission and dynamics are highly conserved across different states of alertness and that observed state-related changes in receptive field properties that occur at the cortical level result from other mechanisms.

  10. Awake brain tumor resection during pregnancy: Decision making and technical nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Han, Seunggu J; Rollins, Mark D; Gelb, Adrian W; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-01

    The co-occurrence of primary brain tumor and pregnancy poses unique challenges to the treating physician. If a rapidly growing lesion causes life-threatening mass effect, craniotomy for tumor debulking becomes urgent. The choice between awake craniotomy versus general anesthesia becomes complicated if the tumor is encroaching on eloquent brain because considerations pertinent to both patient safety and oncological outcome, in addition to fetal wellbeing, are involved. A 31-year-old female at 30 weeks gestation with twins presented to our hospital seeking awake craniotomy to resect a 7 × 6 × 5 cm left frontoparietal brain tumor with 7 mm left-to-right subfalcine herniation on imaging that led to word finding difficulty, dysfluency, right upper extremity paralysis, and right lower extremity weakness. She had twice undergone tumor debulking under general anesthesia during the same pregnancy at an outside hospital at 16 weeks and 28 weeks gestation. There were considerations both for and against awake brain tumor resection over surgery under general anesthesia. The decision-making process and the technical nuances related to awake brain tumor resection in this neurologically impaired patient are discussed. Awake craniotomy benefits the patient who harbors a tumor that encroaches on the eloquent brain by allowing a greater extent of resection while preserving the language and sensorimotor function. It can be successfully done in pregnant patients who are neurologically impaired. The patient should be motivated and well informed of the details of the process. A multidisciplinary and collaborative effort is also crucial. PMID:26498092

  11. AWAKE CRANIOTOMY USING DEXMEDETOMIDINE INFUSION AND SCALP BLOCK: OUR EXPERIENCE IN SERIES OF CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSSV Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Awake craniotomy for removal of intracranial tumors is most challenging procedure. The critical aspect of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate analgesia and sedation, hemodynamic stability, airway safety, while keeping the patient immobile for duration of surgery, cooperative for neurological testing. AIM OF THE STUDY: Dexmedetomidine is good analgesic, sedative and has anaesthetic-sparing properties without causing significant respiratory depression. [1] We are reporting cases series of awake craniotomy under monitored anesthesia care using dexmedetomidine infusion as an adjuvant to scalp block, titrating the sedation level by BIS monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: after careful patient selection and psychological preparation Monitored Anesthesia care(MAC was provided by continuous infusion of Dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.2-0.5 mcg/kg/min titrating sedation level to a BIS value of 70-90%. Bilateral scalp block was administered using 0.5% bupivacaine. For dura mater incision, a pad with 2% lidocaine was applied for 3 minutes. The tumor removal was complete with no neurological deficiency. All the patients were discharged on 5th postoperative day without complications and with full patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: We conclude that monitored anesthesia care with dexmedetomidine infusion and scalp block for awake craniotomy is a safe and efficacious. Absence of complications and high patient satisfaction score makes this technique close to an ideal technique for awake craniotomy.

  12. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  13. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Olsen, V.K. Berglyd; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected to sample the wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  14. Glucose turnover during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in liver-denervated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik;

    1985-01-01

    as well as in chronically catheterized, awake rats. Half of the anesthetized denervated or sham-operated rats had previously been adrenodemedullated. Glucose turnover was measured by primed, constant intravenous infusion of [3-3H]glucose. Before as well as during hypoglycemia the arterial glucose...

  15. Subtitusi Tepung Pisang Awak (Musa Paradisiaca Var Awak) dan Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Garipinus) Dalam Pembuatan Biskuit Serta Uji Daya Terimanya

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rini Puspa

    2015-01-01

    Banana ‘awak’ ripe flour (Musa paradisiaca var. Awak) and dumbo catfish (Clarias Garapinus) can be processed into biscuit. Biscuit is one of additional food that can full fill the needs of toddler nutrient. Biscuits had sweet taste and interesting shape. This research purpose to determine the acceptability test and nutritional content of biscuits substitution banana ‘awak’ flour and dumbo catfish. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design using two fa...

  16. Comprehensive Evaluation of Neuroprotection Achieved by Extended Selective Brain Cooling Therapy in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Shear, Deborah A; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Wei, Guo; Chen, Zhiyong; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    Brain hypothermia has been considered as a promising alternative to whole-body hypothermia in treating acute neurological disease, for example, traumatic brain injury. Previously, we demonstrated that 2-hours selective brain cooling (SBC) effectively mitigated acute (≤24 hours postinjury) neurophysiological dysfunction induced by a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of extended SBC (4 or 8 hours in duration) on sub-acute secondary injuries between 3 and 21 days postinjury (DPI). SBC (34°C) was achieved via extraluminal cooling of rats' bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Depending on the experimental design, SBC was introduced either immediately or with a 2- or 4-hour delay after PBBI and maintained for 4 or 8 hours. Neuroprotective effects of SBC were evaluated by measuring brain lesion volume, axonal injury, neuroinflammation, motor and cognitive functions, and post-traumatic seizures. Compared to untreated PBBI animals, 4 or 8 hours SBC treatment initiated immediately following PBBI produced comparable neuroprotective benefits against PBBI-induced early histopathology at 3 DPI as evidenced by significant reductions in brain lesion volume, axonal pathology (beta-amyloid precursor protein staining), neuroinflammation (glial fibrillary acetic protein stained-activated astrocytes and rat major histocompatibility complex class I stained activated microglial cell), and post-traumatic nonconvulsive seizures. In the later phase of the injury (7-21 DPI), significant improvement on motor function (rotarod test) was observed under most SBC protocols, including the 2-hour delay in SBC initiation. However, SBC treatment failed to improve cognitive performance (Morris water maze test) measured 13-17 DPI. The protective effects of SBC on delayed axonal injury (silver staining) were evident out to 14 DPI. In conclusion, the CCA cooling method of SBC produced neuroprotection measured across multiple

  17. The Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (SEAP) theory of memory: long term memories grow in complexity during sleep and undergo selection while awake. Clinical, psychopharmacological and creative implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Long term memory (LTM) systems need to be adaptive such that they enhance an organism's reproductive fitness and self-reproducing in order to maintain their complexity of communications over time in the face of entropic loss of information. Traditional 'representation-consolidation' accounts conceptualize memory adaptiveness as due to memories being 'representations' of the environment, and the longevity of memories as due to 'consolidation' processes. The assumption is that memory representations are formed while an animal is awake and interacting with the environment, and these memories are consolidated mainly while the animal is asleep. So the traditional view of memory is 'instructionist' and assumes that information is transferred from the environment into the brain. By contrast, we see memories as arising endogenously within the brain's LTM system mainly during sleep, to create complex but probably maladaptive memories which are then simplified ('pruned') and selected during the awake period. When awake the LTM system is brought into a more intense interaction with past and present experience. Ours is therefore a 'selectionist' account of memory, and could be termed the Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (or SEAP) theory. The SEAP theory explains the longevity of memories in the face of entropy by the tendency for memories to grow in complexity during sleep; and explains the adaptiveness of memory by selection for consistency with perceptions and previous memories during the awake state. Sleep is therefore that behavioural state during which most of the internal processing of the system of LTM occurs; and the reason sleep remains poorly understood is that its primary activity is the expansion of long term memories. By re-conceptualizing the relationship between memory, sleep and the environment; SEAP provides a radically new framework for memory research, with implications for the measurement of memory and the design of empirical investigations in clinical

  18. A case of secondary somatosensory epilepsy with a left deep parietal opercular lesion: successful tumor resection using a transsubcentral gyral approach during awake surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Fujii, Masazumi; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Iijima, Kentaro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    . Thus, this report demonstrated the safe and effective use of the transsubcentral gyral approach during awake surgery to resect deep parietal opercular lesions, clarified electrophysiological characteristics in the SII area, and achieved successful tumor resection with good control of epilepsy.

  19. Awake craniotomy in a patient with ejection fraction of 10%: considerations of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Weston, Stephen D; Chang, Edward F; Gelb, Adrian W

    2015-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with nonischemic 4-chamber dilated cardiomyopathy and low-output cardiac failure (estimated ejection fraction of 10%) underwent awake craniotomy for a low-grade oligodendroglioma resection under monitored anesthesia care. The cerebrovascular and cardiovascular physiologic challenges and our management of this patient are discussed.

  20. "Awake" extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): pathophysiology, technical considerations, and clinical pioneering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thomas; Santini, Alessandro; Bottino, Nicola; Crotti, Stefania; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Pesenti, Antonio; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) has been classically employed as a rescue therapy for patients with respiratory failure not treatable with conventional mechanical ventilation alone. In recent years, however, the timing of ECMO initiation has been readdressed and ECMO is often started earlier in the time course of respiratory failure. Furthermore, some centers are starting to use ECMO as a first line of treatment, i.e., as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation in awake, non-intubated, spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure ("awake" ECMO). There is a strong rationale for this type of respiratory support as it avoids several side effects related to sedation, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. However, the complexity of the patient-ECMO interactions, the difficulties related to respiratory monitoring, and the management of an awake patient on extracorporeal support together pose a major challenge for the intensive care unit staff. Here, we review the use of vv-ECMO in awake, spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure, highlighting the pros and cons of this approach, analyzing the pathophysiology of patient-ECMO interactions, detailing some of the technical aspects, and summarizing the initial clinical experience gained over the past years. PMID:27357690

  1. a-Band Oscillations in Intracellular Membrane Potentials of Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Awake Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross W.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus and dentate gyrus play critical roles in processing declarative memories and spatial information. Dentate granule cells, the first relay in the trisynaptic circuit through the hippocampus, exhibit low spontaneous firing rates even during locomotion. Using intracellular recordings from dentate neurons in awake mice operating a…

  2. Awake insertion of the laryngeal mask airway using topical lidocaine and intravenous remifentanil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, MC; Absalom, AR; Menon, DK; Smith, HL

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the use of intravenous remifentanil for the insertion of the laryngeal mask airway in 10 healthy awake volunteers, a technique primarily developed to facilitate functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of anaesthesia. Each volunteer received 200 mu g glycopyrronium intravenously. To

  3. Inflammatory profile of awake function-controlled craniotomy and craniotomy under general anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Klimek (Markus); J.W. Hol (Jaap Willem); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); C. Heijmans-Antonissen (Claudia); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); A.J. Vincent (Arnaud); J. Klein (Jan); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Surgical stress triggers an inflammatory response and releases mediators into human plasma such as interleukins (ILs). Awake craniotomy and craniotomy performed under general anesthesia may be associated with different levels of stress. Our aim was to investigate whether thos

  4. Feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia in awake patients with acute stroke through surface cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Rasmussen, B H; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig;

    2000-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces neuronal damage in animal stroke models. Whether hypothermia is neuroprotective in patients with acute stroke remains to be clarified. In this case-control study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia by a surface cooling method in awake patients...

  5. Organic and Non-Organic Language Disorders after Awake Brain Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke De Witte

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Awake surgery with Direct Electrical Stimulation (DES is considered the ‘gold standard’ to resect brain tumours in the language dominant hemisphere (De Witte & Mariën, 2013. Although transient language impairments are common in the immediate postoperative phase, permanent postoperative language deficits seem to be rare (Duffau, 2007. Milian et al. (2014 stated that most patients tolerate the awake procedure well and would undergo a similar procedure again. However, postoperative psychological symptoms including recurrent distressing dreams and persistent avoidance of stimuli have been recorded following awake surgery (Goebel, Nabavi, Schubert, & Mehdorn, 2010; Milian et al., 2014. To the best of our knowledge, psychogenic language disturbances have never been described after awake surgery. In general, only a handful of non-organic, psychogenic language disorders have been reported in the literature (De Letter et al., 2012. We report three patients with left brain tumours (see table 1 who presented linguistic symptoms after awake surgery that were incompatible with the lesion location, suggesting a psychogenic origin. METHODS: Neurocognitive (language, memory, executive functions investigations were carried out before, during and after awake surgery (6 weeks, 6 months postsurgery on the basis of standardised tests. Pre- and postoperative (fMRI images, DTI results and intraoperative DES findings were analysed. A selection of tasks was used to map language intraoperatively (De Witte et al., 2013. In the postoperative phase spontaneous speech and behavioural phenomena to errors were video-recorded. RESULTS: Preoperative language tests did not reveal any speech or language problems. Intraoperatively, eloquent sites were mapped and preserved enabling good language skills at the end of the awake procedure. However, assessments in the first weeks postsurgery disclosed language and behavioural symptoms that support the hypothesis of a

  6. Autonomic control of bronchial circulation in awake sheep during rest and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, S; White, S; Parsons, G

    1997-12-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the pattern and the intensity of autonomic mechanisms causing vasoconstriction in the resting bronchial circulation of awake dogs also exists in awake sheep. It was also postulated that sighing behaviour and the associated bronchovascular dilatation induced by non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) mechanisms observed in the dog exist in sheep. 2. Bronchial arterial blood flow to lower airways of both lungs of awake sheep was measured continuously using pulsed Doppler flow probes mounted on the bronchial artery at prior thoracotomy. 3. Cumulative and factorial analysis of responses to randomized combinations of autonomic alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors and cholinoceptor autonomic blockade suggests that resting vasoconstrictor activity is less in sheep than in dogs. At normal aortic pressure, the autonomic activity of these receptor groups in the sheep lowers bronchial blood flow and conductance by 30%, whereas in the awake dog, the corresponding autonomic effect is 50%. 4. Tonic autonomic control of bronchial conductance can be partitioned in sheep to show significant and separate alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor vasoconstrictor activity at a ratio of 1.8:1, an effect normally offset by a weaker vasodilator alpha-/beta-adrenoceptor interaction. In contrast to the situation in awake dogs, cholinoceptors do not play a role in awake sheep. 5. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in sheep using NG-nitro-L-arginine following blockade of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors and cholinoceptors causes hypertension, but minor changes, if any, in pulmonary pressures or heart rate. Bronchial flow and conductance, however, fall from a higher resting conductance by approximately 50%, suggesting that, normally, resting bronchial flow conductance is dominated by strong tonic NO vasodilator effects that interact with weaker tonic autonomic vasoconstrictor effects. 6. Superimposed (respiratory) behaviours of sighing, sneezing and coughing

  7. Analisis Kandungan Inulin pada Pisang Barangan (Musa acuminata Colla), Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca var Awak) dan pisang kepok (Musa acuminata balbisiana Colla)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih, Defi

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a substance of food that has a function as a prebiotic that is good for the development and activity of nonpathogenic bacteria in the digestive system. One source of inulin is bananas. Bananas are consumed by all people ranging from infants to adults. Inulin in bananas can help improve the health. One of which is to increase the body's immunity with his role as a prebiotic. This study aims to determine the content of inulin on banana barangan , banana awak , and banana kepok well...

  8. Use of movable high-field-strength intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging with awake craniotomies for resection of gliomas: preliminary experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leuthardt, Eric C

    2011-07-01

    Awake craniotomy with electrocortical mapping and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) are established techniques for maximizing tumor resection and preserving function, but there has been little experience combining these methodologies.

  9. Tension setting for extensor indicis proprius to extensor pollicis longus transfer using the wide-awake approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Tendon transfers using the wide-awake approach provides the benefit of improved tendon tension setting with active movement and minimal risks of complication. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(2.000: 39-43

  10. Evolving Models of Pavlovian Conditioning: Cerebellar Cortical Dynamics in Awake Behaving Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. ten Brinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of electrophysiological research on cerebellar cortical activity underlying Pavlovian conditioning have expanded our understanding of motor learning in the brain. Purkinje cell simple spike suppression is considered to be crucial in the expression of conditional blink responses (CRs. However, trial-by-trial quantification of this link in awake behaving animals is lacking, and current hypotheses regarding the underlying plasticity mechanisms have diverged from the classical parallel fiber one to the Purkinje cell synapse LTD hypothesis. Here, we establish that acquired simple spike suppression, acquired conditioned stimulus (CS-related complex spike responses, and molecular layer interneuron (MLI activity predict the expression of CRs on a trial-by-trial basis using awake behaving mice. Additionally, we show that two independent transgenic mouse mutants with impaired MLI function exhibit motor learning deficits. Our findings suggest multiple cerebellar cortical plasticity mechanisms underlying simple spike suppression, and they implicate the broader involvement of the olivocerebellar module within the interstimulus interval.

  11. Benefits of awake uniportal pulmonary resection in a patient with a previous contralateral lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Carlos; Navarro-Martinez, Jose; Bolufer, Sergio; Lirio, Francisco; Mafe, Juan Jose; Rivera, Maria Jesus; Roca, Joaquin; Baschwitz, Benno

    2014-09-01

    Surgical resection of a contralateral recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is indicated in patients without evidence of disseminated disease and considered functionally operable. General anesthesia and double-lumen intubation involves one lobe ventilation in a patient treated with a previous lobectomy, thus increasing the risks of ventilator-induced injuries and the morbidity. Awake procedures facilitate the surgery decreasing the anesthetic and surgical times, keeping the diaphragm motion and diminishing the ventilator-induced injuries into the remaining contralateral lobe. We present a 43-year-old woman with a previous left-lower lobectomy for a 3.1-cm mucinous adenocarcinoma 15 months before without nodal involvement, who presents a right-lower lobe 8-mm cavitated nodule, with evident radiological growth and fine-needle aspiration concordant with mucinous adenocarcinoma. We suggest an awake procedure with locoregional epidural anesthesia. PMID:25405168

  12. Beam Transfer Line Design for a Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Brethoux, D; Clerc, V; Goddard, B; Gschwendtner, E; Jensen, L K; Kosmicki, A; Le Godec, G; Meddahi, M; Muggli, P; Mutin, C; Osborne, O; Papastergiou, K; Pardons, A; Velotti, F M; Vincke, H

    2013-01-01

    The world’s first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment (AWAKE) is presently being studied at CERN. The experimentwill use a high energy proton beam extracted from the SPS as driver. Two possible locations for installing the AWAKE facility were considered: the West Area and the CNGS beam line. The previous transfer line from the SPS to the West Area was completely dismantled in 2005 and would need to be fully re-designed and re-built. For this option, geometric constraints for radiation protection reasons would limit the maximum proton beam energy to 300 GeV. The existing CNGS line could be used by applying only minor changes to the lattice for the final focusing and the interface between the proton beam and the laser, required for plasma ionisation and bunch-modulation seeding. The beam line design studies performed for the two options are presented.

  13. Association of Awake Bruxism with Khat, Coffee, Tobacco, and Stress among Jazan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Faeq Ali Quadri; Ali Mahnashi; Ayman Al Almutahhir; Hamzah Tubayqi; Abdullah Hakami; Mohamed Arishi; Abdulwahab Alamir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective is to assess the prevalence of bruxism among the university students and to check its association with their khat chewing habit. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study is designed using cluster random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to assess awake bruxism and the use of variables like khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress. Chi-square test at 5% significance was used for assessing the association. Logistic re...

  14. Biofeedback for treatment of awake and sleep bruxism in adults: systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ilovar, Sasa; Zolger, Danaja; Castrillon, Eduardo; Car, Josip; Huckvale, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Background Bruxism is a disorder of jaw-muscle activity characterised by repetitive clenching or grinding of the teeth which results in discomfort and damage to dentition. The two clinical manifestations of the condition (sleep and awake bruxism) are thought to have unrelated aetiologies but are palliated using similar techniques. The lack of a definitive treatment has prompted renewed interest in biofeedback, a behaviour change method that uses electronic detection to provide a stimulus when...

  15. Development of a simultaneous optical/PET imaging system for awake mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ikoma, Yoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of multiple physiological parameters are essential for the study of brain disease mechanisms and the development of suitable therapies to treat them. In this study, we developed a measurement system for simultaneous optical imaging and PET for awake mice. The key elements of this system are the OpenPET, optical imaging and fixation apparatus for an awake mouse. The OpenPET is our original open-type PET geometry, which can be used in combination with another device because of the easily accessible open space of the former. A small prototype of the axial shift single-ring OpenPET was used. The objective lens for optical imaging with a mounted charge-coupled device camera was placed inside the open space of the AS-SROP. Our original fixation apparatus to hold an awake mouse was also applied. As a first application of this system, simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by laser speckle imaging (LSI) and [11C]raclopride-PET were performed under control and 5% CO2 inhalation (hypercapnia) conditions. Our system successfully obtained the CBF and [11C]raclopride radioactivity concentration simultaneously. Accumulation of [11C]raclopride was observed in the striatum where the density of dopamine D2 receptors is high. LSI measurements could be stably performed for more than 60 minutes. Increased CBF induced by hypercapnia was observed while CBF under the control condition was stable. We concluded that our imaging system should be useful for investigating the mechanisms of brain diseases in awake animal models.

  16. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the patient experience of awake craniotomy: brain tumour diagnosis to discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Kimberley J.; Das Nair, Roshan; Macniven, Jamie A; Basu, Surajit; Byrne, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research exploring the patient experience of awake craniotomy (AC) has yielded contrasting accounts. The current study aimed to explore the lived experience of having undergone an AC in the United Kingdom. Design. This was a qualitative, semi-structured interview study. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Methods. Seven participants (three males, four females) who had und...

  17. The stimulus-evoked population response in visual cortex of awake monkey is a propagating wave

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Lyle; Reynaud, Alexandre; Chavane, Frédéric; Destexhe, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Propagating waves occur in many excitable media and were recently found in neural systems from retina to neocortex. While propagating waves are clearly present under anaesthesia, whether they also appear during awake and conscious states remains unclear. One possibility is that these waves are systematically missed in trial-averaged data, due to variability. Here we present a method for detecting propagating waves in noisy multichannel recordings. Applying this method to single-trial voltage-...

  18. Characterization of scale-free properties of human electrocorticography in awake and slow wave sleep states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Zempel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like many complex dynamic systems, the brain exhibits scale-free dynamics that follow power law scaling. Broadband power spectral density (PSD of brain electrical activity exhibits state-dependent power law scaling with a log frequency exponent that varies across frequency ranges. Widely divergent naturally occurring neural states, awake and slow wave sleep (SWS periods, were used evaluate the nature of changes in scale-free indices. We demonstrate two analytic approaches to characterizing electrocorticographic (ECoG data obtained during Awake and SWS states. A data driven approach was used, characterizing all available frequency ranges. Using an Equal Error State Discriminator (EESD, a single frequency range did not best characterize state across data from all six subjects, though the ability to distinguish awake and SWS states in individual subjects was excellent. Multisegment piecewise linear fits were used to characterize scale-free slopes across the entire frequency range (0.2-200 Hz. These scale-free slopes differed between Awake and SWS states across subjects, particularly at frequencies below 10 Hz and showed little difference at frequencies above 70 Hz. A Multivariate Maximum Likelihood Analysis (MMLA method using the multisegment slope indices successfully categorized ECoG data in most subjects, though individual variation was seen. The ECoG spectrum is not well characterized by a single linear fit across a defined set of frequencies, but is best described by a set of discrete linear fits across the full range of available frequencies. With increasing computational tractability, the use of scale-free slope values to characterize EEG data will have practical value in clinical and research EEG studies.

  19. Development of a simultaneous optical/PET imaging system for awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ikoma, Yoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Shinaji, Tetsuya; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of multiple physiological parameters are essential for the study of brain disease mechanisms and the development of suitable therapies to treat them. In this study, we developed a measurement system for simultaneous optical imaging and PET for awake mice. The key elements of this system are the OpenPET, optical imaging and fixation apparatus for an awake mouse. The OpenPET is our original open-type PET geometry, which can be used in combination with another device because of the easily accessible open space of the former. A small prototype of the axial shift single-ring OpenPET was used. The objective lens for optical imaging with a mounted charge-coupled device camera was placed inside the open space of the AS-SROP. Our original fixation apparatus to hold an awake mouse was also applied. As a first application of this system, simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by laser speckle imaging (LSI) and [(11)C]raclopride-PET were performed under control and 5% CO2 inhalation (hypercapnia) conditions. Our system successfully obtained the CBF and [(11)C]raclopride radioactivity concentration simultaneously. Accumulation of [(11)C]raclopride was observed in the striatum where the density of dopamine D2 receptors is high. LSI measurements could be stably performed for more than 60 minutes. Increased CBF induced by hypercapnia was observed while CBF under the control condition was stable. We concluded that our imaging system should be useful for investigating the mechanisms of brain diseases in awake animal models. PMID:27514436

  20. On the "Awake Lion "Culture%“醒狮”文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喜平; 黎宇

    2012-01-01

    2006年“狮舞”作为民间舞蹈列入国务院确定的第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录,狮舞包括徐水舞狮、天塔狮舞、黄沙狮子、广东醒狮。广东醒狮指佛山市、遂溪县、广州市的舞狮活动。文章通过田野调查法对广东省的广州市、佛山市、东莞市的醒狮历史文化进行阐述,并走访多名民间艺人和“醒狮”专家,发现“醒狮”存在发展不均衡,其主要原因为:风俗各异、经济状况、部门重视程度不同。%In 2006 "lion-dancing " as a folk dance was by the State Department identified the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, which includes the Xushui lion -dancing, Tianta lion-dancing, Huangsha lion -dancing and awake lion of Guangdong Province. Awake lion of Guangdong Province is lion-dancing in Foshan City, Suixi County, Guangzhou County. The article based on the field investigation of Guangdong Province in Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan about the awake lion history culture, and many folk artists and" Lion" experts were visited, the study found that " awake lion " development is not balanced. The main reasons are: different customs, economic status, departments emphasis.

  1. "Awake Veno-arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation" in Pediatric Cardiogenic Shock: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F; Jack, T; Sasse, M; Kaussen, T; Bertram, H; Horke, A; Seidemann, K; Beerbaum, P; Koeditz, H

    2015-12-01

    In pediatric patients with acute refractory cardiogenic shock (CS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains an established procedure to maintain adequate organ perfusion. In this context, ECMO can be used as a bridging procedure to recovery, VAD or transplantation. While being supported by ECMO, most centers tend to keep their patients well sedated and supported by invasive ventilation. This may be associated with an increased risk of therapy-related morbidity and mortality. In order to optimize clinical management in pediatric patients with ECMO therapy, we report our strategy of veno-arterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) in extubated awake and conscious patients. We therefore present data of six of our patients with CS, who were treated by ECMO being awake without continuous analgosedation and invasive ventilation. Of these six patients, four were 14 years of age. Median time on ECMO was 17.4 days (range 6.9-94.2 days). Median time extubated, while receiving ECMO support was 9.5 days. Mean time extubated was 78 % of the total time on ECMO. Three patients reached full recovery of cardiac function on "Awake-VA-ECMO," whereas the other three were successfully bridged to destination therapy (VAD, heart transplantation, withdrawal). Four out of our six patients are still alive. Complications related to ECMO therapy (i.e., severe bleeding, site infection or dislocation of cannulas) were not observed. We conclude that "Awake-VA-ECMO" in extubated, spontaneously breathing conscious pediatric patients is feasible and safe for the treatment of acute CS and can be used as a "bridging therapy" to recovery, VAD implantation or transplantation.

  2. Benefits of awake uniportal pulmonary resection in a patient with a previous contralateral lobectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Galvez, Carlos; Navarro-Martinez, Jose; Bolufer, Sergio; Lirio, Francisco; Mafe, Juan Jose; Rivera, Maria Jesus; Roca, Joaquin; Baschwitz, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection of a contralateral recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is indicated in patients without evidence of disseminated disease and considered functionally operable. General anesthesia and double-lumen intubation involves one lobe ventilation in a patient treated with a previous lobectomy, thus increasing the risks of ventilator-induced injuries and the morbidity. Awake procedures facilitate the surgery decreasing the anesthetic and surgical times, keeping the diaphra...

  3. Awake brain tumor resection during pregnancy: Decision making and technical nuances

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, L.; Han, SJ; Rollins, MD; Gelb, AW; Chang, EF

    2016-01-01

    © Published by Elsevier Ltd. The co-occurrence of primary brain tumor and pregnancy poses unique challenges to the treating physician. If a rapidly growing lesion causes life-threatening mass effect, craniotomy for tumor debulking becomes urgent. The choice between awake craniotomy versus general anesthesia becomes complicated if the tumor is encroaching on eloquent brain because considerations pertinent to both patient safety and oncological outcome, in addition to fetal wellbeing, are invol...

  4. Baroreflex impairment precedes hypertension during chronic cerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Buñag, R D; Miyajima, E

    1984-01-01

    Osmotic minipumps were implanted chronically for continuous 11-d infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl) into the third cerebral ventricle (ICV) of awake rats to determine whether baroreflex sensitivity would be altered. Systolic and mean pressures, recorded from aortic catheters on day 11 while the rats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, were significantly higher in rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing hypertonic NaCl than in controls similarly infuse...

  5. Imaging circulating tumor cells in freely moving awake small animals using a miniaturized intravital microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sarah Sasportas

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the cause for 90% of cancer mortality, is a complex and poorly understood process involving the invasion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs into blood vessels. These cells have potential prognostic value as biomarkers for early metastatic risk. But their rarity and the lack of specificity and sensitivity in measuring them render their interrogation by current techniques very challenging. How and when these cells are circulating in the blood, on their way to potentially give rise to metastasis, is a question that remains largely unanswered. In order to provide an insight into this "black box" using non-invasive imaging, we developed a novel miniature intravital microscopy (mIVM strategy capable of real-time long-term monitoring of CTCs in awake small animals. We established an experimental 4T1-GL mouse model of metastatic breast cancer, in which tumor cells express both fluorescent and bioluminescent reporter genes to enable both single cell and whole body tumor imaging. Using mIVM, we monitored blood vessels of different diameters in awake mice in an experimental model of metastasis. Using an in-house software algorithm we developed, we demonstrated in vivo CTC enumeration and computation of CTC trajectory and speed. These data represent the first reported use we know of for a miniature mountable intravital microscopy setup for in vivo imaging of CTCs in awake animals.

  6. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  7. Taste Coding in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract of the Awake, Freely Licking Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Roussin, Andre T.; D’Agostino, Alexandra E.; Fooden, Andrew M.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the brain processes sensory stimuli differently according to whether they are passively or actively acquired, and these differences can be seen early in the sensory pathway. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the first relay in the central gustatory neuraxis, a rich variety of sensory inputs generated by active licking converge. Here we show that taste responses in the NTS reflect these interactions. Experiments consisted of recordings of taste-...

  8. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism during acute hyperketonemia in the awake and anesthetized rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Rasmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Topp, Simon;

    2006-01-01

    In the human setting, it has been shown that acute increase in the concentration of ketone bodies by infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) without affecting the overall cerebral metabolic activity. The mechanism by which this effect of ketone bodies was mediated...

  9. Technical and conceptual considerations for performing and interpreting functional MRI studies in awake rats

    OpenAIRE

    MarceloFebo

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in rodents have the potential to provide insight into neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. The strength of the technique lies in its non-invasive nature that can permit longitudinal functional studies in the same animal over its adult life. The relatively good spatial and temporal resolution and the ever-growing database on the biological and biophysical basis of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal make it a unique technique in preclinical ...

  10. Technical and Conceptual Considerations for Performing and Interpreting Functional MRI Studies in Awake Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Febo, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in rodents have the potential to provide insight into neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. The strength of the technique lies in its non-invasive nature that can permit longitudinal functional studies in the same animal over its adult life. The relatively good spatial and temporal resolution and the ever-growing database on the biological and biophysical basis of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal make it a unique technique in preclinical ...

  11. Fos expression in the NTS in response to peripheral chemoreflex activation in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josiane de Campos; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Stern, Javier E; Machado, Benedito H

    2010-01-15

    Chemoreflex afferent fibers terminate in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), but the specific location of the NTS neurons excited by peripheral chemoreflex activation remains to be characterized. Here, the topographic distribution of chemoreflex sensitive cells at the commissural NTS was evaluated. To reach this goal, Fos-immunoreactive neurons (Fos-ir) were accounted in rostro-caudal levels of the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS, after intermittent chemoreflex activation with intravenous injection of potassium cyanide [KCN (80microg/kg) or saline (0.9%, vehicle), one injection every 3min during 30min]. In response to intermittent intravenous injections of KCN, a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir neurons was observed specifically in the lateral intermediate commissural NTS [(LI)NTS (82+/-9 vs. 174+/-16, cell number mean per section)] and lateral caudal commissural NTS [(LC)NTS (71+/-9 vs. 199+/-18, cell number mean per section)]. To evaluate the influence of baroreceptor-mediated inputs following the increase in blood pressure during intermittent chemoreflex activation, we performed an intermittent activation of the arterial baroreflex by intravenous injection of phenylephrine [1.5microg/kg iv (one injection every 3min during 30min)]. This procedure induced no change in Fos-ir in (LI)NTS (64+/-6 vs. 62+/-12, cell number mean per section) or (LC)NTS (56+/-15 vs. 77+/-12, cell number mean per section). These data support the involvement of the commissural NTS in the processing of peripheral chemoreflex, and provide a detailed characterization of the topographical distribution of activated neurons within this brain region.

  12. BOLD fMRI in awake prairie voles: A platform for translational social and affective neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, J R; Kenkel, W M; Kulkarni, P; Moore, K; Perkeybile, A M; Toddes, S; Amacker, J A; Carter, C S; Ferris, C F

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of neuroscience depends on continued improvement in methods and models. Here, we present novel techniques for the use of awake functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) - an important step forward in minimally-invasive measurement of neural activity in a non-traditional animal model. Imaging neural responses in prairie voles, a species studied for its propensity to form strong and selective social bonds, is expected to greatly advance our mechanistic understanding of complex social and affective processes. The use of ultra-high-field fMRI allows for recording changes in region-specific activity throughout the entire brain simultaneously and with high temporal and spatial resolutions. By imaging neural responses in awake animals, with minimal invasiveness, we are able to avoid the confound of anesthesia, broaden the scope of possible stimuli, and potentially make use of repeated scans from the same animals. These methods are made possible by the development of an annotated and segmented 3D vole brain atlas and software for image analysis. The use of these methods in the prairie vole provides an opportunity to broaden neuroscientific investigation of behavior via a comparative approach, which highlights the ethological relevance of pro-social behaviors shared between voles and humans, such as communal breeding, selective social bonds, social buffering of stress, and caregiving behaviors. Results using these methods show that fMRI in the prairie vole is capable of yielding robust blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes in response to hypercapnic challenge (inhaled 5% CO2), region-specific physical challenge (unilateral whisker stimulation), and presentation of a set of novel odors. Complementary analyses of repeated restraint sessions in the imaging hardware suggest that voles do not require acclimation to this procedure. Taken together, awake vole fMRI represents a new arena of neurobiological

  13. MATLAB-based automated patch-clamp system for awake behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Niraj S; Siegel, Jennifer J; Taylor, William; Chitwood, Raymond A; Johnston, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Automation has been an important part of biomedical research for decades, and the use of automated and robotic systems is now standard for such tasks as DNA sequencing, microfluidics, and high-throughput screening. Recently, Kodandaramaiah and colleagues (Nat Methods 9: 585-587, 2012) demonstrated, using anesthetized animals, the feasibility of automating blind patch-clamp recordings in vivo. Blind patch is a good target for automation because it is a complex yet highly stereotyped process that revolves around analysis of a single signal (electrode impedance) and movement along a single axis. Here, we introduce an automated system for blind patch-clamp recordings from awake, head-fixed mice running on a wheel. In its design, we were guided by 3 requirements: easy-to-use and easy-to-modify software; seamless integration of behavioral equipment; and efficient use of time. The resulting system employs equipment that is standard for patch recording rigs, moderately priced, or simple to make. It is written entirely in MATLAB, a programming environment that has an enormous user base in the neuroscience community and many available resources for analysis and instrument control. Using this system, we obtained 19 whole cell patch recordings from neurons in the prefrontal cortex of awake mice, aged 8-9 wk. Successful recordings had series resistances that averaged 52 ± 4 MΩ and required 5.7 ± 0.6 attempts to obtain. These numbers are comparable with those of experienced electrophysiologists working manually, and this system, written in a simple and familiar language, will be useful to many cellular electrophysiologists who wish to study awake behaving mice.

  14. Acute functional reactivation of the language network during awake intraoperative brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Giannantonio; Costi, Emanuele; Panciani, Pier Paolo; Roca, Elena; Migliorati, Karol; Fontanella, Marco Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain plasticity during resection of central lesions has been recently described. In the cases reported, perilesional latent networks, useful to preserve the neurological functions, were detected in asymptomatic patients. In this paper, we presented a case of acute functional reactivation (AFR) of the language network in a symptomatic patient. Tumor resection allowed to acutely restore the neurological deficit. Intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) and functional neuroimaging showed new epicentres of activation of the language network after tumor excision. DCS in awake surgery is mandatory to reveal AFR needful to improve the extent of resection preserving the quality of life.

  15. Laser pulse propagation in a meter scale rubidium vapor/plasma cell in AWAKE experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Joulaei, Atefeh; Moody, Joshua; Berti, Nicolas; Kasparian, Jérôme; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Muggli, Patric

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of numerical studies of laser pulse propagating in a 3.5 cm Rb vapor cell in the linear dispersion regime by using a 1D model and a 2D code that has been modified for our special case. The 2D simulation finally aimed at finding laser beam parameters suitable to make the Rb vapor fully ionized to obtain a uniform, 10 m-long, at least 1 mm in radius plasma in the next step for the AWAKE experiment.

  16. Laser pulse propagation in a meter scale rubidium vapor/plasma cell in AWAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Joulaei, Atefeh; Berti, Nicolas; Kasparian, Jerome; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Muggli, Patric

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of numerical studies of laser pulse propagating in a 3.5 cm Rb vapor cell in the linear dispersion regime by using a 1D model and a 2D code that has been modified for our special case. The 2D simulation finally aimed at finding laser beam parameters suitable to make the Rb vapor fully ionized to obtain a uniform, 10 m-long, at least 1 mm in radius plasma in the next step for the AWAKE experiment.

  17. Laser pulse propagation in a meter scale rubidium vapor/plasma cell in AWAKE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulaei, A.; Moody, J.; Berti, N.; Kasparian, J.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of numerical studies of laser pulse propagating in a 3.5 cm Rb vapor cell in the linear dispersion regime by using a 1D model and a 2D code that has been modified for our special case. The 2D simulation finally aimed at finding laser beam parameters suitable to make the Rb vapor fully ionized to obtain a uniform, 10 m-long, at least 1 mm in radius plasma in the next step for the AWAKE experiment.

  18. Comparison of jaw muscle EMG activity in awake and sleep bruxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo; Dreyer Nielsen, Patricia; Haugland, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    TITLE: Comparison of Jaw Muscle EMG Activity in Awake and Sleep Bruxers AUTHORS: E. E. Castrillon, P. Dreyer, M. Haugland, W. Yachida, T. Arima, P. Svensson AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: E.E. Castrillon, P. Dreyer, P. Svensson, Aarhus School of Dentistry, Aarhus C, DENMARK; E.E. Castrillon, P. Svensson...... parameters of the anterior temporalis EMG activity were bursts, duration and episodes per hour. The EMG activity for the first 30 min of recording was discarded to avoid contamination with intentional EMG activity and periods with chewing were omitted from the data set. To allow a direct comparison, jaw...

  19. Awake and unable to move: what can perioperative practitioners do to avoid accidental awareness under general anaesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D

    2015-12-01

    I thought the last thing I would remember about my surgery was counting up to 10 ... but that didn't happen... I could hear people talking, instruments banging, the sound of my heart beat coming from the anaesthetic machine and all of a sudden, that horrible pain digging inside my body. Oh my God! I thought. I'm awake! I tried to tell someone but no sound came out of my mouth. I tried to kick my legs, shake my arms, blink, breathe... Nothing!! I couldn't move a muscle. I was paralysed and awake during my operation... I thought I was going to die!!!

  20. A novel tablet computer platform for advanced language mapping during awake craniotomy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Melanie A; Tam, Fred; Garavaglia, Marco M; Golestanirad, Laleh; Hare, Gregory M T; Cusimano, Michael D; Schweizer, Tom A; Das, Sunit; Graham, Simon J

    2016-04-01

    A computerized platform has been developed to enhance behavioral testing during intraoperative language mapping in awake craniotomy procedures. The system is uniquely compatible with the environmental demands of both the operating room and preoperative functional MRI (fMRI), thus providing standardized testing toward improving spatial agreement between the 2 brain mapping techniques. Details of the platform architecture, its advantages over traditional testing methods, and its use for language mapping are described. Four illustrative cases demonstrate the efficacy of using the testing platform to administer sophisticated language paradigms, and the spatial agreement between intraoperative mapping and preoperative fMRI results. The testing platform substantially improved the ability of the surgeon to detect and characterize language deficits. Use of a written word generation task to assess language production helped confirm areas of speech apraxia and speech arrest that were inadequately characterized or missed with the use of traditional paradigms, respectively. Preoperative fMRI of the analogous writing task was also assistive, displaying excellent spatial agreement with intraoperative mapping in all 4 cases. Sole use of traditional testing paradigms can be limiting during awake craniotomy procedures. Comprehensive assessment of language function will require additional use of more sophisticated and ecologically valid testing paradigms. The platform presented here provides a means to do so.

  1. The discriminatory value of cardiorespiratory interactions in distinguishing awake from anaesthetised states: a randomised observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, D A; Bernjak, A; Draegni, T; Dzeroski, S; Entwistle, M; Horvat, M; Kvandal, P; Landsverk, S A; McClintock, P V E; Musizza, B; Petrovčič, J; Raeder, J; Sheppard, L W; Smith, A F; Stankovski, T; Stefanovska, A

    2015-12-01

    Depth of anaesthesia monitors usually analyse cerebral function with or without other physiological signals; non-invasive monitoring of the measured cardiorespiratory signals alone would offer a simple, practical alternative. We aimed to investigate whether such signals, analysed with novel, non-linear dynamic methods, would distinguish between the awake and anaesthetised states. We recorded ECG, respiration, skin temperature, pulse and skin conductivity before and during general anaesthesia in 27 subjects in good cardiovascular health, randomly allocated to receive propofol or sevoflurane. Mean values, variability and dynamic interactions were determined. Respiratory rate (p = 0.0002), skin conductivity (p = 0.03) and skin temperature (p = 0.00006) changed with sevoflurane, and skin temperature (p = 0.0005) with propofol. Pulse transit time increased by 17% with sevoflurane (p = 0.02) and 11% with propofol (p = 0.007). Sevoflurane reduced the wavelet energy of heart (p = 0.0004) and respiratory (p = 0.02) rate variability at all frequencies, whereas propofol decreased only the heart rate variability below 0.021 Hz (p < 0.05). The phase coherence was reduced by both agents at frequencies below 0.145 Hz (p < 0.05), whereas the cardiorespiratory synchronisation time was increased (p < 0.05). A classification analysis based on an optimal set of discriminatory parameters distinguished with 95% success between the awake and anaesthetised states. We suggest that these results can contribute to the design of new monitors of anaesthetic depth based on cardiovascular signals alone. PMID:26350998

  2. Indirect Self-Modulation Instability Measurement Concept for the AWAKE Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, M; Biskup, B; Burger, S; Gschwendtner, E; Lotov, K V; Mazzoni, S; Vincke, H

    2016-01-01

    AWAKE, the Advanced Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment, is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN using a 400 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN SPS (longitudinal beam size sigma_z = 12 mm) which will be sent into a 10 m long plasma section with a nominal density of approx. 7x10^14 atoms/cm3 (plasma wavelength lambda_p = 1.2mm). In this paper we show that by measuring the time integrated transverse profile of the proton bunch at two locations downstream of the AWAKE plasma, information about the occurrence of the self-modulation instability (SMI) can be inferred. In particular we show that measuring defocused protons with an angle of 1 mrad corresponds to having electric fields in the order of GV/m and fully developed self-modulation of the proton bunch. Additionally, by measuring the defocused beam edge of the self-modulated bunch, information about the growth rate of the instability can be extracted. If hosing instability occurs, it could be detected by measuring a non-uniform defo...

  3. Intact skull chronic windows for mesoscopic wide-field imaging in awake mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Craniotomy-based window implants are commonly used for microscopic imaging, in head-fixed rodents, however their field of view is typically small and incompatible with mesoscopic functional mapping of cortex. New Method We describe a reproducible and simple procedure for chronic through-bone wide-field imaging in awake head-fixed mice providing stable optical access for chronic imaging over large areas of the cortex for months. Results The preparation is produced by applying clear-drying dental cement to the intact mouse skull, followed by a glass coverslip to create a partially transparent imaging surface. Surgery time takes about 30 minutes. A single set-screw provides a stable means of attachment for mesoscale assessment without obscuring the cortical field of view. Comparison with Existing Methods We demonstrate the utility of this method by showing seed-pixel functional connectivity maps generated from spontaneous cortical activity of GCAMP6 signals in both awake and anesthetized mice. Conclusions We propose that the intact skull preparation described here may be used for most longitudinal studies that do not require micron scale resolution and where cortical neural or vascular signals are recorded with intrinsic sensors. PMID:27102043

  4. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Shirin Nokia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4-8 Hz oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs, hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval, when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs.

  5. The stimulus-evoked population response in visual cortex of awake monkey is a propagating wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Lyle; Reynaud, Alexandre; Chavane, Frédéric; Destexhe, Alain

    2014-04-28

    Propagating waves occur in many excitable media and were recently found in neural systems from retina to neocortex. While propagating waves are clearly present under anaesthesia, whether they also appear during awake and conscious states remains unclear. One possibility is that these waves are systematically missed in trial-averaged data, due to variability. Here we present a method for detecting propagating waves in noisy multichannel recordings. Applying this method to single-trial voltage-sensitive dye imaging data, we show that the stimulus-evoked population response in primary visual cortex of the awake monkey propagates as a travelling wave, with consistent dynamics across trials. A network model suggests that this reliability is the hallmark of the horizontal fibre network of superficial cortical layers. Propagating waves with similar properties occur independently in secondary visual cortex, but maintain precise phase relations with the waves in primary visual cortex. These results show that, in response to a visual stimulus, propagating waves are systematically evoked in several visual areas, generating a consistent spatiotemporal frame for further neuronal interactions.

  6. Ultra-minimally invasive cardiac surgery: robotic surgery and awake CABG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of the significant advantages of minimizing surgical trauma has resulted in the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures. Endoscopic surgery confers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery upon patients, and surgical robots have enhanced the ability and precision of surgeons. Consequently, technological advances have facilitated totally endoscopic robotic cardiac surgery, which has allowed surgeons to operate endoscopically, rather than through a median sternotomy, during cardiac surgery. Thus, repairs for structural heart conditions, including mitral valve plasty, atrial septal defect closure, multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting and totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), can be totally endoscopic. On the other hand, general anesthesia remains a risk in patients who have severe carotid artery stenosis before surgery, as well as in those with a history of severe cerebral infarction or respiratory failure. In this study, the potential of a new awake CABG protocol using only epidural anesthesia was investigated for realizing day surgery and was found to be a promising modality for ultra-minimally invasive cardiac surgery. We herein review robot-assisted cardiac surgery and awake off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting as ultra-minimally invasive cardiac surgeries. PMID:25274467

  7. A novel tablet computer platform for advanced language mapping during awake craniotomy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Melanie A; Tam, Fred; Garavaglia, Marco M; Golestanirad, Laleh; Hare, Gregory M T; Cusimano, Michael D; Schweizer, Tom A; Das, Sunit; Graham, Simon J

    2016-04-01

    A computerized platform has been developed to enhance behavioral testing during intraoperative language mapping in awake craniotomy procedures. The system is uniquely compatible with the environmental demands of both the operating room and preoperative functional MRI (fMRI), thus providing standardized testing toward improving spatial agreement between the 2 brain mapping techniques. Details of the platform architecture, its advantages over traditional testing methods, and its use for language mapping are described. Four illustrative cases demonstrate the efficacy of using the testing platform to administer sophisticated language paradigms, and the spatial agreement between intraoperative mapping and preoperative fMRI results. The testing platform substantially improved the ability of the surgeon to detect and characterize language deficits. Use of a written word generation task to assess language production helped confirm areas of speech apraxia and speech arrest that were inadequately characterized or missed with the use of traditional paradigms, respectively. Preoperative fMRI of the analogous writing task was also assistive, displaying excellent spatial agreement with intraoperative mapping in all 4 cases. Sole use of traditional testing paradigms can be limiting during awake craniotomy procedures. Comprehensive assessment of language function will require additional use of more sophisticated and ecologically valid testing paradigms. The platform presented here provides a means to do so. PMID:26473779

  8. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Bauche, J.; Biskup, B.; Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L. K.; Jones, O. R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F. M.; Vorozhtsov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10-20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  9. Association of Awake Bruxism with Khat, Coffee, Tobacco, and Stress among Jazan University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Faeq Ali Quadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective is to assess the prevalence of bruxism among the university students and to check its association with their khat chewing habit. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study is designed using cluster random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to assess awake bruxism and the use of variables like khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress. Chi-square test at 5% significance was used for assessing the association. Logistic regression was also performed after adjusting for covariates. Results. A high response rate (95% was obtained as the distribution and collection of questionnaire was within an hour interval. 85% (63%, males; 22%, females experienced an episode of bruxism at least one time in the past six months. Regression analysis revealed an association of stress (P=0.00; OR = 5.902, 95% CI 2.614–13.325 and khat use (P=0.05; OR = 1.629, 95% CI 0.360–7.368 with bruxism. Interestingly, it is observed that the one who chew khat experienced 3.56 times (95% CI; 2.62–11.22 less pain when compared to the nonusers. Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to assess the association of bruxism with khat chewing. High amount of stress and khat use can be considered as important risk indicators for awake bruxism.

  10. Awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by anesthesia induction in prone patients: A pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Lei; Wang, Ming-Yu; Sun, Hou-Liang; Zhu, Shan-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Anesthesia followed by placement in the prone position takes time and may result in complications. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by anesthesia induction in prone-positioned patients under general anesthesia.Sixty-two patients (ASA physical status I-II) scheduled for awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and prone self-positioning before surgery under general anesthesia were selected. Patient preparation began with detailed preoperative counseling regarding the procedure. Premedication with sedative and antisialagogue was followed by airway anesthesia with topical lidocaine; then, awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation was carried out. The patients then positioned themselves comfortably before induction of general anesthesia. The changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), incidence of coughing or gagging, and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures one-way analysis of variance.Fifty-eight of the 62 patients completed prone self-positioning smoothly. Compared with values before intubation, SBP, DBP, HR, and RPP were slightly increased after intubation, although the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). One patient had moderate coughing and 1 patient had gagging during prone self-positioning, which were tolerable.These findings indicated that awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by induction of anesthesia is safe and feasible alternative to routine prone positioning after induction of general anesthesia. PMID:27512858

  11. Classifying Multiple Types of Hand Motions Using Electrocorticography During Intraoperative Awake Craniotomy & Seizure Monitoring Processes - Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eXie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, some case studies were conducted toclassify several kinds of hand motions from electrocorticography(ECoG signals during intraoperative awake craniotomy &extraoperative seizure monitoring processes. Four subjects (P1,P2 with intractable epilepsy during seizure monitoring and P3,P4 with brain tumor during awake craniotomy participatedin the experiments. Subjects performed three types of handmotions (Grasp, Thumb-finger motion and Index-finger motioncontralateral to the motor cortex covered with ECoG electrodes.Two methods were used for signal processing. Method I:autoregressive (AR model with burg method was applied toextract features, and additional waveform length (WL featurehas been considered, finally the linear discriminative analysis(LDA was used as the classifier. Method II: stationary subspaceanalysis (SSA was applied for data preprocessing, and thecommon spatial pattern (CSP was used for feature extractionbefore LDA decoding process. Applying method I, the threeclassaccuracy of P1□P4 were 90.17%, 96.00%, 91.77% and92.95% respectively. For method II, the three-class accuracy ofP1□P4 were 72.00%, 93.17%, 95.22% and 90.36% respectively.This study verified the possibility of decoding multiple handmotion types during an awake craniotomy, which is the firststep towards dexterous neuroprosthetic control during surgicalimplantation, in order to verify the optimal placement of electrodes.The accuracy during awake craniotomy was comparableto results during seizure monitoring. This study also indicatedthat ECoG was a promising approach for precise identificationof eloquent cortex during awake craniotomy, and might forma promising BCI system that could benefit both patients andneurosurgeons.

  12. Long-term optical imaging of intrinsic signals in anesthetized and awake monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Anna W.

    2007-04-01

    Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

  13. Spontaneous high-gamma band activity reflects functional organization of auditory cortex in the awake macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-06-01

    In the absence of sensory stimuli, spontaneous activity in the brain has been shown to exhibit organization at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In the macaque auditory cortex, responses to acoustic stimuli are tonotopically organized within multiple, adjacent frequency maps aligned in a caudorostral direction on the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus. Here, we used chronic microelectrocorticography to investigate the correspondence between sensory maps and spontaneous neural fluctuations in the auditory cortex. We first mapped tonotopic organization across 96 electrodes spanning approximately two centimeters along the primary and higher auditory cortex. In separate sessions, we then observed that spontaneous activity at the same sites exhibited spatial covariation that reflected the tonotopic map of the STP. This observation demonstrates a close relationship between functional organization and spontaneous neural activity in the sensory cortex of the awake monkey. PMID:22681693

  14. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located.

  15. Cognitive outcome after awake surgery for left and right hemisphere tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke De Witte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Awake surgery in eloquent brain regions is performed to preserve language and other cognitive functions. Although in general, no major permanent cognitive deficits are found after awake brain surgery, clinically relevant impairments are detected and cognitive recovery takes longer than generally assumed (3 months (Santini et al., 2012; Satoer et al., 2014; Talacchi et al., 2012. However, as there is a lack of extensive cognitive follow-up data it is unknown when recovery takes place. In addition, the influence of critical language sites identified by direct electrical stimulation (DES and tumour variables (e.g. left/right tumour location, tumour grade on long-term cognitive findings remains unclear. METHODS: In this longitudinal study the short-term and long-term effects of awake surgery on cognition were investigated in 40 patients (29 patients with left and 11 with right hemisphere tumours. Language, memory, attentional, executive and visuospatial functions were assessed in the preoperative phase, at short-term follow-up (6 weeks postsurgery and at long-term follow-up (6 months postsurgery with a neuropsychological protocol. In addition, the effect of intraoperative critical language sites, left/right tumour location, hemispheric language dominance, extent of resection and adjuvant treatment on cognitive change was studied. RESULTS: Both pre- and postoperatively, the mean performance of the patients was worse (impairment = z-score below -2 than the performance of the normal population in the language domain, the memory domain, the attentional and executive domain (p .05. Awake surgery negatively affected language, attentional and executive functions but not memory and visuospatial functions. At 6 weeks postsurgery, performance on all language, attentional and executive tasks deteriorated (object/action naming, semantic/phonological fluency from DuLIP, Token test; Trail Making Test A & B, Stroop I, II, & III. At 6 months

  16. Ultrafast CT in the diagnosis of sleep apnea during awake tidal breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With sleep there is normally a decrease in neural output to upper airway muscles. If this decrease is superimposed on a structurally abnormal airway, then sleep apnea may result. Ultrafast CT axially images the upper airway in near real time. The authors compared 11 awake patients with sleep apnea with 24 healthy volunteers during quiet tidal breathing. They found that apneic patients have a small oropharyngeal airway (31.3 mm2 +- 30.2 vs 134.2 mm2 +- 46.6[P=<.0001]). Apneic patients also have significant collapsibility of the nasopharynx (75% +- 18% vs 27% +- 14% [P=<.0001]). Ultrafast CT gives dynamic anatomic definition of the upper airway and provides a means to eulcidate further the pathogenesis of sleep apnea

  17. Neurons Differentiated from Transplanted Stem Cells Respond Functionally to Acoustic Stimuli in the Awake Monkey Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing-Kuan; Wang, Wen-Chao; Zhai, Rong-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Rizak, Joshua; Li, Ling; Xu, Li-Qi; Liu, Li; Pan, Ming-Ke; Hu, Ying-Zhou; Ghanemi, Abdelaziz; Wu, Jing; Yang, Li-Chuan; Li, Hao; Lv, Long-Bao; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Yong; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian; Wang, Zheng-Bo

    2016-07-26

    Here, we examine whether neurons differentiated from transplanted stem cells can integrate into the host neural network and function in awake animals, a goal of transplanted stem cell therapy in the brain. We have developed a technique in which a small "hole" is created in the inferior colliculus (IC) of rhesus monkeys, then stem cells are transplanted in situ to allow for investigation of their integration into the auditory neural network. We found that some transplanted cells differentiated into mature neurons and formed synaptic input/output connections with the host neurons. In addition, c-Fos expression increased significantly in the cells after acoustic stimulation, and multichannel recordings indicated IC specific tuning activities in response to auditory stimulation. These results suggest that the transplanted cells have the potential to functionally integrate into the host neural network.

  18. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located. PMID:25526520

  19. Bite Force and Pattern Measurements for Dental Pain Assessment in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junad; Benoliel, Rafael; Herzberg, Uri; Mannes, Andrew J.; Caudle, Robert M.; Young, Andrew; Eliav, Eli

    2008-01-01

    We present simple method to assess dental pain in the awake rat. Using a sensitive strain gauge we examined changes in bite strength and bite pattern in rats following dental injury. Rats with dental injury displayed a significant reduction in mean peak bite strength and an altered bite-cluster pattern. Both changes in the dental injury rats were reversed by an analgesic dose of morphine, and this could be reversed with naloxone. These changes were not observed in naive control animals. This simple method significantly improves our ability to evaluate dental pain syndromes. PMID:18926882

  20. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  1. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  2. Awake craniotomy for cortical language mapping and resection of an arteriovenous malformation adjacent to eloquent areas under general anesthesia — A hybrid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pree Nimmannitya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgery of arteriovenous malformation (AVM is sometimes challenging and carries a high risk of morbidity, especially when the AVM is located in an eloquent area of the brain. Unlike gliomas, awake craniotomy has not been widely used for resection of AVM. The authors present a case of an AVM in the left frontal lobe which was successfully removed with the aid of awake craniotomy with cortical language mapping. In conclusion, awake craniotomy for functional cortical mapping is beneficial for AVM resection, especially when the lesion is located in or adjacent to eloquent areas of the brain. A hybrid approach with functional mapping in the awake condition and AVM resection under general anesthesia may be useful in selected cases. Furthermore, en bloc resection with the nidus embedded in the brain parenchyma may be a useful means of removal to reduce operation time and intraoperative blood loss if there is no apparent functional cortex surrounding the AVM, as in the present case.

  3. Predictors of Failure of Awake Regional Anesthesia for Neonatal Hernia Repair : Data from the General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study--Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E; de Graaff, Jurgen C; Morton, Neil S; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes

  4. Predictors of Failure of Awake Regional Anesthesia for Neonatal Hernia Repair : Data from the General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E; de Graaff, Jurgen C; Morton, Neil S; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J; Absalom, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes

  5. Chaos analysis of EEG during isoflurane-induced loss of righting in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, M B; Bland, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that electroencephalogram (EEG) signals generate chaotic strange attractors and the shape of these attractors correlate with depth of anesthesia. We applied chaos analysis to frontal cortical and hippocampal micro-EEG signals from implanted microelectrodes (layer 4 and CA1, respectively). Rats were taken to and from loss of righting reflex (LORR) with isoflurane and behavioral measures were compared to attractor shape. Resting EEG signals at LORR differed markedly from awake signals, more similar to slow wave sleep signals, and easily discerned in raw recordings (high amplitude slow waves), and in fast Fourier transform analysis (FFT; increased delta power), in good agreement with previous studies. EEG activation stimulated by turning rats on their side, to test righting, produced signals quite similar to awake resting state EEG signals. That is, the high amplitude slow wave activity changed to low amplitude fast activity that lasted for several seconds, before returning to slow wave activity. This occurred regardless of whether the rat was able to right itself, or not. Testing paw pinch and tail clamp responses produced similar EEG activations, even from deep anesthesia when burst suppression dominated the spontaneous EEG. Chaotic attractor shape was far better at discerning between these awake-like signals, at loss of responses, than was FFT analysis. Comparisons are provided between FFT and chaos analysis of EEG during awake walking, slow wave sleep, and isoflurane-induced effects at several depths of anesthesia. Attractors readily discriminated between natural sleep and isoflurane-induced "delta" activity. Chaotic attractor shapes changed gradually through the transition from awake to LORR, indicating that this was not an on/off like transition, but rather a point along a continuum of brain states. PMID:25360091

  6. DO OPIOIDS EVOKE THE RELEASE OF SEROTONIN IN THE SPINAL-CORD - AN INVIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY OF THE REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR SEROTONIN IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATOS, FF; ROLLEMA, H; BROWN, JL; BASBAUM, AI

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the regulation of serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the dorsal spinal cord of awake, freely moving rats, using microdialysis coupled to HPLC with electrochemical detection and tested the hypothesis that opioids exert their analge

  7. Measurement of lung function in awake 2-4-year-old asthmatic children during methacholine challenge and acute asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated three techniques for testing of lung function in young awake children. We compared measurements by the forced or impulse oscillation technique (IOS), the interrupter technique (IT), and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen (tcPo2) with concomitant measurements of specific ai...... function. The techniques are non-invasive, are not dependent on the active co-operation or sedation of the subjects, and therefore are well suited for routine use in young children....

  8. Evaluation of awake burr hole drainage for chronic subdural hematoma in geriatric patients: a retrospective analysis of 3 years

    OpenAIRE

    Serdal Albayrak; ibrahim Burak Atci; Necati Ucler; Hakan Yilmaz; Metin Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of burr hole drainage under local anesthesia in geriatric patients with chronic subdural hematoma. Material and Methods: This retrospective study involved 21 geriatric patients with chronic subdural hematoma who applied to the department of neurosurgery in an education and research hospital between 2011 and 2014. Sedoanalgesia was performed on 21 patients, then awake burr hole drainage was performed after scalp and perios...

  9. Interhemispheric transfalcine approach and awake cortical mapping for resection of peri-atrial gliomas associated with the central lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-02-01

    Medial posterior frontal and parietal gliomas extending to the peri-atrial region are difficult to reach surgically because of the working angle required to expose the lateral aspect of the tumor and the proximity of the tumor to the sensorimotor lobule; retraction of the sensorimotor cortex may lead to morbidity. The interhemispheric transfalcine approach is favorable and safe for resection of medial hemispheric tumors adjacent to the falx cerebri, but the literature on this approach is scarce. Awake cortical mapping using this operative route for tumors associated with the sensorimotor cortex has not been previously reported to our knowledge. We present the first case of a right medial posterior frontoparietal oligoastrocytoma that was resected through the interhemispheric transfalcine approach using awake cortical and subcortical mapping. Through a contralateral frontoparietal craniotomy, we excised a section of the falx and exposed the contralateral medial hemisphere. Cortical stimulation allowed localization of the supplementary motor cortex, and suprathreshold stimulation mapping excluded the primary motor cortex corresponding to the leg area. Gross total tumor resection was accomplished without any intraoperative or postoperative deficits. Awake cortical mapping using the contralateral transfalcine approach allows a "cross-court" operative route to map functional cortices and resect peri-atrial low-grade gliomas. This technique can minimize the otherwise necessary retraction on the ipsilateral hemisphere through an ipsilateral craniotomy.

  10. Effects of hypercapnia on variability of normal respiratory behavior in awake cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlyk, P C; Jennings, D B

    1987-03-01

    Resting quiet awake cats breathing air in a steady state have a range of respiratory behavior, and this encompasses nonpurring and purring (D. B. Jennings and P. C. Szlyk, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 63: 148-154, 1985). On a given study day, individual cats usually breathed in a limited part of their potential respiratory range. Respiratory pattern, such as average breath frequency (f) and average tidal volume (VT) utilized for a given level of ventilation (V), could be predicted when cats breathed air; as well, inspiratory (TI) and expiratory (TE) times were specific for a given breath f. Inhalation of 2% and 4% CO2 in air caused an average increase in ventilation of 16 and 100%, respectively but breath-to-breath variability of V, f, and VT persisted at each fractional concentration of inspired CO2 (FICO2). The range of different V utilized breath to breath when breathing 2% CO2 overlapped with V during air control studies. Substantial overlap with control V also occurred in three of six cats when breathing 4% CO2. The most consistent effect of progressive hypercapnia was to increase VT and decrease f at a given level of V; increase in V during hypercapnia was accounted for by an increase in mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI). Hypercapnia also caused the fraction of breathing cycle devoted to inspiration (TI/TT) to increase at low f but not at high f.

  11. PET measured evoked cerebral blood flow responses in an awake monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a method to measure task-related regional cerebral blood flow (BF) responses in an awake, trained monkey using positron emission tomography (PET) and H215O. We trained an animal with operant conditioning using only positive reinforcement to climb unassisted into a modified primate chair that was then positioned in the PET scanner. A special headholder and acrylic skull cap permitted precise placement and accurate repositioning. We measured BF qualitatively with bolus injection of H215O and 40-s scan. Each session included scans at rest interposed with scans during vibration of a forepaw. Regional responses were identified using subtraction image analysis. After global normalization, a resting image was subtracted on a pixel-by-pixel basis from a comparable image collected during vibration. The region of peak response occurred in contralateral sensorimotor cortex with a mean magnitude of 11.6% (+/- 3.2%) of the global mean value for 10 separate experiments, significantly greater than the mean qualitative BF change (0.4 +/- 3.6%; p less than 0.00001) in the same region for seven rest-rest pairs. This newly developed technique forms the basis for a wide variety of experiments

  12. High-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake and drug-responsive vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xudong; Wang, Shiqi; Yu, Xudong; Liu, Zhuguo; Wang, Fei; Li, Wai Tsun; Cheng, Shuk Han; Dai, Qiuyun; Shi, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array system ("Fish-Trap") that enables high-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake larval zebrafish. Unlike the commonly practiced larva-processing methods using a rigid gel or a capillary tube, which are laborious and time-consuming, the hydrodynamic design of our microfluidic chip allows automatic, gel-free, and anesthetic-free processing of tens of larvae for microscopic imaging with single-cell resolution. Notably, this system provides the capability to directly couple pharmaceutical stimuli with real-time recording of neural activity in a large number of animals, and the local and global effects of pharmacoactive drugs on the nervous system can be directly visualized and evaluated by analyzing drug-induced functional perturbation within or across different brain regions. Using this technology, we tested a set of neurotoxin peptides and obtained new insights into how to exploit neurotoxin derivatives as therapeutic agents. The novel and versatile "Fish-Trap" technology can be readily unitized to study other stimulus (optical, acoustic, or physical) associated functional brain circuits using similar experimental strategies.

  13. Baroreceptor control of heart rate in the awake toad: peripheral autonomic effectors and arterial baroreceptor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-da-Silva, L M; Menescal-de-Oliveira, L; Hoffmann, A

    2000-04-12

    Systemic injection of sodium nitroprusside (30 microg/kg, i.v.) in the awake Bufo paracnemis toad induced a fall in arterial blood pressure and tachycardia. This tachycardia, but not the hypotension, was significantly reduced in toads with bilateral electrolytic lesion of the caudal and commissural regions of the solitary tract nucleus and in animals with transection of the spinal cord, 2 mm below the obex. This indicates that the tachycardia is reflex, depends on the integrity of the solitary tract nucleus and is due to descending spinal autonomic activation. Pretreatment with propranolol (4 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced the tachycardia but did not block it completely, showing the importance of beta-adrenoceptors in its genesis. The reflex increase in heart rate induced by nitroprusside was not statistically significant in animals with bilateral section of the laryngeal nerve, whose baroreceptor fibers originate from the pulmocutaneous artery or in animals in which the bilateral section of the laryngeal nerve was performed together with section of the glossopharyngeal nerves, which incorporate fibers originating from the carotid labyrinth. The reduction of the reflex tachycardia was significant in toads with aortic arch denervation alone or combined with section of the laryngeal nerves or in animals with complete denervation of the three baroreceptors areas. These results suggest that the region of the aortic arch, when submitted to unloading, is the most important baroreceptor zone for cardiac compensation in toads.

  14. Neurobehavioral evidence for individual differences in canine cognitive control: an awake fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter F; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Based on behavioral evidence, the domestic dog has emerged as a promising comparative model of human self-control. However, while research on human inhibition has probed heterogeneity and neuropathology through an integration of neural and behavioral evidence, there are no parallel data exploring the brain mechanisms involved in canine inhibition. Here, using a combination of cognitive testing and awake neuroimaging in domestic dogs, we provide evidence precisely localizing frontal brain regions underpinning response inhibition in this species and demonstrate the dynamic relationship between these regions and behavioral measures of control. Thirteen dogs took part in an in-scanner go/no-go task and an out-of-scanner A-not-B test. A frontal brain region was identified showing elevated neural activity for all subjects during successful inhibition in the scanner, and dogs showing greater mean brain activation in this region produced fewer false alarms. Better performance in the go/no-go task was also correlated with fewer errors in the out-of-scanner A-not-B test, suggesting that dogs show consistent neurobehavioral individual differences in cognitive control, as is seen in humans. These findings help establish parity between human and canine mechanisms of self-control and pave the way for future comparative studies examining their function and dysfunction. PMID:27062134

  15. Coherent 25- to 35-Hz Oscillations in the Sensorimotor Cortex of Awake Behaving Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Venkatesh N.; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    1992-06-01

    Synchronous 25- to 35-Hz oscillations were observed in local field potentials and unit activity in sensorimotor cortex of awake rhesus monkeys. The oscillatory episodes occurred often when the monkeys retrieved raisins from a Kluver board or from unseen locations using somatosensory feedback; they occurred less often during performance of repetitive wrist flexion and extension movements. The amplitude, duration, and frequency of oscillations were not directly related to movement parameters in behaviors studied so far. The occurrence of the oscillations was not consistently related to bursts of activity in forearm muscles, but cycle-triggered averages of electromyograms revealed synchronous modulation in flexor and extensor muscles. The phase of the oscillations changed continuously from the surface to the deeper layers of the cortex, reversing their polarity completely at depths exceeding 800 μm. The oscillations could become synchronized over a distance of 14 mm mediolaterally in precentral cortex. Coherent oscillations could also occur at pre- and postcentral sites separated by an estimated tangential intracortical distance of 20 mm. Activity of single units was commonly seen to burst in synchrony with field potential oscillations. These findings suggest that such oscillations may facilitate interactions between cells during exploratory and manipulative movements, requiring attention to sensorimotor integration.

  16. Nicotine effects on regional cerebral blood flow in awake, resting tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, E F; Minoshima, S; Guthrie, S; Ohl, L; Ni, L; Koeppe, R A; Zubieta, J K

    2000-12-01

    The hypothesis for this research was that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) would increase following nasal nicotine administration to overnight abstinent tobacco smokers in relationship to the known brain distribution of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). Nine male and nine female healthy adult smokers were studied. They abstained overnight from tobacco products for 10 or more hours prior to study the next morning. Nicotine nasal spray was given in doses of 1-2.5 mg total with half in each nostril while the subject was awake and resting in a supine position. Oleoresin of pepper solution in a similar volume was used as an active placebo to control for the irritating effects of nicotine. Both substances were given single blind to the subjects. Positron emission tomography (PET) with H(2)(15)O was used to measure rCBF. The data from each subject volunteer were normalized to global activity to better assess regional brain changes. Both nasal nicotine and pepper spray produced similar increases in CBF in somesthetic area II, consistent with the irritant effects of both substances. The mean rCBF effects of nasal pepper were subtracted from those of nasal nicotine to determine the actions of nicotine alone. The latter produced increases in rCBF in the thalamus, pons, Brodman area 17 of the visual cortex, and cerebellum. Some brain areas that contain a large number of nAChRs, such as the thalamus, showed an increase in CBF. Other areas that have few nAChRs, such as the cerebellum, also showed an increase in relative CBF. The hippocampal/parahippocampal areas showed greater regional decreases (left) and lesser increases (right) in CBF that correlated with the increase in plasma arterial nicotine concentrations. The results obtained indicate complex primary and secondary effects of nicotine in which only some regional brain CBF changes correlate with the known distribution of nAChR. No gender differences were noted. PMID:11020234

  17. Ventilatory stability to transient CO2 disturbances in hyperoxia and normoxia in awake humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J; Bruce, E N

    1997-08-01

    Modarreszadeh and Bruce (J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 2765-2775, 1994) proposed that continuous random disturbances in arterial PCO2 are more likely to elicit ventilatory oscillation patterns that mimic periodic breathing in normoxia than in hyperoxia. To test this hypothesis experimentally, in nine awake humans we applied pseudorandom binary inspired CO2 fraction stimulation in normoxia and hyperoxia to derive the closed-loop and open-loop ventilatory responses to a brief CO2 disturbance in terms of impulse responses and transfer functions. The closed-loop impulse response has a significantly higher peak value [0.143 +/- 0.071 vs. 0.079 +/- 0.034 (SD) l . min-1 . 0.01 l CO2-1, P = 0.014] and a significantly shorter 50% response duration (42.7 +/- 13.3 vs. 72.3 +/- 27.6 s, P = 0.020) in normoxia than in hyperoxia. Therefore, the ventilatory responses to transient CO2 disturbances are less damped (but generally not oscillatory) in normoxia than in hyperoxia. For the closed-loop transfer function, the gain in normoxia increased significantly (P < 0.0005), while phase delay decreased significantly (P < 0.0005). The gain increased by 108.5, 186.0, and 240.6%, while phase delay decreased by 26.0, 18.1, and 17.3%, at 0. 01, 0.03, and 0.05 Hz, respectively. Changes in the same direction were found for the open-loop system. Generally, an oscillatory ventilatory response to a small transient CO2 disturbance is unlikely during wakefulness. However, changes in parameters that lead to additional increases in chemoreflex loop gain are more likely to initiate oscillations in normoxia than in hyperoxia. PMID:9262442

  18. Techniques for collecting saliva from awake, unrestrained, adult monkeys for cortisol assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, C K; Tiefenbacher, S; Jorgensen, M J; Meyer, J S; Novak, M A

    2000-10-01

    Cortisol levels serve as an index of pituitary-adrenal activity in nonhuman primates. In adult monkeys, cortisol is normally measured in blood (typically requiring restraint or sedation) or urine (reflecting a state rather than point estimate). In contrast, saliva collection is less invasive than drawing blood and allows for repeated sampling within a short period of time. Although protocols exist for collecting saliva from young monkeys, these procedures are inadequate for awake, unrestrained adult animals. Our laboratory has developed two methods for collecting saliva from adult rhesus monkeys: a "screen" method, which involves licking screen-covered gauze, and a "pole" method, which involves sucking and chewing on an attached rope. Twenty-three adult male rhesus monkeys were used to evaluate these two methods. After a period of adaptation, saliva samples were collected from 21 of 23 subjects. Saliva collection was faster with the pole than with the screen method (P method was not suitable for some animals because of their tendency to bite off the attached rope. An analysis of 19 saliva samples revealed a mean cortisol concentration of 0.84 microg/dl (range 0.27-1.77 microg/dl). There was no statistically significant difference in cortisol value between methods used (P > 0.22). The influence of the flavoring on the cortisol assay was tested, and was found to have no significant effect (P > 0.28). Our results indicate that either technique can be used to safely collect saliva from unrestrained adult monkeys. Choice of technique will depend on the proclivities of individual monkeys.

  19. Stimulation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex enhances ventricular contractility in awake dogs: a mathematical analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Moslehpour, Mohsen; Hammond, Robert L; Ichinose, Masashi; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Evan, Sell; O'Leary, Donal S; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2014-08-15

    The cardiopulmonary baroreflex responds to an increase in central venous pressure (CVP) by decreasing total peripheral resistance and increasing heart rate (HR) in dogs. However, the direction of ventricular contractility change is not well understood. The aim was to elucidate the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility during normal physiological conditions via a mathematical analysis. Spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations in maximal ventricular elastance (Emax), which is perhaps the best available index of ventricular contractility, CVP, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and HR were measured from awake dogs at rest before and after β-adrenergic receptor blockade. An autoregressive exogenous input model was employed to jointly identify the three causal transfer functions relating beat-to-beat fluctuations in CVP to Emax (CVP → Emax), which characterizes the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, ABP to Emax, which characterizes the arterial baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, and HR to Emax, which characterizes the force-frequency relation. The CVP → Emax transfer function showed a static gain of 0.037 ± 0.010 ml(-1) (different from zero; P < 0.05) and an overall time constant of 3.2 ± 1.2 s. Hence, Emax would increase and reach steady state in ∼16 s in response to a step increase in CVP, without any change to ABP or HR, due to the cardiopulmonary baroreflex. Following β-adrenergic receptor blockade, the CVP → Emax transfer function showed a static gain of 0.0007 ± 0.0113 ml(-1) (different from control; P < 0.10). Hence, Emax would change little in steady state in response to a step increase in CVP. Stimulation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex increases ventricular contractility through β-adrenergic receptor system mediation.

  20. The conjugacy of the vestibulo-ocular reflex evoked by single labyrinth stimulation in awake monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuehui; Xu, Youguo; Simpson, Ivra; Jeffcoat, Ben; Mustain, William; Zhou, Wu

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is conjugate when measured in the dark with minimal vergence. But the neural basis of the VOR conjugacy remains to be identified. In the present study, we measured the VOR conjugacy during single labyrinth stimulation to examine whether the VOR conjugacy depends on reciprocal stimulation of the two labyrinths. There are conflicting views on this issue. First, since the vestibular signals carried by the ascending tract of Deiters' are distributed exclusively to the motoneurons of the ipsilateral eye, the neural innervations after single labyrinth stimulation are not symmetrical for the two eyes. Thus, single labyrinth stimulation may generate disjunctive VOR responses. Second, the only published study on this issue was an electrooculography (EOG) study that reported disjunctive VOR responses during unilateral caloric irrigation (Wolfe in Ann Otol 88:79-85, 1979). Third, the VOR during unilateral caloric stimulation performed in clinical vestibular tests is routinely perceived to be conjugate. To resolve these conflicting views, the present study examined the VOR conjugacy during single labyrinth stimulation by recording binocular eye position signals in awake monkeys with a search coil technique. In contradiction to the previous EOG study and the prediction based on the asymmetry of the unilateral brainstem VOR circuits, we found that the VOR during unilateral caloric irrigation was conjugate over a wide range of conditions. We conclude that the net neural innervations received by the two eyes are symmetrical after single labyrinth stimulation, despite the apparent asymmetry in the unilateral VOR pathways. A novel role for the ascending tract of Deiters' in the VOR conjugacy is proposed.

  1. Awake reactivation of emotional memory traces through hippocampal-neocortical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-07-01

    Emotionally arousing experiences are typically well remembered not only due to immediate effects at encoding, but also through further strengthening of subsequent consolidation processes. A large body of research shows how neuromodulatory systems promote synaptic consolidation. However, how emotionally arousing experiences alter systems-level interactions, presumably a consequence of modifications at a synaptic level, remains unclear. Animal models predict that memory traces are maintained by spontaneous reactivations across hippocampal-neocortical circuits during "offline" periods such as post-learning rest, and suggest this might be stronger for emotional memories. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in humans using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Participants underwent a two-category localizer paradigm followed by a categorical differential delay fear conditioning paradigm interleaved with blocks of awake rest. Counterbalanced across participants, exemplars of one category (CS+), but not the other (CS-), were paired with mild electrical shocks. Fear recall (differential conditioned pupil dilation) was tested 24h later. Analyses of the localizer paradigm replicate earlier work showing category-specific response patterns in neocortical higher-order visual regions. Critically, we show that during post-learning rest, spontaneous reactivation of these neocortical patterns was stronger for the CS+ than the CS- category. Furthermore, hippocampal connectivity with the regions exhibiting these reactivations predicted strength of fear recall 24h later. We conclude that emotional arousal during learning promotes spontaneous post-learning reactivation of neocortical representations of recent experiences, which leads to better memory when coinciding with hippocampal connectivity. Our findings reveal a systems-level mechanism that may explain the persistence of long-term memory for emotional experiences. PMID:27095308

  2. Fast transmission from the dopaminergic ventral midbrain to the sensory cortex of awake primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Judith; Happel, Max F K; Gorkin, Alexander G; Huang, Ying; Scheich, Henning; Brosch, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the increasing evidence that auditory cortex is under control of dopaminergic cell structures of the ventral midbrain, we studied how the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra affect neuronal activity in auditory cortex. We electrically stimulated 567 deep brain sites in total within and in the vicinity of the two dopaminergic ventral midbrain structures and at the same time, recorded local field potentials and neuronal discharges in cortex. In experiments conducted on three awake macaque monkeys, we found that electrical stimulation of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain resulted in short-latency (~35 ms) phasic activations in all cortical layers of auditory cortex. We were also able to demonstrate similar activations in secondary somatosensory cortex and superior temporal polysensory cortex. The electrically evoked responses in these parts of sensory cortex were similar to those previously described for prefrontal cortex. Moreover, these phasic responses could be reversibly altered by the dopamine D1-receptor antagonist SCH23390 for several tens of minutes. Thus, we speculate that the dopaminergic ventral midbrain exerts a temporally precise, phasic influence on sensory cortex using fast-acting non-dopaminergic transmitters and that their effects are modulated by dopamine on a longer timescale. Our findings suggest that some of the information carried by the neuronal discharges in the dopaminergic ventral midbrain, such as the motivational value or the motivational salience, is transmitted to auditory cortex and other parts of sensory cortex. The mesocortical pathway may thus contribute to the representation of non-auditory events in the auditory cortex and to its associative functions.

  3. Predominant role of gluconeogenesis in the hepatic glycogen repletion of diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Giaccari, A; Rossetti, L.

    1992-01-01

    Liver glycogen formation can occur via the direct (glucose----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen) or indirect (glucose----C3 compounds----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen) pathways. In the present study we have examined the effect of hyperglycemia on the pathways of hepatic glycogenesis, estimated from liver uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPglucose) specific activities, and on peripheral (muscle) glucose metabolism in awake, unstressed control and 90% pancreatectomized, diabetic rats. Under identical...

  4. Stronger efferent suppression of cochlear neural potentials by contralateral acoustic stimulation in awake than in anesthetized chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eAedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of sensory cells in the mammalian cochlea, inner hair cells, which make synaptic contact with auditory-nerve afferent fibers, and outer hair cells that are innervated by crossed and uncrossed medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent fibers. Contralateral acoustic stimulation activates the uncrossed efferent MOC fibers reducing cochlear neural responses, thus modifying the input to the central auditory system. The chinchilla, among all studied mammals, displays the lowest percentage of uncrossed MOC fibers raising questions about the strength and frequency distribution of the contralateral-sound effect in this species. On the other hand, MOC effects on cochlear sensitivity have been mainly studied in anesthetized animals and since the MOC-neuron activity depends on the level of anesthesia, it is important to assess the influence of anesthesia in the strength of efferent effects. Seven adult chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger were chronically implanted with round-window electrodes in both cochleae. We compared the effect of contralateral sound in awake and anesthetized condition. Compound action potentials (CAP and cochlear microphonics (CM were measured in the ipsilateral cochlea in response to tones in absence and presence of contralateral sound. Control measurements performed after middle-ear muscles section in one animal discarded any possible middle-ear reflex activation. Contralateral sound produced CAP amplitude reductions in all chinchillas, with suppression effects greater by about 1-3 dB in awake than in anesthetized animals. In contrast, CM amplitude increases of up to 1.9 dB were found in only three awake chinchillas. In both conditions the strongest efferent effects were produced by contralateral tones at frequencies equal or close to those of ipsilateral tones. Contralateral CAP suppressions for 1-6 kHz ipsilateral tones corresponded to a span of uncrossed MOC fiber innervation reaching at least the central third of the

  5. On-line analysis of middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) for monitoring depth of anaesthesia in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E W; Nygaard, M; Henneberg, S W

    1998-01-01

    in rats. The AEP was elicited with a click stimulus and monitored in an 80 ms window synchronised to the stimulus. The AEP was extracted applying an Auto Regressive Model with Exogenous Input (ARX-model) from which a Depth of Anaesthesia Index (DAI) was calculated. DAI was normalised to 100 while awake...... rats. The decrease in the DAI correlated well with the loss of stimulus response. In conclusion, MLAEP could be used as an indicator of depth of anaesthesia in rats during Hypnorm vet. and Dormicum administration. However studies applying other anaesthetic drugs should be carried out, before...

  6. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Macario; Ruoff, Chad M.; Kawai, Makoto; Modi, Rahul; Arbee, Jabri; Hekmat, Anahid; Robertson, Matthew; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (rs = 0.60 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0088), apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p = 0.039), lowest oxygen saturation (rs = −0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p = 0.048), and oxygen desaturation index (rs = 0.62 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0057). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP. PMID:26881088

  7. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure. Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (rs=0.60 [strong positive relationship], p=0.0088, apnea-hypopnea index (rs=0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p=0.039, lowest oxygen saturation (rs=-0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p=0.048, and oxygen desaturation index (rs=0.62 [strong positive relationship], p=0.0057. Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP.

  8. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Macario; Ruoff, Chad M; Kawai, Makoto; Modi, Rahul; Arbee, Jabri; Hekmat, Anahid; Robertson, Matthew; Zaghi, Soroush; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (r s = 0.60 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0088), apnea-hypopnea index (r s = 0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p = 0.039), lowest oxygen saturation (r s = -0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p = 0.048), and oxygen desaturation index (r s = 0.62 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0057). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP.

  9. Decapitation in rats: latency to unconsciousness and the 'wave of death'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina M van Rijn

    Full Text Available The question whether decapitation is a humane method of euthanasia in awake animals is being debated. To gather arguments in this debate, obsolete rats were decapitated while recording the EEG, both of awake rats and of anesthetized rats. Following decapitation a fast and global loss of power of the EEG was observed; the power in the 13-100 Hz frequency band, expressing cognitive activity, decreased according to an exponential decay function to half the initial value within 4 seconds. Whereas the pre-decapitation EEG of the anesthetized animals showed a burst suppression pattern quite different from the awake animals, the power in the postdecapitation EEG did not differ between the two groups. This might indicate that either the power of the EEG does not correlate well with consciousness or that consciousness is briefly regained in the anesthetized group after decapitation. Remarkably, after 50 seconds (awake group or 80 seconds (anesthetized group following decapitation, a high amplitude slow wave was observed. The EEG before this wave had more power than the signal after the wave. This wave might be due to a simultaneous massive loss of membrane potentials of the neurons. Still functioning ion channels, which keep the membrane potential intact before the wave, might explain the observed power difference. Two conclusions were drawn from this experiment. It is likely that consciousness vanishes within seconds after decapitation, implying that decapitation is a quick and not an inhumane method of euthanasia. It seems that the massive wave which can be recorded approximately one minute after decapitation reflects the ultimate border between life and death. This observation might have implications in the discussions on the appropriate time for organ donation.

  10. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  11. Apnea after Awake Regional and General Anesthesia in Infants : The General Anesthesia Compared to Spinal Anesthesia Study-Comparing Apnea and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes, a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, Andrew J.; Morton, Neil S.; Arnup, Sarah J.; De Graaff, Jurgen C.; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; Frawley, Geoff; Hunt, Rodney W.; Hardy, Pollyanna; Khotcholava, Magda; Von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S.; Wilton, Niall; Tuo, Pietro; Salvo, Ida; Ormond, Gillian; Stargatt, Robyn; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; McCann, Mary Ellen; Lee, Katherine; Sheppard, Suzette; Hartmann, Penelope; Ragg, Philip; Backstrom, Marie; Costi, David; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S.; Knottenbelt, Graham; Montobbio, Giovanni; Mameli, Leila; Giribaldi, Gaia; Prato, Alessio Pini; Mattioli, Girolamo; Wolfler, Andrea; Izzo, Francesca; Sonzogni, Valter; Van Gool, Jose T D G; Numan, Sandra C.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Hagenaars, J. H M; Absalom, Anthony R.; Hoekstra, Frouckje M.; Volkers, Martin J.; Furue, Koto; Gaudreault, Josee; Berde, Charles; Soriano, Sulpicio; Young, Vanessa; Sethna, Navil; Kovatsis, Pete; Cravero, Joseph P.; Bellinger, David; Marmor, Jacki; Lynn, Anne; Ivanova, Iskra; Hunyady, Agnes; Verma, Shilpa; Polaner, David; Thomas, Joss; Meuller, Martin; Haret, Denisa; Szmuk, Peter; Steiner, Jeffery; Kravitz, Brian; Suresh, Santhanam; Hays, Stephen R.; Taenzer, Andreas H.; Maxwell, Lynne G.; Williams, Robert K.; Bell, Graham T.; Dorris, Liam; Adey, Claire; Bagshaw, Oliver; Chisakuta, Anthony; Eissa, Ayman; Stoddart, Peter; Davis, Annette; Myles, Paul; Wolf, Andy; McIntosh, Neil; Carlin, John; Leslie, Kate; De Lima, Jonathan; Hammer, Greg; Field, David; Gebski, Val; Tibboel, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative apnea is a complication in young infants. Awake regional anesthesia (RA) may reduce the risk; however, the evidence is weak. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to assess the influence of general anesthesia (

  12. A Bold View Of The Lactating Brain: fMRI Studies Of Suckling in Awake Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Functional MRI has been used to investigate the responsiveness of the maternal rat brain to pup-suckling under various experimental paradigms. Our research employing the lactating rat model has explored the cortical sensory processing of pup stimuli and the effect of suckling on the brain’s reward system. Suckling was observed to increase blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in the midbrain, striatum and prefrontal cortex, which are areas that receive prominent dopaminergic inputs. The BOLD activation of the reward system occurs in parallel with the activation of extensive cortical sensory areas. The observed regions include the olfactory cortex, auditory cortex and gustatory cortex and could correspond to cortical representations of pup odors, vocalizations and taste that are active during lactation. Activation patterns within reward regions are consistent with past research on maternal motivation and we explore the possibility that exposure to drugs of abuse might be disruptive of maternal neural responses to pups, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. Our ongoing fMRI studies support and extend past research on the maternal rat brain and its functional neurocircuitry. PMID:21722215

  13. The neuropharmacology of upper airway motor control in the awake and asleep states: implications for obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horner Richard L

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common and serious breathing problem that is caused by effects of sleep on pharyngeal muscle tone in individuals with narrow upper airways. There has been increasing focus on delineating the brain mechanisms that modulate pharyngeal muscle activity in the awake and asleep states in order to understand the pathogenesis of obstructive apnoeas and to develop novel neurochemical treatments. Although initial clinical studies have met with only limited success, it is proposed that more rational and realistic approaches may be devised for neurochemical modulation of pharyngeal muscle tone as the relevant neurotransmitters and receptors that are involved in sleep-dependent modulation are identified following basic experiments.

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of intraoperative language tasks in awake surgery: a three-task approach for prefrontal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, A; Spena, G; Miozzo, A; Fontanella, M M; Miceli, G

    2015-12-01

    Multidisciplinary efforts are being made to provide surgical teams with sensitive and specific tasks for language mapping in awake surgery. Researchers and clinicians have elaborated different tasks over time. A fair amount of work has been directed to study the neurofunctional correlates of some of these tasks, and there is recent interest in their standardization. However, little discussion exists on the advantages and disadvantages that each task poses from the perspective of the cognitive neuroscience of language. Such an approach may be a relevant step to assess task validity, to avoid using tasks that tap onto similar processes, and to provide patients with a surgical treatment that ensures maximal tumor resection while avoiding postoperative language deficits. An understanding of the language components that each task entails may also be relevant to improve the current assessments and the ways in which tasks are administered, and to disentangle neurofunctional questions. We reviewed 17 language mapping tasks that have been used in awake surgery. Overt production tasks have been a preferred choice over comprehension tasks. Tasks tapping lexico-semantic processes, particularly object-naming, maintain their role as gold standards. Automated speech tasks are used to detect speech errors and to set the amplitude of the stimulator. Comprehension tasks, reading and writing tasks, and tasks that assess grammatical aspects of language may be regularly administered in the near future. We provide examples of a three-task approach we are administering to patients with prefrontal lesions. We believe that future advances in this area are contingent upon reviewing gold standards and introducing new assessment tools.

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of intraoperative language tasks in awake surgery: a three-task approach for prefrontal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, A; Spena, G; Miozzo, A; Fontanella, M M; Miceli, G

    2015-12-01

    Multidisciplinary efforts are being made to provide surgical teams with sensitive and specific tasks for language mapping in awake surgery. Researchers and clinicians have elaborated different tasks over time. A fair amount of work has been directed to study the neurofunctional correlates of some of these tasks, and there is recent interest in their standardization. However, little discussion exists on the advantages and disadvantages that each task poses from the perspective of the cognitive neuroscience of language. Such an approach may be a relevant step to assess task validity, to avoid using tasks that tap onto similar processes, and to provide patients with a surgical treatment that ensures maximal tumor resection while avoiding postoperative language deficits. An understanding of the language components that each task entails may also be relevant to improve the current assessments and the ways in which tasks are administered, and to disentangle neurofunctional questions. We reviewed 17 language mapping tasks that have been used in awake surgery. Overt production tasks have been a preferred choice over comprehension tasks. Tasks tapping lexico-semantic processes, particularly object-naming, maintain their role as gold standards. Automated speech tasks are used to detect speech errors and to set the amplitude of the stimulator. Comprehension tasks, reading and writing tasks, and tasks that assess grammatical aspects of language may be regularly administered in the near future. We provide examples of a three-task approach we are administering to patients with prefrontal lesions. We believe that future advances in this area are contingent upon reviewing gold standards and introducing new assessment tools. PMID:26159550

  16. An analysis approach for high-field fMRI data from awake non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Stoewer

    Full Text Available fMRI experiments with awake non-human primates (NHP have seen a surge of applications in recent years. However, the standard fMRI analysis tools designed for human experiments are not optimal for analysis of NHP fMRI data collected at high fields. There are several reasons for this, including the trial-based nature of NHP experiments, with inter-trial periods being of no interest, and segmentation artefacts and distortions that may result from field changes due to movement. We demonstrate an approach that allows us to address some of these issues consisting of the following steps: 1 Trial-based experimental design. 2 Careful control of subject movement. 3 Computer-assisted selection of trials devoid of artefacts and animal motion. 4 Nonrigid between-trial and rigid within-trial realignment of concatenated data from temporally separated trials and sessions. 5 Linear interpolation of inter-trial intervals and high-pass filtering of temporally continuous data 6 Removal of interpolated data and reconcatenation of datasets before statistical analysis with SPM. We have implemented a software toolbox, fMRI Sandbox (http://code.google.com/p/fmri-sandbox/, for semi-automated application of these processing steps that interfaces with SPM software. Here, we demonstrate that our methodology provides significant improvements for the analysis of awake monkey fMRI data acquired at high-field. The method may also be useful for clinical applications with subjects that are unwilling or unable to remain motionless for the whole duration of a functional scan.

  17. Effect of electroacupuncture on P2X3 receptor regulation in the peripheral and central nervous systems of rats with visceral pain caused by irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Z. J.; L. Y. Wu; Zhou, C. L.; Dou, C. Z.; Shi, Y; H. R. Liu; Wu, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the purinergic receptor P2X3 in the peripheral and central nervous systems during acupuncture treatment for the visceral pain of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A total of 24 8-day-old Sprague–Dawley (SD) neonatal male rats (SPF grade) were stimulated using colorectal distention (CRD) when the rats were awake. The modeling lasted for 2 weeks with one stimulation per day. After 6 weeks, the rats were randomly divided into three groups of eigh...

  18. Estimating achievement from fame

    OpenAIRE

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  19. Effect of Equal Daily Doses Achieved by Different Power Densities of Low-Level Laser Therapy at 635 nm on Open Skin Wound Healing in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Kilík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Despite the fact that the molecular mechanism of low-level laser therapy (LLLT is not yet known, the exploitation of phototherapy in clinical medicine and surgery is of great interest. The present study investigates the effects of LLLT on open skin wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods. Four round full-thickness skin wounds on dorsum were performed in male adult nondiabetic (n=24 and diabetic (n=24 Sprague–Dawley rats. AlGaInP (635 nm, wavelength; 5 J/cm2, daily dose was used to deliver power densities of 1, 5, and 15 mW/cm2 three times daily until euthanasia. Results. PMNL infiltration was lower in the irradiated groups (15 mW/cm2. The synthesis and organisation of collagen fibres were consecutively enhanced in the 5 mW/cm2 and 15 mW/cm2 groups compared to the others in nondiabetic rats. In the diabetic group the only significant difference was recorded in the ratio PMNL/Ma at 15 mW/cm2. A significant difference in the number of newly formed capillaries in the irradiated group (5, 15 mW/cm2 was recorded on day six after injury compared to the control group. Conclusion. LLLT confers a protective effect against excessive inflammatory tissue response; it stimulates neovascularization and the early formation of collagen fibres.

  20. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinda Y. Abeywardena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3 has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA. Echium oil (EO represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF. Rats were fed (12 weeks diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group. EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%–24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05 episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73% and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit.

  1. Clinical analysis of resection of deep brain lesions by using awake anesthesia and multiple positioning technology%术中唤醒麻醉结合定位技术切除脑深部病灶的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周辉; 鲁明; 邓心情; 邓星海

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨术中唤醒麻醉状态下结合多种定位技术切除脑深部病灶的安全性和临床疗效. 方法 对广东三九脑科医院神经外科自2013年9月至2014年9月应用显微外科手术治疗的77例脑深部病灶患者,经全麻下开颅,术中唤醒患者,在其清醒状态下通过神经影像导航技术确定病灶的位置与边界,皮层体感诱发电位或皮层电刺激方法进行语言、运动等脑功能区定位,在保护好脑功能区的前提下切除脑深部病灶,并随访3个月. 结果 74例患者唤醒良好.术中有8例定位出语言相关的功能区,38例定位出运动功能区皮层.病灶全切除51例,次全切除24例,部分切除2例.术后发生短暂偏瘫、运动功能障碍10例,语言障碍2例. 结论 术中唤醒麻醉状态下结合神经影像导航技术确定病灶边界及皮层电生理监测定位语言、运动功能区,可以有效保护患者脑功能,最大程度地切除病灶并提高手术疗效及患者术后生存质量.%Objective To investigate the surgical safety and clinical efficacy of resection of deep brain lesions by using awake anesthesia and multiple positioning technology.Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical data and surgical treatments of 77 patients with deep brain lesions,admitted to our hospital from September 2013 and September 2014,was performed.Craniotomy was performed under general anesthesia,and then,awaking up of patient during surgery was achieved.Under awake state,the boundary of the lesions was mapped by neuroimage navigation technology,and language and movement functional areas were located using direct cortex evoked potential or cortical electrical stimulation.The deep brain lesions were removed according to anatomic-functional boundaries.Patients were followed up for 3 months.Results Intra-operative awaking up was successful in 74 patients.Language areas were identified in 8 patients,and movement functional areas were detected in 38 patients

  2. Capnography Guided Awake Nasal Intubation in a 4 Month Infant with Pierre Robin Syndrome for Cleft Lip Repair-A Better Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Patra

    2009-01-01

    Summary This four-month-old Pierre Robin child was admitted for cleft lip repair with history of two failed attempts at intubation and subsequent cancellation of surgery. The capnography guided awake nasal intubation was considered as the child's parents were desperate to get the surgery done. A modified cuffless endotracheal tube was used with a capnography sampling tube placed within it. With the capnograph guidance the expiratory gas flow was followed to successfully intubate the child.Thi...

  3. Wide-Awake Primary Flexor Tendon Repair, Tenolysis, and Tendon Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jin Bo

    2015-01-01

    Tendon surgery is unique because it should ensure tendon gliding after surgery. Tendon surgery now can be performed under local anesthesia without tourniquet, by injecting epinephrine mixed with lidocaine, to achieve vasoconstriction in the area of surgery. This method allows the tendon to move actively during surgery to test tendon function intraoperatively and to ensure the tendon is properly repaired before leaving the operating table. I applied this method to primary flexor tendon repair ...

  4. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  5. PET study of the [11C]raclopride binding in the striatum of the awake cat: effects of anaesthetics and role of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cats were trained to stay in a containment box, without developing any signs of behavioural stress, while their head was maintained in a position that allowed positron emission tomography (PET) experiments to be performed. The binding potential for [11C]raclopride (BPraclo), a radioligand with good specificity for dopamine (DA) receptors of the D2 type, was measured in the striatum and in three experimental situations: awake, anaesthetised with ketamine (50 mg kg-1 h-1; i.m.) and anaesthetised with halothane (1.5%). Non-specific binding was evaluated in the cerebellum. In the striatum of both sides, the BPraclo was unmodified by ketamine anaesthesia when compared with awake animals. In contrast, a large increase in BPraclo was observed under halothane anaesthesia. The non-specific binding of [11C]raclopride, evaluated in the cerebellum, was also unchanged under ketamine anaesthesia but greatly increased under halothane anaesthesia. To evaluate whether changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) resulting from the different experimental situations could be at the root of these discrepancies, injections of [15O]H2O were performed; measurements revealed a drastically increased CBF under halothane anaesthesia and a slight enhancement under ketamine anaesthesia, when compared with the waking state. These results are the first to be obtained on this topic in awake cats, and show that the BPraclo is greatly dependent on alterations in the CBF. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor-selective tracer [{sup 11}C]GR103545 in awake rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoultz, Bent W. [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Hjornevik, Trine; Willoch, Frode [University of Oslo, Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Akershus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Loerenskog (Norway); Marton, Janos [ABX Advanced Biochemical Compounds GmbH, Radeberg (Germany); Noda, Akihiro; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Basic Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Aarstad, Erik [University College of London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Matsunari, Ichiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Clinical Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Henriksen, Gjermund [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The recent development in radiosynthesis of the {sup 11}C-carbamate function increases the potential of [{sup 11}C]GR103545, which for the last decade has been regarded as promising for imaging the kappa-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) with PET. In the present study, [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was evaluated in awake rhesus macaques. Separate investigations were performed to clarify the OR subtype selectivity of this compound. Regional brain uptake kinetics of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was studied 0-120 min after injection. The binding affinity and opioid subtype selectivity of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was determined in cells transfected with cloned human opioid receptors. In vitro binding assays demonstrated a high affinity of GR103545 for {kappa}-OR (K{sub i} = 0.02 {+-}0.01 nM) with excellent selectivity over {mu}-OR (6 x 10{sup 2}-fold) and {delta}-OR (2 x 10{sup 4}-fold). PET imaging revealed a volume of distribution (V{sub T}) pattern consistent with the known distribution of {kappa}-OR, with striatum = temporal cortex > cingulate cortex > frontal cortex > parietal cortex > thalamus > cerebellum. [{sup 11}C]GR103545 is selective for {kappa}-OR and holds promise for use to selectively depict and quantify this receptor in humans by means of PET. (orig.)

  7. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  8. Effect of five-consecutive-day exposure to an anxiogenic stressor on sleep-wake activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W O'Malley

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to an anxiogenic stressor (AS is a known environmental factor for the development of depression, yet the progression of sleep-wake (S-W changes associated with the onset of AS-induced depression (ASID is not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify these progressive S-W changes by developing ASID in rats, via repeated exposure to an AS, and compare this ASID-associated sleep phenotype with the sleep phenotype of human depression. To achieve this aim, rats were first recorded for a 6-h period of baseline S-W activity without AS. Then, rats were subjected to five days of AS [Day 1: inescapable foot-shock; 5 trials of 3-s foot-shocks (1.0 mA at 3-min intervals; Days 3-5: 15 trials of 5-s foot-shocks at 45-s intervals]. S-W activity was recorded for 6 h immediately after each AS treatment session. Two days later rats were again recorded for 6 h of S-W activity, but with no exposure to the AS (NASD. Compared to the baseline day: Day 1 of AS (ASD-1 increased wakefulness, slow-wave sleep (SWS latency, and REM sleep latency, but decreased the total amount of REM sleep; ASD-2 animals remained awake throughout the 6-h S-W recording period; ASD-3, ASD-4, and ASD-5 (ASDs-3-5 decreased wakefulness, SWS latency, and REM sleep latency, but increased the total amount of REM sleep. Interestingly, these results reveal that initial exposure to the AS versus later, repeated exposure to the AS produced opposing S-W changes. On NASD, animals exhibited baseline-like S-W activity, except slightly less REM sleep. These results suggest that repeated AS produces a sleep phenotype that resembles the sleep phenotype of depression in humans, but consistent re-exposure to the AS is required. These results are promising because the methodological simplicity and reversibility of the ASID-associated S-W phenotype could be more advantageous than other animal models for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the

  9. Environmental enrichment increases paired-pulse depression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percaccio, Cherie R; Engineer, Navzer D; Pruette, Autumn L; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-11-01

    Temporal features are important for the identification of natural sounds. Earlier studies have shown that cortical processing of temporal information can be altered by long-term experience with modulated sounds. In a previous study, we observed that environmental enrichment dramatically increased the response of cortical neurons to single tone and noise burst stimuli in both awake and anesthetized rats. Here, we evaluate how enrichment influences temporal information processing in the auditory cortex. We recorded responses to repeated tones and noise bursts in awake rats using epidural evoked potentials and in anesthetized rats using microelectrodes. Enrichment increased the response of cortical neurons to stimuli presented at slow rates and decreased the response to stimuli presented at fast rates relative to controls. Our observation that enrichment substantially increased response strength and forward masking is consistent with earlier reports that long-term potentiation of cortical synapses is associated with increased paired-pulse depression. Enrichment also increased response synchronization at slow rates and decreased synchronization at fast rates. Paired-pulse depression increased within days of environmental enrichment and was restored to normal levels after return to standard housing conditions. These results are relevant to several clinical disorders characterized by abnormal gating of sensory information, including autism, schizophrenia, and dyslexia.

  10. Decoupling kinematics and mechanics reveals coding properties of trigeminal ganglion neurons in the rat vibrissal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicholas E; Schroeder, Christopher L; Hobbs, Jennifer A; Yang, Anne Et; Huet, Lucie A; Solla, Sara A; Hartmann, Mitra Jz

    2016-06-27

    Tactile information available to the rat vibrissal system begins as external forces that cause whisker deformations, which in turn excite mechanoreceptors in the follicle. Despite the fundamental mechanical origin of tactile information, primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (Vg) have often been described as encoding the kinematics (geometry) of object contact. Here we aimed to determine the extent to which Vg neurons encode the kinematics vs. mechanics of contact. We used models of whisker bending to quantify mechanical signals (forces and moments) at the whisker base while simultaneously monitoring whisker kinematics and recording single Vg units in both anesthetized rats and awake, body restrained rats. We employed a novel manual stimulation technique to deflect whiskers in a way that decouples kinematics from mechanics, and used Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) to show that Vg neurons more directly encode mechanical signals when the whisker is deflected in this decoupled stimulus space.

  11. Wide Awake Parenting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a parenting program for the management of post-partum fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunning Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaustion and fatigue are commonly experienced by parents during the post-partum period, and can have implications for daily functioning, mental health and parenting practices. There is a need for the development of effective interventions to assist parents with the management of fatigue. This paper outlines the procedure for a randomised controlled study which aims to test the efficacy of Wide Awake Parenting, a program for the management of fatigue in the postnatal period. Methods/design Parents with an infant less than 6 months of age, and from seven Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia were invited to participate in this study. Parents were randomised to receive the Wide Awake Parenting program (intervention groups or usual care (control group offered by health services. The Wide Awake Parenting program provides parents with psycho-education and information about fatigue, and strategies to reduce its effects either via a self-directed method, or professionally led with a home visit and telephone support. Baseline data will be collected prior to randomisation, and further data will be collected at 2- and 6-weeks post intervention. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial of a program which compares the efficacy of a self-management approach and health professional assistance for the management of fatigue in the early post-partum period. If effective, it could offer an important, universal public health management approach to this common health concern. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000133932.

  12. PET study of the [{sup 11}C]raclopride binding in the striatum of the awake cat: effects of anaesthetics and role of cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoun, Wadad; Ginovart, Nathalie; Zimmer, Luc; Gualda, Veronique; Bonnefoi, Frederic [CERMEP, Lyon (France); Le Cavorsin, Marion; Leviel, Vincent [CNRS UMR5123, Villeurbanne (France)

    2003-01-01

    Cats were trained to stay in a containment box, without developing any signs of behavioural stress, while their head was maintained in a position that allowed positron emission tomography (PET) experiments to be performed. The binding potential for [{sup 11}C]raclopride (BP{sub raclo}), a radioligand with good specificity for dopamine (DA) receptors of the D{sub 2} type, was measured in the striatum and in three experimental situations: awake, anaesthetised with ketamine (50 mg kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}; i.m.) and anaesthetised with halothane (1.5%). Non-specific binding was evaluated in the cerebellum. In the striatum of both sides, the BP{sub raclo} was unmodified by ketamine anaesthesia when compared with awake animals. In contrast, a large increase in BP{sub raclo} was observed under halothane anaesthesia. The non-specific binding of [{sup 11}C]raclopride, evaluated in the cerebellum, was also unchanged under ketamine anaesthesia but greatly increased under halothane anaesthesia. To evaluate whether changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) resulting from the different experimental situations could be at the root of these discrepancies, injections of [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O were performed; measurements revealed a drastically increased CBF under halothane anaesthesia and a slight enhancement under ketamine anaesthesia, when compared with the waking state. These results are the first to be obtained on this topic in awake cats, and show that the BP{sub raclo} is greatly dependent on alterations in the CBF. (orig.)

  13. The optimal intravenous dose of midazolam after intravenous ketamine in healthy awake cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkiw, J E; Suter, C; McNeal, D; Farver, T B; Steffey, E P

    1998-02-01

    The effects of intravenous administration of variable-dose midazolam (0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) were studied in twenty-four healthy unmedicated cats from time of administration until full recovery. End-points were chosen to determine the optimal dose to allow a short period of restraint without noxious stimuli, a short period of restraint with noxious stimuli and endotracheal intubation. Recovery characteristics, as well as undesirable behaviours observed during recovery, were also recorded. The dose of midazolam to achieve lateral recumbency with head down was found to be 0.016 mg/kg in 50% of the population (ED50) and 0.054 mg/kg in 95% (ED95) of the population. A midazolam dose of 0.286 mg/kg was required to prevent conscious perception of a stimulus to the ulnar nerve in 50% of the population and 0.652 mg/kg in 95% of the population. The ED50 and ED95 of midazolam required to prevent swallowing in response to a laryngoscope placed on the back of the tongue were found to be 0.265 mg/kg and 0.583 mg/kg, respectively. The ED50 doses of 0.265 mg/kg for intubation and 0.286 mg/kg for restraint with noxious stimulation were close to the tested dose of 0.3 mg/kg. At that dose, the lack of responses lasted 3.67 +/- 2.27 min for laryngoscope and 2.50 +/- 2.20 min for ulnar nerve stimulation, with recovery to walking with ataxia taking 41.50 +/- 15.18 min and complete recovery taking 3.6 +/- 1.3 h. The predominant behavioural pattern during recovery was found to be normal, but some cats also exhibited abnormal behavioural patterns. Nine of the twelve cats exhibited an abnormal arousal state, with 4 being restless and 5 being sedated. Seven of the twelve cats exhibited an abnormal behaviour when approached, with three of the cats being more difficult to approach and four of the cats being easier to approach. Eight of the twelve cats exhibited an abnormal behavioural pattern when restrained, with the cats equally divided between more

  14. College Achievement and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Gemus, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    I study the size and sources of the monetary return to college achievement as measured by cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA). I first present evidence that the return to achievement is large and statistically significant. I find, however, that this masks variation in the return across different groups of people. In particular, there is no relationship between GPA and earnings for graduate degree holders but a large and positive relationship for people without a graduate degree. To reconcile...

  15. Contributions of the Pre-Bötzinger Complex and the Kölliker-Fuse Nuclei to Respiratory Rhythm and Pattern Generation in Awake and Sleeping Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Hubert; Bonis, Josh; Krause, Katie; Wenninger, Julie; Neumueller, Suzanne; Hodges, Matthew; Pan, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    We investigated in three groups of awake and sleeping goats whether there are differences in ventilatory responses after injections of Ibotenic acid (IA, glutamate receptor agonist and neurotoxin) into the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), lateral parabrachial (LPBN), medial (MPBN) parabrachial, or Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (KFN). In one group, within minutes after bilateral injection of 10 µl IA (50 mM) into the preBötC, there was a 10-fold increase in breathing frequency, but 1.5 h later, the goa...

  16. Capnography Guided Awake Nasal Intubation in a 4 Month Infant with Pierre Robin Syndrome for Cleft Lip Repair-A Better Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This four-month-old Pierre Robin child was admitted for cleft lip repair with history of two failed attempts at intubation and subsequent cancellation of surgery. The capnography guided awake nasal intubation was considered as the child′s parents were desperate to get the surgery done. A modified cuffless endotracheal tube was used with a capnography sampling tube placed within it. With the capnograph guidance the expiratory gas flow was followed to successfully intubate the child.This technique was found to be very convenient and helpful. The use of this technique in an infant has not been reported so far.

  17. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  18. Awake surgery: skills of neurosurgeon matter but those of patient too. How to optimize functional brain mapping by improving per-operatory testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnetblanc; Guiraud; Duffau; Azevedo; Argon; Charras; Niang

    2011-01-01

    It is now possible to perform resections of slowgrowing tumors in awake patients. Using direct electrical stimulation (DES), real-time functional mapping of the brain can be used to prevent the resection of essential areas near the tumor. For now, simple clinical tests are performed on conscious patients and combined with DES in order to discriminate functional and non-functional areas invaded by the tumors. In this work we try to develop a simple device based on a simple technology to better...

  19. Somatosensory cortical efferent neurons of the awake rabbit: latencies to activation via supra--and subthreshold receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadlow, H A; Hicks, T P

    1996-04-01

    1. Latencies to peripheral sensory stimulation were examined in four classes of antidromically identified efferent neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of awake rabbits. Both suprathreshold responses (action potentials) and subthreshold responses were examined. Subthreshold responses were examined by monitoring the thresholds of efferent neurons to juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs) delivered through the recording microelectrode (usually 1-3 microA). Through the use of this method, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were manifested as decreases and increases in threshold, respectively. Efferent populations examined included callosal (CC) neurons, ipsilateral corticocortical (C-IC) neurons, and descending corticofugal neurons of layer 5 (CF-5) and layer 6 (CF-6). Very brief air puffs (rise and fall times 0.6 ms) were delivered to the receptor periphery via a high-speed solenoid valve. 2. Whereas all CF-5 neurons had demonstrable suprathreshold excitatory and/or inhibitory responses to peripheral stimulation, most CC, C-IC, and CF-6 neurons did not. CC and CF-6 neurons that yielded no suprathreshold response to the stimulus had lower axonal conduction velocities than those that did respond (P JSCP) and a subsequent long-duration (> 80 ms) inhibitory component. A few neurons (1 CC, 1 C-IC, and 5 CF-6) showed an initial short latency inhibitory response in the absence of any excitatory component. 3. Some CC and C-IC neurons yielded supra- and/or subthreshold responses to peripheral stimulation at latencies of 6.1-7 ms. All such neurons were found at intermediate cortical depths (thought to correspond to deep layer 2-3 through layer 5). It is argued that such latencies are indicative of monosynaptic activation via thalamic afferents. Very superficial CC and C-IC neurons, and all CF-6 neurons responded to latencies of > 7 ms. All CF-5 neurons responded to latencies of > 8 ms, although many were found at

  20. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry -- a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement -- with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Eric; Egner, Beate; Brown, Scott A; King, Jonathan N; Laveissiere, Arnaud; Champeroux, Pascal; Richard, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This study compared indirect blood pressure measurements using a non-invasive method, high-definition oscillometry (HDO), with direct measurements using a radio-telemetry device in awake cats. Paired measurements partitioned to five sub-ranges were collected in six cats using both methods. The results were analysed for assessment of correlation and agreement between the two methods, taking into account all pressure ranges, and with data separated in three sub-groups, low, normal and high ranges of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. SBP data displayed a mean correlation coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 that was reduced for low SBP. The agreement level evaluated from the whole data set was high and slightly reduced for low SBP values. The mean correlation coefficient of DBP was lower than for SBP (ie, 0.81 ± 0.02). The bias for DBP between the two methods was 22.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, suggesting that HDO produced lower values than telemetry. These results suggest that HDO met the validation criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus panel and provided a faithful measurement of SBP in conscious cats. For DBP, results suggest that HDO tended to underestimate DBP. This finding is clearly inconsistent with the good agreement reported in dogs, but is similar to outcomes achieved in marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that this is not related to HDO but is species related. The data support that the HDO is the first and only validated non-invasive blood pressure device and, as such, it is the only non-invasive reference technique that should be used in future validation studies.

  1. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry -- a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement -- with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Eric; Egner, Beate; Brown, Scott A; King, Jonathan N; Laveissiere, Arnaud; Champeroux, Pascal; Richard, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This study compared indirect blood pressure measurements using a non-invasive method, high-definition oscillometry (HDO), with direct measurements using a radio-telemetry device in awake cats. Paired measurements partitioned to five sub-ranges were collected in six cats using both methods. The results were analysed for assessment of correlation and agreement between the two methods, taking into account all pressure ranges, and with data separated in three sub-groups, low, normal and high ranges of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. SBP data displayed a mean correlation coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 that was reduced for low SBP. The agreement level evaluated from the whole data set was high and slightly reduced for low SBP values. The mean correlation coefficient of DBP was lower than for SBP (ie, 0.81 ± 0.02). The bias for DBP between the two methods was 22.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, suggesting that HDO produced lower values than telemetry. These results suggest that HDO met the validation criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus panel and provided a faithful measurement of SBP in conscious cats. For DBP, results suggest that HDO tended to underestimate DBP. This finding is clearly inconsistent with the good agreement reported in dogs, but is similar to outcomes achieved in marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that this is not related to HDO but is species related. The data support that the HDO is the first and only validated non-invasive blood pressure device and, as such, it is the only non-invasive reference technique that should be used in future validation studies. PMID:23813147

  2. 右美托咪定在清醒气管插管中应用的研究进展%Research progress of dexmedetomidine in awake intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪信; 高中敏; 张英; 刘庆

    2014-01-01

    清醒气管插管是临床工作中处理困难气道的常用方式,恰当使用镇痛镇静药物是保证插管成功的重要辅助手段。右美托咪定是一种高效和高选择性的α2肾上腺素能受体激动剂,具有镇静镇痛、抑制交感神经活性、抑制炎症反应、心肌保护、抑制应激相关的恐惧记忆和学习等作用。现就上述作用在清醒气管插管中的应用及相关的研究进展进行综述。%Awake tracheal intubation is a common way to difficult airway in clinical work, the appropriate use of analgesic and sedative drugs is an important supplementary means of successful intubation. Dexmedetomidine is a kind of high efficient and high selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, with sedation and analgesia, restraining the activity of sympathetic nerve, inhibiting the inflammatory reaction, myocardial protection, restraint stress related fear memory and learning effect, this article reviews the progress in the application in the awake tracheal intubation and related research.

  3. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  4. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  5. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  6. Epidural auditory event-related potentials in the rat to frequency and duration deviants: evidence of mismatch negativity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamo eNakamura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the human brain to detect deviance in the acoustic environment pre-attentively is reflected in a brain event-related potential (ERP, mismatch negativity (MMN. MMN is observed in response to the presentation of rare oddball sounds that deviate from an otherwise regular pattern of frequent background standard sounds. While the primate and cat auditory cortex (AC exhibit MMN-like activity, it is unclear whether the rodent AC produces a deviant response that reflects deviance detection in a background of regularities evident in recent auditory stimulus history or differential adaptation of neuronal responses due to rarity of the deviant sound. We examined whether MMN-like activity occurs in epidural AC potentials in awake and anaesthetised rats to high and low frequency and long and short duration deviant sounds. ERPs to deviants were compared with ERPs to common standards and also with ERPs to deviants when interspersed with many different standards to control for background regularity effects. High frequency and long duration deviant ERPs in the awake rat showed evidence of deviance detection, consisting of negative displacements of the deviant ERP relative to ERPs to both common standards and deviants with many standards. The high frequency deviant MMN-like response was also sensitive to the extent of regularity in recent acoustic stimulation. Anaesthesia in contrast resulted in positive displacements of deviant ERPs. Our results suggest that epidural MMN-like potentials to high frequency sounds in awake rats encode deviance in an analogous manner to the human MMN, laying the foundation for animal models of disorders characterised by disrupted MMN generation, such as schizophrenia.

  7. The Sleeping Beauty awakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    A century ago it was decided that Delft was in need of a garden with ´technical plants´. This summer the Botanical Garden that resulted celebrated its centenary with a world conference. After being neglected for decades, the garden now looks forward to a flourishing period.

  8. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abzari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according to the standards and criteria oforganizational excellence. The result of the so-called research is this paper in which researchers foundtwenty models and components of corporate culture and based on the Industry, organizational goals andEFQM model developed a model called "The Eskimo model of Culture-Excellence". The method of theresearch is survey and field study and the questionnaires were distributed among 116 managers andemployees. To assess the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach alpha was measured to be 95% in the idealsituation and 0/97 in the current situation. Systematic sampling was done and in the pre-test stage 45questionnaires were distributed. A comparison between the current and the ideal corporate culture based onthe views of managers and employees was done and finally it has been concluded that corporate culture isthe main factor to facilitate corporate excellence and success in order to achieve organizational effectiveness.The contribution of this paper is that it proposes a localized –applicable model of corporate excellencethrough reinforcing corporate culture.

  9. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  10. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  11. Fear induced neuronal alterations in a genetic model of depression: an fMRI study on awake animals

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Heffernan, Meghan E.; LI, ZHIXIN; Zhang, Nanyin; Overstreet, David H.; King, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous human imaging studies used facial stimuli to explore the potential association between depression and fear. This study aimed at investigating brain alterations in a rodent model of depression when innate fear was induced in the form of the predator odor trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Flinders sensitive line rats (FSL), a genetic animal model of depression, and their control counterpart Flinders resistant line (FRL), were used in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessmen...

  12. Serotonin mediates rapid changes of striatal glucose and lactate metabolism after systemic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") administration in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Cumming, Paul

    2007-01-01

     The pathway for selective serotonergic toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is poorly understood, but has been linked to hyperthermia and disturbed energy metabolism. We investigated the dose-dependency and time-course of MDMA-induced perturbations of cerebral glucose...... was monitored by telemetry. A single dose of MDMA (2-10-20 mg/kg i.v.) evoked a transient increase of interstitial glucose concentrations in striatum (139-223%) with rapid onset and of less than 2h duration, a concomitant but more prolonged lactate increase (>187%) at the highest MDMA dose and no significant...... depletions of striatal serotonin. Blood glucose and lactate levels were also transiently elevated (163 and 135%) at the highest MDMA doses. The blood glucose rises were significantly related to brain glucose and brain lactate changes. The metabolic perturbations in striatum and the hyperthermic response (+1...

  13. Aging Impairs the Late Phase of Long-Term Potentiation at the Medial Perforant Path-CA3 Synapse in Awake Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dieguez, Dario; Barea-Rodriguez, Edwin J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aging on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 are well documented, but LTP at the medial perforant path (MPP)-CA3 synapse of aged animals has remained unexplored. Because the MPP-DG and Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses account for only about 20% of total hippocampal synapses, global understanding of how aging affects hippocampal plasticity has remained limited. Much is known about LTP induction in the hippocampal formation, whereas the mechanisms that ...

  14. Analysis of clinical outcomes of linear vs. deep stop decompression from 3.5 to 6 atmospheres absolute (350 - 600 kpa) in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronjé, Frans J; Meintjes, W A Jack; Bennett, Peter B;

    2011-01-01

    Recreational divers are introducing "deep stops" at half the depth (HD-DS) to reduce the risk of spinal DCS with only Doppler evidence to support it. Therefore this research was designed to show the effect of an HD-DS on spinal DCS manifestations by evaluating whether: (1) air diving-induced spinal...

  15. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A.; Powell, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839–1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antag...

  16. THE ROLE OF GABA RECEPTORS IN THE CONTROL OF NIGROSTRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS - DUAL-PROBE MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN AWAKE RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANTIAGO, M; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    A microdialysis probe implanted into the substantia nigra was used to infuse gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) compounds onto cell bodies/dendrites of dopaminergic neurons, while a second microdialysis probe was used to record the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxy-ph

  17. The gain of the baroreflex bradycardia is reduced by microinjection of NMDA receptor antagonists into the nucleus tractus solitarii of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigero, M; Bonagamba, L G; Machado, B H

    2000-02-14

    The baroreflex activation with phenylephrine infusion produces a bradycardic response. In the present study, the role of NMDA receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the processing of the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex was evaluated using acid phosphonivaleric (AP-5), a selective NMDA receptor antagonist. Baroreflex activation was performed before and after bilateral microinjection of AP-5 into the intermediate commissural NTS (0.5 mm lateral to the midline). Microinjection of the vehicle (saline, 0.9%) or a dose of 2 nmol/50 nl of AP-5 into the NTS produced no effect on the gain of the baroreflex while a dose of 10 nmol/50 nl of AP-5 produced a significant reduction in the gain of the baroreflex 2 min after microinjection [-1.43+/-0.22 vs. -0. 43+/-0.03 bpm/mmHg, (n=6)], with a return to control levels 10 min after the microinjections. The dose of 10 nmol/50 nl was selective for NMDA receptors considering that the cardiovascular responses to microinjection of AMPA (0.05 pmol/50 nl), a non-NMDA receptor agonist, were not affected by this dose of AP-5 and the responses to microinjection of NMDA (2 nmol/50 nl) were blocked. The data show that the bradycardic response to baroreflex activation was blocked by AP-5 microinjected into the NTS, indicating that the neurotransmission of the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex is mediated by NMDA receptors in the NTS.

  18. Activation-induced resetting of cerebral oxygen and glucose uptake in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Linde, R; Hasselbalch, S G;

    1998-01-01

    In the clinical setting it has been shown that activation will increase cerebral glucose uptake in excess of cerebral oxygen uptake. To study this phenomenon further, this study presents an experimental setup that enables precise determination of the ratio between cerebral uptake of glucose and...... oxygen in the awake rat. Global CBF was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique, and the ratio between cerebral uptake rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate was calculated from cerebral arterial-venous differences. During baseline conditions, rats were kept in a closed box designed to minimize...... interference. During baseline conditions CBF was 1.08 +/- 0.25 mL x g(-1) x minute(-1), and the cerebral oxygen to glucose uptake ratio was 5.5. Activation was induced by opening the sheltering box for 6 minutes. Activation increased CBF to 1.81 mL x g(-1) x minute(-1). During activation cerebral glucose...

  19. Disruption of ripple-associated hippocampal activity during rest impairs spatial learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego-Stengel, Valérie; Wilson, Matthew A

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the acquisition of new memories for places and events. Evidence suggests that the consolidation of these memories is enhanced during sleep. At the neuronal level, reactivation of awake experience in the hippocampus during sharp-wave ripple events, characteristic of slow-wave sleep, has been proposed as a neural mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, a causal relation between sleep reactivation and memory consolidation has not been established. Here we show that disrupting neuronal activity during ripple events impairs spatial learning. We trained rats daily in two identical spatial navigation tasks followed each by a 1-hour rest period. After one of the tasks, stimulation of hippocampal afferents selectively disrupted neuronal activity associated with ripple events without changing the sleep-wake structure. Rats learned the control task significantly faster than the task followed by rest stimulation, indicating that interfering with hippocampal processing during sleep led to decreased learning.

  20. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲜杰

    2000-01-01

    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  1. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  2. Probing Intrinsic Resting-State Networks in the Infant Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Dusica; Craig, Michael M.; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain. In this study, we hypothesized that large-scale intrinsic networks would be easily detectable but not fully established as specific patterns of activity in lightly anesthetized 2-week-old rats (N = 11). Independent component analysis (ICA) identified 8 networks in 2-week-old-rats. These included Default mode, Sensory (Exteroceptive), Salience (Interoceptive), Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Hippocampal, Basal Ganglia, Autonomic, Cerebellar, as well as Thalamic-Brainstem networks. Many of these networks consisted of more than one component, possibly indicative of immature, underdeveloped networks at this early time point. Except for the Autonomic network, infant rat networks showed reduced connectivity with subcortical structures in comparison to previously published adult networks. Reported slow fluctuations in the BOLD signal that correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks in 2-week-old rats can serve as an important tool for future studies of brain development in the settings of different pharmacological applications or disease. PMID:27803653

  3. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  4. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  5. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  6. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Berberine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Berberine Hydrochloride in Normal and Post Inflammation Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zipeng Gong; Ying Chen; Ruijie Zhang; Yinghan Wang; Yan Guo; Qing Yang; Haixian Zhang; Yu Dong; Xiaogang Weng; Shuangrong Gao; Xiaoxin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, post inflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats were firstly established by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid with restraint stress. Then the pharmacokinetics of berberine in the rat plasma were compared after oral administration of berberine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg) to normal rats and PI-IBS rats. Quantification of berberine in the rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 15 different poi...

  7. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  8. Awaking anaesthesia and intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrostimulation in surgery for secondary epilepsy induced by lesions in cerebral eloquent regions%全麻唤醒和术中电刺激在脑功能区病灶性癫痫手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚一; 高鹏; 张小斌; 谭启富; 方赟; 王逢鹏; 江建东; 黄德志; 刘小伟; 沈七襄

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application of awaking anesthesia and intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrostimulation in the surgery for patients with secondary epilepsy induced by lesions in eloquent areas. Methods A total of 11 patients initiated with epileptic seizure were collected in our study. All patients were right-handed and 5 had neurological dysfunction, and the mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores were 87. Skull MRI and long-term video-EEG monitoring were performed for all patients, and 6 of them got functional MRI. The surgeries were performed under intravenous anesthesia: 4 got trachea intubation and the other 7 were performed pharyngeal esophageal intubation under awaking anesthesia. Electrocorticographic recordings were adopted to confirm the epileptogenic zone, and then cortical electrical stimulus was performed to locate the cortical functional area. Under subcortical electrostimulation monitoring, we resected the lesions by the methods of focal cortical resection or multiple subpial transaction (MST) according to the relation between epileptogenic zone and functional cortex; during the resection, subcortical electrostimulation was adopted to protect the tracts lay in the sub-cortex. Results Total resection was achieved in 10 patients, and subtotal excision in 1. The epileptogenic zone was performed cortical resection or pia mater-fiber transverse amputation.Two cases got transient hemiparalysis after operation. Followed up for 6-20 months, none of the patients had neurologic deficit, and the average KPS scores were 100. Epilepsies were well-controlled using only one antiepileptic drug. Conclusion Pharyngeal esophageal intubation under awaking anesthesia is safe and convenient. With the monitoring of intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrostimulation, we can resect the lesions up to the hilt and protect the eloquent areas effectively, and improve the life quality of patients.%目的 探讨全麻唤醒和术中电刺激在脑功能区

  9. PK/PD Modelling of the QT Interval: a Step Towards Defining the Translational Relationship Between In Vitro, Awake Beagle Dogs, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marostica, Eleonora; Van Ammel, Karel; Teisman, Ard; Gallacher, David; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Ridder, Filip; Boussery, Koen; Vermeulen, An

    2016-07-01

    Inhibiting the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded potassium ion channel is positively correlated with QT-interval prolongation in vivo, which is considered a risk factor for the occurrence of Torsades de Pointes (TdP). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed for four compounds that reached the clinic, to relate drug-induced QT-interval change in awake dogs and humans and to derive a translational scaling factor a 1. Overall, dogs were more sensitive than humans to QT-interval change, an a 1 of 1.5 was found, and a 10% current inhibition in vitro produced a higher percent QT-interval change in dogs as compared to humans. The QT-interval changes in dogs were predictive for humans. In vitro and in vivo information could reliably describe the effects in humans. Robust translational knowledge is likely to reduce the need for expensive thorough QT studies; therefore, expanding this work to more compounds is recommended.

  10. Effects of hypoxia on respiratory defence reflexes. Effects of thirty hours' oxygen deficiency on cough, the expiration reflex and sneezing in awake cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, M; Korpás, J; Polácek, H; Záhradný, V

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied, in 11 awake adult cats, the parameters of the expiration reflex (ER), tracheobronchial (TB) and laryngopharyngeal (LPh) cough, the respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (VT), the end tidal fractional CO2 concentration (FETCO2), the pH, the blood gases and the heart rate during 30 hours' isobaric hypoxic hypoxia (FO2 = 0.11). During the whole 30 hours the cats developed hypocapnic hypoxemia, f remained unchanged and VT was markedly elevated. In the acute phase (15 min) of hypoxic hypoxia of the same intensity, changes in respiratory parameters were the same and the intensity of respiratory reflexes increased significantly (Tatár et al. 1984). During prolonged hypoxic hypoxia there were no statistically significant changes in the intensity of the ER and of TB and LPh cough. The authors assume that some adaptation of the central mechanisms regulating the defence reflexes of the airways took place; this hypothesis is warranted, because an increase in the susceptibility of the cough centre during constant conditions of the stimulation of cough receptors would not be biologically expedient. The different changes in the intensity of respiratory defense reflexes in the acute and the prolonged phase of hypoxic hypoxia in the presence of identical changes in respiratory parameters are further indirect evidence pointing to the existence of functional differences between the respiratory centre and the cough centre. PMID:3158012

  11. Subthreshold receptive fields and baseline excitability of "silent" S1 callosal neurons in awake rabbits: contributions of AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadlow, H A; Hicks, T P

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors to excitatory subthreshold receptive fields was examined in callosal efferent neurons (CC neurons) in primary somatosensory cortex of the fully awake rabbit. Only neurons showing no traditional (suprathreshold) receptive fields were examined. Subthreshold responses were examined by monitoring the thresholds of efferent neurons to juxtasomal current pulses (JSCPs) delivered through the recording microelectrode. Changes in threshold following a peripheral conditioning stimulus signify a subthreshold response. Using this method, excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are manifested as decreases and increases in JSCP threshold, respectively. NMDA and non-NMDA agonists and antagonists were administered iontophoretically via a multibarrel micropipette assembly attached to the recording/stimulating microelectrode. Receptor-selective doses of both AMPA/kainate and NMDA antagonists decreased the excitability of CC neurons in the absence of any peripheral stimulation. Threshold to JSCPs rose by a mean of 20% for both classes of antagonist. Despite the similar effects of NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on baseline excitability, these antagonists had dramatically different effects on the subthreshold excitatory response to activation of the receptive field. Whereas receptor-selective doses of AMPA/kainate antagonists either eliminated or severely attenuated the subthreshold excitatory responses to peripheral stimulation, NMDA antagonists had little or no effect on the subthreshold evoked response. PMID:9262195

  12. Induction of ischemic stroke in awake freely moving mice reveals that isoflurane anesthesia can mask the benefits of a neuroprotection therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSeto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics such as isoflurane are commonly used to sedate experimental animals during the induction of stroke. Since these agents are known to modulate synaptic excitability, inflammation and blood flow, they could hinder the development and discovery of new neuroprotection therapies. To address this issue, we developed a protocol for inducing photothrombotic occlusion of cerebral vessels in fully conscious mice and tested two potential neuroprotectant drugs (a GluN2B or α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist. Our data show in vehicle treated mice that just 20 minutes of exposure to isoflurane during stroke induction can significantly reduce ischemic cortical damage relative to mice that were awake during stroke. When comparing potential stroke therapies, none provided any level of neuroprotection if the stroke was induced with anesthesia. However, if mice were fully conscious during stroke, the α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist reduced ischemic damage by 23% relative to vehicle treated controls, whereas the GluN2B antagonist had no significant effect. These results suggest that isoflurane anesthesia can occlude the benefits of certain stroke treatments and warrant caution when using anesthetics for pre-clinical testing of neuroprotective agents.

  13. Hypernatremia-induced vasopressin secretion is not altered in TRPV1-/- rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew Blake; Stocker, Sean D

    2016-09-01

    Changes in osmolality or extracellular NaCl concentrations are detected by specialized neurons in the hypothalamus to increase vasopressin (VP) and stimulate thirst. Recent in vitro evidence suggests this process is mediated by an NH2-terminal variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel expressed by osmosensitive neurons of the lamina terminalis and vasopressinergic neurons of the supraoptic nucleus. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by analysis of plasma VP levels during acute hypernatremia in awake control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. TRPV1(-/-) rats were produced by a Zinc-finger-nuclease 2-bp deletion in exon 13. Intravenous injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin produced hypotension and bradycardia in control rats, but this response was absent in TRPV1(-/-) rats. Infusion of 2 M NaCl (1 ml/h iv) increased plasma osmolality, electrolytes, and VP levels in both control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. However, plasma VP levels did not differ between strains at any time. Furthermore, a linear regression between plasma VP versus osmolality revealed a significant correlation in both control and TRPV1(-/-) rats, but the slope of the regression lines was not attenuated in TRPV1(-/-) versus control rats. Hypotension produced by intravenous injection of minoxidil decreased blood pressure and increased plasma VP levels similarly in both groups. Finally, both treatments stimulated thirst; however, cumulative water intakes in response to hypernatremia or hypotension were not different between control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. These findings suggest that TRPV1 channels are not necessary for VP secretion and thirst stimulated by hypernatremia. PMID:27335281

  14. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  15. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  16. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  17. Attribution theory in science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  18. Design and clinical application of daily awaking verification scale in patients with mechanical ventilation and sedation%机械通气镇静患者每日唤醒核查表的设计及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 冯其梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过设计机械通气镇静患者“每日唤醒核查表”,以提高护士对唤醒措施的依从性。方法:于2013年10月至2014年3月,将“每日唤醒核查表”应用于ICU机械通气镇静需要唤醒的患者,观察护士执行唤醒措施的依从性,患者机械通气时间、镇静时间、镇静药物总量。结果:使用“每日唤醒核查表”后,护士对唤醒措施的依从性及患者镇静药物总量、总镇静时间、机械通气时间、住ICU时间与实施前比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:应用“每日唤醒核查表”,提高了医护人员对唤醒措施的依从性,降低了患者镇静药物的用量,缩短了患者总镇静时间、机械通气时间、住ICU时间,保证了患者安全。此方法简单、可操作性强,医护人员接受程度高。%Objective: To improve the implementation rate of daily awaking by designing daily awaking veriifcation scale. Methods: From October, 2013 to March, 2014, the Daily Awaking (DA) Veriifcation Scale was used in ICU patients with mechanically ventilation and sedation who needed to be waked up. We observed the nurses' executive compliance of management measures, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of sedation, and the total amount of sedative drugs. Results: After the Daily Awaking (DA) Veriifcation Scale was used, the observation indexes, such as the implementation rate of awaking measures, the total amount of sedative drugs, duration of sedation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU stay, were improved signiifcantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: By using the Daily Awaking (DA) Veriifcation Scale, we could improve the implementation rate of awaking therapy, reduce the total amount of sedative drugs, shorten the duration of sedation, duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, and ensure the patients' medical safety. This method is simple and easy to operate, could be highly accepted by medical staff

  19. Awake cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent hemodynamic collapse and loss of airway in a severely symptomatic patient with a mediastinal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sameh M; Telesz, Brian J; Makdisi, George; Quevedo, Fernando J; Suri, Rakesh M; Allen, Mark S; Mauermann, William J

    2014-10-01

    Management of a large mediastinal mass causing respiratory and hemodynamic compromise represents a major challenge during induction of anesthesia and surgical resection. The hemodynamic changes associated with anesthetic induction and initiation of positive-pressure ventilation can lead to acute hemodynamic collapse or inability to ventilate, or both. Initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass before anesthetic induction represents a safe alternative. We present a 37-year-old woman who underwent successful resection of a large anterior mediastinal mass through sternotomy. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted using the right femoral vessels under local analgesia to allow safe anesthetic induction. Her postoperative course was uneventful. This represents an example of a team approach to the management of a complex patient to achieve a successful outcome. PMID:25282247

  20. Rapid and Cost-Effective Gene Targeting in Rat Embryonic Stem Cells by TALENs

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Chang; Huang, Guanyi; Ashton, Charles; WU, HONGPING; Yan, Hexin; Ying, Qi-Long

    2012-01-01

    The rat is the preferred animal model in many areas of biomedical research and drug development. Genetic manipulation in rats has lagged behind that in mice due to the lack of efficient gene targeting tools. Previously, we generated a knockout rat via conventional homologous recombination in rat embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we show that efficient gene targeting in rat ES cells can be achieved quickly through transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated DNA double-strand...

  1. The Process of Science Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  2. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  3. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  4. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  5. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  6. 喉罩全麻下术中唤醒在斜视矫正手术中的应用%Application of awaking anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway in strabismus surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩二营; 李素臻; 张清生; 赵宪孟; 郭玉强; 李月礼; 冯英策

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of the intraoperative wake-up test in strabismus surgery anaesthetized with laryngeal mask airway (LMA).Methods A total of 169 strabismus patients were randomly divided into 2 groups.The first group had general anesthesia with intraoperative wake-up test and the other group without the test.In the first group,operated muscles were first tightened with a slipknot.Then,the patient was awakened to examine the eye position.If the position was orthoptic,finish up the operation.Otherwise,general anesthesia with LMA was reinstalled and the surgical procedures were repeated until the orthoptic position was achieved.The patients who did not receive intraoperative wake-up test underwent surgery according to the preoperative assessment.Results Among 87 patients in the group with intraoperative wake-up test,three of them were not cooperative after awaking and were abandoned.All 82 patients in the group without intraoperative wake-up test finished surgeries successfully.The success rate of the group with intraoperative wake-up test was 98.85% one week after the operation,which was significantly higher than that 91.46% in the other group (P =0.030).One year after the operation,the success rates of surgery in patients with and without intraoperative wake-up test were 95.4% and 85.37% respectively.There was statistically significant difference between two groups (P =0.035).Conclusion Awaking anesthesia with LMA is safe and effective in strabismus surgery,which can improve the success rate.The patients could tolerate the LMA and complete the adjustment of eye position successfully.%目的 探讨喉罩全麻下术中唤醒用于斜视矫正手术的可行性.方法 全麻下行斜视矫正手术169例,随机分为术中唤醒组和无术中唤醒组(对照组).两组患者均在喉罩插管全身麻醉下行斜视矫正手术.术中唤醒组术中缝合固定肌肉时先打活结,保留缝线,唤醒后检查眼位,若为正位,结束手

  7. Quantitative autoradiographic assessment of sup 55 Fe-RBC distribution in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.Z.; Nakata, H.; Tajima, A.; Gruber, K.; Acuff, V.; Patlak, C.; Fenstermacher, J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A simple in vivo technique of labeling erythrocytes (RBCs) with {sup 55}Fe was developed for quantitative autoradiography (QAR). This procedure involved injecting 5-6 ml of ({sup 55}Fe)ferrous citrate solution (1 mCi/ml) intraperitoneally into donor rats. The number of labeled RBCs reached a maximum at around 7 days and declined very slowly thereafter. Labeled RBCs were harvested from donor rats and used for RBC volume measurement in awake rats. Brain radioactivity was assayed by QAR, which yielded spatial resolution of greater than 50 microns. Tight nearly irreversible binding of {sup 55}Fe to RBCs was found in vivo and in vitro. More than 99.5% of the {sup 55}Fe in the blood of donor rats was bound to RBCs. Because of this, labeled blood can be taken from donors and injected into recipients without further preparation. The tissue absorption of {sup 55}Fe emissions was the same in gray and white matter. Microvascular RBC volumes measured with {sup 55}Fe-labeled RBCs agreed with those assayed with {sup 51}Cr-labeled RBCs for many, but not all, brain areas. In conclusion, {sup 55}Fe-RBCs can be readily prepared by this technique and accurately quantitated in brain tissue by QAR.

  8. Effects of Methamphetamine on Single Unit Activity in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Whan Jung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex changes in an animal model of schizophrenia, we recorded single unit activity in the medial prefrontal cortex of urethane-anesthetized and awake rats following methamphetamine (MA administration. Systemic MA injection (4 mg/kg, IP induced inconsistent changes, that is, both enhancement and reduction, in unit discharge rate, with a subset of neurons transiently (<30 min elevating their activities. The direction of firing rate change was poorly predicted by the mean firing rate or the degree of burst firing during the baseline period. Also, simultaneously recorded units showed opposite directions of firing rate change, indicating that recording location is a poor predictor of the direction of firing rate change. These results raise the possibility that systemic MA injection induces random bidirectional changes in prefrontal cortical unit activity, which may underlie some of MA-induced psychotic symptoms.

  9. EXAMINING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SPORTS SCIENCES FACULTY STUDENTS: THE CASE OF FIRAT UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞDU, Cemal; ÇELEBİ, Evrim

    2015-01-01

    The most emphasised aspect of teaching is student achievement. It is the reason for teaching and the product teaching produces. The potential of a well - qualified workforce with high academic achievement is thought to be the primary factor in the development of a society. This study was designed to examine the academic achievement of students studying at the Sports Sciences Faculty of Fırat University in terms of a ...

  10. Taste quality and intensity of 100 stimuli as reported by rats: the taste-location association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari eGautam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of neural activity related to sensory stimulation requires an understanding of the subject's perception of the stimulation. Previous methods used to evaluate the perception of chemosensory stimuli by rodents have distinct limitations. We developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the taste-location association task, to complement these methods. First we tested if rats are able to learn associations between five basic taste stimuli and their spatial locations. This spatial task was based on 4 prototypical tastants and water. All four rats trained to perform the task reached levels of performance well above chance. Control trials demonstrated that the rats used only taste cues. Further, the learned stimulus set was resistant to interference, allowing for generalization experiments performed subsequently. We tested the rats' gustatory generalizations of 100 tastants to the five trained stimuli, both regarding their taste qualities as well as intensity ratings. The taste profiles generated by these experiments contribute to the understanding of how perception of the specific taste stimuli relate to the perception of the five basic taste qualities in intact behaving rats. In this large taste space we found that intensity plays a major role. Furthermore, umami stimuli were not reported as being similar to other basic tastants. Our new paradigm enables neurophysiological studies of taste-based learning and memory in awake, freely moving animals.

  11. Capacity achieving multiwrite WOM codes

    OpenAIRE

    Shpilka, Amir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give an explicit construction of a capacity achieving family of binary t-write WOM codes for any number of writes t, that have a polynomial time encoding and decoding algorithms. The block length of our construction is N=(t/\\epsilon)^{O(t/(\\delta\\epsilon))} when \\epsilon is the gap to capacity and encoding and decoding run in time N^{1+\\delta}. This is the first deterministic construction achieving these parameters. Our techniques also apply to larger alphabets.

  12. Chronic monitoring of cortical hemodynamics in behaving, freely-moving rats using a miniaturized head-mounted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Koletar, Margaret; Ringuette, Dene; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Growing interest within the neurophysiology community in assessing healthy and pathological brain activity in animals that are awake and freely-behaving has triggered the need for optical systems that are suitable for such longitudinal studies. In this work we report label-free multi-modal imaging of cortical hemodynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake, freely-behaving rats, using a novel head-mounted miniature optical microscope. The microscope employs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at three distinct wavelengths (680 nm, 795 nm, and 850 nm) to provide measurements of four hemodynamic markers: blood flow speeds, HbO, HbR, and total Hb concentration, across a > 2 mm field of view. Blood flow speeds are extracted using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), while oxygenation measurements are performed using Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging (IOSI). Longitudinal measurements on the same animal are made possible over the course of > 6 weeks using a chronic window that is surgically implanted into the skull. We use the device to examine changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in superficial cortical blood vessels and tissue in response to drug-induced absence-like seizures, correlating motor behavior with changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain.

  13. Dexmedetomidine for an awake fiber-optic intubation of a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, Type I Arnold Chiari malformation and status post released tethered spinal cord presenting for repeat cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay H. Shah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS have congenital fusion of their cervical vertebrae due to a failure in the normal segmentation of the cervical vertebrae during the early weeks of gestation and also have myriad of other associated anomalies. Because of limited neck mobility, airway management in these patients can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. We describe a unique case in which a dexmedetomidine infusion was used as sedation for an awake fiber-optic intubation in a parturient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome, who presented for elective cesarean delivery. A 36-yearold female, G2P1A0 with KFS (fusion of cervical vertebrae who had prior cesarean section for breech presentation with difficult airway management was scheduled for repeat cesarean delivery. After obtaining an informed consent, patient was taken in the operating room and non-invasive monitors were applied. Dexmedetomidine infusion was started and after adequate sedation, an awake fiberoptic intubation was performed. General anesthetic was administered after intubation and dexmedetomidine infusion was continued on maintenance dose until extubation. Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS is a rare congenital disorder for which the true incidence is unknown, which makes it even rare to see a parturient with this disease. Patients with KFS usually have other congenital abnormalities as well, sometimes including the whole thoraco-lumbar spine (Type III precluding the use of neuraxial anesthesia for these patients. Obstetric patients with KFS can present unique challenges in administering anesthesia and analgesia, primarily as it relates to the airway and dexmedetomidine infusion has shown promising result to manage the airway through awake fiberoptic intubation without any adverse effects on mother and fetus.

  14. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  15. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  16. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  17. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  18. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  19. Plasma kinetics of 125I beta endorphin turnover in lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma clearance kinetics for Beta Endorphin (BEP) are not well-defined and no definitive data exist for lean versus obese animals. To determine such kinetic parameters, a bolus of 125I BEP (1μCi/kg) was infused into awake lean(L) and obese(O) Zucker rats. Arterial blood samples were withdrawn initially at 20 seconds intervals and less frequently as a 3-hour experimental period progressed. Donor rat blood was infused (venous catheter) to replace withdrawn blood. At 180 minutes approximately 10% of the initial dose remained in the plasma. Clearance kinetics for 125I BEP were analyzed by compartmental analysis. A 3-component equation (i.e., 3 compartment model) provided the best fit for both L and O groups. Plasma transit times were very rapid; however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was low. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 minutes) as was recycle time. These data suggest that BEP kinetics are similar in L and O rats, and that this peptide may undergo extensive recycling into and out of the plasma compartment. The identity of the other two compartments requires further investigation

  20. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  1. 宋代女作家自我意识的觉醒及其诗词呈现%Awaking of self- awareness of Song authoress and its poetic presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢穑

    2012-01-01

    The awaking of women's self-awareness is a long and arduous process. Compared to the Yuan, Ming, Qing dynasty, the women in Song dynasty lived in a more relax and free social environment and their self-awareness awoke in certain degree. A group of female writers such as Li Qingzhao, Zhu Shuzhen and Medame Wei appeared in that period. This paper presents their awaking of self-awareness in their poetries from three aspects: Seeking actively for ideal; having self-confidence for artistic talent; self-confirming the female's subject position in love.%相对而言,宋代妇女生活在一个较为宽松自由的社会家庭环境中,出现了以李清照、朱淑真、魏夫人等为代表的女性作家群体,其自我意识在一定程度上得到了觉醒,主要表现在对理想抱负的主动追求、对自我才华的充分自信、对自身爱情主角地位的确认三个维度,并鲜明地呈现在她们的诗词作品中。

  2. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vrugt; F.J. Oort

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  3. Migrants and educational achievement gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst

    2015-01-01

    As global migration flows increase, so do the number of migrant students in host country schools. Yet migrants' achievement scores lag well behind those of their native-born schoolmates. Performance gaps are explained largely by differences in migrant parents' socio-economic background, cultural capital, and language skills. Education policy needs to focus on language teaching, parental involvement, diversity training, and beneficial social interaction between immigrant and native-born popula...

  4. School sport and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John L.; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the Healthy Body, Healthy Mind philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects and research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This case study aims to investigate how partic...

  5. Database Research: Achievements and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du; Xiao-Feng Meng; Hong Chen

    2006-01-01

    Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.

  6. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations.The emerg...

  7. 年龄对妇科手术七氟醚麻醉清醒肺泡浓度的影响%Influence of age on the MAC-awake of sevoflurane in women undergoing gynecological surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 雷波; 徐志新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of age on the MAC-awake of sevoflurane in women undergoing gynecological surgeries. Methods Sixty patients with ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ undergoing gynecological surgeries under sevofluence were divided into three groups with 20 each: group I , 20-29 years old; group Ⅱ , 30-39 years old; and group Ⅲ , 40-50 years old. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in oxygen, the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was maintained at 3% for 10 min after loss the eyelash reflex and then the LMA was inserted, and the intraoperative maintenance concentration of sevoflurane was 3%. At the end of the surgeries, the concentration of sevoflurane was determined with the up-down sequence method at a 0. 1% interval, and then the LMA was extubated. The MAC-awake of sevoflurane and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CD were calculated. Results The MAC-awake and corresponding 95% CI of the three groups were as follows: group I, 0.64% (0. 57%-0. 70%); group Ⅱ , 0.55% (0. 50%-0. 60%); and group I, 0.44% (0.37%-0.50%). Conclusion The MAC-awake of sevoflurane in women undergoing gynecological surgeries decrease with the increase of age.%目的 观察年龄对妇科手术七氟醚麻醉清醒肺泡浓度(MAC-awake)的影响.方法 择期行妇科短小手术患者60例,ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,依据年龄均分为三组:Ⅰ组,20~29岁;Ⅱ组,30~39岁;Ⅲ组,40~50岁.8%七氟醚诱导,眼睑反射消失后维持呼气末七氟醚浓度3%10 min后插入喉罩,术中七氟醚浓度维持在3%.手术结束后以0.1%浓度梯度按Dixon序贯法调整七氟醚浓度并拔出喉罩.计算意识恢复时呼气末七氟醚的MAC-awake即EC50及相应的95%可信区间(CI).结果 Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组意识恢复时呼气末七氟醚EC50及相应的95%CI分别为0.64%(0.57%~0.70%)、0.55%(0.50%~0.60%)及0.44%(0.37%~0.50%).结论 妇科手术七氟醚麻醉随着年龄增长其七氟醚的MAC-awake逐渐下降.

  8. Time-series analysis of sleep wake stage of rat EEG using time-dependent pattern entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Ryuji; Shinba, Toshikazu; Mugishima, Go; Haraguchi, Hikaru; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    We performed electroencephalography (EEG) for six male Wistar rats to clarify temporal behaviors at different levels of consciousness. Levels were identified both by conventional sleep analysis methods and by our novel entropy method. In our method, time-dependent pattern entropy is introduced, by which EEG is reduced to binary symbolic dynamics and the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window is considered. A high correlation was obtained between level of consciousness as measured by the conventional method and mean entropy in our entropy method. Mean entropy was maximal while awake (stage W) and decreased as sleep deepened. These results suggest that time-dependent pattern entropy may offer a promising method for future sleep research.

  9. Motor strategies used by rats spinalized at birth to maintain stance in response to imposed perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Giszter, Simon F; Davies, Michelle R; Graziani, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Some rats spinalized P1/P2 achieve autonomous weight supported locomotion and quiet stance as adults. We used force platforms and robot applied perturbations to test such spinalized rats (n=6) which exhibited both weight supporting locomotion and stance, and also normal rats (n=8). Ground reaction forces in individual limbs, and the animals’ center of pressure were examined. In normal rats, both forelimbs and hindlimbs participated actively to control horizontal components of ground reaction ...

  10. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations. The emergence of the connection between people’s mathematical qualifications and social progress can be traced......, professional associations argue that the low numbers of people in STEM fields can severely damage the competitiveness of developed nations in international, globalized markets. The narrative that connects progress, economic superiority, and development to citizen’s mathematical competence is made intelligible...

  11. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  12. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having...

  13. On Roald Amundsen's scientific achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the significant direct and indirect contributions to science made by the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen in the period 1897–1924. It documents that his expeditions through the North-west Passage (1903–06 with Gjøa, to the South Pole (1910–12 with Fram and through the North-east Passage (1918–1920 and the Chukchi and East Siberian seas (1921–25 with Maud yielded vast amounts of published scientific material on meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, geology, palaeontology, oceanography, ethnography, zoology and botany, which, though celebrated at the time, have since received scant recognition in more recent assessments of Amundsen's achievements.

  14. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  15. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  16. Achieving Nuclear Sustainability through Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the IAEA Member States recognized that concerted and coordinated research and development is needed to drive innovation that ensures that nuclear energy can help meet energy needs sustainably in the 21st century. Following an IAEA General Conference resolution, an international 'think tank' and dialogue forum were established. The resulting organization, the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), helps nuclear technology holders and users coordinate the national and international studies, research and other activities needed to achieve innovations in nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycles. Currently, 38 countries plus the European Commission are participating in the project. This group includes both developing and developed economies that represent more than 75% of the world's population and 85% of its gross domestic product. INPRO undertakes collaborative projects among IAEA Member States, which analyse development scenarios and examine how nuclear energy can support the United Nations' goals for sustainable development in the 21st century. The results of these projects can be applied by IAEA Member States in their national nuclear energy strategies and can lead to international cooperation resulting in beneficial innovations in nuclear energy technology and its deployment. For example, INPRO studies the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, including recycling of spent fuel to increase resource use efficiency and to reduce the waste disposal burdens.

  17. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  18. Restoration of glomerular haemodynamics and renal injury independent of arterial hypertension in rats with subtotal renal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Acosta, Jaime; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Franco, Martha; Striker, Liliane J; Striker, Gary E; Rodríguez, Iturbe Bernardo

    2002-06-01

    To study whether prevention of renal injury using the anti-inflammatory drugs pentosan polysulphate (PPS) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is associated with improvement of glomerular haemodynamics, PPS and MMF were compared with losartan. The awake systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria (Uprot) and micropuncture studies were performed 30 days after five-sixths nephrectomy in untreated rats and in rats treated with PPS (100 mg/kg per day), MMF (30 mg/kg per day) or losartan (30 mg/kg per day). In the rats receiving no treatment, there was a rise in SBP (to 180-200 mmHg) and in Uprot, which were prevented by losartan. In the PPS and MMF groups, the SBP was elevated but the Uprot did not increase. In the untreated rats the total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased (-80%) and the single-nephron GFR (37-42%), plasma flow (67-127%) and glomerular pressure (10-15 mmHg) increased. These changes were prevented by PPS and MMF to the same extent as by losartan: the rise in single-nephron GFR and plasma flow were reduced by 50% and the glomerular pressure was normal. In rats receiving losartan, this was due to the fall in arterial pressure, whereas in PPS- and MMF-treated rats it was due to a rise in afferent resistance, indicating autoregulatory capacity. Total GFR was similar, despite the lower single-nephron GFR in treated groups, suggesting a larger proportion of functioning nephrons. Losartan, PPS and MMF significantly reduced glomerular sclerosis and tubular dilation and atrophy in association with a reduction in the lymphocyte and macrophage infiltrate. These results suggest an interaction between the haemodynamic and inflammatory changes that perpetuate each other during progression of renal injury. Renal protection provided by anti-inflammatory drugs is partially mediated by the prevention of glomerular haemodynamic alterations. PMID:12184053

  19. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  20. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angheben, Juliana M M; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M; Rossi, Marcio V; Silva, Thiago A; Cravo, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY). Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (pchemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  1. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes during slow-wave sleep in rats are associated with electrocorticogram desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Dias-dos-Santos

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In awake rats a single recurrent larger tidal volume (deep breaths occurs at regular intervals, followed by oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate. In the present study we recorded the changes in blood pressure, heart rate and ventilation during the wakefulness-sleep cycle identified by electrocorticographic records in order to determine whether the deep breaths and cardiovascular oscillations were associated with changes in the electrocorticogram. During several episodes of slow-wave sleep (SWS in 7 rats the deep breaths and oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate were preceded by SWS desynchronization. The interval between deep breaths during SWS was 71 ± 4 s, the period between initial desynchronization and the generation of deep breaths was 3.98 ± 0.45 s and the duration of SWS desynchronization was 11 ± 0.65 s. Hypotension (-16 ± 1 mmHg and tachycardia (+15 ± 5 bpm were observed during deep breaths in the SWS state. These data indicate that the oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate during SWS are associated with deep breaths, which in turn are preceded by desynchronization of the electrocorticogram in this state of sleep

  2. Suppressant effects of selective 5-HT2 antagonists on rapid eye movement sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Echevarria, E; Pastel, R H; Cox, B; Blackburn, T P

    1989-04-24

    The effects of the novel, highly selective serotonin-2 (5-HT2) antagonists, ICI 169,369 and ICI 170,809, on 24 h EEG sleep-wake activity were studied in the rat. Both compounds caused a dose-related increase in the latency to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and significantly suppressed cumulative REMS time up to 12 h postinjection. In contrast, neither drug disrupted slow-wave sleep continuity in as much as the latency to non-REMS (NREMS) and cumulative NREMS time were unchanged. However, at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg) ICI 170,809 did produce a significant increase in total NREMS time during the second half of the sleep-awake cycle. These results demonstrate effects of selective 5-HT2 antagonists on sleep in rats which appear to be specific for REMS behavior, suggesting that the priming influence of serotonin on REMS may involve 5-HT2 receptor subtypes. The relationship between the REMS suppressant actions of these compounds and their consideration as therapeutic agents in depression is discussed.

  3. Texture coding in the rat whisker system: slip-stick versus differential resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Wolfe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Rats discriminate surface textures using their whiskers (vibrissae, but how whiskers extract texture information, and how this information is encoded by the brain, are not known. In the resonance model, whisker motion across different textures excites mechanical resonance in distinct subsets of whiskers, due to variation across whiskers in resonance frequency, which varies with whisker length. Texture information is therefore encoded by the spatial pattern of activated whiskers. In the competing kinetic signature model, different textures excite resonance equally across whiskers, and instead, texture is encoded by characteristic, nonuniform temporal patterns of whisker motion. We tested these models by measuring whisker motion in awake, behaving rats whisking in air and onto sandpaper surfaces. Resonant motion was prominent during whisking in air, with fundamental frequencies ranging from approximately 35 Hz for the long Delta whisker to approximately 110 Hz for the shorter D3 whisker. Resonant vibrations also occurred while whisking against textures, but the amplitude of resonance within single whiskers was independent of texture, contradicting the resonance model. Rather, whiskers resonated transiently during discrete, high-velocity, and high-acceleration slip-stick events, which occurred prominently during whisking on surfaces. The rate and magnitude of slip-stick events varied systematically with texture. These results suggest that texture is encoded not by differential resonant motion across whiskers, but by the magnitude and temporal pattern of slip-stick motion. These findings predict a temporal code for texture in neural spike trains.

  4. Cardiovascular alterations after injection of 2% lidocaine with norepinephrine 1:50,000 (xylestesin) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraco, Fatima Neves; Armonia, Paschoal Laercio; Malamed, Stanley F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the cardiovascular effects produced by intravascular injection of 2% lidocaine with 20 microg/mL of norepinephrine on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and heart rate of rats at the following times: control period, during the injection (first 15 seconds), during the first minute, and at the end of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after drug administration. The study was performed on 13 male Wistar rats with weights between 200 grams and 220 grams that were awake during the recording of these parameters. The dose administered was proportional to 1 cartridge of local anesthetic (1.8 mL) in an average-size human, which is equivalent to 0.51 mg/kg of lidocaine hydrochloride and 0.51 microg/kg of norepinephrine hydrochloride. The average time of injection was 15.7 seconds. The results of this study showed significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure and a noticeable decrease in heart rate. The greatest variation occurred in the systolic blood pressure. The greatest alterations occurred during injection and within the first minute following administration of the anesthetic solution. We would anticipate these changes in the parameters analyzed to be clinically significant. Thus, dentists using 2% lidocaine with norepinephrine 20 mug/mL should be very careful to avoid intravascular injection.

  5. Establishment of model of visceral pain due to colorectal distension and its behavioral assessment in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yang; Ming Yao; Xing-Hong Jiang; Li-Na Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a visceral pain model via colorectal distension (CRD) and to evaluate the efficiency of behavioral responses of CRD by measuring the score of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in rats.METHODS: Thirty-eight male SD rats weighing 180-240g were used to establish the visceral pain model. The rat was inserted intra-anally with a 7 cm long flexible latex balloon under ether anesthesia, and colorectal distensions by inflating the balloon with air were made 30 min after recovering from the anesthesia.Five AWR scores (AWR0 to AWR4) were used to assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimuli. It was regarded as the threshold of the minimal pressure (kPa). For abdominal flatting was induced by colorectal distension.RESULTS: A vigorous AWR to distension of the descending colon and rectum was found in 100% of the awake rats tested. The higher the pressure of distension; the higher the score of AWR. The distension pressures of 0, 2.00, 3.33, 5.33 and 8.00 kPa produced different AWR scores (P<0.05). The pain threshold of AWR was constant for up to 80 min after the initial windup (first 1-3 distensions), the mean threshold was 3.69±0.35 kPa. Systemic administration of morphine sulfate elevated the threshold of visceral pain in a dosedependent and naloxone reversible manner.CONCLUSION: Scoring the AWR during colorectal distensions can assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimulus. Flatting of abdomen (AWR 3) to CRD as the visceral pain threshold is clear, constant and reliable.This pain model and its behavioral assessment are good for research on visceral pain and analgesics.

  6. The effects of intragastric infusion of umami solutions on amygdalar and lateral hypothalamic neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Munkhzul; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Chinzorig, Choijiljav; Nakamura, Tomoya; Takamura, Yusaku; Patrono, Enrico; Kondoh, Takashi; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    Previous behavioral studies have suggested that l-glutamate, an umami substance, is detected in the gut, and that this information regarding glutamate is conveyed from the gut to the amygdala and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) through the vagus nerve to establish glutamate preference. In this study, we investigated the roles of the amygdala and LH in the information processing of gut glutamate. We recorded the activity of amygdalar and LH neurons during the intragastric administration of five test solutions (monosodium l-glutamate [MSG, 60 mmol/L]; inosine monophosphate [IMP, 60 mmol/L]; a mixture of MSG and IMP; NaCl [60 mmol/L]; or physiological saline) in intact and subdiaphragmatic vagotomized awake rats. In intact rats, 349 and 189 neurons were recorded from the amygdala and LH, respectively, while in vagotomized rats, 104 and 90 neurons were recorded from the amygdala and LH, respectively. In intact rats, similar percentages of neurons (30-60%) in the amygdala and LH responded to the intragastric infusion of the solutions. Vagotomy significantly altered responses to the MSG and NaCl solutions. In particular, vagotomy suppressed the inhibitory responses to the NaCl solution. Furthermore, vagotomy increased the response similarity between the MSG and NaCl solutions, suggesting that vagotomy impaired the coding of the postingestive consequences of the MSG solution in the amygdala and LH, which are unique for glutamate. The present results provide the first neurophysiological evidence that amygdalar and LH neurons process glutamate signals from the gut. PMID:26438732

  7. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  8. Therapeutic effect of Captopril on rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Liu; Kai-Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    cells infiltration and cartilago articularis damage degree etc. were observed inGroupsB,C,D andE. Conclusions:Intervention treatment withCaptopril can effectively reduce theTNF-αcontent in serum of rheumatoid arthritis rats and inhibit the generation of inflammatory factors, so as to achieve the therapeutic effect.

  9. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  10. Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Uysal; M. Alper Dincer

    2009-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using data from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey. We find that the program type the student is enrolled in affects student achievement significantly. However, this effect may partially be biased by past academic achievement. In line with the previous literature, our results also indicate that school resources...

  11. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti A Upadhye; N Chandrappa

    2014-01-01

    The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater a...

  12. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  13. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  14. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  15. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  16. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.28 Achievement awards. (a) With prior approval of... achievement award from performance pay funds. (b) With prior approval of the Psychology Services Department... also be granted an achievement award from performance pay funds....

  17. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Ajogbeje Oke James; Borisade Fidelis Tunde; Aladesaye Charles Ademuyiwa; Ayodele Oludolapo Bolanle

    2013-01-01

    The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268...

  18. Clinical Application of Awake Intubation with Airtraq Laryngoscope in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome%Airtraq喉镜清醒插管在阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭清雄

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨Airtraq喉镜清醒插管在OSAS中的临床应用价值.方法:择期行全麻下UPPP术OSAS患者42例,按随机数字表法分为Airtraq喉镜组和Macintosh喉镜组各21例.麻醉诱导后分别使用Airtraq喉镜和Macintosh喉镜显露声门行清醒气管插管.结果:Airtraq喉镜组总插管时间短于Macintosh喉镜组(P0.05).与T2相比,Airtraq喉镜组T3时各血流动力学指标无明显变化(P>0.05),Macintosh喉镜组T3时各血流动力学指标明显升高(P<0.05).Airtraq喉镜组T3时的HR和RPP明显低与Macintosh喉镜组(P<0.05).Airtraq喉镜组声门完全显露率(I级)明显高与Macintosh喉镜组(P<0.05).Macintosh喉镜组发生咽喉损伤1例,咽痛1例,Airtraq喉镜组无1例发生.结论:在OSAS预计困难气道患者中应用Airtraq喉镜清醒插管,操作便捷,插管成功率高,血流动力学反应轻,声门显露好,并发症少,相比Macintosh直接喉镜,具宵明显的优势.%Objective: To investigate the clinical application value of awake intubation with Airtraq laryngoscope in OSAS.Methods: 42 OSAS patients who received UPPP surgery scheduled for elective operation under general anesthesia with the tracheal intubation, were randomly divided into Airtraq laryngoscope group and Macintosh laryngoscope group with 20 patients in each group. After anesthetic induce,perform awake endotracheal intubation using Airtraq videolaryngoscope and Macintosh direct laryngoscope to expose glotiss respectively.Results:Compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope group,the insertion time of catheter was shorter in Airtraq laryngoscope group(P<0.05),the tracheal intubation success ratio was higher in Airtraq laryngoscope group(P<0.05),and the IDS score was lower in Airtraq laryngoscope group(P<0.05).Compared with T1,SBP,DBP and RPP in two groups decreased significantly(P<0.05),the change of HR was not remarkableat T2(P<0.05);Compared with T2,the was no significant change of each hemodynamic index in Airtraq laryngoscope

  19. 2008: year of the rat for stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duanqing Pei

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2008 breakthrough of the year went to reprogramming as announced by magazine Science recently [1], highlighting a stem cell revolution in the scientific world underway commencing at 2006. For the field of stem cell and developmental biology, 2008 ended with a truly exciting achievement for the Rat, i.e., the generation of germline competent embryonic stem cells from rat blastocysts (Figure 1) [2, 3].

  20. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  1. Light-sheet microscopy imaging of a whole cleared rat brain with Thy1-GFP transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Stefaniuk; Gualda, Emilio J.; Monika Pawlowska; Diana Legutko; Paweł Matryba; Paulina Koza; Witold Konopka; Dorota Owczarek; Marcin Wawrzyniak; Pablo Loza-Alvarez; Leszek Kaczmarek

    2016-01-01

    Whole-brain imaging with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and optically cleared tissue is a new, rapidly developing research field. Whereas successful attempts to clear and image mouse brain have been reported, a similar result for rats has proven difficult to achieve. Herein, we report on creating novel transgenic rat harboring fluorescent reporter GFP under control of neuronal gene promoter. We then present data on clearing the rat brain, showing that FluoClearBABB was found superior ove...

  2. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  3. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  4. Expression of exogenous rat collagenase in vitro and in a rat model of liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Yao Wang; Jin-Sheng Guo; Chang-Qing Yang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The present study was conducted to test thehypothesis that the introduction of the collagenase geneinto tissue culture cells and into a rat model of liver fibrosiswould result in the expression of enzymatically active product.METHODS: FLAG-tagged full-length rat collagenase cDNAwas PCR amplified and cloned into a mammalian expressionvector. NIH3T3 cells were then transiently transfected withthis construct. Expression of exogenous collagenase mRNAwas assessed by RT-PCR, and the exogenous collagenasedetected by Western blotting using anti-FLAG monoclonalantibodyEnzymatic activity was detected by gelatinzymography. To determine the effects of exogenouscollagenase production in vivo, the construct was boundto glycosyl-poly-L-lysine and then transduced into rats thathad developed liver fibrosis as a result of CCI4 plus ethanoltreatment. The hepatic expression of the construct and itseffect on the formation of liver fibrosis were demonstratedusing RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: It was found that exogenously expressed ratcollagenase mRNA could be detected in NTH3T3 cellsfollowing transfection. Enzymatic ally active collagenase couldalso be detected in the culture medium. The recombinantplasmid was also expressed in rat liver after in vivo genetransfer. Expression of exogenous rat collagenase correlatedwith decreased deposition of collagen types I and Ⅲ in thelivers of rats with experimentally induced liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: The expression of active exogenous ratcollagenase could be achieved in vitro and in vivo. It wassuggested that in vivo expression of active exogenouscollagenase may have therapeutic effects on the formationof liver fibrosis.

  5. Inequality, SES, economic indicators, and student achievement

    OpenAIRE

    John J. McCreary; Edwards, Julianne M.; Gregory J. Marchant

    2015-01-01

    HLM model fit was used to determine the relationship of the country level economic variables of GDP and the GINI Index to 2012 student PISA reading, math, and science achievement, along with individual SES, country SES mean, and country SES inequality. For all achievement areas the complete model of all variables represented the best fit. The significant predictors in the models were country SES inequality and student SES. This suggested a less direct relationship to achievement for the econo...

  6. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Flynt, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  7. Predicting achievement in mathematics in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Maja; PUKLEK LEVPUŠČEK, Melita; Sočan, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The study examined individual factors and social factors that influence adolescent studentsʼ achievement in mathematics. The predictive model suggested direct positive effects of student intelligence, self-rated openness and parental education on achievement in mathematics, whereas direct effects of extraversion on measures of achievement were negative. Indirect positive effects of intelligence, self-rated conscientiousness, student-perceived mathematics teacherʼs press for understanding and ...

  8. Rapid and Cost-Effective Gene Targeting in Rat Embryonic Stem Cells by TALENs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Tong; Guanyi Huang; Charles Ashton; Hongping Wu; Hexin Yan; Qi-Long Ying

    2012-01-01

    The rat is the preferred animal model in many areas of biomedical research and drug development.Genetic manipulation in rats has lagged behind that in mice due to the lack of efficient gene targeting tools.Previously,we generated a knockout rat via conventional homologous recombination in rat embryonic stem (ES) cells.Here,we show that efficient gene targeting in rat ES cells can be achieved quickly through transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated DNA double-strand breaks.Using the Golden Gate cloning technique,we constructed a pair of TALEN targeting vectors for the gene of interest in 5 days.After gene transfection,the targeted rat ES cell colonies were isolated,screened,and confirmed by PCR without the need of drug selection.Our results suggest that TALEN-mediated gene targeting is a superior means of establishing genetically modified rat ES cell lines with high efficiency and short turnaround time.

  9. Therapeutic effect of Captopril on rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei; Liu; Kai-Jie; Wang

    2014-01-01

    :the degree of ankle arthrocele in rats of these three groups was lower than that of Group A rats(P<0.01).Histological observation showed that large amount of inflammatory cells and plasmocyte infiltration was found in ankle synovial tissues of Group A rats.Relief of hyperaemia and edema of right ankle synovial tissues as well as significant decrease in synoviocyte layer hyperplasia,intra—articular inflammatory cells infiltration and cartilage articularis damage degree etc.were observed in Groups B.C.D and E.Conclusions:Intervention treatment with Captopril can effectively reduce the TNF- α content in serum of rheumatoid arthritis rats and inhibit the generation of inflammatory factors,so as to achieve the therapeutic effect.

  10. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  11. 神经递质与睡眠觉醒及学习记忆的关系研究%Study on the Relationship of Neurotransmitters with Sleep,Awakeness,Learning and Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅丽

    2011-01-01

    睡眠是一个主动的神经调节的过程,与神经系统内部的结构和神经递质的作用密切相关.目前关于睡眠与觉醒的机制尚未完全明确,许多神经递质参与睡眠与觉醒周期的调节,神经递质对学习记忆能力也有不同的影响.现对乙酰胆碱、去甲肾上腺素、多巴胺、5-羟色胺、一氧化氮及组胺等几种神经递质对睡眠与觉醒的调节及对学习记忆的影响予以综述.%Sleep is an active neural regulation process, which is closely associated with the internal structure of nervous system and the role of neurotransmitters.At present, the mechanisms of sleep and awakeness remain unclear.It is discovered that many neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of sleepawakeness cycle.Neurotransmitters also have various effects on learning and memory.This paper will review neurotransmitters,such as acetylcholine,norepinephrine,dopamine,serotonin,nitric oxide,and histamine regarding the adjustation of sleep and awakeneas and effects on learning and memory.

  12. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology%神经外科术中唤醒麻醉对患者术后神经心理功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明媛; 耿莹; 王刚; 韩如泉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC). Methods A case - control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic) undergoing general anesthesia (GA) in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigated during telephone follow-ups, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) was adopted to evaluate the life quality of patients. Results Almost 73 pairs of patients fulfilled the survey of AC and GA group respectively. There were 21 patients and 28 patients with postoperative neurological deficits, and 12 patients and 8 patients with psychological disorders in AC and GA group respectively. Thirty patients of AC group had the recollection of being awake during the surgery. There were 9 patients in CA group having long-term ( > 6 months) neurological deficits, which was less than the number of GA group (18 patients, P = 0.038). According to the assessment in short-term, medium-term and long-term postoperative neurological deficits, there was no significant difference in the quality-of-life scores between the two groups (P > 0.05, for all). Conclusion Awake craniotomy can be the main method for removing the lesions located in or close to functional areas with lower incidence of long-term postoperative neurological deficits, and it has no significant impact on the psychological status and the quality of life postoperatively.%目的 评价神经外科术中唤醒麻醉患者术后神经心理功能与生活质量.方法 回顾调查81 例于唤醒麻醉条件下行脑胶质瘤切除术且随访资料完整患者的临床资料,依据年龄、性别、文化程度、肿瘤位置和特征,以1∶1 配对选择同期于非唤醒麻醉状态下行脑胶质瘤切除术患者作

  13. 瑞芬太尼复合丙泊酚用于患者清醒状态下实施无痛肠镜的研究%Remifentanil Combined with Propofol for Painless Colonoscopy in Patients Awake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆旺; 秦彩娟; 魏双江; 张伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of using propofol and remifentanil during painless colonoscopy for patient awake.Methods From July 2011 to July 2012,160 patients receiving painless colonoscopy were randomly divided into two groups.Group Ⅰ patients used compound propofol and remifentanil with 38 men and 42 women; their average age was (48 ± 16) years old,and their average weight was (53.37 ± 9.5) kg.Group Ⅱ patients were treated by slow intravenous infusion of combined remifentanil and propofol after slow intravenous infusion of atropine at 0.25-0.5 mg to keep the patient awake; In this group,there were 43 men and 37 women with an average age of (49 ± 15) years old and an average weight of (54.26 ± 8.3) kg.We observed blood pressure,heart rate,breathing,blood oxygen saturation,dynamic response,revival time after checking,directional force recovery time,walking time,time of leaving the room,as well as memory of the inspection process.Results Patients were all able to complete the trial.The rate of intraoperative memory was low,with no statistical difference among the two groups (P > 0.05).Cycle changes,bradycardia,hypoxemia,and dynamic response of patients in group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in group Ⅱ (P < 0.05).Awake time,directional force recovery time,walking time,time of leaving the room for patients in Group Ⅱ were significantly shorter than those in group Ⅰ (P < 0.05).Conclusion Remifentanil combined with propofol and atropine can be used safely for patients awake to undergo painless colonoscopy examination.%目的 探讨丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼在患者清醒状态下实施无痛肠镜法的可行性.方法 2011年7月-2012年7月,将160例行无痛肠镜检查的患者随机分为两组:A组用芬太尼复合丙泊酚麻醉,其中男38例,女42例,平均年龄(48±16)岁,平均体重(53.37±9.5)kg;B组以阿托品0.25~0.5 mg缓慢静脉注射,继而以瑞芬太尼+丙泊酚复合液缓慢静脉滴注,使患

  14. A power spectrum based backpropagation artificial neural network model for classification of sleep-wake stages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Ray

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Three layered feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network architecture is designed to classify sleep-wake stages in rats. Continuous three channel polygraphic signals such as electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram were recorded from conscious rats for eight hours during day time. Signals were also stored in computer hard disk with the help of analog to digital converter and its compatible data acquisition software. The power spectra (in dB scale of the digitized signals in three sleep-wake stages were calculated. Selected power spectrum data of all three simultaneously recorded polygraphic signals were used for training the network and to classify slow wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and awake stages. The ANN architecture used in present study shows a very good agreement with manual sleep stage scoring with an average of 94.83% for all the 1200 samples tested from SWS, REM and AWA stages. The high performance observed with the system based on ANN highlights the need of this computational tool into the field of sleep research.

  15. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  16. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  17. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  18. Mathematics Achievement: Do Teachers Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender of teachers, teachers' qualification, experience and training on mathematics achievement among eighth grade students in Malaysia using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Only gender of teachers has significant influence on student's achievement in mathematics.

  19. The Effects of Ethnicity Upon School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James G.

    The study examined the effects of ethnicity, family income, adult education level, and unemployment rates on school achievement. Data were obtained from 85 public school districts in New Mexico which enrolled primarily Spanish-surnamed pupils. The composite achievement scores from the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) for grades 5 and 8…

  20. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  1. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  2. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  3. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  4. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  6. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  7. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  8. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  9. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  10. A user-configurable headstage for multimodality neuromonitoring in freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Limnuson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal monitoring of brain activity, physiology, and neurochemistry is an important approach to gain insight into brain function, modulation, and pathology. With recent progress in micro- and nanotechnology, micro-nano-implants have become important catalysts in advancing brain research. However, to date, only a limited number of brain parameters have been measured simultaneously in awake animals in spite of significant recent progress in sensor technology. Here we have provided a cost and time effective approach to designing a headstage to conduct a multimodality brain monitoring in freely moving animals. To demonstrate this method, we have designed a user-configurable headstage for our micromachined multimodal neural probe. The headstage can reliably record direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG, brain oxygen tension (PbrO2, cortical temperature and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF simultaneously without significant signal crosstalk or movement artifacts for 72 hours. Even in a noisy environment, it can record low-level neural signals with high quality. Moreover, it can easily interface with signal conditioning circuits that have high power consumption and are difficult to miniaturize. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time where multiple physiological, biochemical and electrophysiological cerebral variables have been simultaneously recorded from freely moving rats. We anticipate that the developed system will aid in gaining further insight into not only normal cerebral functioning but also pathophysiology of conditions such as epilepsy, stroke and traumatic brain injury.

  11. A User-Configurable Headstage for Multimodality Neuromonitoring in Freely Moving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limnuson, Kanokwan; Narayan, Raj K; Chiluwal, Amrit; Golanov, Eugene V; Bouton, Chad E; Li, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal monitoring of brain activity, physiology, and neurochemistry is an important approach to gain insight into brain function, modulation, and pathology. With recent progress in micro- and nanotechnology, micro-nano-implants have become important catalysts in advancing brain research. However, to date, only a limited number of brain parameters have been measured simultaneously in awake animals in spite of significant recent progress in sensor technology. Here we have provided a cost and time effective approach to designing a headstage to conduct a multimodality brain monitoring in freely moving animals. To demonstrate this method, we have designed a user-configurable headstage for our micromachined multimodal neural probe. The headstage can reliably record direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG), brain oxygen tension (PbrO2), cortical temperature, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) simultaneously without significant signal crosstalk or movement artifacts for 72 h. Even in a noisy environment, it can record low-level neural signals with high quality. Moreover, it can easily interface with signal conditioning circuits that have high power consumption and are difficult to miniaturize. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time where multiple physiological, biochemical, and electrophysiological cerebral variables have been simultaneously recorded from freely moving rats. We anticipate that the developed system will aid in gaining further insight into not only normal cerebral functioning but also pathophysiology of conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. PMID:27594826

  12. Engineering professor achieves two prestigious professional milestones

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Ali Nayfeh of Blacksburg, University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, recently achieved two prestigious professional milestones.

  13. Recent CAS Achievements in Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress scored by CAS researchers along with the smooth development of the knowledge innovation program piloted at CAS. The follow-ings are just recent examples of CAS research achievements in life sciences.

  14. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  15. The integrated curriculum: experiences, achievements and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J

    1984-01-01

    In this article the aims, experiences and achievements of vertical and horizontal integration in undergraduate medical education are considered and reviewed, and some problems are identified. It is concluded that a clearer definition of integration would now be helpful.

  16. Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The children of the Southeast Asian boat people excel in the U.S. school system. A review of the factors underlying this achievement suggests that the U.S. educational crisis is more social than academic. (KR)

  17. Achievements of school education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Brazhnik

    2010-01-01

    Discussed are specific traits of the evaluation of schools and students education achievements, as well as the specifics of the recruitment of teachers in Finland. Those are considered as factors improving the education quality.

  18. Identifying learning techniques among high achievers

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmukananda P; L. Padma

    2013-01-01

    Background: In every college, it is noticed that in spite of being exposed to the same teaching modalities and adopting seemingly similar strategies, some students perform much better than their peers. This can be evaluated in the form of better academic performance in the internal assessments they undertake. This project is an endeavor to identify the learning techniques among high achievers which they employ to outperform others. We can also suggest the same to the medium and low achievers ...

  19. Identifying learning techniques among high achievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukananda P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In every college, it is noticed that in spite of being exposed to the same teaching modalities and adopting seemingly similar strategies, some students perform much better than their peers. This can be evaluated in the form of better academic performance in the internal assessments they undertake. This project is an endeavor to identify the learning techniques among high achievers which they employ to outperform others. We can also suggest the same to the medium and low achievers so that they can improve their academic performance. This study was conducted to identify different learning techniques adopted by high achievers and suggesting the same to medium and low achievers. Methods: After obtaining clearance from the institutional ethics committee, the high achievers were identified by selecting the upper third of the students in the ascending order of marks obtained in the consecutive three internal assessments in three consecutive batches. The identity of the students was not revealed. They were then administered an open ended questionnaire which addressed relevant issues. The most common and feasible techniques will be suggested to the medium and low achievers. Results: The respondents’ (n=101 replies were analyzed by calculating the percentages of responses, and assessing based on that, which were the most frequently adapted techniques by these high achievers Conclusions: High-achievers have a diligent study pattern; they not only study regularly, but also involve in group discussions and approach their teachers when in doubt. Additionally, they refer to other sources of information like the internet, demonstrating a proactive attitude towards studies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 203-207

  20. Intelligence and Its Relationship to Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih KAYA; Juntune, Joyce; Stough, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence and achievement are two different, but interrelated, constructs and have been studied for over a century in an attempt to explain differences in educational and life outcomes. An enhanced understanding of the relationship between intelligence, both verbal and nonverbal, and achievement may contribute to improving the identification of gifted and talented children, particularly those from low SES populations. This comprehensive literature review examines the link between intellige...

  1. Achieving quality in procurement through automation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacunski, Walter W.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Department of Defense has mandated that TQM be implemented in procurement. This research looks at achieving quality in procurement through the use of information systems. In doing so, it defines what quality in procurement means. The armed services; three automated systems: APADE, BCAS, and SAACONS are analyzed to see what tools they provide users to aid them in achieving procurement quality. It gives suggestions on how information sy...

  2. Low and high achievers in math

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck; Weng, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    In this session we will present the results of the preliminary analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data, which can be used to enhance the teaching of low and high mathematics achievers so as to increase their mathematical knowledge and confidence.......In this session we will present the results of the preliminary analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data, which can be used to enhance the teaching of low and high mathematics achievers so as to increase their mathematical knowledge and confidence....

  3. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennia Matos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and higher academic achievement, and negative effects of performance avoidance goals, including lower academic achievement. Mixed results were found for pursuing performance approach goals, which predicted a greater use of learning strategies, but were unrelated to academic achievement. The present findings support the external validity of achievement goal theory in a sample of students from a culture that is understudied in the achievement goal literature in particular and the motivational literature in general.

  4. Measuring achievement motivation at early adolescent age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the sample of adult respondents from the domestic population we defined the structure of achievement motivation with four relatively independent dimensions of competing with others, perseverance in achieving goals, achieving goals as a source of pleasure and orientation towards planning. Based on this model we constructed the MOP/D scale for measuring achievement motivation at early adolescent age, containing 35 items and three-level categories of responses. This scale was administered together with the questionnaires exploring the motivation for school learning and personality features on the initial sample (261 respondents; 48% female and the cross-validation sample (2234 respondents; 49% female aged 10 to 16. It has been shown that the MOP/D scale is highly representative, with excellent reliability, and, considering the expected complexity of the space of measuring, acceptable homogeneity. Using the exploratory factor analysis on both samples, four primary dimensions were defined: planning, studying, competing and perseverance, and the general factor of achievement motivation. The results of correlation analyses revealed satisfactory criterion, convergent and discriminatory validity of the MOP/D scale against the measures of academic motivation, personality features and the variables derived from data on school success. Hence, the MOP/D scale has good psychometric characteristics and can be applied in research and practical psychological activities for measuring achievement motivation of respondents at early adolescent age.

  5. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL VARIABLES AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychological studies highlight emotional aspects, and they show an important role within individual learning processes. Hereby, positive emotions were supposed to positively influence learning and achievement processes and negative ones do the contrary. In this study, an educational unit “ecosystem lake” was used during which achievement (three tests and emotional variables (interest, well-being, anxiety and boredom; measured at the end of three pre-selected lessons were monitored. The research question was to explore correlations between emotional variables and the learning outcome of the teaching unit. Prior knowledge was regressed against the subsequent tests to account for its confounding effect. Regressions showed a highly significant influence of prior knowledge on the subsequent measurements of achievement. However, after accounting for prior knowledge, a positive correlation between interest/well-being and achievement and a negative correlation between anxiety/boredom and achievement was found. Further research and interventions should try to enhance positive emotions in biology lessons to positively influence achievement.

  6. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  7. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF B.ED STUDENTS IN RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The study was experimental in nature and conducted on the sample of 300 students, as per the requirements of 2*2 factorial design in which the independent variables of Intelligence and Achievement Motivation were studied. Academic Achievement was taken as a dependent variable. There were two levels of Intelligence – High Group Intelligence (I1) and Low Group Intelligence (I2) and two levels of the variable Achievement Motivation (A) – High Achievement Motivation (A1) & Low Achi...

  8. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.;

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  9. Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Need for Achievement on Interpersonal Relations and Academic Achievement of Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Ogunmwonyi, Edosa; Okediji, Abayomi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to one hundred and ten (110) subjects. The independent variables are emotional intelligence and need for achievement, while the dependent variables are…

  10. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  11. Potentiation by choline of basal and electrically evoked acetylcholine release, as studied using a novel device which both stimulates and perfuses rat corpus striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S. A.; Kischka, U.; Marshall, D. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) using a novel probe through which striatal neurons could be both superfused and stimulated electrically in both anesthetized and freely moving awake animals. Optimal stimulation parameters for eliciting ACh release from cholinergic neurons differed from those required for eliciting DA release from dopaminergic terminals: at 0.6 ms pulse duration, 20 Hz and 200 microA, ACh release increased to 357 +/- 30% (P < 0.01) of baseline and was blocked by the addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Pulse durations of 2.0 ms or greater were required to increase DA release. Unlike ACh release, DA release showed no frequency dependence above 5 Hz. The maximal evoked releases of ACh and DA were 556 +/- 94% (P < 0.01) and 254 +/- 38% (P < 0.05) of baseline, respectively. Peripheral administration of choline (Ch) chloride (30-120 mg/kg) to anesthetized animals caused dose-related (r = 0.994, P < 0.01) increases in ACh release; basal release rose from 117 +/- 7% to 141 +/- 5% of initial baseline levels (P < 0.05) and electrically evoked ACh release rose from 386 +/- 38% to 600 +/- 34% (P < 0.01) in rats given 120 mg/kg. However, Ch failed to affect basal or evoked DA release although neostigmine (10 microM) significantly elevated basal DA release (from 36.7 fmol/10 min to 71.5 fmol/10 min; P < 0.05). In awake animals, Ch (120 mg/kg) also elevated both basal (from 106 +/- 7% to 154 +/- 17%; P < 0.05) and electrically evoked (from 146 +/- 13 to 262 +/- 16%; P < 0.01) ACh release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajogbeje Oke James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  13. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  14. Achieving single channel, full duplex wireless communication

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  15. Five years of achievement in ISCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Derose, James V.

    Achievement associated with a school district committed to the implementation of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) materials and instructional strategy is the focus of this report. While ISCS is a three level, activity oriented, junior high program, the research was limited to the first year or Level I. Data were gathered from Level I students (mostly seventh graders) during a five year period. Analyses were per- formed to help answer questions such as: Are IQ and reading scores the highest correlates of achievement? Do IQ and reading correlates hold for both quantitative and qualitative indices of achievement? Do ISCS learning relationships hold over time? Are students able to evaluate how well they understand the concepts covered?Received: 21 June 1979; Revised: 11 March 1981;

  16. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  17. Impact of Metacognition on Guitar Performance Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    YOKUŞ, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the impact of the development of metacognition on guitar performance achievement in the individual instrument guitar lesson, which is included in the Bachelor’s program of Music Teacher Education in Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education, Department of Fine Arts Education, in Turkey. “Experimental Design with Pretest–Posttest Control Group” has been used, in order to achieve the objective of the study. The study sample (N=10) consists of g...

  18. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  19. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M M Angheben

    Full Text Available Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY. Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (p<0.05, n = 14/13. The respiratory effort increased by 53±6 mmHg in SHR and by 34±5 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell by 209±19 bpm in SHR and by 155±16 bpm in WKY. The carotid chemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  20. Facilitation of synaptic transmission and pain responses by CGRP in the amygdala of normal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guangchen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP plays an important role in peripheral and central sensitization. CGRP also is a key molecule in the spino-parabrachial-amygdaloid pain pathway. Blockade of CGRP1 receptors in the spinal cord or in the amygdala has antinociceptive effects in different pain models. Here we studied the electrophysiological mechanisms of behavioral effects of CGRP in the amygdala in normal animals without tissue injury. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurons in the latero-capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC in rat brain slices showed that CGRP (100 nM increased excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs at the parabrachio-amygdaloid (PB-CeLC synapse, the exclusive source of CGRP in the amygdala. Consistent with a postsynaptic mechanism of action, CGRP increased amplitude, but not frequency, of miniature EPSCs and did not affect paired-pulse facilitation. CGRP also increased neuronal excitability. CGRP-induced synaptic facilitation was reversed by an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 50 μM or a PKA inhibitor (KT5720, 1 μM, but not by a PKC inhibitor (GF109203X, 1 μM. Stereotaxic administration of CGRP (10 μM, concentration in microdialysis probe into the CeLC by microdialysis in awake rats increased audible and ultrasonic vocalizations and decreased hindlimb withdrawal thresholds. Behavioral effects of CGRP were largely blocked by KT5720 (100 μM but not by GF109203X (100 μM. The results show that CGRP in the amygdala exacerbates nocifensive and affective behavioral responses in normal animals through PKA- and NMDA receptor-dependent postsynaptic facilitation. Thus, increased CGRP levels in the amygdala might trigger pain in the absence of tissue injury.

  1. Rat liver insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using insulin affinity chromatography, the authors have isolated highly purified insulin receptor from rat liver. When evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the rat liver receptor contained the M/sub r/ 125,000 α-subunit, the M/sub r/ 90,000 β-subunit, and varying proportions of the M/sub r/ 45,000 β'-subunit. The specific insulin binding of the purified receptor was 25-30 μg of 125I-insulin/mg of protein, and the receptor underwent insulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Rat liver and human placental receptors differ from each other in several functional aspects: (1) the adsorption-desorption behavior from four insulin affinity columns indicated that the rat liver receptor binds less firmly to immobilized ligands; (2) the 125I-insulin binding affinity of the rat liver receptor is lower than that of the placental receptor; (3) partial reduction of the rat liver receptor with dithiothreitol increases its insulin binding affinity whereas the binding affinity of the placental receptor is unchanged; (4) at optimal insulin concentration, rat liver receptor autophosphorylation is stimulated 25-50-fold whereas the placental receptor is stimulated only 4-6-fold. Conversion of the β-subunit to β' by proteolysis is a major problem that occurs during exposure of the receptor to the pH 5.0 buffer used to elute the insulin affinity column. Proteolytic destruction and the accompanying loss of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation can be substantially reduced by proteolysis inhibitors. In summary, rat liver and human placental receptors differ functionally in both α- and β-subunits. Insulin binding to the α-subunit of the purified rat liver receptor communicates a signal that activates the β-subunit; however, major proteolytic destruction of the β-subunit does not affect insulin binding to the α-subunit

  2. 脑磁图描记联合术中唤醒用于显微镜下切除功能区胚胎发育不良性神经上皮瘤%Magnetoencephalography and awaking anesthesia in microsurgical resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in function areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭韬; 李文玲; 武江; 赵文清; 康进生; 杜亚丽; 董长征; 岳向勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize our experience on application of magnetoeneephalography (MEG) and awaking anesthesia in microsurgical treatment of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in the functional areas. Methods The range of the functional area was largely defined by MEG; intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation was used under awaking anesthesia to identify the border of function area and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors were resected under microscope in four patients and the outcomes of the patients were observed. Results Satisfactory outcomes were obtained in the 4 patients and there were no injuries in the function area. No epileptic seizures or recurrence of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors were found during long term follow-up. Conclusion Combined treatment using MEG and awaking anesthesia contributes to safe and effective surgical treatment of dysembroplastic neuroepithelial tumors in the function areas.%目的 总结脑磁图(magnetoencephalography, MEG)描记与术中唤醒联合应用切除功能区胚胎发育不良性神经上皮瘤(dysembroplastic neuroepithelial tumor,DNT)的经验.方法根据MEG结果大体确定功能区范围,在唤醒麻醉下应用术中皮质电刺激刺激相应区域皮质,明确功能区和DNT边界.在显微镜下切除DNT 4例,观察治疗效果.结果 4例患者手术效果良好,无功能区损害.长期随访未出现癫发作及DNT复发.结论 联合应用MEG与术中唤醒技术显微镜下切除肿瘤是治疗功能区DNT安全、有效的方法.

  3. Ozone Therapy in Ethidium Bromide-Induced Demyelination in Rats: Possible Protective Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Neveen A; Assaf, Naglaa; Ismail, Manal F; Khadrawy, Yasser A; Samy, Mohga

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by excessive demyelination. The study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of ozone (O3) therapy in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced demyelination in rats either alone or in combination with corticosteroids in order to decrease the dose of steroid therapy. Rats were divided into Group (1) normal control rats received saline, Group (2) Sham-operated rats received saline, Group (3) Sham-operated rats received vehicle (oxygen), Group (4) EB-treated rats received EB, Group (5) EB-treated rats received O3, Group (6) EB-treated rats received methylprednisolone (MP), and Group (7) EB-treated rats received half the dose of MP concomitant with O3. EB-treated rats showed a significant increase in the number of footfalls in the grid walk test, decreased brain GSH, and paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity, whereas brain MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ, Cox-2 immunoreactivity, and p53 protein levels were increased. A significant decline in brain serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and MBP immunoreactivity was also reported. Significant improvement of the above-mentioned parameters was demonstrated with the administration of either MP or O3, whereas best amelioration was achieved by combining half the dose of MP with ozone. PMID:26467344

  4. Recent Achievement of Gas Electron Multiplier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yi-ben; WANG Lin-jun; ZHANG Ming-long; YANG Ying; ZHANG Wei-li; RUAN Jian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) as a novel gas detector, due to it's simple structure, high performance, well compatibility etc. ,is widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics and other fields. In this review, the principle, recent achievements,developments and applications of GEM are mainly described.

  5. Achievement Motivation Skill Training: Assisting Unmotivated Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    Achievement motivation training addresses the needs of unmotivated, "turned-off" students by employing sequential self-improvement steps and other strategies such as videotape clips, games, simulations, music, role playing, modeling, career education, and small-group exercises. Includes eight references. (MLH)

  6. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  7. Student Academic Achievement: Report to the Provost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, David E.

    In fall 1991, the faculty and staff of New Mexico State University-Alamogordo (NMSU-A) designed and implemented a strategic planning process which incorporates a comprehensive annual review of various aspects of student academic achievement (SAA). The faculty-based SAA assessment process includes activities focused on classroom instruction,…

  8. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  9. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  10. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  11. School Support for Lower Achieving Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study in four Scottish schools (with differing socio-economic and school-effectiveness ratings) of how lower achieving students experience schooling. Emphasis is on the available pupil-support systems: learning support, behavioral support, and guidance services. (DB)

  12. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  13. Closing the Achievement Gap on ACT & SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    Research has focused on four groups of factors and the achievement gap: (1) student characteristics (high school GPA, attendance patterns, courses taken in high school, participation in extra-curricular activities, etc.); (2) family characteristics (family structure, in home, parents' level of education, mobility, etc.); (3) school-based…

  14. Achievements in Building The Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past three decades,people have gained an increasingly deeper under-standing of the law,and theories on democracy and justice have been en-riched.A socialist legal framework has been developing and the rule of law has becomea basic governing principle.China has made unprecedented achievements in promoting law-based governance.

  15. New Achievements in Well Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Tingdong

    1996-01-01

    @@ In the first five years of 1990s, new achievements made in China's onshore well logging technology have enhanced the benefits of exploration and development for complex oil and gas reservoirs and have thus showed the trend of the development of China's well logging technology towards the end of this century.

  16. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  17. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  18. Interplanetary monitoring platform engineering history and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the fall of 1979, last of ten Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite (IMP) missions ended a ten year series of flights dedicated to obtaining new knowledge of the radiation effects in outer space and of solar phenomena during a period of maximum solar flare activity. The technological achievements and scientific accomplishments from the IMP program are described.

  19. Attributional Biases: More Barriers to Women's Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    This paper presents three studies dealing with the use of attribution theory in the study of sex differences in achievement. These sex differences are measured in terms of task difficulty, ability, effort, and luck according to the model developed by Weiner, et al (1971). The studies attempt to expand the Weiner model to demonstrate that males and…

  20. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  1. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  2. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard;

    2016-01-01

    . Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...

  3. Physics Achievements from the Belle Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chang, Paoti; Eidelman, Simon; Golob, Bostjan; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hayashii, Hisaki; Iijima, Toru; Inami, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kay; Kwon, Youngjoon; Miyabayashi, Kenkichi; Mohanty, Gagan; Nakao, Mikihiko; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Olsen, Stephen; Sakai, Yoshihide; Schwanda, Christoph; Schwartz, Alan; Trabelsi, Karim; Uehara, Sadaharu; Uno, Shoji; Watanabe, Yasushi; Zupanc, Anze

    2012-01-01

    The Belle experiment, running at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider during the first decade of the century, achieved its original objective of measuring precisely differences between particles and anti-particles in the B system. After collecting 1000 fb-1 of data at various Upsilon resonances, Belle also obtained the many other physics results described in this article.

  4. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  5. The Methodological Nettle: ICT and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Vinesh; Lloyd, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning…

  6. Competition and achievement goals in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemeier, H.; Bittner, Jenny V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how competition within teams influences which type of achievement goals employees adopt. We studied how dispositional learning-goal and performance-goal orientation interact with team-level competition and predict whether team members adopt state learning or performance achieveme

  7. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  8. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  9. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  10. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  11. Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

  12. Achieving the Goals of Sports Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Horal, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical part focuses on setting and achieving of goals in organizations in general and identifies specific performance objectives in sports organizations. In the practical part examines the process of setting targets and performance in sport organizations to Jindřichohradecko.

  13. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  14. Enhancing Communication and Achieving Mutual-benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gendang; Xu Jianmei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small &Medium Enterprises Fair was completed successfully The pageant for international small and medium enterprises, the third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small & Medium Enterprises Fair, was completed successfully recently in Guangzhou.During those several days, the fair has achieved great success.

  15. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  16. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  17. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  18. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  19. Can Code Switching Enhance Learners' Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simasiku, Liswani; Kasanda, Choshi; Smit, Talita

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high failure rate of Grade 10 learners in the year end examinations in the Caprivi Education Region of Namibia over a number of years. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of mother tongue in English medium classrooms enhanced learners' academic achievement.The study investigated 12 teachers at 12 schools…

  20. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  1. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  2. Mathematics Achievement of Vietnamese Grade 5 Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of a national survey of mathematics achievement at the end of primary school in Vietnam. A sample of more than 72000 students were assessed from 61 provinces. The items were matched to the Vietnam Mathematics curriculum for Year 5 students. Using a skills audit of the items, a variable of Vietnamese mathematics…

  3. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ CARY, NC April 28, 2010 - The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years, were presented in six different categories during a special ceremony on the second day of IDEA10 International Engineered Fabrics Conference and Exposition, April 28, 2010, in Miami Beach, Florida.

  4. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Prestigious industry awards presented at IDEA10 in Miami Beach this week;special Entrepreneurial Award also presented at IDEA 10 CARY,NC April 28,2010-The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years,were presented in six different categories

  5. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  6. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  7. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  8. Accelerating Mathematics Achievement Using Heterogeneous Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Heubert, Jay P.; Levin, Henry M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of providing an accelerated mathematics curriculum in heterogeneously grouped middle school classes in a diverse suburban school district. A quasi-experimental cohort design was used to evaluate subsequent completion of advanced high school math courses as well as academic achievement. Results showed…

  9. What Characterises High Achieving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Haavold, Per Øystein

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates high achieving students’ mathematical reasoning when given an unfamiliar trigonometric equation. The findings indicate that the students’ way of thinking is strongly linked with imitative reasoning and only when they received some form of guidance, were they able to display flexible and creative mathematical reasoning.

  10. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Road Hung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested.RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcerogenic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats.CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats.

  11. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lennia Matos; Willy Lens; Maarten Vansteenkiste

    2007-01-01

    We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and hi...

  12. Comparative study of renal sodium transport between ouabain-hypertensive rats and ouabain-nonhypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Heng; Lü Zhuo-ren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare renal sodium transport, using fractional excretions of lithium(FEii)as a marker of proximal tubule sodium reabsorption, between hypertensive and non-hypertensive ouabaintreated rats and further to elucidate the role of ouabain in pathogenesis of hypertension. Methods:Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 180-200 g were randomly divided into normal control group and ouabain treated group. Rats were infused with 1 ml/kg · d normal saline or 27.8 μg/kg · d ouabain intraperitoneally once a day respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate and body weight were recorded weekly. Rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after treatment. Blood and 24-hour urine sample were collected to measure the serum and urinary concentration of sodium, trace lithium and creatinine. Endogenous creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), fractional excretions of sodium (FENa), fractional excretions of lithium (FELi) and fractional reabsorption of sodium in the postproximal tubules (FDRNa) were calculated.Ouabain levels of plasma and renal tissue, plasma renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone concentration were determined. Results: 65% of the ouabain-treated rats achieved significantly higher SBP after 4weeks, compared with that of the saline control groups or self baseline (P<0. 01). But in the other 35%of the ouabain-treated rats, their SBP was similar with control group during the experiment (P>0. 05).The body weight, heart rate and food intake between the 3 groups were no significant differences (P>0.05). FELi and FDRNa were significantly lower in ouabain-hypertensive group compared with ouabain-nonhypertensive group and control group(P<0.01 and P<0.05). The FELi and FDRNa of ouabain-nonhypertensive groups were similar with control group(P>0.05). Ccr and FENa were comparable between the 3 groups (P>0. 05). Plasma and renal tissue ouabain levels, plasma renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone contents in ouabain-hypertensive rats were

  13. Academic achievement of children of divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, V I

    1989-04-01

    This study investigated the academic achievement of 242 pupils whose parents were divorced and 713 pupils whose parents were neither divorced nor separated. The subjects were in the age range of 13 to 17 yr., with a mean age of 15.6 yr. and they were chosen at random from the total Standard 7 population of Transkei, South Africa. A questionnaire was administered to 1,021 pupils to identify the children of parents divorced or separated and neither divorced nor separated. Analysis of variance indicated that the academic achievement of children whose parents were divorced or separated was significantly lower than that of the children whose parents were neither divorced nor separated.

  14. The Link between Musical Achievement and Academic Achievement of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…

  15. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  16. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  17. Formidable achievement through determination and pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglo American Corporation's former chief consulting metallurgist Ewen Pinkney has a remarkable record of achievement in mining metallurgy and chemical engineering at mines all over Southern Africa despite the fact that he could not afford a university education. Just one feature of his career was the leading role he played in the establishment of the country's first big uranium plants. This as well as other features of his career are discussed

  18. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Wulff Pabilonia, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which are less accurate than time-diary data. However, most time-diary data sets do not contain outcome measures, and thus are limited in the questions they can answer. One data set that does have both time-diary and outcome information is the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transiti...

  19. Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [International School for Advanced Study (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)

  20. Parental Economic Hardship and Children's Achievement Orientations*

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Zhang, Frank Lei; Hussemann, Jeanette; Wu, Chen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    While children’s orientations to achievement are strong predictors of attainments, little is known about how parental economic hardship during recessionary times influences children’s orientations to their futures. The Youth Development Study has followed a community sample of young people in St Paul, Minnesota from mid-adolescence through their mid-thirties with near-annual surveys, and has recently begun surveying the children of this cohort. Using linked parent and child data, the present ...

  1. Using Robotics to Achieve Meaningfully Engaged Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Rebecca; Jones, Elva

    2011-01-01

    There has been a significant decline in the number of college students choosing majors in computer science or technology related fields. Additionally, within the United States, there is an achievement gap between under-represented minority students and majority students at a time when underrepresented groups are becoming an increasing proportion of the national labor force. This reluctance to study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines must be confronted and ch...

  2. Achievements of sustainable manufacturing by machining

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kopac

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Manufacturing industry is under increasing pressure of global competition, stricter environmental legislation and supply-chain demand for improved sustainability performance. The latter can be achieved through changes in products, processes and systems which are related to the sustainability issues. Sustainability in manufacturing is an appropriate approach; however it is still unified to a higher production rate and benefit. To encounter this problem academic, scientific, cultural a...

  3. Home care 2012: Achievements, challenges, opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Isobel

    2012-01-01

    This video clip comprises the Keynote Address: “Home care 2012: Achievements, challenges, opportunities” held at the 21st Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Innovations in Home Care: A Public Policy Perspective," MAY 16-17, 2012, Vancouver, BC. Presented by Isobel Mackenzie, Chief Executive Officer, Beacon Community Services. It is well known that jurisdictions with more comprehensive and integrated home care delivery systems are able to extend independent living for older people for...

  4. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM THROUGH CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ispas Roxana,; Marinescu Roxana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In tourism, hotels play an important role and contribute to the economic growth in cities and other places endowed with attractions which are universally recognized. Two elements are essential in the tourism industry system: product quality and human resources. In terms of quality of the hotel services, that is the one that allows to the tourist enterprise to own a competitive advantage, gain competitive differentiation and reputation among customers by achieving a high degree of customer s...

  5. Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosanova V.I.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects, our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16 in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predictor of academic success. The Study 1 results revealed that the general level of self-regulation of learning activity and certain regulatory features were significant predictors of different types of mathematical achievements: academic grades, scores on exams, mathematical fluency, as well as solving logical mathematical problems and equations. The present study is the first to show the mediating role of self-regulation in relation to intelligence, cognitive features, and academic success. Study 2 found evidence that conscious self-regulation and intelligence can predict academic achievement in the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences... At the same time, this determination has its peculiarities in particular variables of intelligence and certain self-regulation processes depending on the substantive characteristics of the academic subjects. Regression models of academic success in the humanities identified verbal intelligence associated with vocabulary as highly significant and a definitive requirement for success in these subjects. Study 1 and Study 2 showed that the only significant predictors of success in algebra and geometry were quantitative- relations intelligence and spatial intelligence. The implications of these findings for investigating predictors of academic achievement are discussed.

  6. Control theory: history, mathematical achievements and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cara, Enrique; Zuazua Iriondo, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    These notes are devoted to present some of the mathematical milestones of Control Theory. To do that, we first overview its origins and some of the main mathematical achievements. Then, we discuss the main domains of Sciences and Technologies where Control Theory arises and applies. This forces us to address modelling issues and to distinguish between the two main control theoretical approaches, controllability and optimal control, discussing the advantages and drawbacks of ...

  7. Hungary's banking sector: achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Várhegyi, Éva

    2002-01-01

    Hungary is generally considered one of the best performing transition countries, having been successful in achieving macroeconomic stabilisation and in creating a market-driven economic system (see, for instance, Fischer and Sahay, 2000; and Weder, 2001). In terms of financial sector reforms, the country is also considered in the advanced league (Bokros, 2001). While we agree to this assessment, it is also true that the degree of monetisation and bank intermediation in the Hungarian economy i...

  8. Evaluation of Project Achievements in VOMARE -project

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkarinen, Eeva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to study the achievements of VOMARE –project from the Finnish Lifeboat Institutions perspective. The organisation is a roof organisation for voluntary maritime rescue operation in Finland. The Finnish Lifeboat Institution is a lead partner in VOMARE –project which is EU funded project and the aim of the project is to start voluntary rescue operations in Estonia. The theoretical part of the work is divided into two main categories; project management and planni...

  9. Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors.

    OpenAIRE

    Morosanova V.I.; Fomina T.G.; Bondarenko I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects), our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16) in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predicto...

  10. Academic achievement: intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors

    OpenAIRE

    MOROSANOVA VARVARA I.; FOMINA TATIANA G.; BONDARENKO IRINA N.

    2015-01-01

    Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects), our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16) in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predicto...

  11. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  12. Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E2/M2Pl) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)

  13. Achieving strategic cost reduction in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals should be proactive insearching for ways to control operating room supply chain costs. A hospital can identify an overall supply cost savings goal by analyzing patient-encounter data for its 15 most costly procedures and identifying the dollar figure under which 25 percent of cases fall for each procedure. After establishing savings targets, the hospital can achieve its goals through a range of approaches. PMID:25647904

  14. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McDermotti; Malik Khalfan

    2012-01-01

    The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM) philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has respo...

  15. Achievement of Total Quality Is Impossibility

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohang Wu; Yafei Wang

    2009-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, product quality has become a key factor in determining a firm’s success or failure in the global marketplace. Advanced, highly reliable manufacturing methods have made it possible to achieve very high standards of product quality. As a result, more and more firms are making product quality a keystone of their competitive strategy. However, the improvement of production quality is a long-term commitment to continuous improvement in every aspect of the production ...

  16. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  17. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  18. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  19. Protection effect of Xuanfudaizhetang on reflux esophagitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Liang; Zhong-Hua Liu; Hai-Tao Wei; Zhi Zhang; Gong-Ning Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study protection effect of Xuanfudaizhetang on reflux esophagitis in rats. Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, D and E with 10 in each. Reflux esophagitis model in rats was established by incomplete helicobacter seam+lower esophagus sphincterotomy. All rats were divided into 5 groups: group A as control group, group B as model group, group C with saline lavage treatment, group D with motilium treatment, group E with Xuanfudaizhetang lavage treatment. Recovery of esophageal, gastric mucosa and pH changes of rats were compared between groups. Results: Weight gain in group D and E was significantly higher in than group C; the esophageal mucosa grades and esophagus tissue pathological morphology grades of group D and E were higher than that of group B and C with significant difference between groups (P<0.05); pH of lower esophageal mucosa in group D and E increased significantly than that in the group B and C (P<0.05), and the distal mucosal pH dropped significantly in the group B and C (P<0.05). Conclusions: Xuanfudaizhetang can obviously improve the pH of lower esophageal mucosa in rats with reflux esophagitis, decrease pH value of gastric mucosal, thus improve esophageal mucosa pathological conditions to achieve therapeutic effect on reflux esophagitis.

  20. An improved method for rat intubation and thymectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NA Ning; ZHAO Da-qiang; HUANG Zheng-yu; HONG Liang-qing

    2011-01-01

    Background Thymokidney has been reported as an approach for a vascularized thymus for transplantation to induce donor specific tolerance.A completely thymectomized model which ensures that the obtained thymus is not injured has not been developed yet and it would be useful for evaluating autologous thymokidney function in rats.Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 150-300 g (n=30) underwent non-invasive intubation with the assistance of an improved self-made wedge-shaped cannula made from a 2-ml plastic syringe and transillumination from the anterior tracheal area by an operation spotlight.The rats then received a thoracotomy while their breathing was supported by a small animal ventilator,and both lobes of the thymus were entirely extirpated under a 10x microscope.The postoperative survival rate of the rats was recorded,and changes in the T-cell reservoir from 9 of 30 rats within 21 days after surgery were monitored using flow cytometry.The complete thymectomy rate was confirmed by autopsy and histological examination on 21 days post-operation.Results The postoperative survival rate of rats was 100%.The exsected thymus was free of injury and the rate of complete thymectomy was 100%.Conclusions This model has a stable survival rate and complete thymectomy is able to be achieved.The obtained thymus tissue is free of injury and can be used for transplantation.

  1. Social Interaction Test between a Rat and a Robot: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusalky del Angel Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The social interaction test is based on spontaneous behaviour observed between pairs of animals, usually rodents. Commonly, the behaviour of one of the members in the dyad is related to the behaviour of its partner; therefore, making accurate predictions about behaviour is difficult, and the behaviour of the dyad cannot be controlled. In the present study, we programmed an e-puck robot with simple behavioural patterns, such as moving around a cage and following and approaching a rat. The results were analysed by comparing behaviour that was displayed by two groups of experimental rats towards different types of partners: (i in the first group of experimental rats, they interacted with another group of rats and (ii in the second group of experimental rats, they interacted with the e-puck robot. Our aim was to study the behaviour of experimental rats in the social interaction test when the interaction partner is a pre-programmed robot, in order to find out whether a rat is able to display social interaction activities in that context. Those activities were evaluated by a structured scheme of possible behaviours, quantified in categories according to currently well-accepted nomenclature and definitions. In order to achieve this goal, we compared the social and nonsocial behaviour displayed by the experimental rat in rat-rat and rat-robot interactions (such as approaching and following behaviour. We observed predominantly nonsocial behaviours, such as exploring the cage, when the experimental rats confronted either another rat or the robot. The experimental rats displayed similar periods of approaching, sniffing and crawling (social behaviour, exploring, being quiet, self-grooming and evading (nonsocial behaviour in encountering both the rat and the robot. However, in the presence of the robot, the experimental rats displayed long periods of time spent in following, in contrast to short periods of immobility. In the present study, we explored a

  2. Marginal Hepatectomy in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrahimov, Nodir; Dirsch, Olaf; Broelsch, Christoph; Dahmen, Uta

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Based on the 3-dimensional visualization of vascular supply and drainage, a vessel-oriented resection technique was optimized. The new surgical technique was used to determine the maximal reduction in liver mass enabling a 50% 1-week survival rate. Background Data: Determination of the minimal liver mass is necessary in clinical as well as in experimental liver surgery. In rats, survival seems to depend on the surgical technique applied. Extended hepatectomy with removal of 90% of the liver mass was long regarded as a lethal model. Introduction of a vessel-oriented approach enabled long-term survival in this model. Methods: The lobar and vascular anatomy of rat livers was visualized by plastination of the whole organ, respectively, by corrosion casts of the portal vein, hepatic artery and liver veins. The three-dimensional models were used to extract the underlying anatomic structure. In 90% partial hepatectomy, the liver parenchyma was clamped close to the base of the respective liver lobes (left lateral, median and right, liver lobe). Piercing sutures were placed through the liver parenchyma, so that the stem of portal vein and the accompanying hepatic artery but also the hepatic vein were included. Results: A 1-week survival rate of 100% was achieved after 90% hepatectomy. Extending the procedure to 95% resection by additional removal of the upper caudate lobe led to a 1-week survival rate of 66%; 97% partial hepatectomy, accomplished by additional resection of the lower caudate lobe only leaving the paracaval parts of the liver behind, resulted in 100% lethality within 4 days. Conclusions: Using a anatomically based, vessel-oriented, parenchyma-preserving surgical technique in 95% liver resections led to long-term survival. This represents the maximal reduction of liver mass compatible with survival. PMID:16794393

  3. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  4. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  5. Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they point out, find a small negative link between the total hours a child spends viewing TV and that child's academic achievement. But when researchers take into account characteristics of the child, such as IQ or socioeconomic status, this link typically disappears. Content appears to be crucial. Viewing educational TV is linked positively with academic achievement; viewing entertainment TV is linked negatively with achievement. When it comes to particular cognitive skills, say the authors, researchers have found that electronic media, particularly video games, can enhance visual spatial skills, such as visual tracking, mental rotation, and target localization. Gaming may also improve problem-solving skills. Researchers have yet to understand fully the issue of transfer of learning from electronic media. Studies suggest that, under some circumstances, young people are able to transfer what they learn from electronic media to other applications, but analysts are uncertain how such transfer occurs. In response to growing public concern about possible links between electronic media use and attention problems in children and adolescents, say the authors, researchers have found evidence for small positive links between heavy electronic media use and mild attention problems among young people but have found only inconsistent evidence so far for a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and media use. The authors point out that although video games, interactive websites, and multimedia software programs appear to offer a variety of possible benefits for learning, there is as yet little empirical evidence to suggest that

  6. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  7. The evolution of language : Achievement or accident?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, John

    1996-01-01

    The ability of human beings to exchange ideas through language is frequently cited as one of the greatest achievements of our species-indeed, one that separates us from other animals. This paper brings together the major arguments put forth in the debate as to whether this uniquely human capacity has evolved by Darwinian natural selection and examines what each position presupposes language to be. By clarifying what it is that we refer to when we consider the evolution of language, it is obse...

  8. Achieving competitiveness through supply chain integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan S.; Seerup, Søren

    2007-01-01

    of a Danish manufacturer that has gone through a major transformation process, and the paper intends to discuss how such a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) project aimed to achieve internal integration. The paper demonstrates how improved competitiveness can be obtained through a synchronous...... implementation of a new Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system together with BPR activities. From the very first day of the project, there was a clear focus on the construction and refinement of prototypes of core processes to meet competitive criteria. The paper provides further support for improving supply...

  9. Achieving Low Carbon Social Housing Through Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keith; Desai, Apeksha; Kaluarachchi, Yamuna

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a low carbon future continues to be one of the most challenging issues facing today’s built environment professionals. While significant advances have been made in the area of new build, the same cannot be said for the existing housing stock. In the UK 70% of the housing that will exist in 2050 has already been built. If the UK is to have any chance of meeting its 2050 carbon reduction targets, effective refurbishment strategies that significantly reduce the carbon footprint of exis...

  10. Music Education and Cognitive Achievement of Children

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENDURUR, Yılmaz; BARIŞ, Dolunay AKGÜL

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to discover the effect of music education especially on the cognitive achievement of the children, and to emphasize that as it is generally thought music does not only apply to senses but also to minds by feelings and it takes an important part in the cognitive learning of the children at every age. For this study all the studies carried out in this field were examined and a mini research was conducted upon 26 students studying in the 2nd and 3rd year students of Ankara R...

  11. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Nikoleta M.; Ševkušić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for...

  12. ACHIEVING BETTER UNDERSTANDING BY LISTENING WITH PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The skill of Listening with comprehension is anessential part of communication and basic to ESL/EFL learning.Prediction is also a key process in un-derstanding spoken language.This article intends tooffer a definition for prediction in ESL/EFL listening,examines its foundations,draws some insights into itsnature,and illustrates how to develop and employprediction in pre-listening and while-listening stages,also how to‘repair’prediction in the post-listeningstage,in an attempt to help listeners achieve the goalof better understanding.

  13. Software quality - how is it achieved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although software quality can't be quantified, the tools and techniques to achieve high quality are available. As management stresses the need for definable software quality programs from vendors and subcontractors and provides the incentives for these programs, the quality of software will improve. EPRI could provide the leadership in establishing guidelines for a balanced software quality program and through workshops provide training to utility staff and management on the methods for evaluating the characteristics of quality software. With the more complex systems discussed at this workshop and particularly with the trend toward the use of artificial intelligence, the importance of quality software will grow dramatically

  14. Achieving competences in patient-centred care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Else Skånning; Jensen, Annesofie Lunde;

    2011-01-01

    . In order to achieve such competences in nursing staff, we developed, implemented and evaluated a training programme. Design: A qualitative outcome analysis was conducted in order to explore the dynamics of the training programme process and the outcome. patients to be more active, as was common practice...... prior to the training. According to the staff, there was no actual change in the patients’ level of activity. The training was time-consuming. Methods: Seven nurses and six nursing assistants from three hospital units were divided into two groups in which training and evaluation took place. The content...

  15. Achievements and Prospects of China's Hydropower Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dabing

    2010-01-01

    @@ Outstanding achievements The scale of hydropower development con-tinuously expanding to a new level As a type of clean and renewable energy resource,water power takes an extremely important position in the energy layout of the world.The theoretic reservation of China's hydro energy is ranked the first in the world.But from the foundation of P.R.C.to the year of 1978(the year when the reform and opening-up took place),the hydro energy exploitation in the whole country was less than 10% of the reservation.

  16. Achieving relativistic interaction intensities on Vulcan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcan is a multi-beam, Nd:glass, ultra-high power laser facility situated at the Central Laser Facility (CLF) in the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). Recent developments have generated intensities on target up to 1020 W cm-2. This is achieved by delivering a high energy, ultra-short pulse using the technique of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA), in a high quality beam that is close to the diffraction limit. This report presents the current capabilities of the system and progress in the 1 Peta-watt upgrade of the facility. (authors)

  17. Pharmacokinetics and dopamine/acetylcholine releasing effects of ginsenoside Re in hippocampus and mPFC of freely moving rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing SHI; Wei XUE; Wen-jie ZHAO; Ke-xin LI

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and dopamine/acetylcholine-releasing effects of ginsenoside Re (Re) in brain regions related to learning and memory,and to clarify the neurochemical mechanisms underlying its anti-dementia activity.Methods: Microdialysis was conducted on awake,freely moving adult male SD rats with dialysis probes implanted into the hippocampus,medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the third ventricle.The concentrations of Re,dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in dialysates were determined using LC-MS/MS.Results: Subcutaneous administration of a single dose of Re (12.5,25 or 50 mg/kg) rapidly distributed to the cerebrospinal fluid and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics.The peak concentration (Cmax) occurred at 60 min for all doses.Re was not detectable after 240 min in the dialysates for the low dose of 12.5 mg/kg.At the same time,Re dose-dependently increased extracellular levels of DA and ACh in the hippocampus and mPFC,and more prominent effects were observed in the hippocampus.Conclusion: The combined study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Re demonstrate that increase of extracellular levels of DA and ACh,particularly in the hippocampus,may contribute,at least in part,to the anti-dementia activity of Re.

  18. Tonic inhibitory control exerted by opioid peptides in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus on regional hemodynamic activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Andrée; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-07-01

    1. Systemic and regional cardiovascular changes were measured following bilateral microinjection of specific and selective opioid-receptor antagonists into the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) of awake, freely moving rats. 2. PVN microinjection of increasing doses of the specific opioid antagonist naloxone - methiodide (1 - 5.0 nmol), or a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (0.05 - 0.5 nmol), evoked important cardiovascular changes characterized by small and transient increases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), vasoconstriction in renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds and vasodilation in the hindquarter vascular bed. 3. No significant cardiovascular changes were observed following PVN administration of the highly selective delta-opioid-receptor antagonist, ICI 174864 (0.1 - 1 nmol), or the selective kappa-opioid-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphine (0.1 - 1 nmol). 4. Most of the cardiovascular responses to naloxone (3 nmol) and beta-funaltrexamine (0.5 nmol) were attenuated or abolished by an i.v. treatment with a specific vasopressin V(1) receptor antagonist. 5. These results suggest that endogenous opioid peptides and mu-type PVN opioid receptors modulate a tonically-active central depressor pathway acting on systemic and regional haemodynamic systems. Part of this influence could involve a tonic inhibition of vasopressin release.

  19. Research of music therapy on improving comfort degree of patients with awake tracheal intubation%音乐疗法对提高清醒气管内插管术中患者舒适度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明亮; 车灵; 李海珍; 孙建明; 李学安; 胡丽华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of music therapy on improving comfort degree of patients with awake tracheal intubation. Methods 100 patients underwent awake tracheal intubation were randomly divided into study group and control group,50 cases in each.The study group was used music therapy research,control group was not used music therapy. Results The heart rate,systolic blood pressure of two groups before intubation had no significant difference;the heart rate and systolic blood pressure of study group after music therapy[(82.16±5.59)times/min, (118.44±6.05)mm Hg]were lower than those of control group[(96.64±5.67)times/min,(129.37±6.76)mmHg],the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05).The anxiety score of the study group and control group during tracheal intubation was (27.04±5.16),(40.16±6.52) respectively,the difference was significant(t=5.368,P<0.05).In study group of 50 cases, grade 0 in 38 cases(76%),9 cases of grade Ⅰ(18%),3 cases of gradeⅡ(6%), 0 case of gradeⅢ;In control group of 50 cases,grade 0 in 13 cases(26%),22 cases of gradeⅠ(44%),6 cases of gradeⅡ(12%),9 cases of gradeⅢ(18%).the pain degree of study group significantly relieved pain. Conclusion Application of music therapy is helpful to improve the comfort of patients with tracheal intubation.%目的:观察音乐疗法对提高清醒气管内插管术中患者舒适度的作用。方法将100例接受清醒气管内插管患者随机分为研究组和对照组,各50例。研究组采用音乐疗法进行研究,对照组采用无音乐疗法。结果插管前两组患者的心率、收缩压比较,差异无统计学意义;研究组音乐疗法后插管中心率(82.16±5.59)次/min、收缩压(118.44±6.05)mm Hg均低于对照组(96.64±5.67)次/min、(129.37±6.76)mm Hg,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者气管插管中焦虑情况比较,患者焦虑评分分别为研究组(27.04±5.16),对照组(40.16±6.52),

  20. 2%利多卡因压力雾化吸入用于清醒镇静气管插管的研究%Effect of topical anesthesia with pressure nebulized 2% Lidocaine during awake intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪峰; 苏远强; 彭浩源

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨2%利多卡因高氧流量压力雾化吸入对上呼吸道黏膜表面麻醉的效果.方法 选择拟在气管插管全身麻醉下行择期手术的患者20例,插管前静脉推注咪唑安定0.03 mg/kg,同时予丙泊酚2 mg/(kg·h)及瑞芬太尼0.05 μg/(kg·min)恒速泵注10 min,将患者OAA/S评分滴定至3~4分后在高氧流量(10 L/min)压力下将2%利多卡因雾化吸入进行表面麻醉,表面麻醉完成后予以气管插管.记录患者气管插管前后不同时间点的平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)及脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2),同时进行插管条件评分,记录相关并发症的发生例数及术后24 h访视情况.结果 20例患者均一次插管成功,平均插管条件评分为(7.2±1.2)分.患者MAP、HR在插管后即刻较插管前升高(P < 0.05),但MAP在插管后1 min,HR在插管后3 min即降低,与插管前比较差异无统计学意义.患者均未出现牙齿口腔软组织损伤、局麻药中毒及呼吸抑制,术后访视未诉咽喉疼痛、声嘶,对压力雾化表面麻醉和气管插管的过程均无记忆.结论 2%利多卡因高氧流量压力雾化吸入的上呼吸道黏膜表面麻醉效果满意.%Objective To evaluate the topical anesthesia effect with Lidocaine nebulized by 10 L/min oxygen flow rate during awake tracheal intubation. Methods 20 adult patients for elective surgery under general anesthesia, aged 18-60 years old, Mallampti I - II class, were observed. Before topical anesthesia the observer's assessment of alert and sedation (OAA/S) scale was controlled to 3-4 points by intravenous Midazolam (0.03 mg/kg), Propofol [2 mg/(kg-h)] and Remifentanil [0.05 (jug/ (kg-min)]. 10 minutes after sadation, topical anesthesia was performed with the nebulized 2% Lidocaine at 10 L/min oxygen flow rate, and patients were told to breathe deeply. Tracheal intubation was performed after topical anesthesia. The arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded