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Sample records for avrrpm1-rpm1-dependent hypersensitive cell

  1. A chemical screen for suppressors of the avrRpm1-RPM1-dependent hypersensitive cell death response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, M; Hubert, D.; Dangl, J.; Schulze-Lefert, P; Kombrink, E.

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana RPM1 encodes an intracellular immune sensor that conditions disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae expressing the type III effector protein AvrRpm1. Conditional expression of this type III effector in a transgenic line carrying avrRpm1 under the control of a steroid-inducible promoter results in RPM1-dependent cell death that resembles the cell death response of the incompatible RPM1-avrRpm1 plant–bacterium interaction. This line was previously used in a genetic scree...

  2. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W;

    2015-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in different tissues, with a preferential localization in skin and bone marrow (BM). The excess of MC in mastocytosis as well as the increased releasability of MC may lead to a higher frequency...... serum tryptase determination, physical examination for cutaneous mastocytosis lesions, and clinical characteristics of anaphylactic reaction might be useful for differential diagnosis. In this position paper, the ENDA group performed a literature search on immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions in...

  3. Delayed type hypersensitivity to allogeneic mouse epidermal cell antigens, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low dose of ultraviolet B radiation impairs the effectiveness of epidermal cell antigens. We studied the effect of ultraviolet B radiation on the delayed type hypersensitivity induced by allogeneic epidermal cell antigen. The delayed type hypersensitivity response was assayed by footpad swelling in mice. When epidermal cells were exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (660 J/m2), their ability to induce T cells of delayed type hypersensitivity activation was markedly inhibited in any combination of recipient mice and allogeneic epidermal cells. The effect of ultraviolet B radiation on epidermal cells was observed before immunization and challenge. Ultraviolet B treated epidermal cells did not induce suppressor T cells in mice. These results indicate that ultraviolet B radiation destroys the antigenicity of epidermal cells. (author)

  4. Autophagic components contribute to hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene...... expression. Here, we examined receptor-mediated HR PCD responses in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg), and show that infection-induced lesions are contained in atg mutants. We also provide evidence that HR cell death initiated via Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR)-type immune receptors through...... the defense regulator EDS1 is suppressed in atg mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PCD triggered by coiled-coil (CC)-type immune receptors via NDR1 is either autophagy-independent or engages autophagic components with cathepsins and other unidentified cell death mediators. Thus, autophagic cell death...

  5. Radioresistance of cells responsible for delayed hypersensitivity reactions in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cells responsible for delayed hypersensitivity reactivity in the mouse act in a radioresistant fashion only if such irradiated cells are injected directly into the site of antigen challenge. Intravenous transfer of irradiated, primed spleen cells does not achieve a transfer of sensitivity to show delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. Transfer of sensitivity by the intravenous route can be effected by injection of non-irradiated spleen cells from primed mice. (U.S.)

  6. Rice Hypersensitive Induced Reaction Protein 1 (OsHIR1 associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Sai-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1 as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1. Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Result Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. Conclusion The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant

  7. Dendritic cell populations in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity

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    Lied GA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gülen A Lied1,3,4,*, Petra Vogelsang2,*, Arnold Berstad1,4, Silke Appel2 1Institute of Medicine, 2Broegelmann Research Laboratory, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway; 3Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine; 4Section of Clinical Allergology, Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Self-reported hypersensitivity to food is a common condition and many of these patients have indications of intestinal immune activation. Dendritic cells (DCs are recognized as the most potent antigen-presenting cells involved in both initiating immune responses and maintaining tolerance. The aims of this study were to evaluate the DC populations with their phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity in patients with food hypersensitivity and to study its relationship with atopic disease. Blood samples from 10 patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity, divided into atopic and nonatopic subgroups, and 10 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry using the Miltenyi Blood Dendritic cells kit. Monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs were evaluated concerning their phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity. DC populations and cell surface markers were not significantly different between patients and healthy controls, but moDCs from atopic patients expressed significantly more CD38 compared to moDCs from nonatopic patients. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide stimulated moDCs from atopic patients produced significantly more interleukin-10 compared to nonatopic patients. CD38 expression was correlated to total serum immunoglobulin E levels. These findings support the notion of immune activation in some patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. They need to be confirmed in a larger cohort.Keywords: food hypersensitivity, atopy, dendritic cells, CD38

  8. Flare-up reactions in severe drug hypersensitivity: infection or ongoing T-cell hyperresponsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg-Walther, Lukas Emanuel; Schnyder, Benno; Helbling, Arthur; Helsing, Karin Silvia; Schüller, Alexandra; Wochner, Annette; Pichler, Werner Joseph

    2015-01-01

    "Flare-up" reactions are late manifestations of severe T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. Management is anti-inflammatory treatment and avoiding unnecessary medicines. Symptoms like fever, lymph node swelling, and blood count abnormalities may lead to confusion with bacterial infections. For prompt recognition it is important to keep the differential diagnosis in mind.

  9. Flare-up reactions in severe drug hypersensitivity: infection or ongoing T-cell hyperresponsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg-Walther, Lukas; Schnyder, Benno; Helbling, Arthur; Helsing, Karin; Schüller, Alexandra; Wochner, Annette; Pichler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message “Flare-up” reactions are late manifestations of severe T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. Management is anti-inflammatory treatment and avoiding unnecessary medicines. Symptoms like fever, lymph node swelling, and blood count abnormalities may lead to confusion with bacterial infections. For prompt recognition it is important to keep the differential diagnosis in mind.

  10. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper...

  11. T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity: immune mechanisms and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, James; Cai, Fenfen; Lee, Frederick J; Pichler, Werner J

    2016-04-01

    T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity represents a significant proportion of immune mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. In the recent years, there has been an increase in understanding the immune mechanisms behind T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity. According to hapten mechanism, drug specific T-cell response is stimulated by drug-protein conjugate presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as it is presented as a new antigenic determinant. On the other hand, p-i concept suggests that a drug can stimulate T cells via noncovalent direct interaction with T-cell receptor and/or peptide-MHC. The drug binding site is quite variable and this leads to several different mechanisms within p-i concept. Altered peptide repertoire can be regarded as an 'atypical' subset of p-i concept since the mode of the drug binding and the binding site are essentially identical to p-i concept. However, the intracellular binding of abacavir to HLA-B(*)57:01 additionally results in alteration in peptide repertoire. Furthermore the T-cell response to altered peptide repertoire model is only shown for abacavir and HLA-B(*)57:01 and therefore it may not be generalised to other drug hypersensitivity. Danger hypothesis has been postulated to play an important role in drug hypersensitivity by providing signal 2 but its experimental data is lacking at this point in time. Furthermore, the recently described allo-immune response suggests that danger signal may be unnecessary. Finally, in view of these new understanding, the classification and the definition of type B adverse drug reaction should be revised. PMID:27141480

  12. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  13. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity by the T cell line specific to bacterial peptidoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A T cell line specific for the chemically well-defined peptidoglycan of bacterial cell wall, disaccharide tetrapeptide, was established from Lewis rats immunized with the antigen covalently linked to the autologous rat serum albumin. The antigen specificity was examined with various analogues or derivatives of the peptidoglycan. The cell line was reactive to analogues with the COOH-terminal D-amino acid, but least reactive to those with L-amino acid as COOH terminus. Transferring of the T cell line into X-irradiated normal Lewis rats induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in an antigen specific manner

  14. Loss of inducible photorepair in a frog cell line hypersensitive to solar UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of enzymatic photorepair (EPR) in ICR 2A frog cells and a derived mutant cell line DRP36 hypersensitive to solar UV was studied. Using clonogenic assays, when induced wild-type cells demonstrated an 8-fold increase of EPR the mutant cells displayed a near-background level of inducible EPR. The constitutive EPR in mutant cells, however, was the same as in wild-type cells. A mixed culture of ICR 2A and DRP36 cells showed an intermediate inducible EPR depending upon the cell ratio. Inducible EPR was also detected at the DNA level in wild-type cells, but not in mutant cells. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR, while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. 'Pinot Noir' accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5 transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum Isolate-Dependent Postinfectious Jejunal Hypersensitivity and Mast Cell Accumulation in an Immunocompetent Rat Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldi, Samira; Gargala, Gilles; Le Goff, Laetitia; Parey, Simon; Francois, Arnaud; Fioramonti, Jean; Ballet, Jean-Jacques; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Ducrotté, Philippe; Favennec, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are a cause of self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. In immunocompetent rats, Cryptosporidium parvum infection induced digestive hypersensitivity, a key pathophysiological factor in functional digestive disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In such a rat model, we sought to document whether jejunal hypersensitivity depends on C. parvum isolate and is associated with a mast cell accumulation. Five-day-old rats were orally administered 105 oocysts of e...

  17. Cutting Edge: Redox Signaling Hypersensitivity Distinguishes Human Germinal Center B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikowsky, Hannah G; Wogsland, Cara E; Diggins, Kirsten E; Huse, Kanutte; Irish, Jonathan M

    2015-08-15

    Differences in the quality of BCR signaling control key steps of B cell maturation and differentiation. Endogenously produced H2O2 is thought to fine tune the level of BCR signaling by reversibly inhibiting phosphatases. However, relatively little is known about how B cells at different stages sense and respond to such redox cues. In this study, we used phospho-specific flow cytometry and high-dimensional mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare BCR signaling responses in mature human tonsillar B cells undergoing germinal center (GC) reactions. GC B cells, in contrast to mature naive B cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts, were hypersensitive to a range of H2O2 concentrations and responded by phosphorylating SYK and other membrane-proximal BCR effectors in the absence of BCR engagement. These findings reveal that stage-specific redox responses distinguish human GC B cells. PMID:26157177

  18. Hypersensitive response of normal human lung epithelial cells at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of very low single X-ray doses (0.05-4Gy) was investigated in a human lung epithelial cell line (L132). Cell survival measurements were made using a Dynamic Microscopic Imaging Processing Scanner (DMIPS), which allowed single cells to be located accurately, their positions recorded and these positions revisited after an appropriate incubation period at 37oC; surviving cells were identified by their ability to produce a colony ≥50 cells. The survival data at doses ≥2 Gy were well-fitted by a linear-quadratic (LQ) model. For doses <1 Gy, increased X-ray effectiveness was observed with cell survival below the prediction from the fit of the LQ model to the higher dose data, extrapolated into the low dose region. This is the first evidence for the existence of a hypersensitive survival response to very low doses in normal human cells. (Author)

  19. Mitochondrial mutant cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, phleomycin and mitomycin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Rohan; Reither, Adrian; Thomas, Robert A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, 5047 Gullen Mall, Suite 1370, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tucker, James D., E-mail: jtucker@biology.biosci.wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, 5047 Gullen Mall, Suite 1370, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2009-04-26

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important contributor to the ATP-generating oxidative phosphorylation complex. Single nucleotide mutations in mitochondrial genes involved in ATP synthesis result in a broad range of diseases. Leber optic atrophy and Leigh's syndrome are two such diseases arising from point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. Here, ionizing radiation, phleomycin and mitomycin C (MMC) were used to induce structural chromosomal aberrations in Leber's and Leigh's cells to investigate how these mitochondrial mutations affect the cell's DNA repair processes. Because of the energy deprivation that results from mitochondrial mutations, we hypothesized that these mutant cells would demonstrate hypersensitivity when exposed to oxidative and genotoxic stress and we also expected that these cells would not be able to repair nuclear DNA damage as efficiently as normal cells. As a consequence, these mutant cells are expected to show increased levels of DNA damage, longer cell cycle delays and increased levels of cell death. Following acute radiation exposure these mutant cells showed an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations and decreased mitotic indices when compared with normal human lymphoblastoid cells with wild-type mtDNA. When exposed to phleomycin or MMC, the mitochondrial mutant cells again showed hypersensitivity and decreased mitotic indices compared to normal cells. These results suggest that Leber's and Leigh's cells have an impaired ability to cope with oxidative and genotoxic stress. These observations may help explain the role of ATP generation in understanding the enhanced sensitivity of mitochondrial mutant cells to cancer therapeutic agents and to adverse environmental exposure, suggesting that individuals with mtDNA mutations may be at a greater risk for cancer and other diseases that result from an accumulation of nuclear DNA damage.

  20. Interspecific complementation between mouse and Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids were formed between mouse and Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and their radiosensitivities were examined. Chinese hamster cell mutants irs1, irs2 and irs3 and mouse mammary carcinoma cell mutants SX9 and SX10 have been found to belong to five different complementation groups. A radiosensitive mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y-S has been demonstrated to be different from the X-ray sensitive mouse cell mutants M10 and LX830, both of which are derived from L5178Y cells, in their complementation groups. L5178Y-S is also distinct from SX9 and SX10. (author)

  1. Multiple hypersensitivity to mutagens in a cell strain (46BR) derived from a patient with immuno-deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    46BR is a fibroblast cell strain established from an individual with hypogammaglobulinaemia. The cells are unique in showing hypersensitivity to the lethal effects of a wide range of DNA-damaging agents. Thus they are hypersensitive to #betta#- and 254-nm UV-irradiation and show a limited capacity to repair potentially lethal #betta#-irradiation damage when compared with fibroblasts from normal individuals. A slight hypersensitivity to mitomycin C was also revealed but we were not able to discriminate 46BR from normals with 4-nitroquinoline oxide. The cells were hypersensitive to the alkylating agents, dimethyl sulphate, methyl methanesulphonate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea but not N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A consideration of the spectra of DNA lesions produced by these alkylating agents together with the sensitivity to ionising radiation and mitomycin C suggests that 46BR cells are defective in a repair step that is common to all agents. We suggest that the cells are defective in DNA polymerisation or ligation. Support for this suggestion comes from the absence of any hypersensitivity to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea since its major reaction products are not removed by excision pathways that require polymerisation and ligation. (orig.)

  2. Regulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity: VI. Antigen-specific suppressor T cells and suppressor factor for delayed-type hypersensitivity to histocompatibility antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice develop highly significant levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to major and minor histocompatibility antigens when injected s.c. with lymphoid cells from X-irradiated allogeneic donors. However, when mice are inoculated i.v. with a high dose of X-irradiated allogeneic lymphoid cells, they not only fail to develop DTH to the allogeneic cells, but their ability to respond to an immunogenic challenge of the alloantigens is also significantly depressed. This suppression is adoptively transferable by antigen-specific suppressor T cells and not by immune serum. Cell surface phenotypic analysis shows that the primary suppressor cells for alloantigens are Thy-1+, Lyt-1+2-, and Ia-, whereas the secondary suppressor cells appearing after boosting injection are Thy-+, Lyt-1+2+, and Ia-. These suppressor T (Ts) cells localize in the lymphoid organs shortly after their induction and are largely absent from the spleen or lymph node 1 month later.However, ''suppressor memory'' can be recalled by an immunogenic dose of alloantigens which would normally induce DTH effector cells rather than suppressor cells in naive mice. When the suppressor cells were cultured in vitro for 48 hr, the supernatant contained suppressive activity. It appears likely that the manifestation of the suppressor cells is via soluble, antigen-specific suppressor factor(s), the production of which is dependent on viable T cells

  3. Transformation of UV-hypersensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants with UV-irradiated plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfection of UV-hypersensitive, DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines and parental, repair-proficient CHO cells with UV-irradiated pHaprt-1 or pSV2gpt plasmids resulted in different responses by recipient cell lines to UV damage in transfected DNA. Unlike results reported for human cells, UV irradiation of transfecting DNA did not stimulate genetic transformation of CHO recipient cells. In repair-deficient CHO cells, proportionally fewer transformants were produced with increasing UV damage than in repair-proficient cells in transfections with UV-irradiated hamster adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene contained in plasmid pHaprt-1. Transfection of CHO cells with UV-irradiated pSV2gpt resulted in neither decline in transformation frequencies in repair-deficient cell lines relative to repair-proficient cells nor stimulation of genetic transformation by UV damage in the plasmid. Blot hybridization analysis of DNA samples isolated from transformed cells showed no dramatic changes in copy number or arrangement of transfected plasmid DNA with increasing UV dose. The authors conclude responses of recipient cells to UV-damaged transfecting plasmids depend on type of recipient cell and characteristics of the genetic sequence used for transfection. (author)

  4. The mast cell stabiliser ketotifen decreases visceral hypersensitivity and improves intestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooker, Tamira K.; Braak, Breg; Koopman, Karin E.; Welting, Olaf; Wouters, Mira M.; van der Heide, Sicco; Schemann, Michael; Bischoff, Stephan C.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mast cell activation is thought to be involved in visceral hypersensitivity, one of the main characteristics of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen on rectal sensitivity and symptoms in patien

  5. A novel IL-10-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILC10) in a contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuk Soon; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Min Bum; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2016-01-01

    The immunoregulatory cytokine Interleukin 10 (IL-10) protein is produced by various cells during the course of inflammatory disorders. Mainly, it downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, antigen presentation, and helper T cell activation. In this study, we show that the ratio of IL-10-producing cells was significantly increased in lineage negative (i.e., not T, B, or leukocyte cell lineages) cells than in lineage positive cells in lymphoid and peripheral tissues. We further observed that IL-10-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), here called firstly ILC10, were increased in number in oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mice. In detail, IL-10-producing lineage negative cells were elevated in the axillary, inguinal lymph node, and ear tissues of CHS mice. Notably, the cells expressed classical ILC marker proteins such as CD45, CD127, and Sca-1. Altogether, our findings suggest for the first time that ILC10s are present in various physiological settings and could be involved in numerous immune responses as regulatory cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 293-296] PMID:26949018

  6. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the delayed type hypersensitivity using allogeneic epidermal cell antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low dose of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation have been shown to impair the ability of epidermal cells (EC). We studied the effect of the UVB radiation on the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced by allogeneic EC. The DTH response was assayed by their footpad swelling. When EC were exposed to UVB radiation (660 J/m2), their ability to lead to TDTH activation was markedly inhibited in any combination of recipient mice and EC. The effect of UVB radiation on EC was observed before immunization and challenge. UVB treated EC did not induce suppressor T cells(Ts) in mice, which Ts might be induced by intravenous injection of EC. These results indicate that UVB radiation abrogates antigenicity of EC. (author)

  7. BHK cell lines with increased rates of gene amplification are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light

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    Giulotto, E.; Bertoni, L.; Attolini, C.; Rainaldi, G.; Anglana, M. (Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia Adriano Buzzati-Traverso, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-04-15

    Four cell lines (MP1, -4, -5, -7), isolated from baby hamster kidney cells after simultaneous selection with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate and methotrexate, have previously been shown to amplify their DNA at an increased rate. We now show that all four lines are hypersensitive to killing by UV light and mitomycin C. At high doses of UV light or mitomycin C, the MP lines survived less than 10% or less than 5% as well as parental cells, respectively. After UV irradiation, inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was greater in MP than in parental cells, and recovery was slower or absent. A 2- to 3.5-fold increase in the frequency of UV-induced sister chromatid exchange was also seen in the four cell lines. In MP5, unscheduled DNA replication after treatment with UV light was only approximately 70% as great as in parental cells and the other MP lines. In MP4 and MP7 cells S phase was elongated. Although their individual properties confirm that the four cell lines are independent, their common properties suggest a relationship between tolerance of DNA damage and gene amplification.

  8. BHK cell lines with increased rates of gene amplification are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cell lines (MP1, -4, -5, -7), isolated from baby hamster kidney cells after simultaneous selection with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate and methotrexate, have previously been shown to amplify their DNA at an increased rate. We now show that all four lines are hypersensitive to killing by UV light and mitomycin C. At high doses of UV light or mitomycin C, the MP lines survived less than 10% or less than 5% as well as parental cells, respectively. After UV irradiation, inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was greater in MP than in parental cells, and recovery was slower or absent. A 2- to 3.5-fold increase in the frequency of UV-induced sister chromatid exchange was also seen in the four cell lines. In MP5, unscheduled DNA replication after treatment with UV light was only approximately 70% as great as in parental cells and the other MP lines. In MP4 and MP7 cells S phase was elongated. Although their individual properties confirm that the four cell lines are independent, their common properties suggest a relationship between tolerance of DNA damage and gene amplification

  9. Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease: hypersensitivity to X-rays in cultured cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast and/or lymphoblastoid lines from patients with several inherited primary neuronal degenerations are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, lymphoblastoid lines were irradiated from patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mean survival values of the eight Parkinson's disease and of the six Alzheimer's disease lines, but not of the five amyotrophic lateral sclerosis lines, were less than that of the 28 normal lines. Our results with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease cells can be explained by a genetic defect arising as a somatic mutation during embryogenesis, causing defective repair of the X-ray type of DNA damage. Such a DNA repair defect could cause an abnormal accumulation of spontaneously occurring DNA damage in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease neurons in vivo, resulting in their premature death. (author)

  10. Hypersensitivity of mouse NEIL1-knockdown cells to hydrogen peroxide during S phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative base damage occurs spontaneously due to reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of respiration and other pathological processes in mammalian cells. Many oxidized bases are mutagenic and/or toxic, and most are repaired through the base excision repair pathway. Human endonuclease VIII-like protein 1 (hNEIL1) is thought to play an important role during the S phase of the cell cycle by removing oxidized bases in DNA replication fork-like (bubble) structures, and the protein level of hNEIL1 is increased in S phase. Compared with hNEIL1, there is relatively little information on the properties of the mouse ortholog mNEIL1. Since mouse cell nuclei lack endonuclease III-like protein (NTH) activity, in contrast to human cell nuclei, mNEIL1 is a major DNA glycosylase for repair of oxidized pyrimidines in mouse nuclei. In this study, we made mNEIL1-knockdown cells using an shRNA expression vector and examined the cell cycle-related variation in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensitivity. Hypersensitivity to H2O2 caused by mNEIL1 knockdown was more significant in S phase than in G1 phase, suggesting that mNEIL1 has an important role during S phase, similarly to hNEIL1

  11. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response in experimental autoimmune neuritis treated with peptide-coupled spleen cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorian, S K; Rostami, A

    1994-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and mononuclear cell infiltration. It is induced in Lewis rats by administration of myelin P2 protein or a synthetic peptide (SP-26) corresponding to amino acid residues 53-78 of bovine P2 protein. Recently, we showed that SP-26, when coupled to syngeneic spleen cells and administered intravenously, provided an effective means of inducing tolerance by inhibiting the clinical signs, decreased proliferative response of lymphoid cells to SP-26 and histological changes of EAN. However, our current data indicate that, despite tolerance induction in these Lewis rats, the antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to SP-26 remained intact. Furthermore, interferon (IFN)-gamma production by spleen cells of tolerized rats were unchanged as compared to EAN rats. The in vitro proliferation of T lymphocytes from tolerized rats stimulated by SP-26 was reduced as compared to EAN controls but was enhanced upon addition of exogenous interleukin-2. Thus, reduction in EAN clinical signs does not necessarily indicate a decrease in DTH response and IFN-gamma production in EAN Lewis rats. The implication of this finding in regard to immunoregulatory mechanism of DTH response is discussed. PMID:7512578

  12. Isolation and partial characterisation of a mammalian cell mutant hypersensitive to topoisomerase II inhibitors and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated, following one-step mutagenesis, a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant hypersensitive to the intercalating agent, adriamycin. This agent exerts at least part of its cytotoxic action via inhibition of the nuclear enzyme, topoisomerase II. The mutant, designated ADR-3, showed hypersensitivity to all classes of topoisomerase II inhibitors, inlcuding actinomycin D, amsacrine (m-AMSA), etoposide (VP16) and mitoxantrone. ADR-3 cells also showed cross-sensitivity to ionizing radiation, but not no UV light. Topoisomerase II activity was elevated to a small but significant degree in ADR-3 cells, and this was reflected in a 1.5-fold higher level of topoisomerase II protein in ADR-3 than in CHO-K1 cells, as judged by Western blotting. ADR-3 cells were hypersensitive to cumene hydroperoxide but cross-resistant to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting possible abnormality in the detoxification of peroxides by glutathione peroxidase or catalase. Glutathione peroxidase activity against hydroperoxide was elevated to a small but significant extent in mutant cells. Catalase levels were not significantly different in ADR-3 and CHO-K1 cells. ADR-3 cells were recessive in hybrids with parental CHO-K1 cells with respect to sensitivity to topoisomerase II inhibitors and X-rays, and represent a different genetic complementation group from the previously reported adriamycin-sensitive mutant, ADR-1. (author). 34 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Liang [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ouyang, Weiming [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin, Boquan [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p < 0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} and peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8{sup +} population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4{sup +} T cells, Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4{sup +} T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4{sup +} thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  14. Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chuang, Cheng Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-01-01

    Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27529236

  15. Cell division in Escherichia coli BS-12 is hypersensitive to deoxyribonucleic acid damage by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escherichia coli BS-12 uvrA lon is hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. On minimal agar plates at densities in excess of about 10(7) bacteria per plate, as few as one or two photoreversible pyrimidine dimers in the entire genome are sufficient to cause inhibition of cell division. Most of the resulting filaments are unable to divide or form a viable colony. Inhibition of cell division appears to be a rapid consequence of replication of deoxyribonucleic acid containing a pyrimidine dimer. Photoreversibility of the inhibition of cell division persists indefinitely, indicating that the continued presence of the pyrimidine dimers (or the continued generation of daughter strand gaps) is necessary to maintain the division-inhibited state. In view of the kinetics for the production of filamentation by ultraviolet light and the extremely low average inducing fluence (0.03 J/m2), it is concluded that the initiating signal is not the same as that causing other inducible phenomena such as prophage induction or Weigle reactivation

  16. A Chinese hamster ovary cell line hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and deficient in repair replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line was isolated by means of a semi-automated procedure in which mutagenized cells formed colonies on top of agar, were X-irradiated, and were photographed at two later times. The author compared the photographs to identify colonies that displayed significant growth arrest. One of the colonies identified in this manner produced a stable line (irs1SF) that is hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. irs1SF performs only half as much X-ray-induced repair replication as the parental line, indicating a defect in excision repair. This defect is believed to be the primary cause of the line's radiosensitivity. Although irs1SF repairs DNA double-strand breaks at a normal rate, it repairs single-strand breaks more slowly than normal. irs1SF has an elevated number of spontaneous chromatid aberrations and produces significantly higher numbers of X-ray-induced chromatid aberrations after exposure during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The line is hypomutable, with X-ray exposure inducing only one-third as many 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies as the parental line. 45 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 table

  17. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates type IV hypersensitivity through dendritic cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Mikami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, mutual regulation of the nervous system and immune system is well studied. One of neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, is a potent regulator in immune responses; in particular, it has anti-inflammatory effects in innate immunity. For instance, a deficiency of the CGRP receptor component RAMP 1 (receptor activity-modifying protein 1 results in higher cytokine production in response to LPS (lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, how CGRP affects DCs in adaptive immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show that CGRP suppressed Th1 cell differentiation via inhibition of IL-12 production in DCs using an in vitro co-culture system and an in vivo ovalbumin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH model. CGRP also down-regulated the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligands CCL2 and CCL12 in DCs. Intriguingly, the frequency of migrating CCR2(+ DCs in draining lymph nodes of RAMP1-deficient mice was higher after DTH immunization. Moreover, these CCR2(+ DCs highly expressed IL-12 and CD80, resulting in more effective induction of Th1 differentiation compared with CCR2(- DCs. These results indicate that CGRP regulates Th1 type reactions by regulating expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in DCs.

  18. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysong, Kristi; Phillips, Jennan A; Hammond, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Chronic exposure to a broad array of antigens after workers inhale aerosolized organic dust particles from mold, animal dander, bird droppings, and chemicals, especially pesticides or herbicides, increases risk for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Several demographic characteristics of immigrant workers in farming, poultry processing, construction, and landscaping increase this worker population's risk. PMID:27067273

  19. Hypersensitive tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests that aller......This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests...... that allergic tourists make up a contemporary and increasingly relevant empirical field through which to illuminate the dark sides of the sensuous. Finally, the note develops four analytical dimensions that structure critical sensuous scholarship....

  20. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper...... hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common....... As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak...

  1. The LSD1-interacting protein GILP is a LITAF domain protein that negatively regulates hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanping He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypersensitive cell death, a form of avirulent pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD, is one of the most efficient plant innate immunity. However, its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. AtLSD1 is an important negative regulator of PCD and only two proteins, AtbZIP10 and AtMC1, have been reported to interact with AtLSD1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify a novel regulator of hypersensitive cell death, we investigate the possible role of plant LITAF domain protein GILP in hypersensitive cell death. Subcellular localization analysis showed that AtGILP is localized in the plasma membrane and its plasma membrane localization is dependent on its LITAF domain. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that AtGILP interacts with AtLSD1. Pull-down assays showed that both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of AtGILP are sufficient for interactions with AtLSD1 and that the N-terminal domain of AtLSD1 is involved in the interaction with AtGILP. Real-time PCR analysis showed that AtGILP expression is up-regulated by the avirulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpt2 (Pst avrRpt2 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 that trigger PCD. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing AtGILP exhibited significantly less cell death when inoculated with Pst avrRpt2, indicating that AtGILP negatively regulates hypersensitive cell death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the LITAF domain protein AtGILP localizes in the plasma membrane, interacts with AtLSD1, and is involved in negatively regulating PCD. We propose that AtGILP functions as a membrane anchor, bringing other regulators of PCD, such as AtLSD1, to the plasma membrane. Human LITAF domain protein may be involved in the regulation of PCD, suggesting the evolutionarily conserved function of LITAF domain proteins in the regulation of PCD.

  2. The antinociception of oxytocin on colonic hypersensitivity in rats was mediated by inhibition of mast cell degranulation via Ca2+-NOS pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liping; Li, Jing; Tang, Yan; Han, Ting; Wei, Chuanfei; Yu, Xiao; Li, Jingxin; Wang, Rong; Ma, Xuelian; Liu, Kejing; Geng, Lingyun; Liu, Shaozhuang; Yan, Bing; Liu, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oxytocin (OT) on visceral hypersensitivity/pain and mast cell degranulation and the underlying mechanisms. We found that oxytocin receptor (OTR) was expressed in colonic mast cells in humans and rats, as well as in human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1), rat basophilic leukemia cell line (RBL-2H3) and mouse mastocytoma cell line (P815). OT decreased 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity, colonic mast cell degranulation and histamine release after mast cell degranulation in rats. Also, OT attenuated the compound 48/80 (C48/80)-evoked histamine release in P815 cells and inward currents, responsible for the mast cell degranulation, in HMC-1, RBL-2H3 and P815 cells. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against visceral hypersensitivity and mast cell degranulation were eliminated by coadministration of OTR antagonist atosiban or a nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NG-Methyl-L-arginine acetate salt (L-NMMA). Notably, OT evoked a concentration-dependent increase of intracellular Ca2+ in HMC-1, RBL-2H3 and P815 cells, which was responsible for the activation of neuronal NOS (NOS1) and endothelial NOS (NOS3). Our findings strongly suggest that OT might exert the antinociception on colonic hypersensitivity through inhibition of mast cell degranulation via Ca2+-NOS pathway. PMID:27538454

  3. Cross-sensitivity of X-ray-hypersensitive cells derived from LEC strain rats to DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-sensitivity of X-ray-hypersensitive lung fibroblasts from LEC strain (LEC) rats to other DNA-damaging agents was examined. The LEC cells were 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to bleomycin (BLM) that induces DNA double-strand breaks, and to a cross-linking agent, mitomycin C, than the cells from WKAH strain (WKAH) rats, while they were slightly sensitive to alkylating agents, ethyl nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, but not to UV-irradiation. Although no difference was observed in the initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks induced by BLM between LEC and WKAH cells, the repair process of DNA double-strand breaks was significantly slower in LEC cells than in WKAH cells

  4. Subjective food hypersensitivity: Studies on enterochromaffin cell secretion products and effects of seal oil therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregersen, Kine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perceived food hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition which often remains medically unexplained. The etiology of this subjective condition is not fully understood, mainly because of a lack of specific diagnostic methods, together with limited knowledge about underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Thus, the management of such patients is challenging. Aim: The objective of the present thesis was to assess the potential beneficial effects of seal oil on symptoms, and t...

  5. Hypersensitivity to mutation and sister-chromatid-exchange induction in CHO cell mutants defective in incising DNA containing UV lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five UV-sensitive mutant strains of CHO cells representing different genetic complementation groups were analyzed for their ability to perform the incision step of nucleotide excision repair after UV exposure. The assay utilized inhibitors of DNA synthesis to accumulate the short-lived strand breaks resulting from repair incisions. After 6 J/m2, each of the mutants showed 2, the rate in AA8 was similar to that at 6 J/m2, but the rates in the mutants were significantly higher (approx. 20% of the rate of AA8). Thus by this incision assay the mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable. Each of the mutants were hypersensitive to mutation induction at both the hprt and aprt loci by a factor of 10, and in the one strain tested ouabain resistance was induced sevenfold more efficiently than in AA8 cells. Sister chromatid exchange was also induced with sevenfold increased efficiency in the two mutant strains examined. Thus, here CHO mutants resemble xeroderma pigmentosum cells in terms of their incision defects and their hypersensitivity to DNA damage by UV

  6. Lazarus1, a DUF300 Protein, Contributes to Programmed Cell Death Associated with Arabidopsis acd11 and the Hypersensitive Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovsky, F.G.; Brodersen, P.; Fiil, B.K.;

    2010-01-01

    . Finally, we demonstrate by transient expression of reporter fusions in protoplasts that localization of LAZ1 is distributed between the cytosol, the plasma membrane and FM4-64 stained vesicles. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings indicate that LAZ1 functions as a regulator or effector of plant PCD......Background: Programmed cell death (PCD) is a necessary part of the life of multi-cellular organisms. A type of plant PCD is the defensive hypersensitive response (HR) elicited via recognition of a pathogen by host resistance (R) proteins. The lethal, recessive accelerated cell death 11 (acd11...... associated with the HR, in addition to its role in acd11-related death. Furthermore, the similar topology of a plant and human DUF300 proteins suggests similar functions in PCD across the eukaryotic kingdoms, although a direct role for TMEM34 in cell death control remains to be established. Finally...

  7. Identification of 4 ataxia telangiectasia cell lines hypersensitive to γ-irradiation but not to hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effct of hydrogen peroxide on the rate of semi-conservative DNA synthesis in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and normal human lymphoblastoid cells was investigated. The rate of DNA synthesis in AT cells was not depressed to a lesser extent than in normal cells, as might have been expected since H2O2 is a radiomimetic agent. On the contrary, 4 AT cell lines displayed a higher sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on DNA synthesis than 2 normal cell lines. Comparable levels of cytotoxicity were detected in cell vaibility studies. Furthermore, neither the level of DNA breakage produced by H2O2, nor the rate of repair of these lesions was signigicantly different in normal and AT cells. Together, these results indicate that the AT cell lines utilized in this study are not hypersensitive to the oxidant. It is suggested that H-2-O-2 may not induce lethality via the direct ation of the hydroxyl radical (OH). (Author). 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  8. High radiosensitivity of induction in contrast to radioresistance of expression of cells mediating delayed-type hypersensitivity during response to sheep red blood cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction observed in mice primed i.v. with low doses of sheep red blood cells was greatly decreased when mice were irradiated with 300 rad before priming. An estimation of the radiosensitivity of DTH-mediating cells (DTH-C) was performed using a titration assay after local adoptive transfer of these cells mixed with antigen into the footpad of unprimed mice. A high radiosensitivity of the induction of DTH-C was observed with a D37 of approximately 50 rad. In contrast, the expression of DTH-C appeared radioresistant, as the D37 was approximately 2000 rad. (author)

  9. Specific recognition of AVR4 and AVR9 results in distinct patterns of hypersensitive cell death in tomato, but similar patterns of defence-related gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, X.; Takken, F.L.W.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Wit, De P.J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Hypersensitive cell death occurs in tomato seedlings that are derived from a cross between plants that express a resistance (Cf) gene against the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum and plants that contain the matching avirulence (Avr) gene originating from this fungus. The pattern of Cf-9/Avr9- a

  10. Avocado hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Carrillo, T; Castillo, R; Quiralte, J; Cuevas, M

    1994-07-01

    The avocado (Av) is a fruit that belongs to the Lauraceae family. We report 17 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to avocado. Clinical manifestations in relation to avocado ingestion were as follows: systemic anaphylaxis in seven patients, angioedema/urticaria in six, vomiting in two, bronchial asthma in one, and rhinoconjunctivitis in one. Skin prick test (SPT) with fresh avocado was positive in all patients with the Strong avocado variety (SAv) and in 14 patients with the Hass avocado variety (HAv). Our patient-associated sensitizations were as follows: 10 to latex, eight to chestnut, eight to banana, four to kiwi, and four to walnut. Avocado-sensitized patients with latex allergy were typically middle-aged women, professionally exposed to latex, who also exhibited frequent associated sensitizations to chestnut, banana, and other fruits. Specific IgE against avocado was demonstrated in 11 of our patients, by both commercial CAP and RAST with avocado extract coupled to nitrocellulose disks. Despite its lower protein content, SAv seems to be more allergenic than HAv, both in vivo and in vitro. On incubating a pool of sera from our patients with avocado, latex, chestnut, and banana extracts, a progressive RAST inhibition was obtained, with SAv- and chestnut-marked disks. This suggests the existence of common antigenic determinants among these allergens.

  11. Cultured diploid fibroblasts from patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disease. About 20% of the gene carriers studied developed medulloblastoma before the age of 5 years. Clinical follow-up of these patients, treated with radiotherapy, revealed a predisposition to radiogenic basal cell carcinomas with an unusually short latent period of 6 months to 3 years. The authors have therefore cultured skin fibroblasts from 5 NBCCS patients and measured their radiosensitivity in terms of clonogenic survival. Our results showed that, compared with 6 normal controls, the NBCCS cells were hypersensitive to X-rays. The average D0 (the inverse of the slope of the survival curve) for the NBCCS cells was 98 rads, compared with 142 rads for the normal controls and 44 rads for an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) strain. The average D10 values (the dose required to reduce survival to 10%) were 258, 351, and 123 rads for the NBCCS, normal, and AT strains, respectively. Unscheduled DNA synthesis measurements showed that NBCCS cells were not defective in excision repair of X-ray-damaged DNA. Pulse labeling index measurements showed that NBCCS cells were abnormally inhibited in the initiation of DNA synthesis following X-irradiation. The mechanisms underlying the radiosensitivity of NBCCS differ in several respects from those of AT. NBCCS appears to be potentially a useful model for studying the cellular processes that are important in radiation carcinogenesis

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticles suppressed T helper 1 cell-mediated immunity in a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen CC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Chang Shen,1,* Hong-Jen Liang,2,* Chia-Chi Wang,3 Mei-Hsiu Liao,4 Tong-Rong Jan11Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 2Innovation and Incubation Center, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, 3School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 4Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: It was recently reported that iron oxide nanoparticles attenuated antigen-specific humoral responses and T cell cytokine expression in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. It is presently unclear whether iron oxide nanoparticles influence T helper 1 cell-mediated immunity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, whose pathophysiology requires the participation of T helper 1 cells and macrophages.Methods: DTH was elicited by a subcutaneous challenge with ovalbumin to the footpads of mice sensitized with ovalbumin. Iron oxide nanoparticles (0.2–10 mg iron/kg were administered intravenously 1 hour prior to ovalbumin sensitization. Local inflammatory responses were examined by footpad swelling and histological analysis. The expression of cytokines by splenocytes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Administration of iron oxide nanoparticles, in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly attenuated inflammatory reactions associated with DTH, including the footpad swelling, the infiltration of T cells and macrophages, and the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the inflammatory site. Iron oxide nanoparticles also demonstrated a suppressive effect on ovalbumin-stimulated production of interferon-γ by splenocytes and the phagocytic activity of splenic CD11b+ cells.Conclusion: These results demonstrated that a single dose of iron oxide nanoparticles attenuated

  13. An ITAM-Syk-CARD9 signalling axis triggers contact hypersensitivity by stimulating IL-1 production in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Yoshii, Chika; Nakaya, Mako; Ozaki, Naoko; Toda, Shuji; Kuroda, Etsushi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Yasuda, Tomoharu; Natsuaki, Yohei; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Iizasa, Ei'ichi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Kabashima, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Takai, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takashi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Malissen, Bernard; Ohno, Naohito; Furue, Masutaka; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hara, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    A variety of reactive organic compounds, called haptens, can cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, the innate immune mechanisms by which haptens stimulate dendritic cells (DCs) to sensitize T cells remain unclear. Here we show that the coupling of ITAM-Syk-CARD9 signalling to interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion in DCs is crucial for allergic sensitization to haptens. Both MyD88 and Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) signalling are required for contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Naïve T cells require signals received through IL-1R1-MyD88 for effector differentiation, whereas DCs require CARD9 and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signalling for hapten-induced IL-1α/β secretion and their ability to prime T cells. DC-specific deletion of CARD9, DAP12, Syk or NLRP3, but not MyD88, is sufficient to abolish CHS. All tested haptens, but not irritants, can induce Syk activation, leading to both the CARD9/BCL10-dependent pro-IL-1 synthesis (signal1) and reactive oxygen species-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation (signal2), required for IL-1 secretion. These data unveil an innate immune mechanism crucial for allergic contact sensitization to chemical compounds. PMID:24806599

  14. The effect of oxygen on low-dose hypersensitivity and increased radioresistance in Chinese hamster V79-379A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster V79 cells irradiated in air are hypersensitive to X-ray doses less than 0.5 Gy and show an increased radioresistance over the dose range 0.5-1 Gy. Of considerable interest from both a mechanistic and clinical viewpoint is the response of hypoxic cells over this dose range. The data presented here indicate that hypoxic cells are also hypersensitive to low X-ray doses and exhibit an increased radioresistant response, albeit triggered at a somewhat higher dose (0.69 Gy, SEM ± 0.18 Gy) than observed in oxygenated cells (0.5 Gy, SEM ± 0.21 Gy). These data indicate that the triggering event for increased radioresistance may be independent of oxygen. As reported by others previously, the oxygen enhancement ratio was found to decrease with a decreasing X-ray dose. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Lack of TAK1 in dendritic cells inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response induced by trichloroethylene in local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pan; Hongqian, Chu; Qinghe, Meng; Lanqin, Shang; Jianjun, Jiang; Xiaohua, Yang; Xuetao, Wei; Weidong, Hao

    2016-09-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Occupational TCE exposure has been associated with severe, generalized contact hypersensitivity (CHS) skin disorder. The development of CHS depends on innate and adaptive immune functions. Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) controls the survival of dendritic cells (DCs) that affect the immune system homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 activity in DC on TCE-induced CHS response. Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signaling pathway activation by western blot. The ears were harvested for histopathological analysis. Control mice in the 80% TCE group displayed an inflammatory response in the ears, increased lymphocyte proliferation, elevated regulatory T-cell and activated T-cell percentages, and more IFN-γ producing CD8(+) T cells in DLNs. In contrast to control mice, DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice in the 80% TCE group showed an abolished CHS response and this was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and IFN-γ production. This effect may occur through Jnk and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates a pivotal role of TAK1 in DCs in controlling TCE-induced CHS response and suggests that targeting TAK1 function in DCs may be a viable approach to preventing and treating TCE-related occupational health hazards. PMID:27473013

  16. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  17. Differential hypersensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum lymphoblastoid cell lines to ultraviolet light mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival and mutation after u.v. light irradiation were examined in four human lymphoblastoid cell lines; one cell line with normal excision-repair capacity (HH4), two excision-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell lines from patient XP3BE (complementation group C) and XP7NI (group A), and one cell line from an XP heterozygote (XPF7NI, father of XP7NI). The results imply that the mechanism of u.v.-induced mutation in XP7NI cells may intrinsically be different from that in XP3BE, XP heterozygote or normal cells, or that potentially mutagenic lesions are repaired much less efficiently in XP7NI cells than are potentially lethal lesions, as compared with XP3BE, XPF7NI and HH4 cells. (author)

  18. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  19. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  20. Relationship between osteosarcoma and ionizing radiation hypersensitive human B lymphocyte cells lacking RecQL4 helicase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese society is now facing a transition period from aging society to super aging society. Concomitant with this situation, it is estimated that number of cancer patients and the requirement of less invasive Radiation Therapy (RT) for cancers will increase. Therefore, understanding of mechanisms without delay on second cancers caused by RT is indispensable. Osteosarcoma, an aggressive bone tumor frequently occurring 5% of cancers in young adult and children, increase statistically after RT for cancers. Although, mutation in p53, Rb and RecQL4 genes statistically relate with osteosarcoma incidence, precise mechanisms of osteosarcoma development by ionizing Radiation (IR) remain to be elucidated. Genome instability is one of the tumor promoting factors and we focused on RecQL4 in RecQ helicase family, which is involved in aging and cancer. We established RecQL4 knock-in human B lymphocyte Nalm-6 cells and found their hypersensitivity to IR, replication fork stall/collapses after IR. In this review, we summarize recently published studies on genetic cancer-predisposing syndrome and possible origins of bone cancers induced by IR. Then, we discuss what and how we address molecular mechanisms on osteosarcoma induced by IR in the future. (author)

  1. γ-ray hypersensitivity and faulty DNA repair in cultured cells from humans exhibiting familial cancer proneness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most significant danger to irradiated individuals is the induction of cancer. Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is known as a disorder linking radiosensitivity with cancer proneness, and AT is a rare inherited disorder. This is the degenerative multisystem affliction that is transmitted as a simple autosomal recessive trait. Cell culture studies disclosed the relationship between the cellular hypersensitivity to γ-ray inactivation in vitro and the propensity to develop cancer in vivo. The molecular evidence for the defects in the repair of radiogenic DNA damage has as yet been obtained only for AT, and it seems likely that anomalous DNA repair may not be the key causal factor in the development of some of the clinical abnormalities associated with the disease, including the tendency to develop lymphoproliferative cancer. Nevertheless, AT, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) family show promise as the models for elucidating the importance of cellular radiosensitivity and imperfect DNA repair in the induction of cancer by radiation and radiomimetic carcinogens in the biosphere. Expanded efforts are required to identify heterozygosity for the AT genes in general population and to assess the role of the interaction between this genetic make-up and environmental carcinogens in the occurrence of common cancers. (Yamashita, S.)

  2. Identification of a new G-to-A transition mutation at nucleotide position 129 of the Xrcc4 gene in ionizing radiation-hypersensitive mutant LX830 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mouse lymphoma cell line LX830 is an X-ray-hypersensitive mutant. Complementation tests between LX830 cells and radiation-sensitive mutants of M10 (Xrcc4 deficient cells) or SX10 (DNA ligase IV deficient cells) cells showed that M10 cells did not complement LX830 cells, but SX10 cells did, suggesting that LX830 cells would belong to the X-ray-cross complementation group (XRCC4). A sequence analysis of Xrcc4 cDNA in LX830 cells disclosed a transition of G to A at nucleotide position 129, which resulted in a change of tryptophan (43) to a termination codon. Transfection of the mouse Xrcc4 cDNA rescued the X-ray sensitivity of the mutant cells. LX830 is an Xrcc4-deficient cell line bearing a termination codon in exon 2 of the Xrcc4 gene and no wild-type Xrcc4 gene. (author)

  3. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Timshina, Dependra K; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), viz., phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins. PMID:21220873

  4. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  5. Separation by column chromatography of cells active in delayed-onset hypersensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, H P; Gell, P G

    1976-01-01

    Lymph node cells from guinea-pigs contact sensitive to 1-thiocyamo-2,4-dinitrobenzene have been fractionated by affinity chromatography over modified polyacrylamide beads. Cells mediating lymphokine release in response to active sensitizer were depleted only by chromatography over dinitrophyenyl (DNP) containing substrates and could be specifically eluted with DNP-glycine. DNP rosette-forming cells (RFC) were equally well depleted by chromatography using either DNP or trinitrophenyl containing materials but could not be eluted from the columns by DNP-glycine. While the antigen receptors of cells mediating the release of macrophage agglutination factor in response to DNP-containing antigens and of DNP-RFC were found to be hapten-specific, their specificity was shown to differ using chromatography over trinitrophenyl containing polyacrylamide. PMID:776818

  6. Role of autophagy in disease resistance and hypersensitive response-associated cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Munch, David; Bressendorff, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    Ancient autophagy pathways are emerging as key defense modules in host eukaryotic cells against microbial pathogens. Apart from actively eliminating intracellular intruders, autophagy is also responsible for cell survival, for example by reducing the deleterious effects of endoplasmic reticulum...... stress. At the same time, autophagy can contribute to cellular suicide. The concurrent engagement of autophagy in these processes during infection may sometimes mask its contribution to differing pro-survival and pro-death decisions. The importance of autophagy in innate immunity in mammals is well...... documented, but how autophagy contributes to plant innate immunity and cell death is not that clear. A few research reports have appeared recently to shed light on the roles of autophagy in plant-pathogen interactions and in disease-associated host cell death. We present a first attempt to reconcile...

  7. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Renders Cancer Cells Hypersensitive to ATR Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Rachel Litman; Cox, Kelli E.; Jeitany, Maya; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Bryll, Alysia R.; Ganem, Neil J.; Bersani, Francesca; Pineda, Jose R.; Suvà, Mario L.; Benes, Cyril H.; Haber, Daniel A.; Boussin, Francois D.; Zou, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric non-coding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replicati...

  8. Lazarus1, a DUF300 protein, contributes to programmed cell death associated with Arabidopsis acd11 and the hypersensitive response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikke G Malinovsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death (PCD is a necessary part of the life of multi-cellular organisms. A type of plant PCD is the defensive hypersensitive response (HR elicited via recognition of a pathogen by host resistance (R proteins. The lethal, recessive accelerated cell death 11 (acd11 mutant exhibits HR-like accelerated cell death, and cell death execution in acd11 shares genetic requirements for HR execution triggered by one subclass of R proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify genes required for this PCD pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of acd11, here called lazarus (laz mutants. In addition to known suppressors of R protein-mediated HR, we isolated 13 novel complementation groups of dominant and recessive laz mutants. Here we describe laz1, which encodes a protein with a domain of unknown function (DUF300, and demonstrate that LAZ1 contributes to HR PCD conditioned by the Toll/interleukin-1 (TIR-type R protein RPS4 and by the coiled-coil (CC-type R protein RPM1. Using a yeast-based topology assay, we also provide evidence that LAZ1 is a six transmembrane protein with structural similarities to the human tumor suppressor TMEM34. Finally, we demonstrate by transient expression of reporter fusions in protoplasts that localization of LAZ1 is distributed between the cytosol, the plasma membrane and FM4-64 stained vesicles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that LAZ1 functions as a regulator or effector of plant PCD associated with the HR, in addition to its role in acd11-related death. Furthermore, the similar topology of a plant and human DUF300 proteins suggests similar functions in PCD across the eukaryotic kingdoms, although a direct role for TMEM34 in cell death control remains to be established. Finally, the subcellular localization pattern of LAZ1 suggests that it may have transport functions for yet unknown, death-related signaling molecules at the plasma membrane and/or endosomal

  9. Effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on chronic visceral hypersensitivity in a radio-induced colonic ulceration model in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who undergo pelvic radiotherapy may develop significant incidence of undesirable chronic gastrointestinal complications resulting from radiation-induced damages around the tumour. Chronic visceral pain is one of the radiation-induced side effects that greatly affects the quality of life of 'cancer survivors'. The lack of effective analgesic treatment highlights the importance of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. In our laboratory, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) based approach showed beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative effects in a rat model of irreversible radiationinduced colonic ulcers. The goal of my work was to assess the relevance of this model to study radiation-induced visceral persistent hypersensitivity and its modulation by MSC treatment. We first demonstrated that this model is associated with long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity and central neuronal sensitization. In this context we showed then that mast cells (MC) are involved in the mechanism of peripheral sensitization. Moreover, we suggested the implication of the neuro-mediator NO. in the pathophysiology of persistent radiation-induced visceral hypersensitivity. We also suggested that MSC treatment reversed radiation-induced hypersensitivity by a mechanism that in part may involve the modulation of MC activation and/or the decrease in the number of MC and nerve fiber interactions. In addition, MSC treatment reduced the percentage of nitrinergic neurons, increased after irradiation, and restored colonic muscular contractibility. Such processes may promote the therapeutic benefit of MSC observed in our study. In conclusion, this work provided new insights on the therapeutic benefit of MSC in our study model and a new argument in favour of their use in a future clinical trial to cure abdomino-pelvic radiotherapy side effects. (author)

  10. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders : ENDA/EAACI position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonadonna, P.; Pagani, M.; Aberer, W.; Bilo, M. B.; Brockow, K.; Elberink, H. Oude; Garvey, L.; Mosbech, H.; Romano, A.; Zanotti, R.; Torres, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in different tissues, with a preferential localization in skin and bone marrow (BM). The excess of MC in mastocytosis as well as the increased releasability of MC may lead to a higher frequency a

  11. N-acetylcysteine attenuates hexavalent chromium-induced hypersensitivity through inhibition of cell death, ROS-related signaling and cytokine expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1. However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells and a guinea pig (GP model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression.

  12. Hypersensitivity of a human tumour cell line to very low radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambin, P. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Gray Lab. Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)); Marples, B. (British Columbia Cancer Inst., Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Fertil, B. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) - Hopital la Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Biostatistiques); Malaise, E.P. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)); Joiner, M.C. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Gray Lab.)

    1993-05-01

    Survival of HT29 cells was measured after irradiation with single doses of X-rays (0.05-5 Gy) and neutrons (0.025-1.5 Gy), using a Dynamic Microscopic Imaging Processing Scanner (DMIPS) with which individual cells can be accurately located in tissue culture flasks, their positions recorded, and after an appropriate incubation time the recorded positions revisited to allow the scoring of survivors. The response over the X-ray dose range 2-5 Gy showed a good fit to a Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model. For X-ray doses below 1 Gy, an increased X-ray effectiveness was observed with cell survival below the high-dose LQ prediction. The value of -dose/log[sub e](SF) for each experimental data point, plotted against dose, demonstrated clearly how X-rays are maximally effective at doses approaching zero, becoming less effective as the dose increases and with minimal effectiveness at about 0.6 Gy then becoming more effective again as the dose increases above 1.5 Gy. This phenomenon was not seen with neutrons. (Author).

  13. Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Rani R; Ali, Fatima; Teuber, Suzanne; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-08-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids (CS) are rare in the general population, but they are not uncommon in high-risk groups such as patients who receive repeated doses of CS. Hypersensitivity reactions to steroids are broadly divided into two categories: immediate reactions, typically occurring within 1 h of drug administration, and non-immediate reactions, which manifest more than an hour after drug administration. The latter group is more common. We reviewed the literature using the search terms "hypersensitivity to steroids, adverse effects of steroids, steroid allergy, allergic contact dermatitis, corticosteroid side effects, and type I hypersensitivity" to identify studies or clinical reports of steroid hypersensitivity. We discuss the prevalence, mechanism, presentation, evaluation, and therapeutic options in corticosteroid hypersensitivity reactions. There is a paucity of literature on corticosteroid allergy, with most reports being case reports. Most reports involve non-systemic application of corticosteroids. Steroid hypersensitivity has been associated with type I IgE-mediated allergy including anaphylaxis. The overall prevalence of type I steroid hypersensitivity is estimated to be 0.3-0.5%. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most commonly reported non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction and usually follows topical CS application. Atopic dermatitis and stasis dermatitis of the lower extremities are risk factors for the development of ACD from topical CS. Patients can also develop hypersensitivity reactions to nasal, inhaled, oral, and parenteral CS. A close and detailed evaluation is required for the clinician to confirm the presence of a true hypersensitivity reaction to the suspected drug and choose the safest alternative. Choosing an alternative CS is not only paramount to the patient's safety but also ameliorates the worry of developing an allergic, and potentially fatal, steroid hypersensitivity reaction. This evaluation becomes

  14. Repair of (6-4)photoproducts correlates with split-dose recovery in UV-irradiated normal and hypersensitive rodent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary cells and two UV-hypersensitive derivatives were used to determine the importance of DNA excision repair for split-dose recovery. In the wild-type cells 75% of the maximum theoretical recovery was observed when the fractions were delivered at 2-h intervals. Very little recovery was evident in the two hypersensitive cell lines. Using radioimmunoassays specific for (6-4)photoproducts and cyclobutane dimers, the ability of UV-irradiated repair-deficient cells representing 5 complementation groups to repair these 2 photoproducts was determined. Removal of antibody-binding sites specific for (6-4)photoproducts was 80% complete in 6 h and was defective in the UV-sensitive cells. In contrast, only 20-60% of antibody-binding sites specific for cyclobutane dimers were removed 18 h post-irradiation, and the extent of removal was the same in normal and defective cell lines. The authors conclude that repair of (6-4)photoproducts accounts for split-dose recovery. In addition, it is concluded that a consequence of DNA repair in CHO cells is modification rather than removal of cyclobutane dimers. 36 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Coronatine inhibits stomatal closure and delays hypersensitive response cell death induced by nonhost bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Lee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae is the most widespread bacterial pathogen in plants. Several strains of P. syringae produce a phytotoxin, coronatine (COR, which acts as a jasmonic acid mimic and inhibits plant defense responses and contributes to disease symptom development. In this study, we found that COR inhibits early defense responses during nonhost disease resistance. Stomatal closure induced by a nonhost pathogen, P. syringae pv. tabaci, was disrupted by COR in tomato epidermal peels. In addition, nonhost HR cell death triggered by P. syringae pv. tabaci on tomato was remarkably delayed when COR was supplemented along with P. syringae pv. tabaci inoculation. Using isochorismate synthase (ICS-silenced tomato plants and transcript profiles of genes in SA- and JA-related defense pathways, we show that COR suppresses SA-mediated defense during nonhost resistance.

  16. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  17. Induction of suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus by epidermal cells exposed to UV-irradiated urocanic acid in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urocanic acid (UCA), the putative photoreceptor for ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced suppression, undergoes a UV-dependent trans to cis isomerisation. Epidermal cells from mice painted with UCA, containing a known proportion of the cis-isomer, generate suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) when transferred to naive syngeneic recipients at the same time and site as infection with HSV-1. One T suppressor cell subset, of phenotype (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-), is induced by the cis-UCA modified epidermal cell transfer. Flow cytometric analysis of the epidermal cells from skin treated with UV or cis-UCA indicates an overall reduction from normal in the number of cells expressing MHC Class II antigens, but no alteration in the number expressing I-J antigens

  18. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Orta, Manuel Luis; Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2) also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer) in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay) induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee. PMID:27399778

  19. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Burgos-Morón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2 also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee.

  20. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB to cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eGamba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA. GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogues to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  1. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkowsky, Richard D; Oquendo, Anabella

    2011-07-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is exemplified by brief, sharp, well-localized pain in response to thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical stimuli that cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Pulpal pain is usually more prolonged, dull, aching, and poorly localized and lasts longer than the applied stimulus. Up to 30% of adults have dentinal hypersensitivity at some time. Current techniques for treatment may be only transient in nature and results are not always predictable. Two methods of treatment of dentin hypersensitivity are tubular occlusion and blockage of nerve activity. A differential diagnosis needs to be accomplished before any treatment. PMID:21726693

  2. X-ray induction of persistent hypersensitivity to mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progeny of x-irradiated V79 cells are hypersensitive to PUVA-(8-methoxypsoralen plus longwave ultraviolet light) induced mutation at the locus for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This hypersensitivity is most evident at low doses of pUVA that do not induce mutation in non-x-irradiated cells. The hypersensitivity is evoked by x-irradiation delivered as a single dose or as multiple fractions over a long period and persists for at least 108 days of exponential growth. This radiation-induced hypersensitivity to subsequent mutation is a new phenomenon that may be relevant to multistage carcinogenesis

  3. The induction and repair of lesions produced by the photolysis of (6-4) photoproducts in normal and UV-hypersensitive human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay was used to study the induction and repair of damage produced by the photolysis of (6-3) photoproducts in normal and UV-sensitive human cells. Photochemical conditions were established to optimize the production of photolyzed (6-4) photoproduct, with most of the antibody-binding sites removed within 4 h post-photolysis. Whereas xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells were deficient in the repair of this lesion, an XP variant and two cell lines selectively hypersensitive to UVB-irradiation were shown to have normal repair. The radioimmunoassay was further used to demonstrate the alkali-lability of the (6-4) photolysis product. (author). 31 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Abrogation of the capacity of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to alloantigens by intravenous injection of neuraminidase-treated allogeneic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BALB/c or C3H/He mice were inoculated i.v. with allogeneic spleen cells untreated or treated with neuraminidase. Appreciable or potent anti-allo-delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were observed when mice were inoculated i.v. with untreated allogeneic cells or inoculated i.v. with those cells followed by s.c. immunization with untreated allogeneic cells. In contrast, i.v. inoculation of neuraminidase-treated allogeneic cells (presensitization) not only failed to induce any significant anti-allo-DTH responses but also abolished the capability of the animals to develop DTH responses after s.c. immunization, indicating the tolerance induction. This tolerance was alloantigen-specific, and rapidly inducible and long lasting. The induction of suppressor cell activity was demonstrated in tolerant mice. When spleen cells from such tolerant mice were transferred i.v. into 600 R x-irradiated syngeneic recipient mice alone or together with normal syngeneic spleen cells, these tolerant spleen cells themselves failed to induce DTH responses but did not exhibit suppressive effect on the generation of DTH responses induced by normal spleen cells cotransferred. These results indicate that i.v. administration of neuraminidase-treated allogeneic cells results in the induction of alloantigen-specific tolerance which is not always associated with the induction of suppressor cell activity but rather with the elimination or functional impairment of alloantigen-specific clones

  5. Epidemiology of dentin hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Splieth, Christian H.; Tachou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    Objective In contrast to the well-established caries epidemiology, data on dentin hypersensitivity seem to be scarce and contradictory. This review evaluates the available literature on dentin hypersensitivity and assesses its prevalence, distribution, and potential changes. Materials and methods The systematic search was performed to identify and select relevant publications with several key words in electronic databases. In addition, the articles’ bibliographies were consulted. Results Prev...

  6. Antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G; Shear, N H

    1998-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is an adverse drug reaction associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), and primidone. The syndrome is defined by the triad of fever, skin rash, and internal organ involvement. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, terbinafine, azathioprine, and allopurinol. Diagnosis of AHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic, or collagen vascular disorders. The incidence is approximately 1 in 3,000 exposures. AHS starts with fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy, within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis, and myostitis. AHS is associated with a relative excess of reactive oxidative metabolites of the AED. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Crossreactivity among PHT, CBZ, and PB is as high as 70-80%. PMID:9798755

  7. Positive selection of mutants with cell envelope defects of a Salmonella typhimurium strain hypersensitive to the products of genes hisF and hisH. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, D.N.

    1979-03-01

    Strain SB564 and its derivative DA78 are hypersensitive to the inhibitory action of the proteins coded for by genes hisF and hisH on cell division. Transduction of hisO1242, a regulatory mutation that elicits a very high level of expression of the histidine operon, into these strains resulted in the production of long filamentous cells carrying large balloons and in growth failure. Forty-one hisO1242 derivatives that escaped inhibition were isolated. These strains showed a large variety of alterations, many of which were related to the cell envelope. The more-frequent alterations included: changes in cell shape, increased sensitivity to one or more of several drugs (deoxycholate, cycloserine, penicillin, novobiocin, acridine orange), increased autolytic activity in alkaline buffer, anomalous fermentation of maltose on eosin--methylene blue plates, and temperature-conditional cell division. The alterations are produced, in some of the strains, by pleiotropic mutations in gene envB. Strains affected in divC, divD, and rodA loci have also been identified. Genetic analaysis has shown that several strains carry more than one envelope mutation. It is assumed that envelope mutations are positively selected because they somehow alleviate the particularly severe inhibition of cell division caused, in strains SB564 and DA78, by the excessive synthesis of hisF and hisH gene products.

  8. Positive selection of mutants with cell envelope defects of a Salmonella typhimurium strain hypersensitive to the products of genes hisF and hisH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain SB564 and its derivative DA78 are hypersensitive to the inhibitory action of the proteins coded for by genes hisF and hisH on cell division. Transduction of hisO1242, a regulatory mutation that elicits a very high level of expression of the histidine operon, into these strains resulted in the production of long filamentous cells carrying large balloons and in growth failure. Forty-one hisO1242 derivatives that escaped inhibition were isolated. These strains showed a large variety of alterations, many of which were related to the cell envelope. The more-frequent alterations included: changes in cell shape, increased sensitivity to one or more of several drugs (deoxycholate, cycloserine, penicillin, novobiocin, acridine orange), increased autolytic activity in alkaline buffer, anomalous fermentation of maltose on eosin--methylene blue plates, and temperature-conditional cell division. The alterations are produced, in some of the strains, by pleiotropic mutations in gene envB. Strains affected in divC, divD, and rodA loci have also been identified. Genetic analaysis has shown that several strains carry more than one envelope mutation. It is assumed that envelope mutations are positively selected because they somehow alleviate the particularly severe inhibition of cell division caused, in strains SB564 and DA78, by the excessive synthesis of hisF and hisH gene products

  9. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I.; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity–specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = −0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = −0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers. PMID:27281069

  10. Electrosensibility and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert; Schröttner, Jörg

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic sensibility, the ability to perceive electric and electromagnetic exposure, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), developing health symptoms due to exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields, need to be distinguished. Increased electrosensibility is a necessary, however, not a sufficient condition for electromagnetic hypersensitivity. At an extended sample of the general population of 708 adults, including 349 men and 359 women aged between 17 and 60 years, electrosensibility was investigated and characterized by perception threshold and its standard deviation. By analyzing the probability distributions of the perception threshold of electric 50 Hz currents, evidence could be found for the existence of a subgroup of people with significantly increased electrosensibility (hypersensibility) who as a group could be differentiated from the general population. The presented data show that the variation of the electrosensibility among the general population is significantly larger than has yet been estimated by nonionizing radiation protection bodies, but much smaller than claimed by hypersensitivity self-aid groups. These quantitative results should contribute to a less emotional discussion of this problem. The investigation method presented, is capable of exclusion diagnostics for persons suffering from the hypersensitivity syndrome. PMID:12929157

  11. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Kumari; Dependra K Timshina; Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), viz., phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalit...

  12. A cell-cycle-stage-related chromosomal X-ray hypersensitivity in larval neuroblasts of Drosophila mei-9 and mei 41 mutants suggesting defective DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have examined the chromosomal X-ray hypersensitivity in relation to the cell cycle in larval neuroblasts of the mutagen-sensitive and excision repair-defective mutant mei-9 and of the mutagen-sensitive and post-replication repair-defective mutant mei-41 of Drosophila melanogaster. When compared to wild-type cells, cells bearing the mei-9L1 allele produced unusually high levels in particular of chromatid deletions and to a lesser extent also of isochromatid deletions, but virtually no exchange aberrations. The chromosomal hypersensitivity is apparent at M1 when cells are irradiated in S or G2 but not when irradiated in G1. On the other hand, following irradiation cells bearing the mei-41D5 allele predominantly produce chromosome deletions. The phases of major sensitivity are the S and G1. Mei-9 and mei-41 mutants have been classified to date as proficient in DNA double-strand break repair. The data presented in this paper revealed an S-independent clastogenic hypersensitivity of mei-9 and mei-41 cells. They are interpreted as indicative evidence for the presence of impaired DNA double-strand break repair. The cell-cycle-related difference in the ratio of chromatid- versus chromosome-type deletions in both mutants suggests repair defects at partially different phases of the cell cycle in mei-9 and mei-41 mutant cells. (author). 47 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Hypersensitivity to Suture Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative.

  14. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  15. Successful Desensitization of a Patient with Rituximab Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ataca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody which targets CD20 in B cells that is used for the treatment of CD20 positive oncologic and hematologic malignancies. Rituximab causes hypersensitivity reactions during infusions. The delay of treatment or loss of a highly efficient drug can be prevented by rapid drug desensitization method in patients who are allergic to rituximab. We report a low grade B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient with rituximab hypersensitivity successfully treated with rapid drug desensitization. In experienced centers, drug desensitization is a novel modality to break through in case of hypersensitivity that should be considered.

  16. T-cell effector function and unresponsiveness in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. II. Delayed-type hypersensitivity unresponsiveness reflects a defective differentiation from TD precursor to effector cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1986-01-01

    An increase in the virus dose from 10(2) LD50 (low dose) to 10(4) LD50 (high dose) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) results in markedly delayed virus clearance, in spite of a potent cytotoxic T-cell (TC) response. However, virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity...... is markedly depressed in high-dose mice, suggesting an association between DTH and virus clearance. When virus-primed memory cells are transferred, DTH reactivity as well as virus-clearing capacity is restored in high-dose mice, indicating that the virus is not present in a changed or concealed form. The role...... of T-cells mediating DTH (TD cells) in virus clearance was also studied by adoptive transfer to naive recipients. Here the high-dose primed cells did mediate virus clearance, although no DTH reaction was detectable 24-72 h after transfer. However, when footpad swelling was measured 96 h or more after...

  17. Two phenotypically distinct T cells are involved in ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid-induced suppression of the efferent delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When UVB-irradiated urocanic acid, the putative photoreceptor/mediator for UVB suppression, is administered to mice it induces a dose-dependent suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), of similar magnitude to that induced by UV irradiation of mice. In this study, the efferent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by UV-irradiated urocanic acid is demonstrated to be due to 2 phenotypically distinct T cells, (Thy1+, L3T4-, Ly2+) and (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-). The suppression is specific for HSV-1. This situation parallels the generation of 2 distinct T-suppressor cells for HSV-1 by UV irradiation of mice and provides further evidence for the involvement of urocanic acid in the generation of UVB suppression

  18. Contact hypersensitivity after tongue piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Herachakri P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently tongue piercing has become increasingly popular in the society. Several case reports have presented various complications of tongue piercing. However, there is no scientific evidence about contact hypersensitivity to tongue piercing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the contact hypersensitivity after using tongue piercing. Methods: Nineteen male Rattus norvegicus were divided into three groups: group A treated with vaseline on the back and dorsum tongue (control group, group B (I treated with HgCl2 10% cream on the tongue dorsum, group B (II treated with tongue piercing for 10 days and group C with HgCl 2 10% cream on the back, ear lobe, and tongue, then re-exposure with same materials on ear, back and tongue for 24 and 48 hours. Before and after 24 and 48 hours applications, ear width was measured with sliding caliper. At the end of treatments, the rats were sacrificed. All tissue specimens were made for Hematoylin Eosine (H&E staining examination. The number of mononuclear cells was counted under light microscope Data was analyzed with One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD (p<0.05. Results: The result of this study showed that there were a significant difference of the thickness of ear lobe and the number of mononuclear cells (lymphocyte and monocyte among all groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that tongue piercing induce contact hypersensitivity.Latar belakang: Saat ini pemakaian tongue piercing sangat popular di masyarakat. Beberapa laporan kasus menunjukkan bahwa tongue piercing menimbulkan beberapa komplikasi. Namun, belum ada bukti ilmiah mengenai reaksi hipesensitivitas tongue piercing. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui reaksi hipersensitivitas setelah menggunakan tongue piercing. Metode: Sembilan belas tikus jantan Rattus novergicus yang dibagi dalam tiga kemlompok yaitu: grup A diberi perlakuan dengan vaselin pada punggung dan dorsum lidah, grup B (I diberi perlakuan dengan krim HgCl2 10% pada dorsum lidah dan B

  19. Comprehensive transcriptional and functional analyses of melatonin synthesis genes in cassava reveal their novel role in hypersensitive-like cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Wang, Qiannan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Chunjie; Zeng, Hongqiu; Yan, Yu; Li, Xiaolin; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is a widely known hormone in animals. Since melatonin was discovered in plants, more and more studies highlight its involvement in a wide range of physiological processes including plant development and stress responses. Many advances have been made in the terms of melatonin-mediated abiotic stress resistance and innate immunity in plants, focusing on model plants such as rice and Arabidopsis. In this study, 7 melatonin synthesis genes were systematically analyzed in cassava. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all these genes were commonly regulated by melatonin, flg22, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed the subcellular locations and possible roles of these melatonin synthesis genes. Notably, we highlight novel roles of these genes in hypersensitive-like cell death, as confirmed by the results of several physiological parameters. Moreover, transient expression of these genes had significant effects on the transcripts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and defense-related genes, and triggered the burst of callose depositions and papillae-associated plant defense, indicating the possible role of them in plant innate immunity. Taken together, this study reveals the comprehensive transcripts and putative roles of melatonin synthesis genes as well as melatonin in immune responses in cassava. PMID:27739451

  20. Sulphasalazine Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is one of the most dangerous drug reactions. Mortality and morbidity is increased by consequent systemic organ involvement. Maculopapular eruptions are the most common lesions accompanying DIHS, however, the morphology of skin lesions may vary. The most common cause of DIHS is the use of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. However, one must not forget that other drugs may also cause DIHS. Early recognition of the condition is the most important step in the treatment. Herein, we present a case of DIHS triggered by sulphasalazine and associated with pustular eruption and maculopapular eruption.

  1. Rabies virus cross-reactive murine T cell clones: analysis of helper and delayed-type hypersensitivity function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bunschoten; B. Dietzschold; I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); R. Klapmuts; F. UytdeHaag; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThree T cell clones derived from rabies virus-immunized BALB/c mice were analysed for specificity and function. The clones proved to be broadly cross-reactive by responding to different rabies virus isolates (PM, ERA, CVS, HEP) and other representatives of the genus Lyssavirus, like the

  2. Lazarus1, a DUF300 Protein, Contributes to Programmed Cell Death Associated with Arabidopsis acd11 and the Hypersensitive Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovsky, F.G.; Brodersen, P.; Fiil, B.K.;

    2010-01-01

    ) mutant exhibits HR-like accelerated cell death, and cell death execution in acd11 shares genetic requirements for HR execution triggered by one subclass of R proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings: To identify genes required for this PCD pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of acd11......, here called lazarus (laz) mutants. In addition to known suppressors of R protein-mediated HR, we isolated 13 novel complementation groups of dominant and recessive laz mutants. Here we describe laz1, which encodes a protein with a domain of unknown function (DUF300), and demonstrate that LAZ1....... Finally, we demonstrate by transient expression of reporter fusions in protoplasts that localization of LAZ1 is distributed between the cytosol, the plasma membrane and FM4-64 stained vesicles. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings indicate that LAZ1 functions as a regulator or effector of plant PCD...

  3. Optimization of cell-wall skeleton derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) emulsion in delayed-type hypersensitivity and antitumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, M; Murata, M; Fukushima, A; Sato, T; Nakagawa, M; Fujii, T; Koseki, N; Chiba, N; Kashiwazaki, Y

    2012-08-01

    Cell-wall skeleton prepared from Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG-CWS) is known as a potent adjuvant and has been shown to possess antitumor activity in many non-clinical and clinical studies. As there are no approved BCG-CWS formulations for cancer therapy, we investigated the potential for cancer immunotherapy of SMP-105, our originally produced BCG-CWS. For optimizing SMP-105 emulsion, we compared the effects of drakeoland squalane-based SMP-105 emulsions on IFN-γ production in rats and evaluated their ability to induce skin reaction in guinea pigs. Both emulsions had the same activity in both experiments. We selected squalane as base material and produced two types of squalane-based formulations (vialed emulsion and pumped emulsion) that can easily be prepared as oil-in-water emulsions. Although the vialed emulsion showed the same pattern of distribution as a usual homogenized emulsion, the pumped emulsion showed more uniform distribution than the other two emulsions. Whereas both emulsions enhanced strong delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in a mouse model, the pumped emulsion induced slightly smaller edema. Data on oil droplet size distribution suggest that few micrometer oil droplet size might be appropriate for oil-in-water microemulsion of SMP-105. The antitumor potency of SMP-105 emulsion was stronger than that of some of the launched toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (Aldara cream, Picibanil, and Immunobladder). Aldara and Picibanil showed limited antitumor effectiveness, while Immunobladder had almost the same effect as SMP-105 at the highest dose, but needed about 10 times the amount of SMP-105. These findings first indicate that SMP-105 has great potential in cancer immunotherapy.

  4. STUDIES ON HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, P. G. H.; Benacerraf, B.

    1961-01-01

    In earlier observations with the picryl system, it was concluded that contact sensitivity was a form of delayed (cellular) hypersensitivity to conjugates of sensitizer with autologous proteins indistinguishable in its immunological mechanism from other classical forms of delayed hypersensitivity to proteins. This conclusion has been confirmed and extended with the picryl and chlorbenzoyl chloride systems. 1. It is shown that to induce a state of contact sensitivity, the minimal necessary amounts of hapten are of the same order of magnitude, whether this hapten is conjugated with protein or the free reactive chemical itself. From this, it is evident that contamination of conjugates with small amounts of unreacted sensitizer plays no part in the induction of contact reactivity by the conjugate. With the dinitrophenyl system, no contact sensitivity could be induced by the conjugates used; possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. 2. Animals sensitized to contact by homologous conjugate can be completely desensitized by injections of such a conjugate in large amount; a similar injection schedule has no effect on the contact sensitivity of animals sensitized with the free reactive sensitizer. 3. The capacity of heterologous (ovalbumin) conjugates to evoke anti-hapten antibodies is shown to be greater than that of homologous (guinea pig seralbumin) conjugates: the reverse is true of their capacity to induce delayed reactivity. 4. Evidence is brought forward to suggest that in animals sensitized with homologous albumin conjugates, the specificity of the delayed reaction involves more than the hapten alone, even though the carrier protein is non-antigenic on its own. The contrast with the apparent lesser specificity of the antibodies later produced is discussed. PMID:13704282

  5. Cell-free antigens from precocious Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture induce a typical delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fecchio CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free antigens (CFAg derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have typically been used in immunodiffusion reactions for serodiagnosis or therapeutic follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis patients. Thus, we investigated the usefulness of CFAg obtained from cultures at different ages, to evaluate cellular immunity by the footpad test, in experimental murine paracoccidioidomycosis. Male mice infected with P. brasiliensis 265 strain were challenged in the footpad with CFAg obtained from four- (4d CFAg or 11-day-old cultures (11d CFAg. The increase in footpad swelling provoked by 4d CFAg and 11d CFAg was similar and showed significant difference in relation to control groups. However, the infiltrate pattern was strikingly different: 4d CFAg induced a predominant mononuclear infiltrate whereas 11d CFAg provoked a predominant polymophonuclear infiltrate. These different inflammatory patterns were associated with distinct electrophoretic characteristics. By comparison with 11d CFAg, 4d CFAg showed more numerous and intense bands, including a strong one of 43 kDa (gp43. These results suggest that CFAg derived from Pb 265 isolate can be used as a reagent to evaluate cellular immunity; however, the culture's age is critical because only young cultures are able to induce a typical mononuclear infiltrate. The efficacy of this new paracoccidioidin to assay the cellular immunity in infections caused by other P. brasiliensis isolates is under investigation.

  6. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  7. Repair deficient and hypersensitive diseases of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many diseases are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents but only xeroderma pigmentosum is consistently DNA repair deficient. Groups A to G exhibit reduction in excision of pyrimidine dimers and other lesions, the variant and alteration in polymerization or ligation. Pulse chase experiments indicate that excision defective and variant cells suffer increased blocking of replication forks during semiconservative replication after irradiation; but later bypass of such blocks is completely normal in all cell types. Thus, the variant is not defective in ''post-replication repair,'' and even the definition of such a system comes under question. (author)

  8. Dentin hypersensitivity and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Lam, Anty; Lo, Edward C M

    2011-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common patient complaint that is more prevalent than the profession realizes. It is important for dentists to diagnose dentin hypersensitivity by exclusion and provide appropriate treatment recommendations for patients. Various treatment methods have been proposed but no universally accepted desensitizing agent or treatment has been identified. When a patient has symptoms that can be attributed to dentin hypersensitivity, a thorough clinical examination should be carried out to rule out other likely causes prior to diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the identified cause, a combination of individualized instructions on proper oral health behaviors, use of at-home products, and professional treatment may be required to manage the problem. PMID:21903521

  9. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...

  10. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  11. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  12. Contrast media hypersensitivity--scope of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut

    2005-04-15

    Hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media (CM) are frequent causes of anaphylactically induced fatalities. Adverse events after CM exposure are classified into immediate and non-immediate reactions, with differing pathomechanisms. In the majority of patients with immediate reactions, IgE-mediated allergy can not be demonstrated and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. However, recent data has provided evidence for skin test positivity and/or specific IgE in some patients with severe reactions. Cell-mediated hypersensitivity is the responsible mechanism for the majority of non-immediate skin eruptions. Skin tests have been employed to confirm this hypersensitivity. Previous reactors have an increased risk to develop new reactions upon repeated exposure, however, other risk factors are poorly defined. The use of skin tests for the selection of a "safe" CM is controversially discussed; information on sensitivity and specificity is lacking. New in-vitro assays have to be developed and/or validated. Premedication of previous reactors is common practice among radiologists, however, its precise role in the prevention of severe CM reactions to lower-osmolality CM has not been demonstrated. Thus, the main future tasks are to develop and validate allergic tests procedures, which may identify patients at risk and/or may confirm CM tolerance, and to reassess the value of different premedications in the prevention of hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:15767034

  13. Modulation of Th1/Th2 Immune Responses by Killed Propionibacterium acnes and Its Soluble Polysaccharide Fraction in a Type I Hypersensitivity Murine Model: Induction of Different Activation Status of Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussalem, Juliana Sekeres; Ishimura, Mayari Eika; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus present in normal human skin microbiota, which exerts important immunomodulatory effects, when used as heat- or phenol-killed suspensions. We previously demonstrated that heat-killed P. acnes or its soluble polysaccharide (PS), extracted from the bacterium cell wall, suppressed or potentiated the Th2 response to ovalbumin (OVA) in an immediate hypersensitivity model, depending on the treatment protocol. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for these effects, using the same model and focusing on the activation status of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We verified that higher numbers of APCs expressing costimulatory molecules and higher expression levels of these molecules are probably related to potentiation of the Th2 response to OVA induced by P. acnes or PS, while higher expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) seems to be related to Th2 suppression. In vitro cytokines production in cocultures of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes indicated that P. acnes and PS seem to perform their effects by acting directly on APCs. Our data suggest that P. acnes and PS directly act on APCs, modulating the expression of costimulatory molecules and TLRs, and these differently activated APCs drive distinct T helper patterns to OVA in our model. PMID:25973430

  14. Radiation hypersensitivity and radioresistant DNA synthesis in ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with the autosomal recessive genetic disease, ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), are cancer-prone and hypersensitive to the killing effects of ionizing radiation. In an attempt to isolate the gene(s) responsible for the hypersensitivity of A-T cells, they were transfected with normal human DNA in cosmid vectors containing a rescuable marker (G-418 resistance), and revertants to normal sensitivity were isolated and characterized. The failure of radioresistant revertants to demonstrate a reversion of the phenotype, radioresistant DNA synthesis, shows that this feature is dependent on a gene separate from the one conferring resistance to cell killing. Cells from every A-T patient thus far examined demonstrate both hypersensitivity, in terms of radiation-induced cell killing, and radioresistant DNA synthesis. The results reported here, however, show that the former is not a result of the latter, as previously proposed. Moreover, the fact that these two characteristics can be uncoupled obscures the role(s) that either of them plays in the etiology of the disease, or in the development in its other features, including cancer-proneness

  15. A Case of Possible Hypersensitivity Reactions to Human Insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Adamescu Eduard; Tudose Adriana Mihaela; Dumitrescu Nicolae Viorel; Dobjanschi Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin therapy is commonly used in diabetic patients. It represents the only option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and could be part of the treatment plan for the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical appearance of hypersensitivity reactions to insulin vary significantly, depending on the immune mechanism involved. Many skin prick tests could be interpreted as positive reactions (either by using inappropriate concentrations or due to other mast cell degranul...

  16. A Case of Possible Hypersensitivity Reactions to Human Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamescu Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin therapy is commonly used in diabetic patients. It represents the only option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and could be part of the treatment plan for the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical appearance of hypersensitivity reactions to insulin vary significantly, depending on the immune mechanism involved. Many skin prick tests could be interpreted as positive reactions (either by using inappropriate concentrations or due to other mast cell degranulation causes.

  17. Sauna lung: hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to Exophiala jeanselmei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chen; Lu, Yin-Hsiu; Lin, Zih-Gong; Su, Wen-Lin

    2010-04-01

    A 55-year-old man developed progressive cough and dyspnoea after regular attendance at a public steam bath. Hypoxaemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and a predominance of lymphocytes with an increased percentage of CD8+ T cells in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid suggested hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Microbial cultures from the steam bath room and tank identified Exophiala jeanselmei. Immunoblotting assays from the patient's serum confirmed the major antigenic stimulus. The patient recovered fully after systemic corticosteroid treatment and cessation of further exposure.

  18. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB) to cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Gamba; E. Rietkötter; R.A. Daniel; L.W. Hamoen

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination

  19. Mechanism of systemic immune suppression by UV irradiation in vivo. II. The UV effects on number and morphology of epidermal Langerhans cells and UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity have different wavelength dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors previously reported that broad band UV radiation or narrow bands of UV (Hbw 3 nm) of wavelengths 250 to 320 nm cause a systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice, observed when the contact sensitizer is applied to a nonirradiated site. To determine if this effect is associated with UV-induced alterations in epidermal Langerhans cell (LC) numbers and morphology, they performed the following study. LC were identified by ATPase staining of EDTA-separated epidermal sheets. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that this method was a satisfactory indicator of the presence of LC. Mice were irradiated on the back with narrow band UV of peak wavelength 270, 290, or 320 nm. The irradiated skin was excised 24 hr later and was stained as described. They found that UV radiation of 270 or 290 nm caused (1) an alteration in LC morphology (loss of dendrites) and (2) a decrease in the total number of epidermal LC. Both effects occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. A dose of 320 nm UV that caused 50% systemic suppression of CHS had no effect on either the number or the morphology of LC at the site of irradiation. In addition, the number and morphology of LC were unaffected in the ventral epidermis (site of contact sensitization) of mice that had been previously irradiated on the back with a systemically suppressive dose of UV

  20. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  1. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... ranitidine, 50 mg intravenously every 6 hours for 72 hours, received perioperative blood transfusion. Eleven of these patients could be matched to 11 transfused patients not receiving perioperative ranitidine. Ranitidine prevented postoperative reduction in skin test response (+6% vs -55%, p less than 0.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  2. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  3. Virus Infections Incite Pain Hypersensitivity by Inducing Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased pain sensitivity is a comorbidity associated with many clinical diseases, though the underlying causes are poorly understood. Recently, chronic pain hypersensitivity in rodents treated to induce chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues was linked to enhanced tryptophan catabolism in brain mediated by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO. Here we show that acute influenza A virus (IAV and chronic murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV infections, which stimulate robust IDO expression in lungs and lymphoid tissues, induced acute or chronic pain hypersensitivity, respectively. In contrast, virus-induced pain hypersensitivity did not manifest in mice lacking intact IDO1 genes. Spleen IDO activity increased markedly as MuLV infections progressed, while IDO1 expression was not elevated significantly in brain or spinal cord (CNS tissues. Moreover, kynurenine (Kyn, a tryptophan catabolite made by cells expressing IDO, incited pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient mice and Kyn potentiated pain hypersensitivity due to MuLV infection. MuLV infection stimulated selective IDO expression by a discreet population of spleen cells expressing both B cell (CD19 and dendritic cell (CD11c markers (CD19+ DCs. CD19+ DCs were more susceptible to MuLV infection than B cells or conventional (CD19neg DCs, proliferated faster than B cells from early stages of MuLV infection and exhibited mature antigen presenting cell (APC phenotypes, unlike conventional (CD19neg DCs. Moreover, interactions with CD4 T cells were necessary to sustain functional IDO expression by CD19+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes from MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice induced pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient recipient mice, while selective in vivo depletion of DCs alleviated pain hypersensitivity in MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice and led to rapid reduction in splenomegaly, a hallmark of MuLV immune pathogenesis. These findings reveal critical roles for CD19

  4. Virus Infections Incite Pain Hypersensitivity by Inducing Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ou, Rong; Rabelo de Souza, Guilherme; Cunha, Thiago M; Lemos, Henrique; Mohamed, Eslam; Li, Lingqian; Pacholczyk, Gabriela; Randall, Janice; Munn, David H; Mellor, Andrew L

    2016-05-01

    Increased pain sensitivity is a comorbidity associated with many clinical diseases, though the underlying causes are poorly understood. Recently, chronic pain hypersensitivity in rodents treated to induce chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues was linked to enhanced tryptophan catabolism in brain mediated by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Here we show that acute influenza A virus (IAV) and chronic murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV) infections, which stimulate robust IDO expression in lungs and lymphoid tissues, induced acute or chronic pain hypersensitivity, respectively. In contrast, virus-induced pain hypersensitivity did not manifest in mice lacking intact IDO1 genes. Spleen IDO activity increased markedly as MuLV infections progressed, while IDO1 expression was not elevated significantly in brain or spinal cord (CNS) tissues. Moreover, kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan catabolite made by cells expressing IDO, incited pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient mice and Kyn potentiated pain hypersensitivity due to MuLV infection. MuLV infection stimulated selective IDO expression by a discreet population of spleen cells expressing both B cell (CD19) and dendritic cell (CD11c) markers (CD19+ DCs). CD19+ DCs were more susceptible to MuLV infection than B cells or conventional (CD19neg) DCs, proliferated faster than B cells from early stages of MuLV infection and exhibited mature antigen presenting cell (APC) phenotypes, unlike conventional (CD19neg) DCs. Moreover, interactions with CD4 T cells were necessary to sustain functional IDO expression by CD19+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes from MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice induced pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient recipient mice, while selective in vivo depletion of DCs alleviated pain hypersensitivity in MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice and led to rapid reduction in splenomegaly, a hallmark of MuLV immune pathogenesis. These findings reveal critical roles for CD19+ DCs

  5. RECQL4-deficient cells are hypersensitive to oxidative stress/damage: Insights for osteosarcoma prevalence and heterogeneity in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a heterogeneous disease, associated with increased prevalence of osteosarcoma in very young patients with a mutated RECQL4 gene. In this study, we tested the ability of RECQL4 deficient fibroblasts, derived from a RTS patient to recover from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress/damage. Immunoperoxidase staining for 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) formation in RTS and normal human fibroblasts were compared to assess DNA damage. We determined DNA synthesis, cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and viability in RTS and normal human fibroblasts before and after H2O2 treatment. H2O2 induces 8-oxo-dG formation in both RTS and normal fibroblasts. In normal human fibroblasts, RECQL4 was predominantly localized to cytoplasm; nuclear translocation and foci formation occurred in response to oxidant stimulation. After recovery from oxidant exposure, viable RTS fibroblasts showed irreversible growth arrest compared to normal fibroblasts. DNA synthesis decreased significantly in treated RTS cells, with concomitant reduction of cells in the S-phase. These results suggest that enhanced oxidant sensitivity in RECQL4 deficient fibroblasts derived from RTS patients could be attributed to abnormal DNA metabolism and proliferation failure. The ramifications of these findings on osteosarcoma prevalence and heterogeneity in RTS are discussed

  6. IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotua, M; Lomidze, N; Dolidze, N; Gotua, T

    2008-04-01

    Food allergy has become a serious health concern especially in developed countries in the past two decades. In general population approximately 4-6% of children and 1-3% of adults experience food allergy. The article reviews IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders. Epidemiology, Mechanism, Clinical manifestations, Genetically modified crops (GMOs), Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are discussed. The investigations show that over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish and shellfish. Also the causes of food allergy are food additives, genetically modified crops. Risk factors for food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis include asthma and previous allergic reactions to the causative food. Food allergy is one of the most common causes of systematic anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, with an annual incidence of four cases per million populations and estimated 500 deaths annually. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, individuals may experience urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hypotension, shock and cardiac arrhythmias, caused by the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophiles. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE in blood serum and challenge tests. Treatment and prevention includes: avoidance diet, application of auto-injectable epinephrine, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, cromolyn sodium, etc. PMID:18487689

  7. [Cell-mediated immunity and delayed hypersensitivity study in splenectomy patients: a comparative evaluation between IFN-gamma and skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniello, S; Jirillo, E; Urgesi, G; D'Abbicco, D; Tomasicchio, N; Bonomo, G M

    1999-01-01

    The authors of this paper attempt to indicate a feasible, easy-to-use and inexpensive instrument for daily assessing and monitoring of splenectomized subjects to see if they are immunocompromised. Skin tests which are considered easy and inexpensive, may be useful for immunological investigation if their effectiveness is considered equal to that of more difficult and expensive methods. They have also assessed the effectiveness of ST in the study of specific cell-mediated immunity in general and also in cases of delayed hypersensibility, comparatively to serum IFN gamma dosage. The latter is produced by Th1 lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells and is considered a reasonable indicator of cell-mediated immunity and Th1-related delayed hypersensibility. The results of this study confirm that ST is effective in 100% of all splenectomized patients compared to positivity of 60% for the compromise of the immunocompetent system revealed by serum IFN gamma dosage in the same sample of patients. In addition, the fundamental role of other cytokines was confirmed. These include IL-2 which is produced by Th1 lymphocytes and whose lack of results in splenectomized patients are immunocompromised. This is revealed not only by IFN gamma dosage but also by ST. PMID:10633837

  8. Rpi-blb2-Mediated Hypersensitive Cell Death Caused by Phytophthora infestans AVRblb2 Requires SGT1, but not EDS1, NDR1, Salicylic Acid-, Jasmonic Acid-, or Ethylene-Mediated Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2014-09-01

    Potato Rpi-blb2 encodes a protein with a coiled-coil-nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR) motif that recognizes the Phytophthora infestans AVRblb2 effector and triggers hypersensitive cell death (HCD). To better understand the components required for Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in plants, we used virus-induced gene silencing to repress candidate genes in Rpi-blb2-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants and assayed the plants for AVRblb2 effector. Rpi-blb2 triggers HCD through NbSGT1-mediated pathways, but not NbEDS1- or NbNDR1-mediated pathways. In addition, the role of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) in Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD were analyzed by monitoring of the responses of NbICS1-, NbCOI1-, or NbEIN2-silenced or Rpi-blb2::NahG-transgenic plants. Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2 was not associated with SA accumulation. Thus, SA affects Rpi-blb2-mediated resistance against P. infestans, but not Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2. Additionally, JA and ET signaling were not required for Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in N. benthamiana. Taken together, these findings suggest that NbSGT1 is a unique positive regulator of Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2, but EDS1, NDR1, SA, JA, and ET are not required.

  9. Rpi-blb2-Mediated Hypersensitive Cell Death Caused by Phytophthora infestans AVRblb2 Requires SGT1, but not EDS1, NDR1, Salicylic Acid-, Jasmonic Acid-, or Ethylene-Mediated Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Keun Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato Rpi-blb2 encodes a protein with a coiled-coil-nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR motif that recognizes the Phytophthora infestans AVRblb2 effector and triggers hypersensitive cell death (HCD. To better understand the components required for Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in plants, we used virus-induced gene silencing to repress candidate genes in Rpi-blb2-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants and assayed the plants for AVRblb2 effector. Rpi-blb2 triggers HCD through NbSGT1-mediated pathways, but not NbEDS1- or NbNDR1-mediated pathways. In addition, the role of salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and ethylene (ET in Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD were analyzed by monitoring of the responses of NbICS1-, NbCOI1-, or NbEIN2-silenced or Rpi-blb2::NahG-transgenic plants. Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2 was not associated with SA accumulation. Thus, SA affects Rpi-blb2-mediated resistance against P. infestans, but not Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2. Additionally, JA and ET signaling were not required for Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in N. benthamiana. Taken together, these findings suggest that NbSGT1 is a unique positive regulator of Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2, but EDS1, NDR1, SA, JA, and ET are not required.

  10. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    knockout (CD1d KO) and wild-type (Wt) mice after contact allergen exposure. For induction of CHS, C57BL/6 CD1d KO mice (n = 6) and C57BL/6 Wt mice (n = 6) were sensitised with 1% (w/v) dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or vehicle for three consecutive days and subsequently challenged with a single dose of 0.......5% DNCB (w/v) on the ears fifteen days later. We demonstrate that CD1d KO mice, as compared with Wt littermates, have more pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells in the skin (29.1% increase; P

  11. Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Christian; Vocanson, Marc; Wagner, Steffen; Schempp, Christoph M; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Merfort, Irmgard; Martin, Stefan F

    2008-10-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), secondary plant metabolites from flowerheads of Arnica, exert anti-inflammatory effects mainly by preventing nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation because of alkylation of the p65 subunit. Despite its known immunosuppressive action, Arnica has been classified as a plant with strong potency to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Here we examined the dual role of SL as anti-inflammatory compounds and contact allergens in vitro and in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory and allergenic potential of SL in the mouse contact hypersensitivity model. We also used dendritic cells to study the activation of NF-kappaB and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-12 in the presence of different doses of SL in vitro. Arnica tinctures and SL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production in dendritic cells at high concentrations, but had immunostimulatory effects at low concentrations. Contact hypersensitivity could not be induced in the mouse model, even when Arnica tinctures or SL were applied undiluted to inflamed skin. In contrast, Arnica tinctures suppressed contact hypersensitivity to the strong contact sensitizer trinitrochlorobenzene and activation of dendritic cells. However, contact hypersensitivity to Arnica tincture could be induced in acutely CD4-depleted MHC II knockout mice. These results suggest that induction of contact hypersensitivity by Arnica is prevented by its anti-inflammatory effect and immunosuppression as a result of immune regulation in immunocompetent mice.

  12. Low Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity is Caused by p53-dependent Apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enns, L; Bogen, K; Wizniak, J; Murtha, A; Weinfeld, M

    2004-04-08

    Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Many tumor cell lines have been observed to exhibit a hypersensitivity to radiation doses below 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. However, the underlying processes for this phenomenon remain unclear. Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times post irradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to gamma radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. The A549 and T98G cells, but not MCF7 cells, showed the marked hypersensitivity at doses <50 cGy. To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (annexin-V binding). We observed that caspase-3 activation and annexin-V binding mirrored the proliferation curves for the cell lines. Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and annexin-V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. When p53-inactive cell lines (2800T skin fibroblasts and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells) were examined for similar patterns, we found that there was no HRS and apoptosis was not detectable by annexin-V or caspase-3 assays. Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis.

  13. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kutszegi

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (ASP is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26; p = 4.70E-04, while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176 were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53; p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73; p = 6.76E-03, respectively. Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect.

  14. Association of tinnitus and electromagnetic hypersensitivity: hints for a shared pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landgrebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. METHODOLOGY: Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. FINDINGS: Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5% whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network.

  15. Expression of potato RNA-binding proteins StUBA2a/b and StUBA2c induces hypersensitive-like cell death and early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jong-Kuk; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Dool-Yi; Assmann, Sarah M

    2015-07-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), UBP1-associated protein 2a (UBA2a), UBA2b, and UBA2c, that contain two RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. They play important roles in wounding response and leaf senescence, and are homologs of Vicia faba abscisic-acid-activated protein kinase-interacting protein 1 (VfAKIP1). The potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome encodes at least seven AKIP1-like RBPs. Here, two potato RBPs have been characterized, StUBA2a/b and StUBA2c, that are homologous to VfAKIP1 and Arabidopsis UBA2s. Transient expression of StUBA2s induced a hypersensitive-like cell death phenotype in tobacco leaves, and an RRM-domain deletion assay of StUBA2s revealed that the first RRM domain is crucial for the phenotype. Unlike overexpression of Arabidopsis UBA2s, constitutive expression of StUBA2a/b in Arabidopsis did not cause growth arrest and lethality at the young seedling stage, but induced early leaf senescence. This phenotype was associated with increased expression of defence- and senescence-associated genes, including pathogen-related genes (PR) and a senescence-associated gene (SAG13), and it was aggravated upon flowering and ultimately resulted in a shortened life cycle. Leaf senescence of StUBA2a/b Arabidopsis plants was enhanced under darkness and was accompanied by H2O2 accumulation and altered expression of autophagy-associated genes, which likely cause cellular damage and are proximate causes of the early leaf senescence. Expression of salicylic acid signalling and biosynthetic genes was also upregulated in StUBA2a/b plants. Consistent with the localization of UBA2s-GFPs and VfAKIP1-GFP, soluble-modified GFP-StUBA2s localized in the nucleus within nuclear speckles. StUBA2s potentially can be considered for transgenic approaches to induce potato shoot senescence, which is desirable at harvest. PMID:25944928

  16. Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Korsholm; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acne...

  17. Hydrocodone snorting leading to hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Vimala

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by intranasal abuse of the prescription narcotic hydrocodone. The patient's clinical course was complicated by acute respiratory failure. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral opacities. The patient was treated with noninvasive ventilation, a high dose of intravenous steroids, and bronchodilators, resulting in improvement of symptoms and radiographic appearance. PMID:27365873

  18. Abacavir: it’s use and hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Rabie; Kristin Lorenc Henning; Pierre Schoeman; Nico de Villiers; G HJ Pretorius; Cotton, Mark F

    2009-01-01

    Abacavir, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is useful in first and second line therapy as well as a substitute for Stavudine and Zidovudine for toxicity. Although safe and well tolerated, a life threatening hypersensitivity reaction can occur. The risk for developing this reaction relates to the presence of specific genotypes especially HLA-B*5701.

  19. Hydrocodone snorting leading to hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Lakshmi Kant; Vijayaraghavan, Vimala

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by intranasal abuse of the prescription narcotic hydrocodone. The patient's clinical course was complicated by acute respiratory failure. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral opacities. The patient was treated with noninvasive ventilation, a high dose of intravenous steroids, and bronchodilators, resulting in improvement of symptoms and radiographic appearance.

  20. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira E Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Rebouças; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; da Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground-glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. PMID:27141134

  1. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground-glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings.

  2. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. (author)

  3. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  4. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Rebouças; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; da Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground-glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. PMID:27141134

  5. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Reboucas; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro da [Hospital do Cancer de Barretos, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Sugita, Denis Masashi, E-mail: pedroptstorres@yahoo.com.br [Anapolis Unievangelica, Anapolis, GO (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. (author)

  6. Multi-factoriality of dentine hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity has been defined as a sharp, short pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli typically thermal, evaporative tactile, osmoticor, chemical and which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Prevalence. The most affected patients range in age from 20 to 40. The following teeth tend to be most sensitive: cuspids, premolars and incisors, location-concentrated on the facial surface. Morphological bases of dentine hypersensitivity Sensitive teeth have much greater numbers of open tubules per unit area and the average diameter of tubules is almost 2 times greater than tubules in nonsensitive teeth. Mechanisms of dentine hypersensitivity. The most widely accepted theory of how the pain occurs is Brannstroms theory. Etiology Dentine hypersensitivity represents a condition of presumable multifactorial pathology. Two processes are essential for its development: (1 dentin must be exposed through either genetic disturbance, enamel defect (lamellae, tufts and spindles, loss of enamel (erosion, abrasion, attrition, abfraction, gingival recession with rapid loss of cementum and (2 the dentin tubules must be open to both the oral cavity and the pulp. Diagnosis. Diagnostic protocol for this condition consisted of Medical, Dental Dietary, Oral Hygiene History and Intra-oral examinations with air indexing method. Differential Diagnosis: We must take into consideration a number of variables such as: dental caries, cracked tooth, restorative sensitivity, medication sensitivity, bleaching sensitivity and abscessed or non-vital tooth. Conclusion. Dentin hypersensitivity is a problem that bothes many patients. Many conditions share the symptoms of tooth sensitivity so differential diagnosis is essential for suitable treatment or preventive measures.

  7. Hypersensitivity to aldesleukin (interleukin-2 and proleukin) presenting as facial angioedema and erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Daryn; McGrath, Kris G

    2003-01-01

    Aldesleukin is a human recombinant interleukin-2 product. It also is known as interlukin-2 and Proleukin in the United States. It is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma as well as for adults with metastatic melanoma. However, its use has been limited because of severe systemic toxicity. There have been no reports of aldesleukin producing a hypersensitivity reaction. This is the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after aldesleukin administration confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific immunoglobulin E against aldesleukin. PMID:12974198

  8. Ranitidine for improvement of delayed hypersensitivity response in patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Witt, K; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    than 48 hours despite comprehensive medical and/or surgical treatment. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by skin testing with seven common delayed type hypersensitivity antigens applied on days 1, 4 and 7 and all tests were read at 48 hours, i.e. on days 3, 6 and 9. The ranitidine...

  9. Cellular target of UVB-induced DNA damage resulting in local suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A.A.; Shreedhar, V.; Roza, L.; Krutmann, J.; Kripke, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data are reviewed that lend support to the hypothesis that formation of DNA damage is the initiation event of local suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiaton and that the antigen-presenting cell (APC) is an important traget for this DNA da

  10. Abnormal dendritic cells mediated immune response in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity%树突细胞异常免疫应答在大鼠内脏高敏感形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙; 张璐; 吕宾; 孟立娜; 陈喆; 鉏莉

    2013-01-01

    .Toluidine blue staining was used to determine the number of mast cells (MC).The expressions of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-9 in colonic mucosa were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the level of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) was measured by Western blot.Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) DC and splenic CD4 +/CD8 + T cells were isolated and purified by magnetic label-based technique.Cytokine production of MLN DC co-culturing with CD4 + or CD8 + T cells was determined.Results The number of colonic MC in modeling group was more than that in control group ((2.73 ± 0.21) vs (1.13 ± 0.10),P =0.000).The expressions of PAR-2,IL-4 and IL-9 in colonic mucosa were all higher than those in control group (2.13 ± 0.81 vs 0.42 ±0.29,(7.2 ± 1.2) vs(3.3 ± 1.0) pg/ml,(7.3 ± 1.3) vs (5.2 ±0.6) pg/ml,P =0.026,0.000,0.001).Co-cultured MLN DC with CD4+ T cells showed a predominant IL-4 secretion in the modeling group ((1.22 ± 0.33) vs (0.80 ± 0.48) pg/ml,P =0.000).Conclusion Increased colonic DC may stimulate CD4 + T cells to secrete a high level of IL-4 to cause the degranulation of mast cells and the generation of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS rats.

  11. Hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in primary degenerations of excitable tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defects in DNA-repair mechanisms render xeroderma pigmentosum cells hypersensitive to killing by the uv-type of DNA-damaging agent. Some xeroderma pigmentosum patients develop a primary neuronal degeneration, and cell lines from patients with the earliest onset of neurodegeneration are the most sensitive to killing by uv radiation. These findings led to the neuronal DNA integrity theory which holds that when the integrity of neuronal DNA is destroyed by the accumulation of unrepaired DNA damaged spontaneously or by endogenous metabolites, the neurons will undergo a primary degeneration. Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome, a demyelinating disorder with a primary retinal degeneration, are also hypersensitive to the uv-type of DNA-damaging agent. Cells from patients with the primary neuronal degeneration of ataxia telangiectasia are hypersensitive to the x-ray-type of DNA-damaging agent. Cells from other patients with primary degeneration of excitable tissue also have hypersensitivity to the x-ray-type of DNA-damaging agent. These disorders include (1) primary neuronal degenerations which are either genetic (e.g., Huntington disease, familial dysautonomia, Friedreich ataxia) or sporadic (e.g., Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease), (2) primary muscle degenerations (e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy), and (3) a primary retinal degeneration (Usher syndrome). Death of excitable tissue in vivo in these radiosensitive diseases may result from unrepaired DNA. This hypersensitivity provides the basis for developing suitable presymptomatic and prenatal tests for these diseases, for elucidating their pathogenesis, and for developing future therapies. 119 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  12. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6. Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment.

  13. An unexpected positive hypersensitive reaction to eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammannavar, Praveen; Pushpalatha, C; Jain, Shrenik; Sowmya, S V

    2013-09-18

    Eugenol is an active, principal aromatic liquid responsible for several pharmacological activities. It is widely used in dental practice to relieve pain arising from various sources, such as pulpitis and dentinal hypersensitivity. As a primary irritant and sensitiser, it is known to cause contact urticaria as well as chronic urticaria. However, eugenol causes allergic contact dermatitis, possibly because it can react directly with proteins to form conjugate and reactive haptens. It is found that eugenol in various dental preparations-especially in the case of some zinc oxide-contains preparations such as periodontal dressings and root canal cements. This can cause hypersensitivity when it comes in contact with gingiva or teeth. This article presents a case of immediate allergic contact urticaria to eugenol during dental treatment.

  14. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. PMID:26661797

  15. [Corneal ulcerative lesions in type-I immediate hypersensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuri, S

    1998-01-01

    The vernal keratoconjunctivitis (KCV) is included within the category of the hypersensitiveness diseases, the immunopathological mechanism which causes the disease being represented by a type-I hypersensibility reaction. The mechanism which determines the appearance of the corneal lesions isn't entirely cleared up, but there are however some pathogenic links which have been already deciphered. The type I hypersensibility reaction is taking place within two stages: stage I the stage of the sensitizing contact and stage II the stage of the unleashing contact. During the first stage, the Langerhans cells take over and process the allergen, exhibiting on their surface only the antigenic part. The Langerhans cells interact with the T helper native cells (Tho), cells from which there will result the predominantly differentiated Th2 subtype. The Thz cells will activate, by means of the interleukines, the B cells (which produce the IgE), the mast cells and the eosinophilic cells. During the second stage, the allergen is coming into contact with the IgE specific antibodies, which are fastened on the mast cells membrane, generating the opening of their granules. The result of this evolution is represented by the unleash of vasoactive mediators, own enzymes, chemical mediators (among which there is also the eosinophilic chemotactic factor ECFA). The latter contributes to the infiltration of the epithelial and of the subepithelial tissue with eosinophilic cells. The major basic protein (PBM), one of the proteins released from the eosinophilic cells' big granules, plays a major pathogenic role in the production of the corneal ulcer, by means of its direct cytotoxic effect and also by means of inhibiting the migration of the epithelial corneal cells. The role of the mast cells and also the role of the neutrophile cells within the framework of the pathogenesis of the ulcer is disputable, because some specific enzymes tryptase, respectively elastase--have been found within the

  16. Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity to Succinylated Corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Annett Isabel; Raewer, Helen-Caroline; Sieber, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite their frequent use, systemic corticosteroids have rarely elicited immediate-type reactions. Objective: We report two male patients, aged 26 and 70 years, respectively, with severe immediate-type hypersensitivity secondary to the administration of corticosteroids esterified with succinate. Methods: Skin tests, basophil activation tests and challenge tests were performed for diagnostic evaluation. Results: In both patients, immediate-type skin test reactions were found to me...

  17. Hypersensitivity to intravenous ondansetron: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mehra Karishma K; Gogtay Nithya J; Ainchwar Rohan; Bichile Lata S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist widely used in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, is associated with various unusual adverse drug reactions. In this paper, we describe a hypersensitivity reaction to a single intravenous dose of ondansetron. Case presentation A 19-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our institute with 3–4 episodes of nausea, vomiting and epigastric distress. She had a diagn...

  18. [A misleading form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainet, M; Chaudemanche, H; Westeel, V; Lounici, A; Dubiez, A; Depierre, A; Dalphin, J C

    2000-11-01

    A 47-year-old woman, without significant past medical history, presented an acute dyspnea with hypoxia, marked pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and signs of right heart failure. Chest x-ray showed a moderate dilatation of the right heart cavities. Pulmonary embolism was suggested. After detailed questioning and complete explorations, a bird hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was demonstrated. This case illustrates a misleading presentation of an acute form of HP consisting of apparently isolated PAH.

  19. Dentin hypersensitivity: Recent trends in management

    OpenAIRE

    Miglani Sanjay; Aggarwal Vivek; Ahuja Bhoomika

    2010-01-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal surfaces. It can affect patients of any age group and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the patho-physiology, mechanism and clinical management of the DH. Treatment of DH should start with an accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of c...

  20. Multi-factoriality of dentine hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stojšin Ivana; Petrović Ljubomir; Stojanac Igor; Drobac Milan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity has been defined as a sharp, short pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli typically thermal, evaporative tactile, osmoticor, chemical and which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Prevalence. The most affected patients range in age from 20 to 40. The following teeth tend to be most sensitive: cuspids, premolars and incisors, location-concentrated on the facial surface. Morphological bases of dentine hypers...

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Isabel C C M; Andrade, Ana K M; Montes, Marcos A J R

    2009-09-01

    This bibliographic review provides a general view of the etiology, characteristics and treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, so that professionals can use this information in the therapeutic management of this clinical condition. For this purpose, the authors have analyzed whole texts of relevant articles on the subject. This study showed that the predisposing factors associated with the causes of dentinal hypersensitivity must be controlled or eliminated, by educating the patient regarding the excessive intake of acidic food, as well as providing guidance on the proper tooth brushing technique and analysis of occlusion. Effective treatment must be preceded by a proper diagnosis, established after the exclusion of any other possible causes of the pain. These cases must be managed efficiently, quickly and permanently. The availability of a wide variety of treatment could be an indicator that there is still no effective desensitizing agent to completely resolve the patient's discomfort, or that it is difficult to treat, irrespective of the available treatment options. Even with the large number of published studies, it has not been possible to reach a consensus about the product that represents the gold standard in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:19776498

  2. Microtubule Polymerization Functions in Hypersensitive Response and Accumulation of H2O2 in Wheat Induced by the Stripe Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xinjie; Xu, Yuanliu; Ma, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments, is one of the important factors in determining the polarity of cell division and growth, as well as the interaction of plants with invading pathogens. In defense responses of wheat against the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) infection, hypersensitive response is the most crucial event to prevent the spread of pathogens. In order to reveal the effect of microtubules on the hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 accumulation in the interaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Suwon 11 with an incompatible race, CYR23, wheat leaves were treated with microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin, before inoculation. The results showed that the frequency of infection sites with hypersensitive response occurrence was significantly reduced, and hypersensitive cell death in wheat leaves was suppressed compared to the control. In addition, the frequency and the incidence of infected cells with H2O2 accumulation were also reduced after the treatment with oryzalin. Those results indicated that microtubules are related to hypersensitive response and H2O2 accumulation in wheat induced by the stripe rust, and depolymerization of microtubules reduces the resistance of plants to pathogen infection in incompatible interaction, suggesting that microtubules play a potential role in the expression of resistance of wheat against the stripe rust fungus. PMID:27610380

  3. Microtubule Polymerization Functions in Hypersensitive Response and Accumulation of H2O2 in Wheat Induced by the Stripe Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments, is one of the important factors in determining the polarity of cell division and growth, as well as the interaction of plants with invading pathogens. In defense responses of wheat against the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici infection, hypersensitive response is the most crucial event to prevent the spread of pathogens. In order to reveal the effect of microtubules on the hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 accumulation in the interaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Suwon 11 with an incompatible race, CYR23, wheat leaves were treated with microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin, before inoculation. The results showed that the frequency of infection sites with hypersensitive response occurrence was significantly reduced, and hypersensitive cell death in wheat leaves was suppressed compared to the control. In addition, the frequency and the incidence of infected cells with H2O2 accumulation were also reduced after the treatment with oryzalin. Those results indicated that microtubules are related to hypersensitive response and H2O2 accumulation in wheat induced by the stripe rust, and depolymerization of microtubules reduces the resistance of plants to pathogen infection in incompatible interaction, suggesting that microtubules play a potential role in the expression of resistance of wheat against the stripe rust fungus.

  4. Microtubule Polymerization Functions in Hypersensitive Response and Accumulation of H2O2 in Wheat Induced by the Stripe Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xinjie; Xu, Yuanliu; Ma, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments, is one of the important factors in determining the polarity of cell division and growth, as well as the interaction of plants with invading pathogens. In defense responses of wheat against the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) infection, hypersensitive response is the most crucial event to prevent the spread of pathogens. In order to reveal the effect of microtubules on the hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 accumulation in the interaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Suwon 11 with an incompatible race, CYR23, wheat leaves were treated with microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin, before inoculation. The results showed that the frequency of infection sites with hypersensitive response occurrence was significantly reduced, and hypersensitive cell death in wheat leaves was suppressed compared to the control. In addition, the frequency and the incidence of infected cells with H2O2 accumulation were also reduced after the treatment with oryzalin. Those results indicated that microtubules are related to hypersensitive response and H2O2 accumulation in wheat induced by the stripe rust, and depolymerization of microtubules reduces the resistance of plants to pathogen infection in incompatible interaction, suggesting that microtubules play a potential role in the expression of resistance of wheat against the stripe rust fungus.

  5. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  6. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumagne, Thibaud; Pana-Katatali, Héloïse; Degano, Bruno; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2015-12-21

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is a distinct syndrome reported in patients who smoke. A 72-year-old, never-smoking female dairy farmer was referred for progressive dyspnoea on exertion, basal crackles on auscultation, normal spirometry and normal lung volumes but decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, centrilobular emphysema in the upper zones of the lungs and diffuse infiltrative lung disease in the lower zones on high-resolution CT scan. Bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell count showed 35% lymphocytosis, and precipitating antibodies for Wallemia sebi, Trichoderma species and Cladosporium sphaerospermum were identified. The diagnosis of farmer's lung disease with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema was retained. This case highlights for the first time that hypersensitivity pneumonitis should be suspected in the setting of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in non-smoking patients.

  7. A novel regulatory mechanism of naringenin through inhibition of T lymphocyte function in contact hypersensitivity suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Feng; Tang, Yijun; Gao, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-06-25

    Naringenin, a flavonoid in grapefruits and citrus fruits, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated immune reaction, and the factors released from macrophages also contribute to this response. Previous studies showed that naringenin suppressed CHS by inhibiting activation and migration of macrophages. However, little is known about naringenin's effects on T lymphocytes. Our study indicated that naringenin potently suppressed picryl chloride (PCl)-induced contact hypersensitivity by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes. In vitro, both of the activated hapten-specific T cells and the T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 showed growth arrest after naringenin treatment. Furthermore, naringenin reduced CD69 (the protein level) and cytokines such as IL-2, TNF-{alpha}, and IFN-{gamma} (the mRNA level) expressions which highly expressed by activated T cells. Meanwhile, naringenin also induced T cell apoptosis by upregulation of Bax, Bad, PARP, cleaved-caspase 3 and downregulation of phosphorylated Akt, Bcl-2. These findings suggest that, besides its anti-inflammatory activities in macrophages, naringenin also showed inhibitory effects on the activation and proliferation of T cells to alleviate symptoms of contact hypersensitivity.

  8. Dentin hypersensitivity: differential diagnosis, tests, and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkowsky, Richard D; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2014-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DHS) is a painful condition that affects up to 57 percent of the adult population. It occurs as a result of exposure of dentin to the oral environment. Ensuring the correct diagnosis of this condition is based on history and examination. An oral screening for DHS should encompass such elements as patient history, clinical examination that includes radiographs, a variety of tests, identification of risk factors, and a differential diagnosis. An understanding of dentinal fluid and odontoblasts is also beneficial for diagnosis. PMID:24571559

  9. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    correlation between the host's ability to mount a virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and its capacity to combat virus. Moreover, pretreatment with silica and carrageenan prolonged viraemia without impairment of the peak Tc-cell response. These findings indicate that Tc cells have...

  10. Hypersensitivity in vitro of a glioblastoma irradiated at very low doses: discussion about the concept of radio-induced repairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1986 Joiner and Lambin described a hypersensitivity of some tissues irradiated at doses inferior to 0.5 Gy, introducing the notion of 'radio-induced resistance': that is to say that irradiation would set off the mechanisms of repairing, at a threshold-dose. Tests in vitro, with a human glioblastoma were realized. Cells were irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 Gy. Results confirm a hypersensitivity of these cells for the doses between 0.1 and 1 Gy

  11. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an EAACI position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, S; Vandenplas, O; Campo, P; Cruz, M J; de Blay, F; Koschel, D; Moscato, G; Pala, G; Raulf, M; Sastre, J; Siracusa, A; Tarlo, S M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Cormier, Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this document was to provide a critical review of the current knowledge on hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by the occupational environment and to propose practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of this condition. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (OHP) is an immunologic lung disease resulting from lymphocytic and frequently granulomatous inflammation of the peripheral airways, alveoli, and surrounding interstitial tissue which develops as the result of a non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to a variety of organic materials or low molecular weight agents that are present in the workplace. The offending agents can be classified into six broad categories that include bacteria, fungi, animal proteins, plant proteins, low molecular weight chemicals, and metals. The diagnosis of OHP requires a multidisciplinary approach and relies on a combination of diagnostic tests to ascertain the work relatedness of the disease. Both the clinical and the occupational history are keys to the diagnosis and often will lead to the initial suspicion. Diagnostic criteria adapted to OHP are proposed. The cornerstone of treatment is early removal from exposure to the eliciting antigen, although the disease may show an adverse outcome even after avoidance of exposure to the causal agent. PMID:26913451

  12. Hypersensitivity test to electric magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called electromagnetic hypersensitivity (RH) syndrome includes a number of unspecific, medically unexplained symptoms attributed to exposure to electric and magnetic fields. As a whole, laboratory tests have provided inconclusive results, in part due to the fact that many individuals show nuclear, inconsistent responses to repeated experimental field-exposures. It has been proposed that such inconsistencies could be due in part to distress caused by the lab test itself. We have developed a test to be conducted at the patient's residence, allowing for long-term follow up of exposure-response assessment and avoiding the laboratory environment and the presence of the researcher as potential stressors and confounding factors. In a pilot test, EMDEX-II magnetometers were used to continuously recording power-frequency magnetic fields in the residence of a patient with perceived EH. The patient's symptoms included distress, headache and dizziness, among other ailments. Magnetographic data of a total of 123 recording days were plotted against the corresponding data on occurrence of the symptoms episodes. As a whole, the results did not show positive linear correlation between the daily occurrence of the episode and the exposures levels recorded during the day or during the day before. These preliminary results are little supportive of the hypothesis that the patient's ailments are caused or worsened by a putative hypersensitivity to residential exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields in the 0.02-4.00 μT range. (Author) 29 refs

  13. RNA干扰抑制IL-23表达对感染后内脏高敏感小鼠肠黏膜固有层DC活化Th17细胞功能的影响%Effect of IL-23 RNA Interference on Activation of Th17 Cells Induced by Dendritic Cells from Intestinal Lamina Propria in Postinfectious Visceral Hypersensitivity Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪之沫; 王文峰; 龙艳芹; 汪欢; 钱伟; 侯晓华

    2012-01-01

    Previous study indicated that in postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity mice the dendritic cells (DCs) from intestinal lamina propria could induce the activation of Thl7 cells and associated with the sustained activation of intestinal mucosal immune system after recovery from intestinal infection. It was presumed that the effect of DCs on activation of Thl7 cells might be mediated by interleukin-23 (IL-23). Aims: To investigate the mechanism of activation of Thl7 cells by DCs from intestinal lamina propria in postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity mice through inhibiting the IL-23 secretion in DCs by RNA interference technique. Methods: Postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity was induced by Trichinella spircdis infection in mice. DCs from intestinal lamina propria and splenic CD4+ T cells were isolated and purified by MACS? MicroBeads. Mouse IL-23 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid was constructed, identified and transfected into DCs (group A) by Lipofectamine TM2000 to suppress the IL-23 expression. DCs transfected with liposome only (group B) and with shRNA plasmid irrespective to mouse IL-23 gene (group C) were served as controls. Then DCs in group A, B and C were cocultured with CD4+ T cells for 120 hours in vitro, and CD4+ T cells cultured alone (group D) were served as controls. ELJSA was used to determine the IL-23 level in supematants of DCs before and after transfection, as well as the IL-17 level in supematants of cocultured DCs and CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cells cultured alone. Results: IL-23 level in supernatant of DCs decreased significantly after transfection (P<0.05) in group A, while that in group B and group C did not change obviously. IL-17 levels in supematants of cocultured DCs and CD4+ T cells in group A, B and C were all significantly higher than that in group D (P<0.05), among them group A was lower than group B and group C (P< 0.05), and no significant difference was found between group B and group C. Conclusions: In postinfectious

  14. Frequency, treatment, and functional outcome in children with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Damgaard, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare interstitial lung disease and very few data regarding frequency, treatment and outcome exist for children. Children identified with hypersensitivity pneumonia from a Danish national cohort with diffuse interstitial lung disease form the basis of this study f...

  15. Restorative effect of peritoneal macrophages on delayed hypersensitivity following ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublethal whole-body irradiation in the guinea pig had little demonstrable effect on the development of delayed hypersensitivity but caused a profound, though transient depression of dermal reactivity in previously sensitized animals. Macrophage-rich peritoneal cell suspensions from non-sensitive donors when injected intradermally with eliciting antigen, resulted in the restoration of a significant degree of reactivity following irradiation. Inocula of lymphocytes, on the other hand, failed to yield similar results. These findings, when taken with the persistence of low levels of reactivity following irradiation and the ability to transfer reactivity with peritoneal exudate cells from animals so treated, warrant the conclusion that the presence of macrophages is necessary for the expression of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity. The spontaneously renewed activity which follows the depressed phase is thus more of a reflection of the recovery of macrophage precursors from radiation injury, rather than the emergence of a new population of sensitized cells. The results, in addition, substantiate the belief that the expression of delayed hypersensitivity requires at least two cell populations, only one of which carries the property of specificity at the outset

  16. Spinal astrocyte gap junctions contribute to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Robinson, Caleb R.; Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal glial cells contribute to the development of many types of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here the contribution of spinal astrocytes and astrocyte gap junctions to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity was explored. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal dorsal horn was significantly increased at day 7 but recovered at day 14 after oxaliplatin treatment, suggesting a transient activation of spinal astrocytes by chemotherapy. Astrocyte-specific ...

  17. Structural Basis of Chronic Beryllium Disease: Linking Allergic Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Dai, Shaodong; John W Kappler

    2014-01-01

    T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. We show here that the T cell ligand is created when a Be2+ cation becomes bu...

  18. Native genomic blotting: high-resolution mapping of DNase I-hypersensitive sites and protein-DNA interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNase I-hypersensitive sites are observed in the promoter regions of actively expressed genes, potentially active genes, and genes that were once active. The authors have developed an approach that greatly increases the resolution for mapping these sites by electrophoresing genomic DNA on native polyacrylamide gels prior to electroblotting and hybridization. This improved method has been used to scan the promoter and coding region of a cell-cycle-dependent human histone H4 gene with an accuracy of +/- 5-10 base pairs. Protein-DNA interactions can be seen in the autoradiograph as light areas and DNase I-hypersensitive sites as dark bands. Therefore, this method provides a rapid and relatively simple means to accurately localize protein-DNA interactions as well as DNase I-hypersensitive sites, thus directly displaying DNase I hypersensitivity and protein-DNA complexes on one autoradiograph. It also potentially allows the analysis of small changes in DNase I-hypersensitive sites under various biological conditions. With this technique rather large regions of DNA can be screened to determine areas that should be analyzed by more sophisticated methods, such as genomic sequencing or gel retardation assays

  19. The Distribution of Hypersensitivity : The Sudden Appearance of People with Electrical Hypersensitivity in the Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Chateauraynaud, Francis; Debaz, Josquin

    2010-01-01

    The recent evolution of health and environmental controversies in industrialized countries has produced the emergence of new illnesses, often categorized as unexplained syndromes. This article examines how the collective movement of people with electromagnetic hypersensitivity has elevated the issue of electromagnetic waves to the point where it garnered, in the winter of 2007-2008, as much media impact as major issues such as asbestos, radioactivity, genetically modified organisms, or pestic...

  20. HRCT findings of acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis: correlation with pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe sequential changes of acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in high resolution CT and to correlate the findings with pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage. This study includes 11 patients with pathologically (n = 10) and clinical (n = 1) proved acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The extent of ground glass attenuation and nodules on high resolution CT scan was correlated with pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage. We also evaluated serial changes of the lesion in high resolution CT scans. The extent of parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution CT scans were significantly correlated with diffusing capacity (GGA and DLco: r = -0.95, ρ < 0.003, Nodule and DLco: r = -0.94, ρ < 0.005) and FEV1 (GGA and FEV1: r = -0.57, ρ < 0.05, Nodule and FEV1: r = -0.56, ρ < 0.05) on pulmonary function test and relatively correlated with total count of cells (GGA and total count of cells: r = 0.86, ρ < 0.03, Nodule and total count of cells: r = 0.71, ρ < 0.11) on bronchoalveolar lavage. The order in disappearance of abnormal findings were poorly defined centrilobular nodule, ground glass attenuation, and well defined small centrilobular nodule on sequential CT scans. The authors conclude that HRCT is useful for diagnosis and follow up evaluation of the acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Quantitative analysis of extent of disease on HRCT is useful for evaluation of clinical status

  1. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Levin, Liran

    2016-10-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint of patients in dental practices. Studies have demonstrated dentinal hypersensitivity to affect 10-30% of the population. There are various potential causes of tooth sensitivity and a variety of available treatment options. This narrative review will discuss the possible aetiology of this condition, as well as the treatment modalities available. A tailor-made treatment plan that starts with the most non-invasive treatment options and escalates only when those options have proven insufficient in alleviating symptoms should be provided for each patient. Only after all non- and less-invasive methods have failed to reduce the symptoms should more invasive treatment options, such as root-coverage, be considered. PMID:27301300

  2. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper...... and lower respiratory tract disorders. METHODS: The GA(2) LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15-74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled...... prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants...

  3. Effects of active immunisation with myelin basic protein and myelin-derived altered peptide ligand on pain hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamini J; Lees, Justin G; Duffy, Samuel S; Makker, Preet G S; Fivelman, Brett; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2015-09-15

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Specific myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides are encephalitogenic, and myelin-derived altered peptide ligands (APLs) are capable of preventing and ameliorating EAE. We investigated the effects of active immunisation with a weakly encephalitogenic epitope of MBP (MBP87-99) and its mutant APL (Cyclo-87-99[A(91),A(96)]MBP87-99) on pain hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation in Lewis rats. MBP-treated rats exhibited significant mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity associated with infiltration of T cells, MHC class II expression and microglia activation in the spinal cord, without developing clinical signs of paralysis. Co-immunisation with APL significantly decreased pain hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation emphasising the important role of neuroimmune crosstalk in neuropathic pain.

  4. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  5. Dentin hypersensitivity: etiology, diagnosis and treatment; a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Ar; Ataei, E; Assarzadeh, H

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology. The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms "dentin*", "tooth", "teeth", "hypersensit*", "desensitiz*". Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used. PMID:24724135

  6. Progressive anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome associated with change of drug product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, T.P.; Sabers, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the laboratory and physical manifestations of lamotrigine-like toxicity in a young man with refractory epilepsy receiving lamotrigine presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) associated with an abrupt change of drug product Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  7. Dentine hypersensitivity: analysis of self-care products

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Tiago Fiorini; Diego Nique Liberman; Juliano Cavagni

    2009-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a condition that is often present in individuals, leading them to seek dental treatment. It has been described as an acute, provoked pain that is not attributable to other dental problems. Its actual prevalence is unknown, but it is interpreted as very unpleasant by individuals. Several therapeutic alternatives are available to manage dentine hypersensitivity, involving both in-office treatment and home-use products. The aim of this literature review was to evaluat...

  8. Hyaluronidase hypersensitivity: A rare complication of peribulbar block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peribulbar block, though safe, can cause serious complications such as globe perforation and peribulbar hemorrhage. Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that is used as an adjuvant in peribulbar anesthesia, and it helps in rapid penetration of the anesthetic agent. Hypersensitivity to hyaluronidase is a rare but potentially sight-threatening complication. We report a case of hyaluronidase hypersensitivity following peribulbar injection for cataract surgery mimicking as peribulbar hematoma in the immediate postinjection phase and as orbital cellulitis 48 h later.

  9. Hyaluronidase hypersensitivity: A rare complication of peribulbar block

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalakshmi, A.R.; M Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Peribulbar block, though safe, can cause serious complications such as globe perforation and peribulbar hemorrhage. Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that is used as an adjuvant in peribulbar anesthesia, and it helps in rapid penetration of the anesthetic agent. Hypersensitivity to hyaluronidase is a rare but potentially sight-threatening complication. We report a case of hyaluronidase hypersensitivity following peribulbar injection for cataract surgery mimicking as peribulbar hematoma in the immedi...

  10. A Case of Occupational Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jae; Hwang, Eu Dong; Leem, Ah Young; Kang, Beo Deul; Chang, Soo Yun; Kim, Ho Keun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a toxic chemical commonly used as a degreasing agent, and it is usually found in a colorless or blue liquid form. TCE has a sweet, chloroform-like odor, and this volatile chlorinated organic chemical can cause toxic hepatitis, neurophysiological disorders, skin disorders, and hypersensitivity syndromes. However, the hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) attributed to TCE has rarely been reported. We hereby describe a case of HP associated with TCE in a 29-year-old man w...

  11. HLA-B*5701 testing to predict abacavir hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Joseph D.; Lee, Kelly C.; Kuo, Grace M

    2010-01-01

    Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for combination antiretroviral therapy for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An adverse effect from abacavir is a treatment-limiting hypersensitivity reaction, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Abacavir-induced hypersensitivity reaction has been associated with the presence of the major histocompatibility complex class I allele HLA-B*5701. A screening test for the HLA-B*5701 allele can assis...

  12. Gelofen Induced Hypersensitivity: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikkhah Rankohie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are drugs commonly pre-scribed in dental practice for the management of pain and swelling. But, rarely hypersensitiv-ity reactions are reported. Case Report: A 28 year old woman underwent periodontal plastic surgery (gingival graft. Postoperative analgesics (400 mg Gelofen ,oral and antibiotics were administrated for the patient. Three hours after discharge of patient, she complained of redness, itching , rapid swelling of her eyes in 10 minutes, and watery eye discharge 1 hour after taking the drugs. She was treated with 8mg/2ml mg Dexamethasone IM at the dental department and with Hy-drocortisone 100mg/ml IM and antihistamine drugs at the hospital. Conclusion: There are no published protocols and sensitivity and specifity of skin pick testing and patch testing for Gelofen. So avoidance of re-exposure is the best management strategy. The use of Cox-2 specific medications would be a proper alternative for pain relief. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:179-183

  13. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-10-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds and responses to suprathreshold heat stimuli in 2 groups of congenitally blind and matched normal-sighted participants. We also assessed detection thresholds for innocuous warmth and cold, and participants' attitude toward painful encounters in daily life. Our results show that, compared to sighted subjects, congenitally blind subjects have lower heat pain thresholds, rate suprathreshold heat pain stimuli as more painful, and have increased sensitivity for cold pain stimuli. Thresholds for nonpainful thermal stimulation did not differ between groups. The results of the pain questionnaires further indicated that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing. PMID:24040972

  14. Dentin hypersensitivity: Recent trends in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Vivek; Ahuja, Bhoomika

    2010-10-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal surfaces. It can affect patients of any age group and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the patho-physiology, mechanism and clinical management of the DH. Treatment of DH should start with an accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of clinical management of DH is the identification and treatment of the causative factors of DH. By removing the etiological factors, the condition can be even prevented from occurring or recurring. There are various treatment modalities available which can be used at home or may be professionally applied. The "at home" desensitizing agents include toothpastes, mouthwashes or chewing gums and they act by either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission. This article also discusses the recent treatment options like bioglass, Portland cement, lasers and casein phosphopeptide. PMID:21217949

  15. Dentin hypersensitivity: Recent trends in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglani Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal surfaces. It can affect patients of any age group and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the patho-physiology, mechanism and clinical management of the DH. Treatment of DH should start with an accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of clinical management of DH is the identification and treatment of the causative factors of DH. By removing the etiological factors, the condition can be even prevented from occurring or recurring. There are various treatment modalities available which can be used at home or may be professionally applied. The "at home" desensitizing agents include toothpastes, mouthwashes or chewing gums and they act by either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission. This article also discusses the recent treatment options like bioglass, Portland cement, lasers and casein phosphopeptide.

  16. New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmohamed, Munir; Ostrov, David A; Park, B Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are an important clinical problem for both health care and industry. Recent advances in genetics have identified a number of HLA alleles associated with a range of these adverse reactions predominantly affecting the skin but also other organs, such as the liver. The associations between abacavir hypersensitivity and HLA-B*57:01 and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and HLA-B*15:02 have been implemented in clinical practice. There are many different mechanisms proposed in the pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including the hapten hypothesis, direct binding to T-cell receptors (the pharmacologic interaction hypothesis), and peptide-binding displacement. A problem with all the hypotheses is that they are largely based on in vitro findings, with little direct in vivo evidence. Although most studies have focused on individual mechanisms, it is perhaps more important to consider them all as being complementary, potentially occurring at the same time with the same drug in the same patient. This might at least partly account for the heterogeneity of the immune response seen in different patients. There is a need to develop novel methodologies to evaluate how the in vitro mechanisms relate to the in vivo situation and how the highly consistent genetic findings with different HLA alleles can be more consistently used for both prediction and prevention of these serious adverse reactions. PMID:26254050

  17. Arsenic-induced alterations in the contact hypersensitivity response in Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies in our laboratory indicate that arsenic alters secretion of growth promoting and inflammatory cytokines in the skin that can regulate the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells (LC) during allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that arsenic may modulate hypersensitivity responses to cutaneous sensitizing agents by altering cytokine production, LC migration, and T-cell proliferation. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the induction and elicitation phases of dermal sensitization. Mice exposed to 50 mg/l arsenic in the drinking water for 4 weeks demonstrated a reduction in lymph node cell (LNC) proliferation and ear swelling following sensitization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), compared to control mice. LC and T-cell populations in the draining lymph nodes of DNFB-sensitized mice were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting; activated LC were reduced in cervical lymph nodes, suggesting that LC migration may be altered following arsenic exposure. Lymphocytes from arsenic-treated animals sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) exhibited reduced proliferative responses following T-cell mitogen stimulation in vitro; however, lymphocyte proliferation from nonsensitized, arsenic-treated mice was comparable to controls. Arsenic exposure also reduced the number of thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages and circulating neutrophils. These studies demonstrate that repeated, prolonged exposure to nontoxic concentrations of sodium arsenite alters immune cell populations and results in functional changes in immune responses, specifically attenuation of contact hypersensitivity

  18. Giardia duodenalis induces paracellular bacterial translocation and causes postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Marie C M; Motta, Jean-Paul; Feener, Troy D; Guérin, Gaetan; LeGoff, Laetitia; François, Arnaud; Colasse, Elodie; Favennec, Loic; Gargala, Gilles; Lapointe, Tamia K; Altier, Christophe; Buret, André G

    2016-04-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is characterized by abdominal hypersensitivity, leading to discomfort and pain, as well as altered bowel habits. While it is common for IBS to develop following the resolution of infectious gastroenteritis [then termed postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS)], the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is a cosmopolitan water-borne enteropathogen that causes intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea, and postinfectious complications. Cause-and-effect studies using a human enteropathogen to help investigate the mechanisms of PI-IBS are sorely lacking. In an attempt to establish causality between giardiasis and postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity, this study describes a new model of PI-IBS in neonatal rats infected with G. duodenalis At 50 days postinfection with G. duodenalis (assemblage A or B), long after the parasite was cleared, rats developed visceral hypersensitivity to luminal balloon distension in the jejunum and rectum, activation of the nociceptive signaling pathway (increased c-fos expression), histological modifications (villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia), and proliferation of mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes and mast cells in the jejunum, but not in the rectum. G. duodenalis infection also disrupted the intestinal barrier, in vivo and in vitro, which in turn promoted the translocation of commensal bacteria. Giardia-induced bacterial paracellular translocation in vitro correlated with degradation of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4. The extensive observations associated with gut hypersensitivity described here demonstrate that, indeed, in this new model of postgiardiasis IBS, alterations to the gut mucosa and c-fos are consistent with those associated with PI-IBS and, hence, offer avenues for new mechanistic research in the field. PMID:26744469

  19. Oncostatin M induces heat hypersensitivity by gp130-dependent sensitization of TRPV1 in sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langeslag Michiel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oncostatin M (OSM is a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family and regulates eg. gene activation, cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. OSM binds to a receptor complex consisting of the ubiquitously expressed signal transducer gp130 and the ligand binding OSM receptor subunit, which is expressed on a specific subset of primary afferent neurons. In the present study, the effect of OSM on heat nociception was investigated in nociceptor-specific gp130 knock-out (SNS-gp130-/- and gp130 floxed (gp130fl/fl mice. Subcutaneous injection of pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of OSM into the hind-paw of C57BL6J wild type mice significantly reduced paw withdrawal latencies to heat stimulation. In contrast to gp130fl/fl mice, OSM did not induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo in SNS-gp130-/- mice. OSM applied at the receptive fields of sensory neurons in in vitro skin-nerve preparations showed that OSM significantly increased the discharge rate during a standard ramp-shaped heat stimulus. The capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1, expressed on a subpopulation of nociceptive neurons, has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-induced heat hypersensitivity. Stimulation of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons with OSM resulted in potentiation of capsaicin induced ionic currents. In line with these recordings, mice with a null mutation of the TRPV1 gene did not show any signs of OSM-induced heat hypersensitivity in vivo. The present data suggest that OSM induces thermal hypersensitivity by directly sensitizing nociceptors via OSMR-gp130 receptor mediated potentiation of TRPV1.

  20. Hazards of the ‘Hard Cash’: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Kupeli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report is the first to describe ‘hard cash HP’, possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.

  1. Tolerance and immunity in mice infected with herpes simplex virus: studies on the mechanism of tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Phelan, J; Gell, P G; Wildy, P

    1981-01-01

    Tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity is produced in mice following an intravenous injection of herpes simplex virus. This form of tolerance is produced early on, following simultaneous injections of virus subcutaneously and intravenously, and is long lasting (greater than 100 days). The early tolerance mechanism is resistant to high doses of cyclophosphamide and is not transferable by serum or spleen cells taken after 7 days. However, spleen cells taken at 14 days onwards inhibit the induction of delayed hypersensitivity when transferred to normal syngeneic recipients. These cells are T lymphocytes and are specific for the herpes type used in the induction. PMID:6265348

  2. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  3. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  4. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness of PEG's allergenic potential remains low, due to a general lack of suspicion towards excipients and insufficient product labelling. Information on immediate-type reactions to PEG is limited to anecdotal reports, and the potential for PEG sensitization and cross-sensitization to PEGylated drugs and structurally related derivatives is likely underestimated. Most healthcare professionals have no knowledge of PEG and thus do not suspect PEG's as culprit agents in hypersensitivity reactions. In consequence, patients are at risk of misdiagnosis and commonly present with a history of repeated, severe reactions to a range of unrelated products in hospital and at home. Increased awareness of PEG prevalence, PEG hypersensitivity, and improved access to PEG allergy testing, should facilitate earlier diagnosis and reduce the risk of inadvertent re-exposure. This first comprehensive review provides practical information for allergists and other healthcare professionals by describing the clinical picture of 37 reported cases of PEG hypersensitivity since 1977, summarizing instances where PEG hypersensitivity should be considered and proposing an algorithm for diagnostic management. PMID:27196817

  5. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with 14C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A2 (TXA2) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more 14C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p 14C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p 2 formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of 125I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA2 formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding

  6. Hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, in vitro, in a new chromosomal breakage disorder, the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a new chromosomal instability disorder different from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and other chromosome-breakage syndromes. Cells from an NBS patient appeared hypersensitive to X-irradiation. X-rays induced significantly more chromosomal damage in NBS lymphocytes and fibroblasts than in normal cells. The difference was most pronounced after irradiation in G2. Further, NBS fibroblasts were more readily by X-rays than normal fibroblasts. In addition, the DNA synthesis in NBS cells was more resistant to X-rays and bleomycin than that in normal cells. The reaction of NBS cells to X-rays and bleomycin was similar to that of cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia. Our results indicate that NBS and AT, which also have similar chromosomal characteristics, must be closely related. (orig.)

  7. Hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, in vitro, in a new chromosomal breakage disorder, the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalman, R.D.F.M.; Scheres, J.M.J.C.; Hustinx, T.W.J. (Katholieke Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Jaspers, N.G.J.; de Wit, J. (Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Lab. of Cell Biology and Genetics)

    1983-02-01

    The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a new chromosomal instability disorder different from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and other chromosome-breakage syndromes. Cells from an NBS patient appeared hypersensitive to X-irradiation. X-rays induced significantly more chromosomal damage in NBS lymphocytes and fibroblasts than in normal cells. The difference was most pronounced after irradiation in G/sub 2/. Further, NBS fibroblasts were more readily by X-rays than normal fibroblasts. In addition, the DNA synthesis in NBS cells was more resistant to X-rays and bleomycin than that in normal cells. The reaction of NBS cells to X-rays and bleomycin was similar to that of cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia. Our results indicate that NBS and AT, which also have similar chromosomal characteristics, must be closely related.

  8. T-cell effector function and unresponsiveness in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. I. On the mechanism of a selective suppression of the virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1986-01-01

    pretreated with neutralizing anti-LCMV serum, indicating a suppressive effect of virus transferred with the infected cells. When tolerance induction was attempted with virus alone, a potentially fatal immune reaction could be altered to unresponsiveness (i.e. survival) as late as 4 days after an otherwise......-cell response remains essentially unchanged. When low-dose spleen effectors were transferred intravenously into intracerebrally infected high-dose mice, fatal LCM disease occurred, which means that infected central nervous system target structures in these animals are sensitive to virus-specific T cells. When...

  9. Hypersensitivity to intravenous ondansetron: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Karishma K

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist widely used in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, is associated with various unusual adverse drug reactions. In this paper, we describe a hypersensitivity reaction to a single intravenous dose of ondansetron. Case presentation A 19-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our institute with 3–4 episodes of nausea, vomiting and epigastric distress. She had a diagnosis of polycystic ovarian disease and had been on treatment with cyproterone acetate 2 mg, ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, finasteride 5 mg and metformin 500 mg for a month. She had been taking oral roxithromycin 500 mg per day for the past 3 days for treatment of a mild upper respiratory tract infection. She also occasionally took rabeprazole 10 mg for gastritis which had worsened after treatment with roxithromycin. She was treated with a single 4 mg dose of ondansetron intravenously. She immediately developed urticaria, which was treated with intravenous dexamethasone 4 mg and chlorpheniramine maleate 20 mg. The reaction abated within a few minutes and she was discharged within an hour. She was asymptomatic at 72 hours of follow-up. She had no history of ondansetron exposure, or drug or food allergies. On the Naranjo's causality assessment scale, the adverse event was 6 indicating a "probable" reaction to ondansetron. Conclusion 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists have been associated with life-threatening adverse reactions such as hypotension, seizures and anaphylaxis. The wide availability of these drugs in India has promoted their off label use in the treatment of gastritis, migraine and so on. Our case represents an off label use in a patient who could have been treated with a safer drug. Some authors have suggested that anaphylaxis may be a class effect while others think it may be drug specific. In our case, the reaction could be either

  10. Management of hypersensitivity reactions to anti-D immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, K; Nasser, S M

    2014-11-01

    RhD immunoglobulin G (anti-D) administered to pregnant Rh(-) women prevents Rh isoimmunization. Its use has significantly reduced the incidence of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn previously responsible for one death in every 2200 births. In pregnancy, acute drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis can have serious deleterious effects on the mother and foetus/neonate. Women can be erroneously labelled as drug allergic as the investigation of hypersensitivity reactions in pregnancy is complex and drug challenges are usually contraindicated. We present three cases of suspected anti-D hypersensitivity clinically presenting as anaphylaxis and delayed transfusion-related reaction. We also propose a new algorithm for the investigations of such reaction. It relies on detailed history, cautious interpretation of skin tests, foetal Rh genotyping from maternal blood and, in some cases, anti-D challenges. This is not to deprive women of anti-D which might put their future pregnancies at risk. PMID:25066207

  11. Dentin Hypersensitivity: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment; A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, AR; Ataei, E; Assarzadeh, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology. The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms “dentin*”, “tooth”, “teeth”, “hypersensit*”, “desensitiz*”. Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used. PMID:24724135

  12. Rapid high-throughput analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites using a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping DNaseI hypersensitive sites is commonly used to identify regulatory regions in the genome. However, currently available methods are either time consuming and laborious, expensive or require large numbers of cells. We aimed to develop a quick and straightforward method for the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites that overcomes these problems. Results We have developed a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach for the identification and analysis of genomic regulatory regions. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by simultaneously analysing 20 loci from the ENCODE project for DNaseI hypersensitivity in a range of different cell lines. We were able to obtain reproducible results with as little as 5 × 104 cells per DNaseI treatment. Our results broadly matched those previously reported by the ENCODE project, and both technical and biological replicates showed high correlations, indicating the sensitivity and reproducibility of this method. Conclusion This new method will considerably facilitate the identification and analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. Due to the multiplexing potential of MLPA (up to 50 loci can be examined it is possible to analyse dozens of DNaseI hypersensitive sites in a single reaction. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of MLPA means that fewer than 105 cells per DNaseI treatment can be used, allowing the discovery and analysis of tissue specific regulatory regions without the need for pooling. This method is quick and easy and results can be obtained within 48 hours after harvesting of cells or tissues. As no special equipment is required, this method can be applied by any laboratory interested in the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive regions.

  13. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-01

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:24995984

  14. Hypersensitivity reactions and contrast medium injection: Are they always related?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany); Alfke, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Luedenscheid (Germany); Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Hypersensitivity (allergic or non-allergic) reactions that occur after contrast medium (CM) injection are usually related to the CM. Recent studies, and case reports lack the analysis of alternate causes that could be also responsible in individual cases. Patients and methods: We investigated the individual relevant factor/causative agent of adult patients with hypersensitivity reactions that occurred in radiological units during CM-enhanced procedures (CT, angiography, urography, or MR-examinations). Both immediate and non-immediate (delayed) reactions were included. To find out the relevant agent a detailed patients' history was carefully analyzed. In addition, the records were retrospectively reviewed, and if indicated and possible laboratory (e.g. basophil activation test) and skin tests (e.g. prick) and/or provocations with CM-injections under routine conditions were performed. Results: 38 patients (men n = 21) suspected for CM-hypersensitivity reactions were identified. These reactions were in most cases mild (n = 21), moderate reactions occurred in 13 cases, and four patients had severe reactions. In 28 patients the reactions were induced by the CM (iodinated CM in 25 cases). Four patients had reactions that were not CM-related (latex allergy, adenosine reaction, vasovagal reaction, unknown cause) and in six cases the reaction was partly CM-related (immunological activation was present due to the patients' diseases). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that in CM-enhanced procedures not only contrast materials but also a broad range of other factors may also induce hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the number of CM-induced hypersensitivity is smaller than initially suspected. The knowledge of the cause of a reaction is essential to effectively prevent its recurrence and to improve safety aspects in patients undergoing CM-injection. Larger trials should be performed to more specifically assess alternate causes in patients

  15. Efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad KVV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A parallel design clinical study evaluated reduction in hypersensitivity after brushing for 12 weeks with Anchor toothpaste (containing potassium citrate, zinc citrate, triclosan and sodium monofluorophosphate (test and Colgate Total (sodium fluoride, silica, triclosan and copolymer (control dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults with sensitivity to hot and cold stimulus in at least two tooth surfaces were stratified at the baseline examination by tactile, hot and cold stimuli scores in two balanced groups. Subjects were randomly allocated the test and control dentifrices and evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks of dentifrice use for hypersensitivity. Results: The two teeth that were selected in each patient were designated as two different sets. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the test group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 36.67% (P < 0.01, 20.35% (P < 0.01 and 53.64 % (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 43.75% (P < 0.01, 24.48% (P < 0.01 and 59.78% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the control group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 42.86% (P < 0.01, 13.02% (P < 0.01 and 45.14% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 40% (P < 0.01, 16.59% (P < 0.01 and 44.16% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. Conclusions: Both the products reduced dentinal hypersensitivity in the study subjects at the end of the 12-week period. However, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction in hypersensitivity between the two products.

  16. Factors associated with dentine hypersensitivity severity in Colombian dental patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH and examine associated etiological factors related to the severity of DH in dental clinic patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed in which three hundred and thirty three patients aged 15 to 44 years old were assessed for the presence and severity of DH. The dentine hypersensitivity diagnosis was based on self-reported sensitivity and a clinical examination. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, data about oral health habits and acidic dietary intake. A descriptive analysis was performed and the association between DH severity and risk factors was determined using an ordinal logistic regression model. Results: Dentine hypersensitivity was detected in 88 out of 333 (26.4% subjects (95% CI: 21.83-31.56. The pH of natural juices (OR=6.013; 95% CI: 0.995–36.319, p=0.051 and pH of alcohol beverages (OR= 7.800; 95% CI: 2.282–26.658, p=0.001 were significantly associated with the severity of dentine hypersensitivity. Conclusions: The results indicated that the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in these patients was consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, the severity of DH was influenced by acidic diet. These results suggest that dental counseling should be provided to all patients as well as to those with dentine hypersensitivity to prevent the occurrence of this oral health problem as well as the severity of symptoms.

  17. Mesalamine hypersensitivity and Kounis syndrome in a pediatric ulcerative colitis patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalamine) rarely induces hyper-sensitivity reactions. If chest pain associated with atypical electrocardiographic changes are seen during its adminis-tration, one should always bear in mind type I variant of Kounis syndrome. This variant includes patients, of any age, with normal coronary arteries, without predisposing factors for coronary artery disease, in whom the acute release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells can induce either sudden coronary artery narrowing, without increase of cardiac enzymes and troponins, or coronary artery spasm that progresses to acute myocardial infarc-tion, with elevated cardiac enzymes and troponins.

  18. Transmission electron microscopic characterization of hypersensitive human radicular dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray microanalysis (XMA) were used for the study of the ultrastructure of the lumens of dentinal tubules in superficial layers of dentin specimens obtained by use of a new biopsy technique from both hypersensitive and naturally desensitized areas of exposed root surfaces, in vivo. The TEM images showed clearly that the lumens of most of the tubules were occluded with mineral crystals in naturally desensitized areas, but such lumens were empty and surrounded with peritubular and intertubular dentin in hypersensitive areas. Moreover, electron-dense structures that lined peritubular dentin were observed in the empty lumens of dentinal tubules

  19. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Keohane; Eamonn M M Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists.It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process.The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review,we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  20. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, John; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2006-05-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  1. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  2. Hypersensitivity to Perturbations in the Quantum baker's Map

    CERN Document Server

    Schack, R

    1999-01-01

    We analyze a randomly perturbed quantum version of the baker's transformation, a prototype of an area-conserving chaotic map. By numerically simulating the perturbed evolution, we estimate the information needed to follow a perturbed Hilbert-space vector in time. We find that the Landauer erasure cost associated with this information grows very rapidly and becomes much larger than the maximum statistical entropy given by the logarithm of the dimension of Hilbert space. The quantum baker's map thus displays a hypersensitivity to perturbations that is analogous to behavior found earlier in the classical case. This hypersensitivity characterizes ``quantum chaos'' in a way that is directly relevant to statistical physics.

  3. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  4. Skin Hypersensitivity to Sun Light Due to Doxycycline Ingestion Causing Hand Partial-Thickness Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Simman, Richard; Raynolds, David

    2013-01-01

    Drugs hypersensitivity should be remembered when placing patients on any form of medications. In this case we present skin hypersensitivity to sun light due to doxycycline ingestion causing hand partial-thickness burn.

  5. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata E. Jędrych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP is caused by inhalation of environmental antigens. Farmers and bird keepers are most frequently affected by this desease. The HP diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (cough, dyspnea in a person exposed to environmental antigens, and the presence of characteristic changes in high resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT (bilateral, mosaic, ground glass opacities in the middle and lower lung zones, ill-defined centrilobular nodules and the sign of air-trapping on expiration. This type of HRCT pattern is most frequently found in the patients with subacute HP. Bronchioloalveolar lavage fluid (BALF examination is helpful in establishing the HP diagnosis, when the increased total number of cells, with the predominance of T lymphocytes (> 50%, and the increased number of neutrophils (> 3% and mastocytes (> 1% are found. The presence of specific serum precipitins increases the likelihood of HP. In case of atypical clinical presentation, lung biopsy is recommended. The diagnostic criterion of HP is the presence of ill-defined non-necrotising granulomas, after excluding other granulomatous lung diseases. The prevention and treatment of HP is based on the elimination of the antigen from the environment. Corticosteroids may contribute to the improvement in the acute and sub-acute form of the disease but their long term effectiveness is uncertain. The prognosis of HP patients is generally perceived as good, especially in those patients in whom antigen avoidance is possible. Nevertheless, in some patients progressive pulmonary fibrosis and development of severe respiratory insufficiency is observed. Med Pr 2016;67(4:517–527

  6. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrych, Małgorzata E; Szturmowicz, Monika; Bestry, Iwona; Kuś, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by inhalation of environmental antigens. Farmers and bird keepers are most frequently affected by this desease. The HP diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (cough, dyspnea) in a person exposed to environmental antigens, and the presence of characteristic changes in high resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) (bilateral, mosaic, ground glass opacities in the middle and lower lung zones, ill-defined centrilobular nodules and the sign of air-trapping on expiration). This type of HRCT pattern is most frequently found in the patients with subacute HP. Bronchioloalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examination is helpful in establishing the HP diagnosis, when the increased total number of cells, with the predominance of T lymphocytes (> 50%), and the increased number of neutrophils (> 3%) and mastocytes (> 1%) are found. The presence of specific serum precipitins increases the likelihood of HP. In case of atypical clinical presentation, lung biopsy is recommended. The diagnostic criterion of HP is the presence of ill-defined non-necrotising granulomas, after excluding other granulomatous lung diseases. The prevention and treatment of HP is based on the elimination of the antigen from the environment. Corticosteroids may contribute to the improvement in the acute and sub-acute form of the disease but their long term effectiveness is uncertain. The prognosis of HP patients is generally perceived as good, especially in those patients in whom antigen avoidance is possible. Nevertheless, in some patients progressive pulmonary fibrosis and development of severe respiratory insufficiency is observed. Med Pr 2016;67(4):517-527. PMID:27623832

  7. Transfection of normal human and Chinese hamster DNA corrects diepoxybutane-induced chromosomal hypersensitivity of Fanconi anemia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured cells from individuals affected with Fanconi anemia (FA) exhibit spontaneous chromosome breakage and hypersensitivity to the cell killing and clastogenic effects of the difunctional alkylating agent diepoxybutane (DEB). The authors report here the correction of both of these DEB-hypersensitivity phenotypes of FA cells achieved by cotransfection of normal placental of Chinese hamster lung cell DNA and the plasmid pSV2-neo-SVgpt. Transfectants were selected for clonogenic survival after treatment with DEB at a dose of 5 μgml. At this dose of DEB, the clonogenicity of normal fibroblasts was reduced to 50% and that of FA fibroblasts was reduced to zero. DEB-resistant (DEB/sup r/) colonies selected in this system exhibited a normal response to DEB-induced chromosome breakage and resistance to repeated DEB treatment. The neo and gpt sequences were detected by Southern blot analysis of DNA from one of four DEB/sup r/ colonies independently derived from transfection of human DNA and one of three DEB/sup r/ colonies independently derived from transfection of Chinese hamster DNA. The results demonstrate that DNA sequences that complement the two hallmark cellular phenotypes (cellular and chromosomal hypersensitivity to alkylating agents) of FA are present in human as well as Chinese hamster DNA. The cloning of these genes using transfection strategies can be expected to enable molecular characterization of FA

  8. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX from Erwinia chrysanthemi confers nitrosative stress tolerance and affects the plant hypersensitive reaction by intercepting nitric oxide produced by the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, Martine; Mills, Catherine E; Zeier, Jürgen; Anzi, Chiara; Lamb, Chris; Poole, Robert K; Delledonne, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Host cells respond to infection by generating nitric oxide (NO) as a cytotoxic weapon to facilitate killing of invading microbes. Bacterial flavohaemoglobins are well-known scavengers of NO and play a crucial role in protecting animal pathogens from nitrosative stress during infection. Erwinia chrysanthemi, which causes macerating diseases in a wide variety of plants, possesses a flavohaemoglobin (HmpX) whose function in plant pathogens has remained unclear. Here we show that HmpX consumes NO and prevents inhibition by NO of cell respiration, indicating a role in protection from nitrosative stress. Furthermore, infection of Saintpaulia ionantha plants with an HmpX-deficient mutant of E. chrysanthemi revealed that the lack of NO scavenging activity causes the accumulation of unusually high levels of NO in host tissue and triggers hypersensitive cell death. Introduction of the wild-type hmpX gene in an incompatible strain of Pseudomonas syringae had a dramatic effect on the hypersensitive cell death in soya bean cell suspensions, and markedly reduced the development of macroscopic symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These observations indicate that HmpX not only protects against nitrosative stress but also attenuates host hypersensitive reaction during infection by intercepting NO produced by the plant for the execution of the hypersensitive cell death programme. PMID:15998309

  9. Systemic Immediate Hypersensitive Reactions after Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    NaYoung Jo; JeongDu Roh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A previous study showed that bee venom (BV) could cause anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity reactions. Although hypersensitivity reactions due to sweet bee venom (SBV) have been reported, SBV has been reported to be associated with significantly reduced sensitization compared to BV. Although no systemic immediate hypersensitive response accompanied by abnormal vital signs has been reported with respect to SBV, we report a systemic immediate hypersensitive response that we experi...

  10. Normal repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage in a hypersensitive strain of fibroblasts from a patient with Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner's syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes to cancer of the large intestine and to other tumors. It was previously demonstrated that fibroblasts from a patient with this disease are hypersensitive to the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet light. In this report the authors have measured several parameters of the repair of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage in an attempt to identify a defect responsible for the hypersensitivity. They have found the excision rate of pyrimidine dimers, the host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus, the induction and rejoining of DNA single strand breaks and the response of semi-conservative DNA replication to UV-irradiation to be in all cases indistinguishable from such phenomena in a variety of normal cells. (Auth.)

  11. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and immunomodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.

    2016-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic dermatitis primarily caused by Culicoides midges like C. obsoletus. The welfare of IBH-affected horses is compromised due to severe itch with secondary dermatitis and skin infections. Similar to most allergies, IBH can only be controlled rath

  12. Increasing awareness of corticosteroid hypersensitivity reactions is important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knarborg, Malene; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Hilberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    the tolerability to other corticosteroid preparations and thus identify a safe treatment alternative. We report a case of corticosteroid hypersensitivity in a 65-year-old woman with a history of difficult-to-treat asthma and systemic corticosteroid allergy admitted with increasing dyspnea and dry cough...

  13. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota composition, intestinal mucosal barrier, serine protease and serotonergic signalling components which may play a role in the visceral hypersensitivity. We showed alterations in microbiota composition...

  14. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...

  15. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kidon Mona; Kang Liew; Chin Chiang; Hoon Lim; Hugo,, Argentiniensis, (ca. 1210-ca. 1270)

    2007-01-01

    Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction af...

  16. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  17. Systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by supernatants from UV-irradiated keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, J.M.; Ullrich, S.E. (Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States))

    1992-12-15

    Exposing murine keratinocyte cultures to UV radiation causes the release of a suppressive cytokine that mimics the immunosuppressive effects of total-body UV exposure. Injecting supernatants from UV-irradiated keratinocyte cultures into mice inhibits their ability to generate a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction against allogeneic histocompatibility Ag, and spleen cells from mice injected with supernatant do not respond to alloantigen in the in vitro MLR. A unique feature of the immunosuppression induced by either total-body UV-exposure or injecting the suppressive cytokine from UV-irradiated keratinocytes is the selectivity of suppression. Although cellular immune reactions such as delayed-type hypersensitivity are suppressed antibody production is unaffected. Because the selective nature to the UV-induced immunosuppression is similar to the biologic activity of IL-10, the authors examined the hypothesis that UV exposure of keratinocytes causes the release of IL-10. Keratinocyte monolayers were exposed to UV radiation and at specific times after exposure mRNA was isolated or the culture supernatant from the cells was collected. These data indicate that activated keratinocytes are capable of secreting IL-10 and suggest that the release of IL-10 by UV-irradiated keratinocytes plays an essential role in the induction of systemic immunosuppression after total-body UV exposure. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Intestinal fermentation in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity: painful, but protective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Valeur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen Valeur1,2, Mette Helvik Morken1, Elisabeth Norin3, Tore Midtvedt3, Arnold Berstad1,21Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenPurpose: Enterometabolic disturbances may cause meal-related symptoms. We performed a functional evaluation of the intestinal microflora in patients with unexplained, self-reported food hypersensitivity by measuring fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs.Patients and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and 15 healthy volunteers of similar age, gender, and body mass index collected all feces for 72 hours. Fecal concentrations of acetic, propionic, n-butyric, i-butyric, n-valeric, i-valeric, n-caproic, and i-caproic acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations and excretions (output of SCFAs in patients and controls were compared and related to gastrointestinal symptoms.Results: Despite nonsignificant differences between patients and controls for both total and individual SCFA concentrations and excretions, n-butyric acid comprised a higher (P = 0.035 and acetic acid a lower (P = 0.012 proportion of total SCFA in patients compared to controls. There were no significant correlations between symptom scores and concentrations or excretions of individual or total SCFAs, but the proportion of n-butyric acid was significantly higher in patients with severe symptoms compared to patients with moderate symptoms (P = 0.016.Conclusion: The results indicate an enterometabolic disturbance in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. Higher proportions of n-butyric acid may be related to abdominal symptom generation, but may also protect against organic bowel disease. Further studies are needed to clarify these aspects.Keywords: butyrate, dysbiosis, gut microbiota, irritable

  19. Activación de celulas supresoras de la respuesta de hipersensibilidad tardía en ratones BALB/c infectados o vacunados con Leishmania mexicana pifanoi Activation of supressor cells of delayed hypersensitivity response in BALB/C mice infected or immunized with Leishmania mexicana pifanoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda A. Pérez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ratones BALB/c inmunizados SC con promastigotes no viables de Leishmania mexicana pifanoi, desarrollaron respuestas de hipersensibilidad tardia (RHT contra el parásito. En contraposición, los ratones BALB/c infectados crónicamente con L.m. pifanoi y aquellos inmunizados IV con una dosis supraóptima de parásitos muertos, mostraron inhibición de la RHT. La supresión de la RHT en los animales infectados, estuvo precedida por un estado transitorio de inmunidad celular, manifestado durante la fase inicial del desarrollo de las lesiones (4-12 semanas. La inhibición de la RHT observada en los animales infectados o inmunizados con dosis supraóptimas, fue causada por un mecanismo activo, transferible a receptores singénicos a través de las células esplénicas de los donantes suprimidos. La población de células supresoras fue no adherente a "nylon", sensible al tratamiento con un suero anti-timocitos de ratón y C', y de acción específica sobre la RHT contra antígenos leishmánicos. Se propone que la ocurrencia de células T supresoras de la RHT en los animales infectados crónicamente o inmunizados con dosis supraóptimas, es causada por el exceso de carga antigénica. Esta última, en el caso de los animales infectados, secundaria a una falla primaria en el control inmunológico de la población parasitaria.A T suppressor cell population that specifically shut down delayed hypersensitivity responses (DHR to the parasite was found in both BALB/c mice chronically infected with Leishmania mexicana pifanoi and in naive mice which had received a single IV supraoptimal dose of killed parasites. At the early phase of infection mice exhibited a transitory state of cell-mediated immunity against the parasite that was abrogated when lesions reached their accelerated phase of growth. Results suggest that in both infected and high-dose immunized mice, the activation of T suppressor cells of DHR is related to antigen overload.

  20. Suppression of contact hypersensitivity by short-term ultraviolet irradiation: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), produced from trans-UCA (a normal component of epidermis) by UV irradiation, suppressed cell-mediated immunological reactions in vivo and in vitro. It suppressed the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) when injected into mice, and it suppressed leucocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) reactions of previously sensitized lymphocytes exposed to antigen. Serum from mice injected with cis-UCA was also immunosuppressive in vitro. Normal murine spleen cells cultured with cis-UCA produced a non-dialysable factor which suppressed LAI reactivity. Trans-UCA was ineffectual in all of these systems. Both the ability of cis-UCA to induce an immunosuppressive serum factor and its ability to suppress CHS were abrogated by prior administration of cyclophosphamide, indicating that cis-UCA (normally from irradiated epidermis) stimulates T suppressor cells to produce the previously described suppressor factor in serum and the immunosuppression associated with short-term irradiation. (author)

  1. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium avium from a home bath with a circulating water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Honda, Atsuro; Baba, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Shichi, Izumi; Eto, Takashi; Arai, Kazumori

    2005-11-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with complaints of exertional dyspnea and cough. The patient has already been given corticosteroids at a previous hospital. Chest CT revealed small centrilobular nodules with diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Lung biopsy specimens at thoracoscopy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas, patchy foci of mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrous thickening of alveolar septa, and Masson's bodies in bronchioles. Sputum culture showed the growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Culture of water from the bath tub of his home showed MAC. Administration of antituberculous drugs and corticosteroids, and avoidance of bathing at home resulted in the improvement of his symptoms and CT findings. We believe the case is hypersensitivity pneumonitis to MAC in an immunocompetent patient, simulating hot tub lung. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by MAC is rare in Japan. PMID:16366369

  2. Effect of Tongxieyaofang on Visceral Hypersensitivity and Activation of Mast Cell in Rats of Irritable Bowel Syndrome%痛泻要方对肠易激综合征大鼠内脏高敏感性及肥大细胞活化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钦丹萍; 康年松; 韩建新; 任永葆; 占永标

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of Taoxieyaofang on visceral hypersensitivity and activation of mast cell (MC) in rats of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to discuss the possible mechanism of Taoxieyaofang for treating IBS. [Methods] 60 SD rates were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 rats for each group: blank control group, model control group, pinaverium bromide group, and low, medium and high dosage of Tongxieyaofang group. The model was established by bondage-stress method. Abdominal withdraw reflex (AWR), MC amount, C-Fos presentation and histamine concentration of proximate mucous membrane of colon were observed. [Results] 1. AWR score and MCs in proximate mucous membrane of colon in three groups of Tongxieyaofang were all improved without significant deviation contrasting to pinaverium bromide group;2. Histamine in proximate mucous membrane of colon decreased in medium and high dosage of Tongxieyaofang groups, that of low dosage of Tongxieyaofang group did not have significant deviation. Histamine was lower in high dosage of Tongxieyaofang groups than pinaverium bromide group;3. Presentation of C -Fos in proximate mucous membrane of colon decreased in treated groups except pinaverium bromide group. Presentation of C-Fos was lower in medium and high dosage of Tongxieyaofang groups than pinaverium bromide group. [Conclusion] 1. Tongxieyaofang can decrease AWR and MC amount, and inhibit MC activation for IBS rates with visceral hypersensitivity. 2. The effect of medium dosage of Taoxieymifang was better in inhibiting C-Fos presentation than that of pinaverium bromide tablets. The effect of high dosage of Taoxieyaofang was better in inhibiting C-Fos presentation and Histamine. 3.There was dosage-depend intendance among all groups of different dosages of Tongxieyaofang but without significant deviation. 4. The possible mechanism of Taoxieyaofang was reducing MC amount, inhibiting MC activation, decreasing histamine release so as to depress visceral

  3. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde-Larsson Bodil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions

  4. Piperacillin plus Tazobactam induced Drug Hypersensitivity Reaction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi RS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penicillin alone or with combination should be used in hospitalized patients to treat bacterial infections with great precautions since penicillin is known to produce hypersensitivity reactions very commonly. A 53 year old hospitalized male patient having tibia fracture was initially given ceftriaxone plus salbactum and amikacin as an antibacterial therapeutics. Subsequently patient was treated with Pipzo (Inj. Piperacillin plus Tezobactum; 4.5 gm. on the basis of anti- bacterial sensitivity test of pus culture. It was observed in patient having fever with chills and rigors immediately after injecting Pepzo. Though drug induced these hypersensitivity signs subsided gradually. Later on patient was switch over to inj. Imipenum to cover pseudomonal infection with resulting improvement.

  5. Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to be the second most common cause of drug hypersensitivity. In 2011, experts from the EAACI/ENDA group and GA(2)LEN proposed a new classification system for NSAID hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to classify....... Medical records were retrospectively investigated with respect to the culprit NSAID(s), underlying diseases and symptoms at the primary reaction and during oral provocation tests (OPTs). Data was supplemented with a questionnaire. Classification according to EAACI guideline was based on these findings...... responders reacted to non-pyrazolone drugs. Only one patient could not be classified according to the EAACI/ENDA system. An overlap between respiratory and cutaneous symptoms was found in 15/39 (38%) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: All but one of our patients could be classified according to the EAACI...

  6. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  7. Hypersensitivity and chaos signatures in the quantum baker's maps

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, A J; Caves, C M; Schack, R; Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    Classical chaotic systems are distinguished by their sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The absence of this property in quantum systems has lead to a number of different criteria being proposed for quantum chaos, including linear growth of entropy, exponential decay of fidelity, and hypersensitivity to perturbation. All of these accurately predict chaos in the classical limit, but it is not clear that they behave the same far from the classical realm. We investigate the dynamics of a family of quantizations of the baker's map, which range from a highly entangling unitary transformation to an essentially trivial shift map. Linear entropy growth and fidelity decay are exhibited by this entire family of maps, but hypersensitivity distinguishes between the simple dynamics of the trivial shift map and the more complicated dynamics of the other quantizations. This is supported by an analytical argument for short times and numerical evidence at later times.

  8. Severe type IV hypersensitivity to 'black henna' tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Vasileios; Knight, Bernice; Lidder, Satnam; Frankton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A 16-year-old Bangladeshi girl presented with a 9-day history of an extensive pruritic, erythematous, papulovesicular skin eruption to both forearms. Appearance was 5 days following application of a home-made henna preparation. Examination revealed ulceration and scabbing along the whole henna pattern and early keloid formation. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction superimposed by infection was initially made. As in this case, home-made henna preparations commonly combine commercial henna with black hair dye, paraphenylenediamine (PPD). PPD, widely known as 'black henna', darkens the pigment and precipitates the drying process. PPD is a potent contact allergen associated with a high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions. Despite treatment the patient was left with extensive keloid scarring in the pattern of the henna tattoo. PMID:22778139

  9. HRCT findings of hypersensitivity pneumonitis: correlation with pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the HRCT findings of hypersensitive pneumonitis and to correlate the findings with the results of the pulmonary function test (PFT). Seven patients in whom hypersensitive pneumonitis was histologically confirmed (by transbronchial lung biopsy in two, thoracoscopic lung biopsy in one, open lung biopsy in two, and typical clinical and laboratory findings in two) were involved in this study. Their radiological patterns were assessed by HRCT and the extent of each finding was evaluated semi-quantitatively and correlated with the results of the pulmonary function test. The HRCT findings were as follows: lobular overinflation (n=7), ground glass attenuation (n=7), centrilobular nodule (n=6), reticular opacity (n=5), interlobular septal thickening (n=3), consolidation (n=2), and irregular subpleural line (n=1). Five patients showed lower lung predominance and two, middle lung predominance. In all, a restrictive pattern and diminished diffusion capacity was noted. The grade score of reticular opacity showed significant correlation with forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume. There was, however, no significant correlation between other HRCT findings and PFT results. Two patients in whom lobular overinflation associated with parenchymal fibrosis was noted showed a decreased maximal midexpiratory flow rate of 25-75. Lobular overinflation, ground-glass attenuation and centrilobular nodules are commonly observed in hypersensitive pneumonitis. The only significant correlation between each HRCT finding and the pulmonary function test was that between reticular opacity and both forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. In cases of chronic hypersensitive pneumonitis presenting as pulmonary fibrosis, associated lobular overinflation could be helpful for differential diagnosis

  10. Hypersensitivity Reactions Associated with Platinum Antineoplastic Agents: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Makrilia, Nektaria; Syrigou, Ekaterini; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Manolopoulos, Leonidas; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2010-01-01

    Platinum-containing chemotherapy agents (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin) have been approved in the first-line setting of numerous malignancies, such as ovarian, bladder, head and neck, colorectal, and lung cancer. Their extensive use over the last decade has led to a significant increase in the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions, which are defined as unforeseen reactions whose signs and symptoms cannot be explained by the known toxicity of these drugs. Skin rash, flushing, abdominal...

  11. Vestibular hypersensitivity to clicks is characteristic of the Tullio phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Colebatch, J; Day, B.; Bronstein, A; Davies, R.; Gresty, M.; Luxon, L; Rothwell, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The frequency of pathologically reduced click thresholds for vestibular activation was explored in patients with the Tullio phenomenon (sound induced vestibular activation).
METHODS—Seven patients (eight affected ears) with symptoms of oscillopsia and unsteadiness in response to loud external sounds or to the patient's own voice were examined. In all but one patient, vestibular hypersensitivity to sound was confirmed by the fact that eye movements could be produced b...

  12. Hypersensitivity vasculitis after treatment with methylphenidate - case report

    OpenAIRE

    de Sá, Mário Correia; Faria, Carolina; Alves, Marta; Macedo, Liliana; Carvalho, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hypersensitivity vasculitis is the small blood vessels’ inflammation secondary to the formation and endothelial deposition of immune complexes.Case Report: We describe a case of a 15 year-old female, recently medicated with methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who presented recurrent episodes of feet pain and purpuric lesions on the toes. The lesions’ histopathological study showed findings consistent with lymphocytic vasculitis.Discussion: The clinical a...

  13. Hypersensitivity to electricity : Symptoms, risk factors and therapeutic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hillert, Lena

    2001-01-01

    Persons reporting nonspecific health complaints attributed to activated electrical equipment have been a growing concern in Sweden in the last decades. The aims of this thesis were to investigate possible risk factors (personal and work-related), symptoms, and complaints associated with reported hypersensitivity to electricity (HE) and to test hypotheses concerning possible biological mechanisms and effective treatments. In a survey of an unselected population in Stockholm....

  14. Hypersensitivity and the working environment for allergy nurses in sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Pia Kalm-Stephens; Therese Sterner; Kerstin Kronholm Diab; Greta Smedje

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association ...

  15. Severe type IV hypersensitivity to ‘black henna’ tattoo

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilakis, Vasileios; Knight, Bernice; Lidder, Satnam; Frankton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A 16-year-old Bangladeshi girl presented with a 9-day history of an extensive pruritic, erythematous, papulovesicular skin eruption to both forearms. Appearance was 5 days following application of a home-made henna preparation. Examination revealed ulceration and scabbing along the whole henna pattern and early keloid formation. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction superimposed by infection was initially made. As in this case, home-made henna preparations commonly combine ...

  16. Factors associated with dentine hypersensitivity severity in Colombian dental patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis López; Paola Espana; Ruth Bastidas; Jeovanni Fuelagan; Ana Cristina Mafla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) and examine associated etiological factors related to the severity of DH in dental clinic patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed in which three hundred and thirty three patients aged 15 to 44 years old were assessed for the presence and severity of DH. The dentine hypersen...

  17. Angioneurotic edema: a rare case of hypersensitivity to metoclopramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Aleksander; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman who had already experienced two incidents of angioneurotic edema and urticaria caused by drugs during the acute gastroenteritis. The allergological workup revealed hypersensitivity to metoclopramide. This case documents that metoclopramide, a drug commonly used to inhibit the vomiting, may cause not only bronchospastic reaction in an asthmatic patient but also angioneurotic edema of the tongue and larynx as well as urticaria. No similar cases in the literature were found. PMID:24278059

  18. Radiation hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Okui, T; Endoh, D; Sato, F; Kasai, N; Namioka, S

    1994-03-01

    LEC strain rats (LEC rats), which are known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4-5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X-irradiation when compared to WKAH strain rats. The radiosensitivity of F1 hybrids of LEC and WKAH rats was similar to that of WKAH rats and significantly lower than that of LEC rats. Segregation data of backcross hybrids (F1 x LEC and LEC x F1) suggested that the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to whole-body irradiation is controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene. The radiosensitivity of fibroblasts from LEC rats was higher than that of fibroblasts from WKAH rats. The repair process of DNA double-strand breaks in LEC cells was slower than that in WKAH cells. LEC rats could provide a useful animal model to assist in understanding the mechanism of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair.

  19. Drug hypersensitivity caused by alteration of the MHC-presented self-peptide repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrov, David A; Grant, Barry J; Pompeu, Yuri A;

    2012-01-01

    studies have identified strong linkages between drug hypersensitivity reactions to several drugs and specific HLA alleles. One of the strongest such genetic associations found has been for the antiviral drug abacavir, which causes severe adverse reactions exclusively in patients expressing the HLA...... molecular variant B*57:01. Abacavir adverse reactions were recently shown to be driven by drug-specific activation of cytokine-producing, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that required HLA-B*57:01 molecules for their function; however, the mechanism by which abacavir induces this pathologic T-cell response remains...... unclear. Here we show that abacavir can bind within the F pocket of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B*57:01, thereby altering its specificity. This provides an explanation for HLA-linked idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, namely that drugs can alter the repertoire of self-peptides presented to T...

  20. Ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to induce a transient defect in epidermal antigen presentation which leads to the generation of antigen-specific suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The putative receptor in skin for the primary event in UV-suppression is urocanic acid (UCA) which may then interact locally, or systemically, with antigen presenting cells or initiate a cascade of events resulting in suppression. We present the first direct evidence that UCA, when irradiated with a dose (96 mJ/cm2) of UVB radiation known to suppress the DTH response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) in mice, can induce suppression following epidermal application or s.c. injection of the irradiated substance. This suppression is transferable with nylon wool-passed spleen cells

  1. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  2. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  3. Hypersensitivity and the working environment for allergy nurses in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Sterner, Therese; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Smedje, Greta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results. PMID:24803940

  4. Hypersensitivity and the Working Environment for Allergy Nurses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kalm-Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.

  5. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future. PMID:20109740

  6. GSM microwaves and 50 Hz electromagnetic field induce stress response but not apoptosis in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used specific conditions of exposure to microwaves from a GSM (global system for mobile communication) mobile phone (915 MHz, SAR=0.4 mW/g) and 50 Hz electromagnetic field (EMF, 15 μT amplitude) to investigate the response of lymphocytes from healthy subjects and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to EMF. The groups of hypersensitive and healthy donors were matched by gender and age and the data were analyzed in blind. The changes in chromatin conformation were measured with the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). 53BP1 protein, which has been shown to co-localize in foci with DNA double strand breaks (DSB), was analyzed by immunostaining in situ. Exposure either to GSM microwaves or EMF/50 Hz resulted in significant condensation of chromatin, which was similar to the effect of heat shock at 41deg C. These effects varied between donors with a trend for prolonged condensation of chromatin in the cells from hypersensitive subjects. Cells from subjects, which were classified as pronounced hypersensitivity, responded to GSM /ELF stronger than cells from matched control subjects, but these differences in responses need to be confirmed in a larger study group. Neither GSM nor ELF exposure induced formation of 53BP1 foci. In contrary, distinct decrease in background level of 53BP1 signaling was observed upon these exposures as well as after heat shock treatments. This decrease correlated with the AVTD data and may indicate decrease in accessibility of 53BP1 to antibodies because of stress-induced chromatin condensation. No apoptosis was induced by exposure to ELF/50 Hz and GSM microwaves. In conclusion, ELF magnetic fields and GSM microwaves under specified conditions of exposure induced stress response in lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive donors

  7. Cardiac Iodine-123-Meta-Iodo-Benzylguanidine Uptake in Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maw Pin Tan

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity.Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG.Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12 and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9 were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005 and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032. There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326 or late H:M (p = 0.351 between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls.Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation provides additional clues to

  8. Hypersensitivity Reaction to High-Dose Methotrexate and Successful Rechallenge in a Pediatric Patient with Osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jeffrey R.; Deborah A Ward; Crews, Kristine R; Panetta, John C.; Navid, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to methotrexate are rare, but have been reported. Methotrexate has shown activity against many malignancies, and omission of methotrexate therapy may increase the risk of cancer-related death in some patients. Therefore, rechallenging patients with methotrexate following hypersensitivity may be beneficial. We report a case of a child with metastatic osteosarcoma who experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to high-dose methotrexate and was successfully rechallenged w...

  9. Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jarmila Čelakovská; Ettler, K; K Ettlerová; J Vaněčková

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hype...

  10. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity: A cross-sectional study in rural Punjabi Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Palwankar, Pooja; Khinda, Paramjit K.; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity and related risk factors in rural population of Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 650 subjects reporting dentine sensitivity were included in the study comprising of 270 males and 380 females. All the subjects completed an interview and the subjects reporting dentine hypersensitivity were examined further using air syringe to put a blast of air to confirm the diagnosis of dentine hypersensitivity. Periodon...

  11. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  12. Hypersensitive bladder: a solution to confused terminology and ignorance concerning interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio

    2014-04-01

    Taxonomy or nomenclature concerning interstitial cystitis and its related symptom syndromes is in a state of confusion. After analyzing the reasons for confusion in regard to three components (disease name, symptoms, Hunner's lesion), I would like to propose a new term, "hypersensitive bladder", taking after overactive bladder, as a solution. Hypersensitive bladder symptoms are defined as "increased bladder sensation, usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without bladder pain." The proposal of hypersensitive bladder is based on: (i) it does not appear a symptom syndrome, but a disease by ending with an organ name, "bladder"; (ii) it does not contain confusable symptom terms (pain and urgency), but indicates irritative symptoms including pain and urgency; and (iii) it suggests pathophysiological hyperactivity of sensory nerves. Interstitial cystitis is defined by three requirements: (i) hypersensitive bladder symptoms; (ii) bladder pathology; and (iii) no other diseases, where bladder pathology should be clearly stated either as Hunner's lesion or glomerulations after hydrodistention. Hypersensitive bladder can be used for the condition with hypersensitive bladder symptoms, but no obvious disease explaining hypersensitive bladder symptoms identified. Interstitial cystitis is a representative disease causing hypersensitive bladder symptoms, most typically with pain, but might be painless and indistinguishable from overactive bladder. Introducing hypersensitive bladder as a counter concept of overactive bladder into bladder dysfunction taxonomy will facilitate clinical practice and research progress, and attract considerable attention from the medical world. PMID:24807494

  13. Practical guidelines for diagnosing hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, N; Doña, I; Moreno, E; Audicana, M T; Barasona, M J; Berges-Gimeno, M P; Blanca-Lopez, N; Lobera, T; Padial, A; Rosado, A; Torres, M J

    2014-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity reactions. These reactions include various clinical entities with different mechanisms leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. Characterization of patients based on clinical manifestations and suspected underlying mechanisms is critical for implementation of adequate diagnostic procedures and patient management. Our objectives were to prepare a systematic review of available scientific evidence and to provide general guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs. We also propose a practical algorithm for the diagnosis of specific types of hypersensitivity to NSAIDs and provide recommendations for the management of hypersensitive patients. PMID:25345301

  14. Role of UVB-induced serum factor(s) in suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet, 280-320 nm (UVB), irradiation of the shaved dorsal skin of mice results in suppression of the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to antigens applied subsequently to a distant nonirradiated skin site. Serum from BALB/cAnNCr mice exposed to a single dose of UVB radiation (8.6 X 10(4) J/m2) was evaluated for its ability to induce suppression of CHS to 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB), a contact allergen, after transfer to normal recipients. Serum from UVB-irradiated donors was capable of inducing immunosuppression only when collected and transferred within a restricted time period, i.e., approximately 2-6 h post irradiation, and at least 400 microliters of serum per recipient was required. Serum from UVB-irradiated donors was sufficient to induce splenic suppressor cells in recipient mice

  15. Evaluation of potential regulatory elements identified as DNase I hypersensitive sites in the CFTR gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylactides, M.; Rowntree, R.; Nuthall, H.;

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene shows a complex pattern of expression, with temporal and spatial regulation that is not accounted for by elements in the promoter. One approach to identifying the regulatory elements for CFTR is the mapping of DNase I...... hypersensitive sites (DHS) within the locus. We previously identified at least 12 clusters of DHS across the CFTR gene and here further evaluate DHS in introns 2,3,10,16,17a, 18, 20 and 21 to assess their functional importance in regulation of CFTR gene expression. Transient transfections of enhancer....../reporter constructs containing the DHS regions showed that those in introns 20 and 21 augmented the activity of the CFTR promoter. Structural analysis of the DNA sequence at the DHS suggested that only the one intron 21 might be caused by inherent DNA structures. Cell specificity of the DHS suggested a role for the...

  16. Oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity reduces lymphatic drainage but enhances the induction of adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aebischer

    Full Text Available Contact hypersensitivity (CHS induced by topical application of haptens is a commonly used model to study dermal inflammatory responses in mice. Several recent studies have indicated that CHS-induced skin inflammation triggers lymphangiogenesis but may negatively impact the immune-function of lymphatic vessels, namely fluid drainage and dendritic cell (DC migration to draining lymph nodes (dLNs. On the other hand, haptens have been shown to exert immune-stimulatory activity by inducing DC maturation. In this study we investigated how the presence of pre-established CHS-induced skin inflammation affects the induction of adaptive immunity in dLNs. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation we observed that lymphatic drainage was reduced and DC migration from skin to dLNs was partially compromised. At the same time, a significantly stronger adaptive immune response towards ovalbumin (OVA was induced when immunization had occurred in CHS-inflamed skin as compared to uninflamed control skin. In fact, immunization with sterile OVA in CHS-inflamed skin evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response comparable to the one induced by conventional immunization with OVA and adjuvant in uninflamed skin. Striking phenotypic and functional differences were observed when comparing DCs from LNs draining uninflamed or CHS-inflamed skin. DCs from LNs draining CHS-inflamed skin expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC molecules, produced higher levels of the interleukin-12/23 p40 subunit (IL-12/23-p40 and more potently induced T cell activation in vitro. Immunization experiments revealed that blockade of IL-12/23-p40 during the priming phase partially reverted the CHS-induced enhancement of the adaptive immune response. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHS-induced skin inflammation generates an overall immune-stimulatory milieu, which outweighs the potentially suppressive effect of reduced lymphatic vessel function.

  17. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to residential mosquito-coil smoke exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gopall Roshnee; CAO Guo-qiang; CHEN Hong

    2011-01-01

    We reported a previously healthy 25-year-old female patient who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis following repeated exposures to the smoke of mosquito coils. The patient presented with vague symptoms of cough and fever for 3 days. Diagnostic criteria proposed for clinical use in this case included history, exposure to a recognized antigen, physical examination, consistent radiographic images, bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy. Much symptomatic relief and better radiographic response were noted after short-term use of oral corticosteroid and removal of the offending antigen.

  18. Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo Umberto; Russo Claudia; Palaia Gaspare; Tenore Gianluca; Del Vecchio Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is characterized by pain after stimuli that usually provoke no symptoms. This study compared the effectiveness of GaAlAs diode laser alone and with topical sodium fluoride gel (NaF). Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 10 patients (8 F/2 M, age 25–60) and 115 teeth with DH assessed by air and tactile stimuli measured by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Teeth were randomly divided into G1 (34 teeth) treated by 1.25% NaF; G2 (33 teeth) lased ...

  19. Clinical and diagnostic features of perioperative hypersensitivity to cefuroxime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, I S; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H;

    2015-01-01

    patients reacted in 15 minutes versus only 38/58 (65.5%) of negative patients. CONCLUSION: All patients with confirmed hypersensitivity to cefuroxime reacted within 15 minutes of administration, but so did 65.5% of cefuroxime negative patients, making timing of administration an unreliable predictor...... of causation in the perioperative setting. Provocations were always positive when carried out in skin test positive patients; however 8 patients had positive provocations only, highlighting the need for provocation in skin test negative patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn A. Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of thimerosal containing vaccines in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been an area of intense debate, as has the presence of mercury dental amalgams and fish ingestion by pregnant mothers. We studied the effects of thimerosal on cell proliferation and mitochondrial function from B-lymphocytes taken from individuals with autism, their nonautistic twins, and their nontwin siblings. Eleven families were examined and compared to matched controls. B-cells were grown with increasing levels of thimerosal, and various assays (LDH, XTT, DCFH, etc. were performed to examine the effects on cellular proliferation and mitochondrial function. A subpopulation of eight individuals (4 ASD, 2 twins, and 2 siblings from four of the families showed thimerosal hypersensitivity, whereas none of the control individuals displayed this response. The thimerosal concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation in these individuals was only 40% of controls. Cells hypersensitive to thimerosal also had higher levels of oxidative stress markers, protein carbonyls, and oxidant generation. This suggests certain individuals with a mild mitochondrial defect may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial specific toxins like the vaccine preservative thimerosal.

  1. Effect of whole body gamma irradiation on delayed hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene in CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of whole body γ-irradiation of CBA mice on the subsequent development of delayed hypersensitivity (DH) response to 2,4 dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was studied. Mice were irradiated with 60Co-γrays 24 hr prior to the first epicutaneous sensitization with DNFB. Mice irradiated at doses up to 1.08 Gy showed unaltered DH response. Increasing doses resulted in progressive suppression of DH response and the D50 was 3.86 Gy. Marked reduction in the number of lymph node cells was observed in irradiated, sensitized as well as unsensitized mice. This could be due to interphase death of precursor cells (antigen-sensitive cells), resulting in lower number of effector lymphocytes for DH(Tsub(DH)). Furthermore, the maximum DH response in irradiated, sensitized mice was obtained later on in comparison with the controls. The effector lymphocytes from irradiated sensitized mice were, however, functionally unimpaired. It was observed that the radiation-induced suppression of DH to DNFB in these mice could be partly due to the damage to antigen sensitive cells and also to the cells other than effector lymphocytes which participated in the inflammatory reaction. (author)

  2. Clinical evaluation of desensitizing treatments for cervical dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Corrêa Aranha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different treatments for dentin hypersensitivity in a 6-month follow-up. One hundred and one teeth exhibiting non carious cervical lesions were selected. The assessment method used to quantify sensitivity was the cold air syringe, recorded by the visual analogue scale (VAS, prior to treatment (baseline, immediately after topical treatment, after 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months. Teeth were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 20: G1: Gluma Desensitizer (GD; G2: Seal&Protect (SP; G3: Oxa-gel (OG; G4: Fluoride (F; G5: Low intensity laser-LILT (660 nm/3.8 J/cm²/15 mW. Analysis was based on the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test that demonstrated statistical differences immediately after the treatment (p = 0.0165. To observe the individual effects of each treatment, data was submitted to Friedman test. It was observed that GD and SP showed immediate effect after application. Reduction in the pain level throughout the six-month follow-up was also observed. In contrast, LILT presented a gradual reduction of hypersensitivity. OG and F showed effects as of the first and third month respectively. It can be concluded that, after the 6-month clinical evaluation, all therapies showed lower VAS sensitivity values compared with baseline, independently of their different modes of action.

  3. [Delayed-type hypersensitivity to heparin: diagnosis and therapeutic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosbaum, A; Pralong, P; Rozieres, A; Dargaud, Y; Nicolas, J-F; Bérard, F

    2012-05-01

    Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant and is indicated in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Heparin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity presents as eczematous lesions, either at the injection site or generally, and affects 7.5% of patients on heparin. This poses diagnostic and therapeutic issues, since an alternative anticoagulant treatment is essential and the risk of cross-reactivity may be as high as 80%, depending on the type of heparin used. If delayed-type hypersensitivity is suspected, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia must first be ruled out, and heparin should be stopped. Fondaparinux is currently the first-line alternative, with a risk of cross-reactivity estimated at only 10%. The switch from a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) to another LMWH is no longer recommended. The use of unfractionated heparin, danaparoid or hirudin may be warranted in the event of recurrence with fondaparinux, and an immuno-allergological work-up is needed to specify the exact profile of cross-allergies. PMID:22578340

  4. Metalworking fluid-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a workshop summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Cox-Ganser, J

    1997-10-01

    A workshop discussing eight clusters of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the automotive industry among metalworking fluid-exposed workers concluded that a risk exists for this granulomatous lung disease where water-based fluids are used and unusual microbial contaminants predominate. Strong candidates for microbial etiology are nontuberculous mycobacteria and fungi. Cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis occur among cases with other work-related respiratory symptoms and chest diseases. Reversibility of disease has occurred in many cases with exposure cessation, allowing return to work to jobs without metalworking fluid exposures or, in some situations, to jobs without the same metalworking fluid exposures. Cases have been recognized with metalworking fluid exposures generally less than 0.5 mg/m3. The workshop participants identified knowledge gaps regarding risk factors, exposure-response relationships, intervention efficacy, and natural history, as well as surveillance needs to define the extent of the problem in this industry. In the absence of answers to these questions, guidance for prevention is necessarily limited.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy Toothbrush in Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghini, Jaber; Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mohamadi, Mehrnush; Ashtiju, Fahime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin hypersensitivity is one of the most common complications that affect patients after periodontal therapy. Recently low level laser therapy has been introduced as a new treatment modality and has produced beneficial results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy toothbrushes in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity.

  6. Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis pollen in newcomers to the area with the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Marusić, M; Juricić, M; Vrdoljak, E; Petrovecki, M; Rozga, A; Stavljenić-Rukavina, A

    1993-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis (wall pellitory) pollen and other environmental allergens was studied in pollinosis patients allergic to P. officinalis pollen who were born in areas without P. officinalis and later moved to the city of Split, where P. officinalis is responsible for some 65% of pollinosis cases. Highly significant positive correlations were found for both the intensity of skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area. In contrast, the respective data on subjects hypersensitive to P. officinalis pollen allergen, but born and living in the area of Split, revealed a tendency to negative correlation between age and intensity of hypersensitivity to P. officinalis. A number of patients from both groups were tested for presence of serum IgE antibodies specific for 14 common environmental allergens. Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen was associated with hypersensitivity to olive, mugwort, and birch pollen in newcomers; hypersensitivity to birch and, to some extent, olive pollen was significantly more frequent in newcomers than in autochthonous patients who were allergic to P. officinalis pollen. Regardless of whether the patients were autochthons or newcomers to the area with P. officinalis, hypersensitivity to P. officinalis mostly excluded hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and vice versa.

  7. Hypersensitivity and pain induced by operative procedures and the "cracked tooth" syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S; Boston, D

    1997-01-01

    Various dental conditions are responsible for tooth hypersensitivity and pain. They include hypersensitive dentin; the "cracked tooth" syndrome; pulp and periapical irritation, inflammation and/or degeneration; barodontalgia (aerodontalgia); and periodontal pathoses, particularly the pulpal-periodontal syndrome. Each operative condition is reviewed with respect to its etiology, symptomatology, and diagnosis. Some treatment recommendations are made to prevent or reduce symptoms.

  8. Basophil Reactivity as Biomarker in Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions—Potential and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Markus; Harrer, Andrea; Himly, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) resemble typical immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from local skin reactions, gastrointestinal and/or respiratory symptoms to severe systemic involvement with potential fatal outcome. Depending on the substance group of the eliciting drug the correct diagnosis is a major challenge. Skin testing and in vitro diagnostics are often unreliable and not reproducible. The involvement of drug-specific IgE is questionable in many cases. The culprit substance (parent drug or metabolite) and potential cross-reacting compounds are difficult to identify, patient history and drug provocation testing often remain the only means for diagnosis. Hence, several groups proposed basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of immediate DHRs as basophils are well-known effector cells in allergic reactions. However, the usefulness of BAT in immediate DHRs is highly variable and dependent on the drug itself plus its capacity to spontaneously conjugate to serum proteins. Stimulation with pure solutions of the parent drug or metabolites thereof vs. drug-protein conjugates may influence sensitivity and specificity of the test. We thus, reviewed the available literature about the use of BAT for diagnosing immediate DHRs against drug classes such as antibiotics, radio contrast media, neuromuscular blocking agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and biologicals. Influencing factors like the selection of stimulants or of the identification and activation markers, the stimulation protocol, gating strategies, and cut-off definition are addressed in this overview on BAT performance. The overall aim is to evaluate the suitability of BAT as biomarker for the diagnosis of immediate drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:27378928

  9. A preconditioning nerve lesion inhibits mechanical pain hypersensitivity following subsequent neuropathic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preconditioning stimulus can trigger a neuroprotective phenotype in the nervous system - a preconditioning nerve lesion causes a significant increase in axonal regeneration, and cerebral preconditioning protects against subsequent ischemia. We hypothesized that a preconditioning nerve lesion induces gene/protein modifications, neuronal changes, and immune activation that may affect pain sensation following subsequent nerve injury. We examined whether a preconditioning lesion affects neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation after peripheral nerve injury. Results We found that a preconditioning crush injury to a terminal branch of the sciatic nerve seven days before partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PSNL; a model of neuropathic pain induced a significant attenuation of pain hypersensitivity, particularly mechanical allodynia. A preconditioning lesion of the tibial nerve induced a long-term significant increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and paw-withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli, after PSNL. A preconditioning lesion of the common peroneal induced a smaller but significant short-term increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, after PSNL. There was no difference between preconditioned and unconditioned animals in neuronal damage and macrophage and T-cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs or in astrocyte and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal and ventral horns. Conclusions These results suggest that prior exposure to a mild nerve lesion protects against adverse effects of subsequent neuropathic injury, and that this conditioning-induced inhibition of pain hypersensitivity is not dependent on neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord. Identifying the underlying mechanisms may have important implications for the understanding of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury.

  10. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in the elderly may be caused by an apparent hypersensitivity in the high pressure baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure - carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Previous studies have found ambiguous results regarding the baroreceptor sensitivity in patients with carotid sinus...... hypersensitivity ranging from reduced to increased sensitivity compared to controls. We wanted to establish whether measures of baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function differed between patients diagnosed with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and age matched controls. We included 36 patients (12 women; 74 +/-10...... differences in autonomic baroreceptor control could be found between patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and their controls. Our findings seem to reflect the ambiguous results obtained by others and have led us to suggest that the signals behind the established parameters of cardiovagal baroreflex...

  11. HDAC6 regulates androgen receptor hypersensitivity and nuclear localization via modulating Hsp90 acetylation in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junkui; Wang, Yujuan; Dar, Javid A; Liu, June; Liu, Lingqi; Nelson, Joel B; Wang, Zhou

    2009-12-01

    The development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) requires that under castration conditions, the androgen receptor (AR) remains active and thus nuclear. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays a key role in androgen-induced and -independent nuclear localization and activation of AR. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is implicated, but has not been proven, in regulating AR activity via modulating Hsp90 acetylation. Here, we report that knockdown of HDAC6 in C4-2 cells using short hairpin RNA impaired ligand-independent nuclear localization of endogenous AR and inhibited PSA expression and cell growth in the absence or presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The dose-response curve of DHT-stimulated C4-2 colony formation was shifted by shHDAC6 such that approximately 10-fold higher concentration of DHT is required, indicating a requirement for HDAC6 in AR hypersensitivity. HDAC6 knockdown also inhibited C4-2 xenograft tumor establishment in castrated, but not in testes-intact, nude mice. Studies using HDAC6-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells showed that inhibition of AR nuclear localization by HDAC6 knockdown can be largely alleviated by expressing a deacetylation mimic Hsp90 mutant. Taken together, our studies suggest that HDAC6 regulates AR hypersensitivity and nuclear localization, mainly via modulating HSP90 acetylation. Targeting HDAC6 alone or in combination with other therapeutic approaches is a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of castration-resistant PCa.

  12. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries: Implications for European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, Jantine; Antonides, Gerrit; Fox, Margaret; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Zamora, Javier; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Rokicka, Ewa; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Jewczak, Maciej; Starosta, Pawel; Kowalska, Marek L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Escudero, Cano; de Blok, Bertine Flokstra; Dubois, Anthony; Mugford, Miranda; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals' perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and those asymptomatic to foods was estimated using…

  13. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries : Implications for European Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, Jantine; Antonides, Gerrit; Fox, Margaret; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Zamora, Javier; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Rokicka, Ewa; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Jewczak, Maciej; Starosta, Pawel; Kowalska, Marek L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Escudero, Cano; de Blok, Bertine Flokstra; Dubois, Anthony; Mugford, Miranda; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals' perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and

  14. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries: Implications for European Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Antonides, G.; Fox, M.; Cerecedo, I.; Zamora, J.; Hoz Caballer, de la B.; Rokicka, E.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Jewczak, M.; Starosta, P.; Kowalska, M.L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, M.; Vázquez-Cortés, S.; Escudero, C.; Flokstra-de Blok, B.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Mugford, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals’ perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and

  15. Hypersensitivity to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in fibroblasts from patients with Huntington disease, familial dysautonomia, and other primary neuronal degenerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Scudiero, D A; Meyer, S A; Clatterbuck, B E; Tarone, R E; Robbins, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia, a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by primary neuronal degeneration, are abnormally sensitive to the DNA-damaging chemical N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. We have conducted experiments to determine whether more common primary neuronal degenerations also have a hypersensitivity to this radiomimetic chemical. Fibroblast strains from 13 control donors and from 13 patients with inherited primary neuronal degenerations were treate...

  16. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year....... Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were...... period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons...

  17. Cladosporium species-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis in household environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shigeki; Okada, Shinji; Suzuki, Yasuko; Watanuki, Zenta; Mitsuishi, Yoichiro; Igusa, Ryotaro; Sekii, Takehiko; Uchiyama, Bine

    2009-01-01

    Home-related chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is sometimes difficult to discriminate because patients do not have an obvious history of antigen exposure. We report two HP cases which developed in an office area and in a home: a 47-year-old woman with acute-onset HP and a 72-year-old woman with chronic HP followed up as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis following isolation of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum, respectively. Lymphocyte stimulating activity and antibody titer to these fungi were increased in these patients. Since Cladosporium spp. and several other fungi are present ubiquitously in our living environment, it is difficult to eliminate the antigen from the patients' environment to control the disease. Cladosporium spp. can be key antigens in inducing chronic HP in the home environment.

  18. Segmental hypersensitivity and spinothalamic function in spinal cord injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Sørensen, Leif Hougaard; Biering-Sørensen, Fin;

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying central pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) are unsettled. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in spinothalamic tract function below injury level and evoked pain in incomplete SCI patients with neuropathic pain below injury level (central pain...... in central SCI pain and furthermore - in contrast to previous findings - that loss of spinothalamic functions does not appear to be a predictor for central neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury....... and thermal detection thresholds below injury level. SCI patients with central pain had sensory hypersensitivity in dermatomes corresponding to the lesion level more frequently than SCI patients without pain, but this may in part be explained by the exclusion of at-level spontaneous pain in the pain...

  19. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by zinc fume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroo; Hirata, Takeo; Shimane, Shoko; Morita, Sumihito; Chihara, Koji; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2006-12-01

    A 55-year-old man with a 3-year occupational history of welding was admitted for repeated episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after inhalation of smoke while welding galvanized steel. A computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse centrilobular nodules, panlobular ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields, and he suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 55.3Torr) while breathing room air. Percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased, and lung biopsy specimens at thoracoscopy revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and organization in air spaces. His symptoms and signs disappeared spontaneously only when he ceased welding. Panlobular ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening improved immediately with oral corticosteroids. Patch tests using metal series gave positive reactions to zinc. We diagnosed this case as hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by zinc fumes.

  20. Adrenergic receptors are a fallible index of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Liggett, S B; Christensen, N J;

    1991-01-01

    accumulation, in samples from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (n = 8), were no different from those in samples from patients with IDDM without neuropathy (n = 8), or from non-diabetic subjects (n = 8). In addition, platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor......In view of evidence that neither interindividual nor induced intra-individual variations of adrenergic receptor status are related to metabolic or haemodynamic sensitivity to adrenaline in vivo, we took an alternative approach to assessment of the relevance of adrenergic receptor measurement...... by measuring these in a group of subjects with well-documented adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity, patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptor densities (and binding affinities), measured with 125I-labelled pindolol, and isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP...

  1. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  2. Quality of life in children and teenagers with food hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Dean, Taraneh

    2010-08-01

    Given that food is essential for life and that there is currently no cure for food hypersensitivity (FHS), quality of life is a key outcome measure for those affected. The quality of life of children and teenagers with FHS is particularly important given that they must learn to manage their FHS while also contending with normal developmental challenges. This article will review the current state of quality of life research in this important area, and discusses the impact of FHS on the quality-of-life of children and teenagers, the availability and suitability of disease-specific health-related quality-of-life measures for this population, and the identification of factors that may influence their health-related quality of life. Two previous reviews have been conducted in this area, and this article aims to extend this work by including recent publications and qualitative studies on this topic.

  3. On the phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity; Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E.; Reissenweber, J.; Wojtysiak, A.; Pfotenhauer, M. [Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie; Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Zentrum fuer Elektropathologie

    2002-07-01

    For more than fifteen years electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are intensively discussed in connection with health hazards in mass media as well as questions of standard setting by the authorities. The present elaboration gives an extended overview over the actual situation of the special electromagnetic hypersensitivity issue in relation to electromagnetic field research in the international scientific community. There are parallels and analogies between the symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity and those of the Multiple-Chemical-Sensitivity-Syndrome and other environmental diseases. The first part deals with the biophysical fundamental knowledge of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems such as man or animal including threshold values and threshold philosophy. Then hypothetical mechanisms of action of EMF are demonstrated, with a special focus on the melatonin hypothesis, which has not been proved in all its parts up to now. Additionally, in the context of our biomedical research into disorders of well-being we conducted an analysis of written and telephone questions about the EMF issue which are sent to our center. The results are of scientific and political interest and are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [German] Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung innerhalb der Diskussion um die medizinisch-biologischen Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder. Es konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden, dass die Elektrosensibilitaet/Magnetosensibilitaet als eigenstaendige Krankheitseinheit (Krankheitsentitaet) existiert. Es handelt sich dabei um ein Phaenomen, das vor etwa 15 Jahren benannt und zunaechst nicht ernst genommen wurde. Im Rahmen des relativ jungen medizinisch-biologischen Fachgebietes Elektropathologie scheinen weitere Untersuchungen erforderlich, um die teilweise auch widerspruechlichen Befunde aufzuklaeren und zu erfahren, ob Felder Befindlichkeitsstoerungen ausloesen koennen, die in aehnlicher Form

  4. Animal models of complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, János; Alving, Carl R; Rosivall, László; Bünger, Rolf; Baranyi, Lajos; Bedöcs, Péter; Tóth, Miklós; Barenholz, Yezheckel

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous injection of some liposomal drugs, diagnostic agents, micelles and other lipid-based nanoparticles can cause acute hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a high percentage (up to 45%) of patients, with hemodynamic, respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. The phenomenon can be explained with activation of the complement (C) system on the surface of lipid particles, leading to anaphylatoxin (C5a and C3a) liberation and subsequent release reactions of mast cells, basophils and possibly other inflammatory cells in blood. These reactions can be reproduced and studied in pigs, dogs and rats, animal models which differ from each other in sensitivity and spectrum of symptoms. In the most sensitive pig model, a few miligrams of liposome (phospholipid) can cause anaphylactoid shock, characterized by pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, decreased cardiac output and major cardiac arrhythmias. Pigs also display cutaneous symptoms, such as flushing and rash. The sensitivity of dogs to hemodynamic changes is close to that of pigs, but unlike pigs, dogs also react to micellar lipids (such as Cremophor EL) and their response includes pronounced blood cell and vegetative neural changes (e.g., leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, fluid excretions). Rats are relatively insensitive inasmuch as hypotension, their most prominent response to liposomes, is induced only by one or two orders of magnitude higher phospholipid doses (based on body weight) compared to the reactogenic dose in pigs and dogs. It is suggested that the porcine and dog models are applicable for measuring and predicting the (pseudo)allergic activity of particulate "nanodrugs". PMID:17613700

  5. Understanding Transcription Factor Regulation by Integrating Gene Expression and DNase I Hypersensitive Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are proteins that bind to DNA sequences to regulate gene transcription. The transcription factor binding sites are short DNA sequences (5–20 bp long specifically bound by one or more transcription factors. The identification of transcription factor binding sites and prediction of their function continue to be challenging problems in computational biology. In this study, by integrating the DNase I hypersensitive sites with known position weight matrices in the TRANSFAC database, the transcription factor binding sites in gene regulatory region are identified. Based on the global gene expression patterns in cervical cancer HeLaS3 cell and HelaS3-ifnα4h cell (interferon treatment on HeLaS3 cell for 4 hours, we present a model-based computational approach to predict a set of transcription factors that potentially cause such differential gene expression. Significantly, 6 out 10 predicted functional factors, including IRF, IRF-2, IRF-9, IRF-1 and IRF-3, ICSBP, belong to interferon regulatory factor family and upregulate the gene expression levels responding to the interferon treatment. Another factor, ISGF-3, is also a transcriptional activator induced by interferon alpha. Using the different transcription factor binding sites selected criteria, the prediction result of our model is consistent. Our model demonstrated the potential to computationally identify the functional transcription factors in gene regulation.

  6. Cervical dentin hypersensitivity: a cross-sectional investigation in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiotis, C; Polychronopoulou, A; Tsiklakis, K; Kakaboura, A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of cervical dentin hypersensitivity in a cross-sectional investigation of Greek adults. Seven hundred and sixty-seven subjects were examined. Participants were patients processed for first examination in the Clinic of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Athens. The evaluation of hypersensitivity was performed using two methods: for each tooth, the response to a) tactile stimulus and b) air-blast stimulus was measured. Additional factors such as smoking habits, oral health behaviour, consumption of acidic foods, type of toothbrush, daily use of fluoride solution and of desensitising toothpaste, gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions were recorded and evaluated as causative factors. Descriptive statistics on the demographics of the study sample, of oral health behaviour characteristics and of oral examination findings were performed. Comparisons of these characteristics in the presence or absence of hypersensitivity were conducted with the chi-square test. Data were further analysed using multiple logistic regression modelling. Among study participants, 21·3% had at least one cervical dentin hypersensitivity reaction to the tactile stimulus, and 38·6%, to the air-blast stimulus. Multivariate analysis detected association of the hypersensitivity in tactile or air-blast stimulus with the non-carious lesions and with the gingival recessions. Additionally, a relation between hypersensitivity and air-blast stimulus with gender (female) was found. There was no association between the hypersensitivity in both of the stimuli and the level of education, smoking, consumption of acidic foods, type of toothbrush and daily use of fluoride solution or desensitising toothpaste. The overall prevalence of cervical dentin hypersensitivity in the adult population in Athens ranged from 21·3% to 38·6% depending on the type of stimuli. Cervical non-carious lesions and gingival

  7. Pharmacological characterization of standard analgesics on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Nakamura, Saki; Miyake, Takahito; So, Kanako; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Tokuyama, Shogo; Narita, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an acute peripheral neuropathy triggered by cold in almost all patients during or within hours after its infusion. We recently reported that a single administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hypersensitivity 2 h after the administration in mice. In this study, we examined whether standard analgesics relieve the oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity. Gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate significantly inhibited and morphine and milnacipran decreased the acute cold hypersensitivity, while diclofenac and amitriptyline had no effects. These results suggest that gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate are effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24671055

  8. A novel murine model of late-phase reaction of immediate hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Facincone

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a novel experimental model of late-phase reaction of immediate hypersensitivity developed in mice. It consists of introducing small fragments of heat-coagulated hen egg white into the subcutaneous tissue of mice. After 14 days, animals challenged with purified ovalbumin into the footpad presented an immediate swelling of the paw peaking at 30 min, followed by two peaks of swelling at 6 and 24 h. Histological examination of the paws showed a massive eosinophil infiltration (more than 800 cells/5 microscopic fields. This intense infiltration persisted for more than 14 days after the challenge. Furthermore, in mice immunized with coagulated egg white the delayed swelling of the paws and eosinophilic infiltration were significantly higher than in mice immunized with the classical protocol of ovalbumin in alumen adjuvant. Transfer of lymph node cells obtained from mice implanted with heat-coagulated hen egg white induced footpad swelling and eosinophil infiltration in response to ovalbumin. High levels of ovalbuminspecific IgG1 but not of IgE were detected in the serum of these animals. The advantages of this model for the experimental study of late-phase reaction per se and its relevance to the study of allergic diseases such as asthma are discussed.

  9. Immunomodulatory gene therapy prevents antibody formation and lethal hypersensitivity reactions in murine pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baodong; Kulis, Michael D; Young, Sarah P; Hobeika, Amy C; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Zhang, Haoyue; Li, Yifan; Clay, Timothy M; Burks, Wesley; Kishnani, Priya S; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2010-02-01

    Infantile Pompe disease progresses to a lethal cardiomyopathy in absence of effective treatment. Enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) has been effective in most patients with Pompe disease, but efficacy was reduced by high-titer antibody responses. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a low dose adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (2 x 10(10) particles) containing a liver-specific regulatory cassette significantly lowered immunoglobin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgE antibodies to GAA in Pompe disease mice, when compared with mock-treated mice (P mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1) followed the pattern associated with hypersensitivity reactions (P cells (Treg) were demonstrated to play a role in the tolerance induced by gene therapy as depletion of Treg led to an increase in GAA-specific IgG (P Treg depleted mice were challenged with GAA and had significantly stronger allergic reactions than mice given gene therapy without subsequent Treg depletion (temperature: P < 0.01; symptoms: P < 0.05). Ubiquitous GAA expression failed to prevent antibody formation. Thus, immunomodulatory gene therapy could provide adjunctive therapy in lysosomal storage disorders treated by enzyme replacement. PMID:19690517

  10. Hypersensitivity of Allium cepa seedling roots to X-rays for production of micronuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Takayoshi [Kyoritsu Junior High School, Tokyo (Japan); Hanmoto, Hidehiro; Fujishige, Ikuko; Inoue, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Tetsuo; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Yonezawa, Yoshihiko

    1995-10-01

    Seedling roots of onion (Allium cepa) were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. Following irradiation, the roots were incubated at 23-25degC for 24 hr, i.e., approximate time for one mitotic cycle, and then fixed, stained and macerated in a 7:3 mixture of acetic dahlia (prepared by dissolving a 0.5 g sample of dahlia violet into 100 ml of 30% acetate) and 1 N HCl for 10-15 min. Terminal 1-2 mm of the root tips were squashed on slides, one root each, and microscopically inspected for the presence of more than one nucleus in the cells. The additional nuclei, which were smaller than the normal, were scored as micronuclei. The frequency of micronuclei increased with dose over the control level ({approx}0.2x10{sup -3}) to a high level of 140x10{sup -3} at 1 Gy. The frequency recorded at 1 Gy was about two fold higher as compared with the frequency reported by Evans et al. (1959) for micronuclei induced by {gamma}-rays at a comparable dose in the root tip cells of Vica faba seedlings, probably reflecting relatively higher DNA content per cell in Allium somatic cells. We thus may conclude that root-tip meristematic cells of Allium seedlings are hypersensitive to the induction of micronuclei by X-rays. The Allium micronucleus assay may be useful as a system not only for quantitating chromosome damage by low-level radiation but also for detecting environmental mutagens. (author).

  11. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X 4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Guo; Jianqiao Fang; Jifei Chen; Yuan Lu; Luyi Wu; Zhijun Weng; Ling Yang; Yuhu Xin; Xianming Lin; Yi Liang

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X 4 receptor immu-reactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X 4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X 4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord.

  12. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  13. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-08-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  14. Retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with cytostatic drugs and Co60 because of genital malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of application of cytostatic drugs and telegammatherapy (Co60) was tested by means of cutaneous hyperactivity reactions in 89 women treated because of malignant neoplasms of the genital organs. The skin tests with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivate (PPD) were used. The group 1 constituted of 36 women treated with cytostatic drugs through a period of 7 months to 4 years. The appearance of retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD correlated with the clinical state of the subjects. In cases of improvement of the clinical state the skin reactions were more intensive, when the disease progreded the reactions became weak or disappeared. When the clinical state remained unchanged - the same was true with the skin reactions. In the group 253 women were treated by means of irradiation (Co60) because of similar diagnosis of malignant genital neoplasm. In all cases a regression of the retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD was observed, together with a decrease of the number of white blood cells in the peripheric blood. Correlation of the individual skin reactions to DNCB and PPD demonstrated that the latter gave a smaller percent of positive reactions in comparison with the former agent, these reactions were also less sensitive. (author)

  15. Health-related quality of life in food hypersensitive schoolchildren and their families: parents' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marklund Birgitta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance. Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%. Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a

  16. Observations on dentine hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khafaji, Hasanain

    2013-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common clinical finding with a wide variation in prevalence values and etiological factors. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and some etiological factors of dentine hypersensitivity of Emirati patients visiting general dental clinics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over a period of three calendar months. Materials and Methods: Six general dental practitioners examined 204 Emirati patients over a period of three calen...

  17. New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Pirmohamed, Munir; Ostrov, David A.; Park, B. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are an important clinical problem for both health care and industry. Recent advances in genetics have identified a number of HLA alleles associated with a range of these adverse reactions predominantly affecting the skin but also other organs, such as the liver. The associations between abacavir hypersensitivity and HLA-B*57:01 and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and HLA-B*15:02 have been implemented in clinical practice. There are many different...

  18. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation-Report Of A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ramnarayan, BK; Maligi, PM; Smitha, T; Patil, US

    2014-01-01

    Amalgam or its components may cause Type IV hypersensitivity reactions on the oral mucosa. These amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesions (ACHL) present as white striae and plaques, erythematous, erosive, atrophic, or ulcerative lesions. Postinflammatory pigmentation in such lesions and pigmentation due to amalgam incorporation in the soft tissue have been reported in the literature. However, ACHL presenting primarily as a black pigmented lesion is extremely rare if not reported. The clinicia...

  19. A case of hypersensitivity to soluble and isophane insulins but not to insulin glargine

    OpenAIRE

    Belhekar, Mahesh N; Sarayu Pai; Parimal Tayade; Pradip Dalwadi; Renuka Munshi; Prema Varthakavi

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is an important agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). Allergic reactions to insulin therapy, although rare, have been evident since animal insulin became available for the treatment of DM in 1922. Hypersensitivity to insulin has considerably been reduced with the introduction of human insulin produced by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology. Here, we present a case of Type 2 DM who demonstrated immediate (Type 1) hypersensitivity reaction on the sites of subcutane...

  20. Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tamara; Qu, Chaoling; Okun, Alec; Mercado, Ramon; Ren, Jiyang; Brion, Triza; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank

    2011-09-01

    A predominant complaint in patients with neuropathic pain is spontaneous pain, often described as burning. Recent studies have demonstrated that negative reinforcement can be used to unmask spontaneous neuropathic pain, allowing for mechanistic investigations. Here, ascending pathways that might contribute to evoked and spontaneous components of an experimental neuropathic pain model were explored. Desensitization of TRPV1-positive fibers with systemic resiniferatoxin (RTX) abolished spinal nerve ligation (SNL) injury-induced thermal hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain, but had no effect on tactile hypersensitivity. Ablation of spinal NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons blocked SNL-induced thermal and tactile hypersensitivity as well as spontaneous pain. After nerve injury, upregulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is observed almost exclusively in large-diameter fibers, and inactivation of the brainstem target of these fibers in the nucleus gracilis prevents tactile but not thermal hypersensitivity. Blockade of NPY signaling within the nucleus gracilis failed to block SNL-induced spontaneous pain or thermal hyperalgesia while fully reversing tactile hypersensitivity. Moreover, microinjection of NPY into nucleus gracilis produced robust tactile hypersensitivity, but failed to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that spontaneous neuropathic pain and thermal hyperalgesia are mediated by TRPV1-positive fibers and spinal NK-1-positive ascending projections. In contrast, the large-diameter dorsal column projection can mediate nerve injury-induced tactile hypersensitivity, but does not contribute to spontaneous pain. Because inhibition of tactile hypersensitivity can be achieved either by spinal manipulations or by inactivation of signaling within the nucleus gracilis, the enhanced paw withdrawal response evoked by tactile stimulation does not necessarily reflect allodynia.

  1. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy bot...

  2. Probiotics for Prevention of Atopy and Food Hypersensitivity in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Hua-Jian; Liu, Chuan-Yang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Most studies investigated probiotics on food hypersensitivity, not on oral food challenge confirmed food allergy in children. The authors systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether probiotic supplementation prenatally and/or postnatally could reduce the risk of atopy and food hypersensitivity in young children. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and 4 main Chinese literature databases (Wan Fang, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrast...

  3. Comparative efficacy of two treatment modalities for dentinal hypersensitivity: A clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aparna S; Setty Swati; Thakur Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a recurrent condition causing discomfort and sometimes pain to the patient, which also deters him from maintaining adequate oral hygiene. Home care and office measures are used for treatment of this malady. Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of 2 treatment modalities for dentinal hypersensitivity, iontophoresis with acidulated phosphate gel (APF) gel, and dentin-bonding agent application. Materials and Methods: This split mouth randomized clinic...

  4. Suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to oxazolone in whole-body-irradiated mice and protection by WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of whole-body irradiation on cellular immunity, as measured in vivo by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to oxazolone, was determined in CD2F1 mice. DTH, determined by changes in ear swelling after challenge with oxazolone, was significantly depressed in irradiated mice (500-900 rad of 60Co) in a dose-dependent fashion when animals were irradiated after sensitization and before challenge with oxazolone. Administration of WR-2721 30 min before irradiation (2 days after sensitization) resulted in protection against suppression of DTH, which was dependent on drug and radiation dose. An effective dose of WR-2721 provided an approximate dose-modifying factor of 1.3. The data suggest that WR-2721 interacts with cells involved in that DTH response and that WR-2721 may be useful in protecting against radiation-induced decrements in cell-mediated immunity

  5. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options. PMID:27218442

  6. Abnormal endogenous pain modulation and somatic and visceral hypersensitivity in female patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clive H Wilder-Smith; Joan Robert-Yap

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of endogenous pain modulatory mechanisms in the central sensitization implicated by the visceral hypersensitivity demonstrated in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Dysfunction of modulatory mechanisms would be expected to also result in changes of somatic sensory function.METHODS: Endogenous pain modulatory mechanisms were assessed using heterotopic stimulation and somatic and visceral sensory testing in IBS. Pain intensities (visual analogue scale, VAS 0-100) during suprathreshold rectal distension with a barostat, cold pressor stimulation of the foot and during both stimuli simultaneously (heterotopic stimulation) were recorded in 40 female patients with IBS and 20 female healthy controls.RESULTS: Rectal hypersensitivity (defined by 95% CI of controls) was seen in 21 (53%), somatic hypersensitivity in 22 (55%) and both rectal and somatic hypersensitivity in 14 of these IBS patients. Heterotopic stimulation decreased rectal pain intensity by 6 (-11 to -1) in controls, but increased rectal pain by 2 (-3 to +6) in all IBS patients (P<0.05) and by 8 (-2 to +19) in IBS patients with somatic and visceral hypersensitivity (P<0.02).CONCLUSION: A majority of IBS patients had abnormal endogenous pain modulation and somatic hypersensitivity as evidence of central sensitization.

  7. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5 years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%, no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%. Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients, tomatoes (in 20%, and kiwi (in 17, 5%, apples and spices (in 16%, tangerines and oranges (in 15%, capsicum (in 13%, fishes (in 12%, celery (in 9%, and chocolate (in 7%. Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  8. Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH is characterized by pain after stimuli that usually provoke no symptoms. This study compared the effectiveness of GaAlAs diode laser alone and with topical sodium fluoride gel (NaF. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 10 patients (8 F/2 M, age 25–60 and 115 teeth with DH assessed by air and tactile stimuli measured by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS. Teeth were randomly divided into G1 (34 teeth treated by 1.25% NaF; G2 (33 teeth lased at 0.5 W PW (T on 100 m and T off 100 ms, fluence 62.2 J/cm2 in defocused mode with a 320 μ fiber. Each tooth received three 1′ applications; G3 (48 teeth received NaF gel plus laser at same G2 parameters. NRS was checked at each control. Results. Significant pain reduction was showed. The NRS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a concrete decrease of DH above all in G3 than G2 and G1. Conclusion. Diode laser is a useful device for DH treatment if used alone and mainly if used with NaF gel.

  9. Quantifying serum antibody in bird fanciers' hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting serum antibody against inhaled antigens is an important diagnostic adjunct for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP. We sought to validate a quantitative fluorimetric assay testing serum from bird fanciers. Methods Antibody activity was assessed in bird fanciers and control subjects using various avian antigens and serological methods, and the titer was compared with symptoms of HP. Results IgG antibody against pigeon serum antigens, quantified by fluorimetry, provided a good discriminator of disease. Levels below 10 mg/L were insignificant, and increasing titers were associated with disease. The assay was unaffected by total IgG, autoantibodies and antibody to dietary hen's egg antigens. Antigens from pigeon serum seem sufficient to recognize immune sensitivity to most common pet avian species. Decreasing antibody titers confirmed antigen avoidance. Conclusion Increasing antibody titer reflected the likelihood of HP, and decreasing titers confirmed antigen avoidance. Quantifying antibody was rapid and the increased sensitivity will improve the rate of false-negative reporting and obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures. Automated fluorimetry provides a method for the international standardization of HP serology thereby improving quality control and improving its suitability as a diagnostic adjunct.

  10. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a green tea manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuko; Shirai, Toshihiro; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Asada, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by numerous agents, and one of its histopathological features is poorly formed granulomas. We report here a rare case of occupational HP caused by green tea, showing well-formed granulomas. The patient, a 54-year-old woman who had worked for 15 years in a green tea factory, was referred for abnormal chest X-ray shadows with cough and breathlessness over a 2-month period. The chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Histopathological examination of the thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens showed bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia with well-formed granulomas. Although the form of granulomas were atypical, laboratory data, CT findings, and intradermal skin testing suggested the diagnosis of subacute HP caused by green tea. After transfer to a different department, her condition improved markedly. Taking a precise medical history and avoidance of the suspected environmental agent proved useful in diagnosing this condition. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Clinical Abacavir Hypersensitivity Reaction among Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Sharma, Saurabh; Johri, Anuradha; Chourasia, Ankita; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-08-01

    Abacavir is currently recommended as a part of first line regimen by National AIDS Control Organization. The objective of this study was to observe the incidence of clinically diagnosed abacavir Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) among children on abacavir based therapy in the National program. In this observational study, all children started on abacavir were included and HSR reaction was diagnosed clinically as per National guidelines. HLA- B*5701 testing was done in children diagnosed with clinical abacavir HSR. Among 101 children started on abacavir during the study period, 8 [7.9 % (95 % CI 3.5-15.0 %)] children developed clinically diagnosed abacavir HSR. All children with concomitant illness (4/8) were HLA-B*5701 negative. Only 2 (25 %, 2/8) carried HLA-B*5701 allele. Fever with abdominal symptoms as compared to respiratory symptoms were more common in HLA-B*5701 positive cases. Overdiagnosis of clinically diagnosed abacavir HSR is common and could be decreased by treating concomitant illness before starting abacavir. PMID:26887762

  12. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  13. Exploring Some Aspects Associated with Dentine Hypersensitivity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Shitsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of dentine hypersensitivity (DH is still inconclusive and there are few studies concerning it in children. Aim. To evaluate clinical, dietary, and salivary variables in children with DH complaints. Design. Forty-eight children were asked about DH. Data regarding dietary habits were collected from the children’s parents and an examination was performed to determine dental erosion. Dental biofilm was estimated by oral hygiene status, according to Greene and Vermillion’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S. Whole saliva was collected under mechanical stimulation and evaluated salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity, and calcium and phosphate concentrations. The temperature of soft drinks, drinking method, sense of bitter taste, and other variables were also determined. Possible factors associated with DH were analyzed by univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses. The prevalence ratio (PR values and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results. DH was associated with the presence of dental erosion (PR; 95% CI = 2.23; 1.05 to 4.71 and salivary flow rate (2.49; 1.05 to 5.91. When the presence of erosion was not included, other variables were retained as follows: bitter taste (2.36; 1.38 to 4.03, OHI-S (0.47; 0.23 to 0.97. Conclusion. DH in children is associated with factors related to dental erosion.

  14. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome or diagnosing chemical hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.A. (Northeast Center for Environmental Medicine, Syracuse, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The abrupt exposure to urea foam formaldehyde insulation served as an alert to its spectrum of symptoms, including attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness or exhaustion, arthralgia, an inability to concentrate, unwarranted depression, arrhythmia, or muscle spasms, and baffled physicians from many specialties. Later it was learned that toluene, xylene, benzene, natural gas, trichloroethylene, and many other chemicals were also capable of triggering chemical hypersensitivity. Other names for this condition include Environmentally Induced Illness (EI), the Tight Building Syndrome (TBS), the Sick Building Syndrome, and Building-Related Illness. The very symptoms patients complain of can be provoked within minutes and then subsequently alleviated with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of the triggering chemical. This technique aids in convincing the patient of the EI or TBS triggers so that the patient can begin to relate symptoms to environmental exposures and initiate measure to bring the disease under control. The key to safer buildings is increased ventilation, increased filtration of air, and decreased use of off-gassing synthetic materials.

  15. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  16. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll

    Full Text Available The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  17. Mutation of Arabidopsis HY1 causes UV-C hypersensitivity by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis and the down-regulation of antioxidant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjie; Xu, Daokun; Cui, Weiti; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-06-01

    Previous pharmacological results confirmed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protection of cells against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seedlings, but there remains a lack of genetic evidence. In this study, the link between Arabidopsis thaliana HO-1 (HY1) and UV-C tolerance was investigated at the genetic and molecular levels. The maximum inducible expression of HY1 in wild-type Arabidopsis was observed following UV-C irradiation. UV-C sensitivity was not observed in ho2, ho3, and ho4 single and double mutants. However, the HY1 mutant exhibited UV-C hypersensitivity, consistent with the observed decreases in chlorophyll content, and carotenoid and flavonoid metabolism, as well as the down-regulation of antioxidant defences, thereby resulting in severe oxidative damage. The addition of the carbon monoxide donor carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), in particular, and bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HY1, partially rescued the UV-C hypersensitivity, and other responses appeared in the hy1 mutant. Transcription factors involved in the synthesis of flavonoid or UV responses were induced by UV-C, but reduced in the hy1 mutant. Overall, the findings showed that mutation of HY1 triggered UV-C hypersensitivity, by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant defences.

  18. Alpha-picolinic acid,a fungal toxin and mammal apoptosis-inducing agent,elicits hypersensitive-like response and enhances disease resistance in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Kuo ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Bi Zeng MAO; Qun LI; Zu Hua HE

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-picolinic acid (PA),a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell,has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants. Here,we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta. Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS),rice suspension cells and leaves exhibited programmed cell death induced by PA. The PA-induced cell death was associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that could be blocked by diphenylene iodonium chloride,indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species was NADPHoxidase dependent. We also demonstrated the induction of rice defense-related genes and subsequent resistant enhancement by PA against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Hence,it was concluded that the PA-stimulated defense response likely involves the onset of the hypersensitive response in rice,which also provides a simple eliciting tool for studying apoptosis in the plant cell.

  19. In vitro alternatives to safety assessment of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions%药物超敏反应安全评价体外替代方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞霞; 林海霞; 汤纳平; 马璟

    2012-01-01

    超敏反应是药物的严重不良反应之一,严重时可危及患者生命.目前超敏反应(Ⅰ,Ⅳ型)临床前评价方法多为整体动物实验方法,基于动物福利和3R原则的考虑,以及体外替代方法的迅速发展,目前已建立了数种药物致敏性评价的体外替代方法,包括根据肥大细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞在Ⅰ型超敏反应中发挥的关键作用,用实验室易获得的肥大细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞系如RBL-2H3和KU812研究药物的Ⅰ型超敏反应,另外鉴于树突状细胞在Ⅳ型超敏反应中抗原呈递作用,用THP-1细胞构建的h-CLAT试验体系和LC-SA试验体系在皮肤致敏性的评价方面都显示出较好的发展前景.本文综合近年的国内外文献,对超敏反应的体外替代方法进行了综合论述和评估.%As one of the most frequent adverse effects induced by drugs, hypersensitivity reactions may result in severe morbidity and fatalities. It's critical to evaluate the allergy potential of new drugs and other chemicals, and usually animal experiments are used in the preclinical assessment. Considering animal welfare and 3R principles, in vitro alternatives to animal experiments have been developed to predict the hypersensitivity potential by simulating the physiological and pathological mechanism of hypersensitivity. The available cell lines RBI.-2H3 and KL812 are used to study type I hypersensitivity because mast cells and basophils play a critical role in the process of type ] hypersensitivity. Similarly, because dendritic cells are important APC, h-CLAT (human cell line activation test) and LCSA (loose -fit coculture-based sensitization assay) are established to evaluate type IV hypersensitivity. Throuth reviewing the literature in recent years, this article makes a comprehensive introduction and evaluation of the alternatives to safety assessment of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions.

  20. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats, respectively. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/30 value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death

  1. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Endoh, D; Kon, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, F; Kasai, N; Namioka, S

    1993-02-01

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats, respectively. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/30 value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death.

  2. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Endoh, Daiji; Kon, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Tadashi; Sato, Fumiaki; Kasai, Noriyuki; Namioka, Shigeo (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD[sub 50/30] value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death. (author).

  3. Interleukin-12 reverses the inhibitory impact of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the murine contact hypersensitivity response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Guillermo O.; Levy, Julia G.; Hunt, David W. C.

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of mice with certain photosensitizers combined with exposure to visible light limits the development of the immunologically-mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against topically-applied chemical haptens. Understanding of the inhibitory action of photosensitizers upon the CHS response is incomplete. Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, verteporfin), a photosensitizer with immunomodulatory activity, strongly depressed CHS responses to the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). However, if mice were administered 1 (mu) g of a recombinant preparation of the pro- inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (rIL-12), full-fledged CHS responses to DNFB ensued in animals treated with BPD-MA and light. In contrast, when rIL-12 was given in combination with an anti-IL-12 antibody the restorative effect of rIL-12 on the CHS response of PDT-treated mice was blocked. Evaluation of the cytokine status of spleen and draining lymph node cells showed for DNFB painted animals, that the release of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 was increased by PDT and rIL-12 counter-acted the increase in IL-10 liberation associated with PDT. These studies indicate that IL-10 formation is upregulated and the availability of IL-12 may be limited in mice treated with PDT. These features may contribute to deficient CHS responses observed with PDT.

  4. Hypersensitivity of LEC strain rats in radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, were highly sensitive to whole-body X ray-irradiation as compared to WKAH strain rats. Radiation-induced acute bone-marrow death occurred at doses higher than 2.0 Gy in LEC rats, and at doses higher than 7.4 Gy in WKAH rats. By probit analysis of survival data, it was shown that the LD50/30 value for LEC rats was 3.0 Gy which was significantly lower than that (7.8 Gy) of WKAH rats. Histopathological examinations of the bone marrows from both strains after irradiation at a dose of 4.0 Gy revealed that a number of hemopoietic cells were recovered in WKAH rats on day 8 after irradiation, but not in LEC rats. These results suggested the hypersensitivity of LEC rats to ionizing radiation in connection with acute bone-marrow death. (author)

  5. Role of DNA damage in local suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mice to UVE radiation down-regulates the induction of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses to haptens applied to the site of irradiation. Concomittantly, the activity of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the draining lymph nodes is decreased, and T lymphocytes that suppress the induction of CHS are induced. We assessed the role of DNA damage in modulation of the CHS response by UV irradiation by applying liposomes containing T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) to the UV-irradiated skin. Liposomal T4N5, which increases the rate of repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in DNA, prevented the reduction in the CHS response, the impairment in APC function, and the induction of transferrable immune suppression. Liposomes containing heat-inactivated T4N5 did not restore immune responsiveness. In this model, hapten-bearing APC from unirradiated mice also fail to induce CHS upon injection into UV-irradiated recipients. This systemic effect of UV irradiation on APC function was also prevented by application of liposomes containing active, but not inactive, T4N5. These studies support the hypothesis that DNA damage is an essential initiator of one or more steps leading to impaired immune responsiveness after UV irradiation. They further imply that the release of cytokines that modulate APC function after UV irradiation is triggered by DNA damage. (au) 37 refs

  6. Virulent ¤Blumeria graminis¤ infection induces penetration susceptibility and suppresses race-specific hypersensitive resistance against avirulent attack in ¤Mla1¤-barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.L.; Carver, T.L.W.; Zeyen, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    appears that suppressive factors released during virulent inducer infection prevented the hypersensitive epidermal cell death that normally is induced by the race-specific avirulence elicitor. However, suppression of Mla1 race-specific resistance vas confined to the epidermis. The presence of successful......Leaves of near isogenic barley lines containing the race-specific resistance alleles. Mla1 or mla1 were subjected to double inoculation treatments with virulent and avirulent Blumeria graminis isolates. Attack by the avirulent isolate alone frequently caused hypersensitive death of individual Mla1...... epidermal cells, but underlying mesophyll cells survived. Virulent and avirulent B. graminis isolates Were inoculated sequentially (inducer followed by challenger) in all possible combinations. As shown previously, where a papilla formed due to inducer attacks, the attacked epidermal cell, and to some...

  7. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Meulenbroeks

    Full Text Available The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus. We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder.

  8. Oncometabolic mutation IDH1 R132H confers a metformin-hypersensitive phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; De Llorens, Rafael; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility might be particularly constrained in tumors bearing mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) leading to the production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxygluratate (2HG). To test the hypothesis that IDH1 mutations could generate metabolic vulnerabilities for therapeutic intervention, we utilized an MCF10A cell line engineered with an arginine-to-histidine conversion at position 132 (R132H) in the catalytic site of IDH1, which equips the enzyme with a neomorphic α-ketoglutarate to 2HG reducing activity in an otherwise isogenic background. IDH1 R132H/+ and isogenic IDH1 +/+ parental cells were screened for their ability to generate energy-rich NADH when cultured in a standardized high-throughput Phenotype MicroArrayplatform comprising >300 nutrients. A radical remodeling of the metabotype occurred in cells carrying the R132H mutation since they presented a markedly altered ability to utilize numerous carbon catabolic fuels. A mitochondria toxicity-screening modality confirmed a severe inability of IDH1-mutated cells to use various carbon substrates that are fed into the electron transport chain at different points. The mitochondrial biguanide poisons, metformin and phenformin, further impaired the intrinsic weakness of IDH1-mutant cells to use certain carbon-energy sources. Additionally, metabolic reprogramming of IDH1-mutant cells increased their sensitivity to metformin in assays of cell proliferation, clonogenic potential, and mammosphere formation. Targeted metabolomics studies revealed that the ability of metformin to interfere with the anaplerotic entry of glutamine into the tricarboxylic acid cycle could explain the hypersensitivity of IDH1-mutant cells to biguanides. Moreover, synergistic interactions occurred when metformin treatment was combined with the selective R132H-IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198. Together, these results suggest that therapy involving the simultaneous targeting of metabolic vulnerabilities with metformin, and 2HG

  9. Hepatic necrosis associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS; also known as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms [DRESS] is a life-threatening condition first described by Chaikenetal. in 1950. It is characterized by extensive mucocutaneous rash; fever; lymphadenopathy; hepatitis; hematological abnormalities; damage to several organs such as kidney, heart, lungs, and pancreas; and possible reactivation of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 or other herpes virus. Rare and severe cases may present hepatic necrosis, and about 15% of them result in death or liver transplantation. A hallmark of this syndrome is the late onset of symptoms after the drug exposure. The most common culprit drugs are the aromatic anticonvulsants (in almost 30% of the cases and the antibiotics (which in some series represent 20% of the cases. The authors report a case of a 41-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with erythroderma, acute hepatitis, acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure, and was then treated with corticosteroid after the diagnosis of DIHS/DRESS. A specific culprit drug could not confidently be determined due to the presence of multiple drugs used by the patient. The clinical and laboratory outcome was apparently satisfactory, but unexpectedly, on the sixth day of hospitalization, the patient complained of nonspecific malaise, drowsiness, which progressed in a few hours with signs and symptoms of hepatic failure, refractory shock, and death. The autopsy findings showed submassive hepatic necrosis, and the immediate cause of death was attributed to hepatic failure.

  10. The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity: historical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Microwave generating equipment first became common during World War 2 with the development of radar. Soviet bloc countries reported that individuals exposed to microwaves frequently developed headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleepiness, difficulty in concentration, poor memory, emotional instability, and labile cardiovascular function, and established stringent exposure standards. For a variety of reasons these reports were discounted in Western countries, where the prevailing belief was that there could be no adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that were not mediated by tissue heating. The reported Soviet effects were at lower intensities than those that cause heating. However, there were several accidental exposures of radar operators in Western countries that resulted in persistent symptoms similar to those described above. The Soviets irradiated the US Embassy in Moscow with microwaves during the period 1953-1975, and while no convincing evidence of elevated cancer rates was reported, there were reports of "microwave illness". Officials passed these complaints off as being due to anxiety, not effects of the microwave exposure. There is increasing evidence that the "microwave syndrome" or "electro-hypersensitivity" (EHS) is a real disease that is caused by exposure to EMFs, especially those in the microwave range. The reported incidence of the syndrome is increasing along with increasing exposure to EMFs from electricity, WiFi, mobile phones and towers, smart meters and many other wireless devices. Why some individuals are more sensitive is unclear. While most individuals who report having EHS do not have a specific history of an acute exposure, excessive exposure to EMFs, even for a brief period of time, can induce the syndrome. PMID:26556835

  11. Perceived Food Hypersensitivity Relates to Poor Asthma Control and Quality of Life in Young Non-Atopic Asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer; Borres, Magnus P.; Nordvall, Lennart; Lidholm, Jonas; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between perceived food hypersensitivity in asthmatics, food allergen sensitization, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life has not been studied. Objective Our aim was to study the prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity in a cohort of young asthmatics, its relation to food allergen sensitization, and any correlation to asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Methods Perceived food hypersensitivity, as well as IgE sensitization to common ...

  12. Evaluation of three different agents for in-office treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: A controlled clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti A Patil; Balaram D Naik; Suma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Dentin desensitizers are used for in-office treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. They block the open tubules and bring about a reduction in hypersensitivity. Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare the clinical effectiveness of a dentin desensitizer, a combination of a dentin desensitizer + adhesive and one-bottle self-etching adhesive for in-office treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Settings and Design: Institutional, prospective double-blind parallel clinical design....

  13. Effects of Schisandra chinensis extracts on cough and pulmonary inflammation in a cough hypersensitivity guinea pig model induced by cigarette smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shan; Nie, Yi-chu; Gan, Zhen-yong; Liu, Xiao-dong; Fang, Zhang-fu; Zhong, Bo-nian; Tian, Jin; Huang, Chu-qin; Lai, Ke-fang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2015-05-13

    Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in prescription medications for the treatment of chronic cough. However, the material basis of S. chinensis in relieving cough has not been completely elucidated yet. This study established a guinea pig model of cough hypersensitivity induced by 14 days of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, to evaluate the antitussive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of three S. chinensis extracts. And then the function of four lignans in reducing expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was examined using A549 cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The results demonstrated that both ethanol extract (EE) and ethanol-water extract (EWE) of S. chinensis, but not water extract (WE), significantly reduced the cough frequency enhanced by 0.4M citric acid solution in these cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Meanwhile, pretreatment with EE and EWE both significantly attenuated the CS-induced increase in infiltration of pulmonary neutrophils and total inflammatory cells, as well as pulmonary MDA, TNF-α, and IL-8, while remarkably increased activities of pulmonary SOD and GSH. According to H&E and immunofluorescence staining assays, airway epithelium hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, inflammatory cells infiltration, as well as expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1, were significantly attenuated in animals pretreatment with 1g/kg EE. Moreover, four lignans of EE, including schizandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin and γ-schisandrin, significantly inhibited CSE-induced expression of TRPV1, TRPA1 and NOS3, as well as NO release in A549 cells. In conclusion, S. chinensis reduces cough frequency and pulmonary inflammation in the CS-induced cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Lignans may be the active components.

  14. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on delayed-type hypersensitivity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and skin graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ultraviolet B irradiation on the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to alloantigens by epidermal cells (EC), on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to alloantigens, and on skin graft rejection was studied. After the skin was irradiated with UVB in vitro, EC were obtained. The EC were injected subcutaneously, and the DTH reaction was compared with that induced by non-UVB-irradiated EC. A reduction in the DTH reaction was observed (from 62% to 99.1%). CTL activity in these mice was assessed after in vitro stimulation. CTL activity in mice sensitized with UVB-irradiated EC was significantly reduced. Furthermore, mice sensitized with UVB-irradiated EC did not reject a subsequent skin allograft in an accelerated fashion, whereas mice sensitized with non-UVB-irradiated EC did. The mechanism(s) of these reactions and the clinical application of the UVB irradiation prior to grafting are discussed

  15. Dentin hypersensitivity: from diagnosis to a breakthrough therapy for everyday sensitivity relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing

  16. Dentin hypersensitivity: from diagnosis to a breakthrough therapy for everyday sensitivity relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing

  17. Restoring Spinal Noradrenergic Inhibitory Tone Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether restoring descending noradrenergic inhibitory tone can attenuate pain in a PD rat model, which was established by stereotaxic infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the bilateral striatum (CPu). PD rats developed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the 4th week after surgery. HPLC analysis showed that NE content, but not dopamine or 5-HT, significantly decreased in lumbar spinal cord in PD rats. Additional noradrenergic depletion by injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) aggravated pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. At the 5th week after injection of 6-OHDA, systemic treatment with pharmacological norepinephrine (NE) precursor droxidopa (L-DOPS) or α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine significantly attenuated thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Furthermore, application of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, but not 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors sertraline, significantly inhibited thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Systemic administration of Madopar (L-DOPA) or the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole slightly inhibited the thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity in PD rats. Thus, our study revealed that impairment of descending noradrenergic system may play a key role in PD-associated pain and restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone may serve as a novel strategy to manage PD-associated pain. PMID:27747105

  18. Maize ZmVPP5 is a truncated Vacuole Hþ-PPase that confers hypersensitivity to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoliang Sun; Weiwei Qi; Yihong Yue; Huiling Ling; Gang Wang; Rentao Song

    2016-01-01

    In plants, Vacuole Hþ-PPases (VPPs) are important proton pumps and encoded by multiple genes. In addition to full-length VPPs, several truncated forms are expressed, but their biological functions are unknown. In this study, we functionally characterized maize vacuole Hþ-PPase 5 (ZmVPP5), a truncated VPP in the maize genome. Although ZmVPP5 shares high sequence similarity with ZmVPP1, ZmVPP5 lacks the complete structure of the conserved proton transport and the inorganic pyrophosphatase-related domain. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ZmVPP5 might be derived from an incomplete gene duplication event. ZmVPP5 is expressed in multiple tissues, and ZmVPP5 was detected in the plasma membrane, vacuole membrane and nuclei of maize cells. The overexpression of ZmVPP5 in yeast cells caused a hypersensitivity to salt stress. Transgenic maize lines with overexpressed ZmVPP5 also exhibited the salt hypersensitivity phenotype. A yeast two-hybrid analysis identified the ZmBag6-like protein as a putative ZmVPP5-interacting protein. The results of bimolecular luminescence complementation (BiLC) assay suggest an interaction between ZmBag6-like protein and ZmVPP5 in vivo. Overall, this study suggests that ZmVPP5 might act as a VPP antagonist and participate in the cellular response to salt stress. Our study of ZmVPP5 has expanded the understanding of the origin and functions of truncated forms of plant VPPs.

  19. Deletion of Brca2 exon 27 causes hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks, chromosomal instability, and reduced life span in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Greg; Brenneman, Mark A.; Cui, Tracy X.; Donoviel, Dorit; Vogel, Hannes; Goodwin, Edwin H.; Chen, David J.; Hasty, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27 encodes a single, distinct interaction domain. Deletion of all RAD51-interacting domains causes embryonic lethality in mice. A less severe phenotype is seen with BRAC2 truncations that preserve some, but not all, of the BRC motifs. These mice can survive beyond weaning, but are runted and infertile, and die very young from cancer. Cells from such mice show hypersensitivity to some genotoxic agents and chromosomal instability. Here, we have analyzed mice and cells with a deletion of only the RAD51-interacting region encoded by exon 27. Mice homozygous for this mutation (called brca2(lex1)) have a shorter life span than that of control littermates, possibly because of early onsets of cancer and sepsis. No other phenotype was observed in these animals; therefore, the brca2(lex1) mutation is less severe than truncations that delete some BRC motifs. However, at the cellular level, the brca2(lex1) mutation causes reduced viability, hypersensitivity to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and gross chromosomal instability, much like more severe truncations. Thus, the extreme carboxy-terminal region encoded by exon 27 is important for BRCA2 function, probably because it is required for a fully functional interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. PMID:26033473

  1. Is cancer a severe delayed hypersensitivity reaction and histamine a blueprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mahin

    2016-12-01

    Longevity and accumulation of multiple context-dependent signaling pathways of long-standing inflammation (antigen-load or oxidative stress) are the results of decreased/altered regulation of immunity and loss of control switch mechanisms that we defined as Yin and Yang of acute inflammation or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation is initiated by immune disruptors-induced progressive changes in physiology and function of susceptible host tissues that lead to increased immune suppression and multistep disease processes including carcinogenesis. The interrelated multiple hypotheses that are presented for the first time in this article are extension of author's earlier series of 'accidental' discoveries on the role of inflammation in developmental stages of immune dysfunction toward tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Detailed analyses of data on chronic diseases suggest that nearly all age-associated illnesses, generally categorized as 'mild' (e.g., increased allergies), 'moderate' (e.g., hypertension, colitis, gastritis, pancreatitis, emphysema) or 'severe' (e.g., accelerated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases or site-specific cancers and metastasis) are variations of hypersensitivity responses of tissues that are manifested as different diseases in immune-responsive or immune-privileged tissues. Continuous release/presence of low level histamine (subclinical) in circulation could contribute to sustained oxidative stress and induction of 'mild' or 'moderate' or 'severe' (immune tsunami) immune disorders in susceptible tissues. Site-specific cancers are proposed to be 'severe' (irreversible) forms of cumulative delayed hypersensitivity responses that would induce immunological chaos in favor of tissue growth in target tissues. Shared or special features of growth from fetus development into adulthood and aging processes and carcinogenesis are briefly compared with regard to energy requirements of highly complex function of Yin and Yang. Features of Yang

  2. Hypersensitivity in vitro of a glioblastoma irradiated at very low doses: discussion about the concept of radio-induced repairing. Hypersensibilite in vitro d'un glioblastome irradie a de tres faibles doses: discussion du concept de la reparation radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devriendt, D.; Bertrand, S.; Ginestet, C.; Nguyen, M.J.; Dore, J.F.; Mornex, F. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France))

    1994-01-01

    From 1986 Joiner and Lambin described a hypersensitivity of some tissues irradiated at doses inferior to 0.5 Gy, introducing the notion of 'radio-induced resistance': that is to say that irradiation would set off the mechanisms of repairing, at a threshold-dose. Tests in vitro, with a human glioblastoma were realized. Cells were irradiated at doses from 0.1 to 0.6 Gy. Results confirm a hypersensitivity of these cells for the doses between 0.1 and 1 Gy.

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D;

    2011-01-01

    algorithm to guide the selection of screening allergen series for patch testing is provided. At a minimum, an extended baseline screening series and metal screening is necessary. Static and dynamic orthopaedic implants, intravascular stent devices, implanted defibrillators and dental and gynaecological......Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte...... transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...

  4. Paradoxical effect of pertussis toxin on the delayed hypersensitivity response to autoantigens in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwahrdhan Yadav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pertussis toxin (PTX, an exotoxin of Bordetella pertussis, enhances the development of experimental autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in rodent models. The mechanisms of the promotion of experimental autoimmune diseases by PTX may be based upon PTX-induced disruption of the blood eye/brain barriers facilitating the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the modulation of inflammatory cell migration and the enhancement of the activation of inflammatory cells. We hypothesized that the facilitation of experimental autoimmunity by PTX suggests that its influence on the in vivo immune response to auto-antigen may differ from its influence on non-self antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated the effect of PTX on the simultaneous generation of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH responses and autoimmune responses to uveitogenic interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide (IRBP161-180, encephalitogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55 or ovalbumin (OVA. PTX injection of mice immunized to IRBP peptide161-180 led to (i the development of EAU as shown by histopathology of the retina, (ii pro-inflammatory cytokine production by splenocytes in response to IRBP peptide161-180, and (iii symptomatic EAE in mice immunized with encephalitogenic MOG peptide35-55. However, mice that received PTX had a reduced DTH response to IRBP161-180 peptide or MOG peptide35-55 when challenged distal to the site affected by autoreactive T cells. Moreover, footpad challenge with MOG35-55 peptide reduced EAE in mice immunized with MOG peptide. In contrast, the use of PTX when immunizing with OVA protein or an OVA immunogenic peptide did not affect the DTH response to OVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that that the reduced DTH response in mice receiving PTX may be specific for autoantigens and autoantigen-reactive T cells are

  5. Cutaneous hypersensitivity responses to Rhipicephalus tick larval antigens in pre-sensitized cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, M C; Chimonyo, M; Mans, B J; Dzama, K

    2013-06-01

    Nguni cattle are known to be more resistant to ticks than Bonsmara cattle, even if the immunological mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not fully understood. Cutaneous hypersensitivity responses to unfed larval extracts (ULE) of the ticks Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus were investigated in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle to improve knowledge on the immunity to ticks. Hypersensitivity reactions were induced by intradermal inoculation of 0.1ml of ULE of R. decoloratus and R. microplus ticks (50μg protein) in the right and left ear, respectively, of 8-9-month-old Nguni (n=11) and Bonsmara (n=9) heifers. Ear thickness was measured using callipers before and 0.5, 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72h post inoculation (PI). Bonsmara cattle showed a more intense immediate reaction with maximum response at 1h PI and no delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Nguni heifers, conversely, presented a less intense immediate reaction with maximum response at 1h PI, and a delayed hypersensitivity reaction at 72h PI. Reactions to R. decoloratus ULE produced a more intense skin response than to R. microplus in both breeds at all time intervals. Nguni cattle showed lower tick infestation indicating higher tick resistance than Bonsmara cattle. Delayed hypersensitivity reaction could be associated with superior tick resistance in the Nguni breed, while immediate hypersensitivity reaction could be associated with increased tick susceptibility in the Bonsmara breed. This study indicates the need for further investigations on the correlation of tick resistance and cellular immune responses to tick infestation in Nguni cattle. PMID:23453577

  6. Comparative evaluation of different strengths of electrical current in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sharn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Dentinal hypersensitivity is a commonly occurring but less understood and poorly managed problem of the teeth. Iontophoresis is a technique wherein desensitizing agents can be transferred under electrical pressure into the tooth structure to manage hypersensitivity. Aim : The purpose of present study is to compare the effect of different strengths of electrical current used for varying lengths of time, keeping the electrical dosage constant with the iontophoretic unit in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods : This study was conducted among the patients attending the Periodontal Department of the Government Dental College and Hospital, Patiala, Punjab, specifically complaining of tooth hypersensitivity. The Verbal Rating Scale (VRS was used to record scores pre-, during, and post-treatment. Ten percent SrCl2 solution was applied with an iontophoretic unit. Three applications were performed at weekly intervals, up to the second week, using the same electric current dosage. The data compiled was statistically analyzed. Results : A remarkable reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity to both air blast and cold water stimuli was noted at the end of two months after iontophoresis with each current group / method, namely, I (0.25 mA for 4 minutes, II (0.5 mA for 2 minutes, and III (1 mA for 1 minute. However, the differences in effectiveness / improvement within the three current groups during the entire duration of the study were found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion : Within the limits of this study, it could be implied that for relieving hypersensitivity, iontophoresis for all three current groups was almost equally effective, and it was found that repeated applications (up to three gave good relief. Iontophoresis was found to be effective and safe.

  7. Role of spinal 5-HT receptors in cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by REM sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Ma, Ainiu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation facilitates pain sensitivity. Since serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved both in regulation of sleep and descending pain modulation, we studied whether spinal 5-HT receptors have a role in sleep deprivation-induced facilitation of pain-related behavior. REM sleep deprivation of 48h was induced by the flower pot method in the rat. The pain modulatory influence of various serotoninergic compounds administered intrathecally was assessed by determining limb withdrawal response to monofilaments. REM sleep deprivation produced a marked hypersensitivity. Sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity and normal sensitivity in controls were reduced both by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY-100635) and a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist (RS-102221). An antagonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor (LY-278584) failed to modulate hypersensitivity in sleep-deprived or control animals. Paradoxically, sensitivity in sleep-deprived and control animals was reduced not only by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist but also by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OHDPAT). The results indicate that serotoninergic receptors in the spinal cord have a complex role in the control of sleep-deprivation induced cutaneous hypersensitivity as well as baseline sensitivity in control conditions. While endogenous serotonin acting on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may facilitate mechanical sensitivity in animals with a sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity as well as in controls, increased activation of spinal 5-HT(1A) receptors by an exogenous agonist leads to suppression of mechanical sensitivity in both conditions. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptors do not contribute to cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by sleep deprivation.

  8. Interactions between GATA transcription factors and the DNaseI hypersensitive sites in the human β-globin gene LCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the binding of nuclear proteins isolated from the hydroxyurea (Hu)-induced and uninduced HEL cells to the DNaseI hypersensitive sites Ⅲ (HS3 14991-14716 bp) and Ⅳ(HS4 18586-18306 bp) in the human -globin gene locus control region (LCR). Using Western blot assay, we demonstrate that GATA-1 transcription factor in HEL cells is increased following the induction of Hu, while GATA-2 transcription factor is decreased. Based on both the competition EMSA and the Western blot assay, our data reveal that the nuclear protein isolated from the uninduced HEL cells, which can bind to the HS3 and HS4 core DNA sequences, is mainly GATA-2; however, the nuclear proteins isolated from the Hu-induced HEL cells, which can bind to the HS3 and HS4 core DNA sequences, are mainly GATA-1 and GATA-X (a kind of unknown GATA factor). These results suggest that the erythroid specific transcription factors (GATA-1 and GATA-2) in the Hu-induced and uninduced HEL cells can selectively bind to the HS3 and HS4 core DNA sequences in the human -globin gene LCR, indicating that GATA factors (GATA-1 and GATA-2) may play very important role in the regulation of the -globin gene expression.

  9. Proteomic analysis of S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoing hypersensitive response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero-Puertas, Maria C; Campostrini, Natascia; Mattè, Alessandro;

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has a fundamental role in the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response (HR), and S-nitrosylation is emerging as an important mechanism for the transduction of its bioactivity. A key step toward elucidating the mechanisms by which NO functions during the HR is the identif......Nitric oxide (NO) has a fundamental role in the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response (HR), and S-nitrosylation is emerging as an important mechanism for the transduction of its bioactivity. A key step toward elucidating the mechanisms by which NO functions during the HR...

  10. Hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics--update and proposal of evaluation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Elberling, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    Local anaesthetics (LA) are widely used drugs. Adverse reactions are rare but may be caused by delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and probably also immediate-type reactions. As it is not always easy to clinically differ between these subtypes, allergy skin testing should be considered....... Although numerous test protocols have been published, how patients with hypersensitivity reactions to LA are ideally evaluated remains a topic of discussion. This review attempts to generate a comprehensive update on allergic reactions to LA and to present an algorithm that can be used for the evaluation...

  11. A case of hypersensitivity to soluble and isophane insulins but not to insulin glargine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhekar, Mahesh N; Pai, Sarayu; Tayade, Parimal; Dalwadi, Pradip; Munshi, Renuka; Varthakavi, Prema

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is an important agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). Allergic reactions to insulin therapy, although rare, have been evident since animal insulin became available for the treatment of DM in 1922. Hypersensitivity to insulin has considerably been reduced with the introduction of human insulin produced by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology. Here, we present a case of Type 2 DM who demonstrated immediate (Type 1) hypersensitivity reaction on the sites of subcutaneous injection of soluble and isophane insulin but insulin glargine was tolerated well and provided good glycemic control. PMID:25878390

  12. A case of hypersensitivity to soluble and isophane insulins but not to insulin glargine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh N Belhekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is an important agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. Allergic reactions to insulin therapy, although rare, have been evident since animal insulin became available for the treatment of DM in 1922. Hypersensitivity to insulin has considerably been reduced with the introduction of human insulin produced by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology. Here, we present a case of Type 2 DM who demonstrated immediate (Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction on the sites of subcutaneous injection of soluble and isophane insulin but insulin glargine was tolerated well and provided good glycemic control.

  13. Visceral hypersensitivity and electromechanical dysfunction as therapeutic targets in pediatric functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; M; Rosen; Jose; T; Cocjin; Jennifer; V; Schurman; Jennifer; M; Colombo; Craig; A; Friesen

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders(FGID) are common clinical syndromes diagnosed in the absence of biochemical,structural,or metabolic abnormalities. They account for significant morbidity and health care expenditures and are identifiable across variable age,geography,and culture. Etiology of abdominal pain associated FGIDs,including functional dyspepsia(FD),remains incompletely understood,but growing evidence implicates the importance of visceral hypersensitivity and electromechanical dysfunction. This manuscript explores data supporting the role of visceral hypersensitivity and electromechanical dysfunction in FD,with focus on pediatric data when available,and provides a summary of potential therapeutic targets.

  14. Characterization of hypersensitivity reactions reported among Andrographis paniculata users in Thailand using Health Product Vigilance Center (HPVC) database

    OpenAIRE

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Saokaew, Surasak; Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2014-01-01

    Background Andrographis paniculata (andrographis) is one of the herbal products that are widely used for various indications. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported among subjects receiving Andrographis paniculata in Thailand. Understanding of characteristics of patients, adverse events, and clinical outcomes is essential for ensuring population safety. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions reported in patients receiving andrographis containing ...

  15. Correlation between the Constitution of Sasang and Sexual Difference in the Hypersensitive Reaction of Sweet Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwangho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the constitution of Sasang and the bee venom hypersensitive reaction, as well as the hypersensitive reaction occurrence ratio between males and females, for patients treated with sweet bee venom (SBV and who had undergone an examination of the constitution of the Sasang. Methods: All 81 patients enrolled in the study were treated with SBV and underwent an examination of the constitution of Sasang from January 2010 to July 2012. We divided them into two groups for the hypersensitive reaction and no response and compared the distributions of the Sasang-constitution types for the two groups as well as the hypersensitive reaction occurrence ratio between males and females. Results: No significant differences were found between the hypersensitive-reaction group and the no-response group (p = 0.390, but the hypersensitive-reaction occurrence ratio was statistically higher in females than in males (p = 0.001. Conclusions: Hypersensitive reactions do not seem to be related to the Sasang-constitution types, but the possibility of hypersensitive reactions among females seems to be higher than it is among males.

  16. Influence of chemical structure on hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs: the role of the aromatic ring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handoko, K.B.; Puijenbroek, E.P. van; Bijl, A.H.; Hermens, W.A.; Rijkom, JE Zwart-van; Hekster, Y.A.; Egberts, T.C.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause various 'idiosyncratic' hypersensitivity reactions, i.e. the mechanism by which AEDs induce hypersensitivity is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of an aromatic ring as a commonality in chemical structures of AEDs can ex

  17. Influence of chemical structure on hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs : the role of the aromatic ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handoko, Kim B; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Bijl, Annemarie H; Hermens, Walter A J J; Zwart-van Rijkom, Jeannette E F; Hekster, Yechiel A; Egberts, Toine C G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause various 'idiosyncratic' hypersensitivity reactions, i.e. the mechanism by which AEDs induce hypersensitivity is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of an aromatic ring as a commonality in chemical structures of AEDs can ex

  18. Low-level laser therapy of dentin hypersensitivity: a short-term clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Kaan; Aksoy, Umut; Can-Karabulut, Deniz C; Kalender, Atakan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate low-level laser therapy in cervical dentin hypersensitivity. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with a total of 64 teeth. Dentin desensitizer and diode laser were applied on the cervical dentin surfaces. Distilled water and placebo laser was used as the placebo groups. The irradiance used was 4 J/cm(2) per treatment site. The baseline measurement of hypersensitivity was made by using visual analog scale (VAS). Twenty-four hours and 7 days after the application of desensitizer, diode laser and placebo groups, a new VAS analysis was conducted for the patients' sensitivity level. The mean pain scores of placebo groups were significantly higher than the desensitizer's and diode laser's mean scores (ANOVA, p low-level laser therapy and no statistically significant difference was observed between these two treatments (p > 0.05). Although low-level laser and glutaraldehyde containing desensitizer present distinct modes of action, experimental agents caused a significant reduction of dentin hypersensitivity without showing secondary effects, not irritating the pulp or causing pain, not discoloring or staining the teeth, and not irritating the soft tissues at least for a period of 1 week with no drawbacks regarding handling and/or ease of application. Low-level laser therapy and desensitizer application had displayed similar effectiveness in reducing moderate dentin hypersensitivity.

  19. Infection or metal hypersensitivity? The diagnostic challenge of failure in metal-on-metal bearings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, John G

    2011-04-01

    The use of second generation metal-on-metal hip articulations has gained favour in the past few years. A hypersensitivity reaction to the metal-on-metal bearing, although rare, is a reported complication and is a novel mode of failure of these implants. Differentiating failure secondary to infection from failure secondary to metal hypersensitivity represents a significant diagnostic challenge. A retrospective review of all cases of hip arthroplasty using metal-on-metal bearings over a 5-year period at a tertiary referral centre identified 3 cases of failure secondary to metal hypersensitivity. Clinical presentation, serological markers, radiological imaging and histological analysis of all cases identified were evaluated. Histological analysis of periprosthetic tissue in all 3 cases identified characteristic features such as perivascular lymphocytic aggregates and chronic inflammation consistent with aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL). This study highlights that failure secondary to metal hypersensitivity must be considered in patients presenting with the reappearance of persistent pain, marked joint effusion, and the development of early osteolysis in the absence of infection.

  20. Humoral immune response and delayed type hypersensitivity to influenza vaccine in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob); K.P. Bouter; W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); N. Masurel (Nic); J.B. Hoekstra

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe antibody response and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to commercially available trivalent influenza vaccine in 159 patients with diabetes mellitus was compared with response and reaction in 28 healthy volunteers. A correction for prevaccination titres was made. No differences

  1. Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Podesta, S.C.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Frankena, K.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine skin allergy caused by bites of Culicoides spp. and impacts on the welfare of affected horses. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for IBH. Data from 3453 Friesian horse mares and 7074 Shetland pony mares scored for IBH by i

  2. HLA-A*3101 and carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Europeans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, Mark

    2011-03-24

    Carbamazepine causes various forms of hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe blistering reactions. The HLA-B*1502 allele has been shown to be strongly correlated with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS-TEN) in the Han Chinese and other Asian populations but not in European populations.

  3. The history of diagnosing carotid sinus hypersensitivity: why are the current criteria too sensitive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T.P.P. Krediet; S.W. Parry; D.L. Jardine; D.G. Benditt; M. Brignole; W. Wieling

    2011-01-01

    The carotid sinus syndrome and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) are closely related disorders. The first is characterized by syncope triggered by manipulation of the carotid sinus in daily life (e.g. shaving). According to the current European Society of Cardiology guidelines, CSH is diagnosed w

  4. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Shetland pony mares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Frankena, K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic disease present in horses worldwide. It has been shown that IBH is under genetic control, but the knowledge of associated genes is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify and quantify genomic regions contributin

  5. Loss of central inhibition: implications for behavioral hypersensitivity after contusive spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Yerko A; Almeida, Vania W; Puentes, Rocio; Knott, Eric P; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Garland, Mary; Pearse, Damien D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral hypersensitivity is common following spinal cord injury (SCI), producing significant discomfort and often developing into chronic pain syndromes. While the mechanisms underlying the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after SCI are poorly understood, previous studies of SCI contusion have shown an increase in amino acids, namely, aspartate and glutamate, along with a decrease in GABA and glycine, particularly below the injury. The current study sought to identify alterations in key enzymes and receptors involved in mediating central inhibition via GABA and glycine after a clinically-relevant contusion SCI model. Following thoracic (T8) 25.0 mm NYU contusion SCI in rodents, significant and persistent behavioral hypersensitivity developed as evidenced by cutaneous allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Biochemical analyses confirmed upregulation of glutamate receptor GluR3 with downregulation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme (GAD65/67) and the glycine receptor α3 (GLRA3), notably below the injury. Combined, these changes result in the disinhibition of excitatory impulses and contribute to behavioral hyperexcitability. This study demonstrates a loss of central inhibition and the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in a contusive SCI paradigm. Future use of this model will permit the evaluation of different antinociceptive strategies and help in the elucidation of new targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:25180088

  6. Beyond the black box: drug- and device-associated hypersensitivity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L; Adegboro, Olatokunbo S; Calhoun, Elizabeth A; Raisch, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Drug- and device-associated hypersensitivity reactions are serious toxicities that can result in respiratory failure or acute cardiac ischemic events, or even severe hypersensitivity syndromes such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome. These toxicities are usually poorly described in the “black box” warnings section of the product labels. Methods: Adverse event reports contained in databases maintained by the Project on Medical Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (Med-RADAR), product labels, safety advisories disseminated by pharmaceutical manufacturers, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were reviewed. Results: Adverse event reports identified three health care workers who developed nevirapine-associated Stevens–Johnson syndrome following occupational exposure to HIV-infected blood or blood products; four persons with localized hypersensitivity and fatal cardiac events associated with rapamycin- or paclitaxel-coated coronary artery stent placements; and six persons with breast cancer who developed severe or fatal anaphylaxis after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with Cremophor-EL containing paclitaxel. Safety advisories from the FDA, CDC, and the relevant pharmaceutical manufacturers were ambiguous in their description in “black box” warning sections of package inserts describing these serious and potentially fatal toxicities. Conclusion: Improvements are needed in pharmacovigilance and subsequent dissemination of safety advisories for drug/device-associated hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:21701613

  7. Genetic determinants of both ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism influence alcohol hypersensitivity and drinking behaviour among Scandinavians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2010-01-01

    Although hypersensitivity reactions following intake of alcoholic drinks are common in Caucasians, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance are not known. In contrast, in Asians, alcohol-induced asthma and flushing have been shown to be because of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

  8. Possible role for TRPV1 in neomycin-induced inhibition of visceral hypersensitivity in rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. van den Wijngaard; O. Welting; D.C. Bulmer; M.M. Wouters; K. Lee; W.J. de Jonge; G.E. Boeckxstaens

    2009-01-01

    Transient receptor ion channel 1 (TRPV1) is a nociceptor involved in visceral hypersensitivity. Aminoglycosides like neomycin are not only potent antibiotics but in vitro data suggest that neomycin also acts as a TRPV1-antagonist and alleviates somatic pain responses. To what extent neomycin reduces

  9. Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Porges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In the present study the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the Listening Project Protocol (LPP was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical neural exercise model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.

  10. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  11. Efficient two-photon sensitized luminescence of europium (Ⅲ) complex based on hypersensitive transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Shi; Hua Li; Mei Pan; Fufang Su; Lili Ma; Peigao Han; Hezhou Wang

    2011-01-01

    Red frequency-upconversion fluorescence emission is observed in europium(Ⅲ) complex with encapsulating polybenzimidazole tripodal ligands, pumped with 930- and 1070-nm picosecond laser pulses. The luminescence of transition 5D0 →7F2 (612 nm) is induced by two-photon absorption of hypersensitive transitions 7F0 →5D2 (465 nm) and 7F1 →5D1 (535 nm). Analysis results suggest that the two-photon excitation strength of these hypersensitive transitions is increased dramatically owing to the C3 symmetry of the coordination field.%@@ Red frequency-upconversion fluorescence emission is observed in europium(Ⅲ) complex with encapsulating polybenzimidazole tripodal ligands, pumped with 930- and 1070-nm picosecond laser pulses.The luminescence of transition 5D0 →7F2 (612 nm) is induced by two-photon absorption of hypersensitive transitions 7F0 →5D2 (465 nm) and 7F1 →5D1 (535 nm).Analysis results suggest that the two-photon excitation strength of these hypersensitive transitions is increased dramatically owing to the Ca symmetry of the coordination field.

  12. IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO LATEX GLOVES IN A DENTAL STUDENT. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana Stoeva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of dental student with immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves. Symptoms appeared during the second year of regularly using of latex gloves. The student was with no history of allergies and no previous exposure to latex products.

  13. The environmental hypersensitivity symptom inventory: metric properties and normative data from a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordin, Steven; Palmquist, Eva; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Stenberg, Berndt

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides...

  14. Successful treatment with nab-paclitaxel after hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel and docetaxel ☆

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, Maria C.B.; Bolla, Sridhar; Greene, Barbra; Hutchinson, Lauren; Del Priore, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights • First case report of successfully treating severe paclitaxel and docetaxel hypersensitivity reaction with nab-paclitaxel • We demonstrated that nab-paclitaxel is a safe taxane chemotherapy treatment option for patients who could not tolerate paclitaxel or docetaxel.

  15. Loss of Central Inhibition: Implications for Behavioral Hypersensitivity after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerko A. Berrocal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral hypersensitivity is common following spinal cord injury (SCI, producing significant discomfort and often developing into chronic pain syndromes. While the mechanisms underlying the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after SCI are poorly understood, previous studies of SCI contusion have shown an increase in amino acids, namely, aspartate and glutamate, along with a decrease in GABA and glycine, particularly below the injury. The current study sought to identify alterations in key enzymes and receptors involved in mediating central inhibition via GABA and glycine after a clinically-relevant contusion SCI model. Following thoracic (T8 25.0 mm NYU contusion SCI in rodents, significant and persistent behavioral hypersensitivity developed as evidenced by cutaneous allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Biochemical analyses confirmed upregulation of glutamate receptor GluR3 with downregulation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme (GAD65/67 and the glycine receptor α3 (GLRA3, notably below the injury. Combined, these changes result in the disinhibition of excitatory impulses and contribute to behavioral hyperexcitability. This study demonstrates a loss of central inhibition and the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in a contusive SCI paradigm. Future use of this model will permit the evaluation of different antinociceptive strategies and help in the elucidation of new targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  16. Genome-wide mapping for clinically relevant predictors of lamotrigine- and phenytoin-induced hypersensitivity reactions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, Mark

    2012-03-01

    An association between carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity and HLA-A*3101 has been reported in populations of both European and Asian descent. We aimed to investigate HLA-A*3101 and other common variants across the genome as markers for cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) attributed to lamotrigine and phenytoin.

  17. Systemic Immediate Hypersensitive Reactions after Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaYoung Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A previous study showed that bee venom (BV could cause anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity reactions. Although hypersensitivity reactions due to sweet bee venom (SBV have been reported, SBV has been reported to be associated with significantly reduced sensitization compared to BV. Although no systemic immediate hypersensitive response accompanied by abnormal vital signs has been reported with respect to SBV, we report a systemic immediate hypersensitive response that we experienced while trying to use SBV clinically. Methods: The patient had undergone BV treatment several times at other Oriental medicine clinics and had experienced no adverse reactions. She came to acupuncture & moxibustion department at Semyung university hospital of Oriental medicine (Je-cheon, Korea complaining of facial hypoesthesia and was treated using SBV injections, her first SBV treatment. SBV, 0.05 cc, was injected at each of 8 acupoints, for a total of 0.40 cc: Jichang (ST4, Daeyeong (ST5, Hyeopgeo (ST6, Hagwan (ST7, Yepung (TE17, Imun (TE21, Cheonghoe (GB2, and Gwallyeo (SI18. Results: The patient showed systemic immediate hypersensitive reactions. The main symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea and perspiration, but common symptoms associated with hypersensitivity, such as edema, were mild. Abdominal pain was the most long-lasting symptom and was accompanied by nausea. Her body temperature decreased due to sweating. Her diastolic blood pressure could not be measured on three occasions. She remained alert, though the symptoms persisted. The following treatments were conducted in sequence; intramuscular epinephrine, 1 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular dexamethasone, 5 mg/mL, injection, intramuscular buscopan, 20 mg/mL, injection, oxygen (O2 inhalation therapy, 1 L/minutes, via a nasal prong, and intravascular injection of normal saline, 1 L. After 12 hours of treatment, the symptoms had completely disappeared. Conclusion: This case shows that the use of SBV

  18. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  19. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Seminowicz, David A; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control groups

  20. Possible role for TRPV1 in neomycin-induced inhibition of visceral hypersensitivity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, R M; Welting, O; Bulmer, D C; Wouters, M M; Lee, K; de Jonge, W J; Boeckxstaens, G E

    2009-08-01

    Transient receptor ion channel 1 (TRPV1) is a nociceptor involved in visceral hypersensitivity. Aminoglycosides like neomycin are not only potent antibiotics but in vitro data suggest that neomycin also acts as a TRPV1-antagonist and alleviates somatic pain responses. To what extent neomycin reduces visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether neomycin can inhibit in vivo TRPV1-dependent hypersensitivity responses in two rat models of visceral pain. In the first model rats were pretreated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) capsazepine, the selective TRPV1 antagonist SB-705498, neomycin or vehicle alone and 30 min later instilled with intracolonic TRPV1-activating capsaicin. Likewise, rats were pretreated with 10 days oral neomycin and then subjected to intracolonic capsaicin. The visceromotor response (VMR) to distension was measured before and after capsaicin application. In addition, the VMR to distension was measured in adult maternal separated rats before and after acute stress. Before the 2nd distension protocol these rats were treated with i.p. neomycin, amoxycillin or vehicle alone. Our results showed that capsaicin administration induced an enhanced VMR to distension that was prevented by i.p. capsazepine, SB-705498 and neomycin. Oral neomycin treatment changed bacterial faecal content but could not inhibit capsaicin induced visceral hypersensitivity. In maternal separated rats acute stress induced an enhanced response to distension that was reversed by i.p. neomycin, but not amoxycillin. These data indicate that (i.p.) neomycin can inhibit visceral hypersensitivity to distension in a nonbactericidal manner and suggest that TRPV1-modulation may be involved.

  1. Tumor-derived exosomes confer antigen-specific immunosuppression in a murine delayed-type hypersensitivity model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Yang

    Full Text Available Exosomes are endosome-derived small membrane vesicles that are secreted by most cell types including tumor cells. Tumor-derived exosomes usually contain tumor antigens and have been used as a source of tumor antigens to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. However, many reports also suggest that tumor-derived exosomes can facilitate tumor immune evasion through different mechanisms, most of which are antigen-independent. In the present study we used a mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH and demonstrated that local administration of tumor-derived exosomes carrying the model antigen chicken ovalbumin (OVA resulted in the suppression of DTH response in an antigen-specific manner. Analysis of exosome trafficking demonstrated that following local injection, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by CD11c+ cells and transported to the draining LN. Exosome-mediated DTH suppression is associated with increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 and IL-4 in the draining LN. The tumor-derived exosomes examined were also found to inhibit DC maturation. Taken together, our results suggest a role for tumor-derived exosomes in inducing tumor antigen-specific immunosuppression, possibly by modulating the function of APCs.

  2. Differences in genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized and nickel-unsensitized donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrouijal, F Z; Marzin, D; Hildebrand, H F; Pestel, J; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-05-01

    The genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 was assessed on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized (SSL) and nickel-unsensitized (USL) subjects. Three genotoxicity tests were performed: the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test, the metaphase analysis test and the micronucleus test. (i) The SCE test (3-100 micrograms/ml) showed a weak but statistically significant increase in the number of SCE in both lymphocyte types with respect to controls, USL presenting a slightly higher SCE incidence but only at one concentration. (ii) The metaphase analysis test demonstrated a high dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 in both lymphocyte types. The frequency of chromosomal anomalies was significantly higher in USL than in SSL for all concentrations applied. (iii) The micronucleus test confirmed the dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 and the differences already observed between USL and SSL, i.e. the number of cells with micronuclei was statistically higher in USL. Finally, the incorporation study with alpha-63Ni3S2 showed a higher uptake of its solubilized fraction by USL. This allows an explanation of the different genotoxic action of nickel on the two cell types. In this study we demonstrated that hypersensitivity has an influence on the incorporation of alpha-Ni3S2 and subsequently on the different induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. PMID:1602972

  3. Multiplex protein profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willems Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by a mixture of inflammation and fibrosis, leading to lung destruction and finally death. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare different pathophysiological mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, fibrosis, tissue repair, inflammation, epithelial damage, oxidative stress, and matrix remodeling, in both disorders using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Methods: At diagnosis, patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL and were divided into three groups: Control ( n = 10, HP ( n = 11, and IPF ( n = 11, based on multidisciplinary approach (clinical examination, radiology, and histology: Multiplex searchlight technology was used to analyze 25 proteins representative for different pathophysiological processes: Eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb, fibronectin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, interleukine (IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-17, IL-23, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, myeloperoxidase (MPO, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8, MMP-9, active plasminogen activating inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, pulmonary activation regulated chemokine (PARC, placental growth factor (PlGF, protein-C, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES, surfactant protein-C (SP-C, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, tissue factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: All patients suffered from decreased pulmonary function and abnormal BAL cell differential compared with control. Protein levels were increased in both IPF and HP for MMP-8 ( P = 0.022, MMP-9 ( P = 0.0020, MCP-1 ( P = 0.0006, MDC ( P = 0.0048, IL-8 ( P = 0.013, MPO ( P = 0.019, and protein-C ( P = 0.0087, whereas VEGF was decreased ( P = 0.0003 compared with

  4. The diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test in diagnosing hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected children with and without atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that the atopy patch test (APT) may make oral challenge superfluous in diagnosing children with food hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of APT in predicting hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in 486 unselected...... children 3 years of age. METHOD: The children were examined by APT, skin prick (SPT), histamine release (HR), and specific IgE followed by oral challenge when hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was suspected. RESULTS: Food hypersensitivity confirmed by oral challenge was 1.6% to hen's egg and 0.......6% to cow's milk. No hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was predicted by APT alone. CONCLUSION: APT could not predict food hypersensitivity not predicted by SPT, HR, or specific IgE. Thus, APT cannot be recommended in daily practice for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg...

  5. Delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions in the central nervous system are prevented by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszak, M K; Perry, V H

    1996-09-01

    We have studied the effect of an inhibitor of matrix metalloproleinases, BB-1101, on a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the CNS. We used a recently described model in which heat-killed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) sequestered behind the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is targeted by a T-cell mediated response after subcutaneous injection of BCG (Matyszak and Perry, 1995). The DTH lesions are characterised by breakdown of the BBB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration and tissue damage including myelin loss. Treatment with BB-1101, which is not only a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases but also strongly inhibits TNF-alpha release, dramatically attenuated the CNS lesions. Breakdown of the BBB and the recruitment of T-cells into the site of the lesion were significantly reduced. There were many fewer inflammatory macrophages in DTH lesions than in comparable lesions from untreated animals. There was also significantly less myelin damage (assessed by staining with anti-MBP antibody). The DTH response in animals treated with dexamethasone was also reduced, but to a lesser degree. No significant effect was seen after administration of pentoxifylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with effects including the inhibition of TNF-alpha production. Our results suggest that inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases may be of considerable therapeutic benefit in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  6. Irradiated mice lose the capacity to 'process' fed antigen for systemic tolerance of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Intestinal antigen processing' is a function of the gastro-intestinal tract whereby shortly after an animal has been fed an immunogenic protein antigen, such as ovabumin (OVA), a tolerogenic form of the protein is generated and can be detected in the circulation. The effect of damage to the intestinal epithelium on the processing of OVA has been examined in lethally irradiated mice. Irradiated animals were fed 25 mg OVA and their serum collected 1 h later. When this serum was transferred intraperitoneally into naive recipient mice, this did not induce the typical suppression of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity. Results were similar when the serum donors were at 2 days after irradiation, with crypt hypoplasia, and at 5 days after irradiation when there was reactive crypt hyperplasia. However reconstitution of donors with normal spleen cells immediately after irradiation restored their capacity to generate a tolerogenic form of the antigen. Immunoreactive OVA was detected by ELISA in both tolerizing and non-tolerizing sera, and the immunological properties of these sera were not related to serum levels of OVA after feeding. The results suggest that lymphoid cells may be involved in the phenomenon of antigen processing. (author)

  7. Hypersensitive response and acyl-homoserine lactone production of the fire blight antagonists Erwinia tasmaniensis and Erwinia billingiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Fire blight caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl-homoserine lactone for bacterial cell-to-cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight.

  8. Ranitidine for prevention of postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Moesgaard, F; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by skin testing with seven delayed-type common antigens in 20 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and in 20 nonoperative control subjects. The 20 surgical patients were randomized to perioperative ranitidine (50 mg every 6 hours for 72 hours) or no rani...

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  10. 儿童过敏性肺炎1例并文献复习%Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children: one case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀云; 彭芸; 赵志鹏; 周春菊

    2013-01-01

    目的 总结儿童过敏性肺炎的临床、影像学和病理学特点.方法 对病理确诊的1例9岁6个月的过敏性肺炎患儿的临床、影像学和病理学资料进行总结,并复习文献进行讨论.结果 以咳嗽4个月、气促为主要表现,无咳痰、无三凹征,肺内未闻及啰音,无杵状指趾.肺功能示混合性通气功能障碍.肺部高分辨CT表现为弥漫的细小结节影,以上肺为重,肺组织病理为细支气管炎、细支气管周围的间质淋巴细胞炎症和间质的多核巨细胞,无纤维化和结核结节,可见大量的泡沫细胞.脱离环境并予甲泼尼龙2 mg·kg-1·d-1治疗2周后,患儿咳嗽、气促症状有所减轻,肺功能有所改善,肺部CT的小结节影明显改善.糖皮质激素治疗2个月后呼吸道症状消失,肺部影像学和肺功能恢复正常.结论 过敏性肺炎为无特异的沉淀抗体的病例,主要依靠肺活检病理细支气管炎、细支气管周围间质炎症和找到非干酪的不典型肉芽肿或多核巨细胞确定诊断.亚急性过敏性肺炎用糖皮质激素治疗有效.%Objective To understand the clinical and pathologic features of the hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children. Methods A case of nine years and six months old girl with hypersensitivity pneumonitis admitted to Beijing Children'Hospital in the April of 2012 was reviewed. Results The symptoms were cough for 4 months, short breath, no sputum and fevers, no dyspnean or digital clubbing. The diffused micronodules were found in the high-resolution CT of the bilateral lung. The cellular bronchiolitis and bronchiolocentric lymphocytic pneumonitis were presented in the pathology of the lung , the abundant foamy cells in the interstitium and giant cells in the interstitial spaces also were found in the pathology. No evidence of the tuberclusis and virus infection and connective tissue disease was found. The symptoms and abnormal of the HRCT findings were improved after 26 days avoidance

  11. A C. elegans homolog for the UV-hypersensitivity syndrome disease gene UVSSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Vipin; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The transcription-coupled repair pathway (TC-NER) plays a vital role in removing transcription-blocking DNA lesions, particularly UV-induced damage. Clinical symptoms of the two TC-NER-deficiency syndromes, Cockayne syndrome (CS) and UV-hypersensitivity syndrome (UVSS) are dissimilar and the underlying molecular mechanism causing this difference in disease pathology is not yet clearly understood. UV-stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA) has been identified recently as a new causal gene for UVSS. Here we describe a functional homolog of the human UVSSA gene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, uvs-1 (UVSSA-like-1). Mutations in uvs-1 render the animals hypersensitive to UV-B irradiation and transcription-blocking lesion-inducing illudin-M, similar to mutations in TC-NER deficient mutants. Moreover, we demonstrate that TC-NER factors including UVS-1 are required for the survival of the adult animals after UV-treatment. PMID:27043179

  12. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a stainless steel crown: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A; Ozdemir, C E; Yilmaz, Y

    2012-01-01

    Stainless steel crowns are commonly used to restore primary or permanent teeth in pediatric restorative dentistry. Here, we describe a case of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which manifested itself as perioral skin eruptions, after restoring the decayed first permanent molar tooth of a 13-year-old Caucasian girl with a preformed stainless steel crown. The eruptions completely healed within one week after removal of the stainless steel crown. The decayed tooth was then restored with a bis-acryl crown and bridge. Since no perioral skin eruptions occurred during the six-month follow-up, we presume that the cause of the perioral skin eruptions was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which was triggered by the nickel in the stainless steel crown.

  13. [Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated radiographic contrast agents: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachman, Dalia; Gandia, Peggy; Sallerin, François; Mailly, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic and interventional radiology of patients is nowadays crucial with increasing requirement for iodinated contrast agents infusion. Besides adverse reactions after administration of the iodinated contrast agents due to their toxicity, immediate hypersensitivity reactions and reactions resembling delayed hypersensitivity appearing from 1 hour to several days later, have been reported. Patients at high risk to develop such adverse events have to be detected on the basis of their risk factors in order to prevent or limit serious outcomes. Previous reactions to contrast media, asthma, atopy and cardiovascular disorders are risk factors for anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions. Female gender, age and beta-blockers increase the severity. This article aims to summarize the risk of allergic reactions related to the use of iodinated contrast agents and to suggest a way for diagnosis, treatment and prevention according to each clinical situation. PMID:19863909

  14. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by the broom grass (Calluna vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aydemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, is an inflammatory disease that represents one possible response of the interstitial and parenchymal tissue to the intensive and repeated inhalation of organic dusts or reactive chemicals substances. In this case report, for the first time in the literature as we know, acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a patient who working in broom grass manufacturing were presented. Broom manufacturer employee 35 years old female patient was admitted with dyspnea, fever and cough, beginning the three months before. Physical examination, there were bilateral basal crackles. On Thorax CT bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacity and mosaic perfusion were observed. Patient was hospitalized, IV prednisolone therapy was started. Almost complete clinical improvement was achieved. We would like to emphasize that detailed occupational history should be questioned; because; diagnosis of acute HP, due to the mixing with the viral infection or atypical pneumonia, easily skipped.

  15. Histographical presentation of frequency distribution of attenuation numbers of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the attenuation numbers in computed tomography of the chest, histograms for 5 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analysed. For analysis of histograms, we established 3 parameters: A, tan theta, and M. Of histograms in normal subjects, maximum inspiration scan was more stable than maximum expiration scan, and parameter A was most stable. In patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, histograms shifted to the range of higher attenuation numbers than normal subjects. Follow up studies showed decrease in the shift, but parameter A and M of maximum inspiration scan never reached to normal ranges. This suggested that organic parenchymal changes never disappeared completely, even in clinical remission stage. Therefore, parameter A or M of maximum inspiration scan was adequate for analysis, and histographic analysis of chest CT scan was considered to be useful also for early detections and follow-up studies of all diffuse pulmonary disorders. (author)

  16. Severe drug hypersensitivity syndrome due to sulphasalazine in patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Grassi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome, also known as Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms is a severe adverse reaction characterized by clinical manifestations including fever, skin eruption, lymphoadenopathy, associated with eosinophilia, leukocytosis and multiple visceral involvement, with 10% of mortality due to development of multiple organ failure. This reaction usually occurs between two and six-eight weeks after the beginning of the treatment and may not resolve with interruption of the suspected drug. Sulfonamides, anticonvulsant, allopurinol are the most frequently involved molecules, but recently cases have been described also with gabapentin and strontium ranelate. In the present report we describe a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who presented severe drug hypersensitivity syndrome, with liver and kidney involvement due to sulphasalazine.

  17. Acupuncture Alleviates Colorectal Hypersensitivity and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of TrpV1 and p-ERK

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-Jun Wang; Hao-Yan Yang; Guo-Shuang Xu

    2012-01-01

    Here we used a mouse model of zymosan-induced colorectal hypersensitivity, a similar model of IBS in our previous work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the different number of times of acupuncture and elucidate its potential mechanism of EA treatment. Colorectal distension (CRD) tests show that intracolonic zymosan injection does, while saline injection does not, induce a typical colorectal hypersensitivity. EA treatment at classical acupoints Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) in both hind...

  18. Severe myositis on commencement of efavirenz, abacavir and lamivudine, in the absence of lactic acidosis or classical abacavir hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Parsonage, Mirella Jane; Barlow, Gavin; Lillie, Patrick; Moss, Peter; Adams, Katherine; Thaker, Hiten

    2009-01-01

    Myositis in HIV may be due to HIV itself, or to opportunistic infection, malignancy or drug treatment. Severe myositis or rhabdomyolysis have never been reported with the commonly used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir, although creatine phosphokinase may rise modestly, particularly if abacavir hypersensitivity occurs. We report an unusual case of abacavir use associated with a thousand-fold rise in creatine phosphokinase in the absence of features of hypersensitivity. The c...

  19. Predisposition to abacavir hypersensitivity conferred by HLA-B*5701 and a haplotypic Hsp70-Hom variant

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Annalise M.; Nolan, David; Gaudieri, Silvana; Almeida, Coral Ann; Nolan, Richard; James, Ian; Carvalho, Filipa; Phillips, Elizabeth; Christiansen, Frank T.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Mallal, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility to a clinically significant drug hypersensitivity syndrome associated with abacavir use seems to have a strong genetic component. We have previously shown that the presence of HLA-B*5701 strongly predicts abacavir hypersensitivity and have identified a potential susceptibility locus within a 300-kb region between the MEGT1 and C4A6 loci in the central MHC. We now report the results of fine recombinant genetic mapping in an expanded patient population of 248 consecutive, fully a...

  20. Perceived food hypersensitivity relates to poor asthma control and quality of life in young non-atopic asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Johnson

    Full Text Available The relationship between perceived food hypersensitivity in asthmatics, food allergen sensitization, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life has not been studied.Our aim was to study the prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity in a cohort of young asthmatics, its relation to food allergen sensitization, and any correlation to asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.Perceived food hypersensitivity, as well as IgE sensitization to common food allergens, levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, and blood eosinophil counts (B-Eos were assessed in 408 subjects (211 women with asthma, aged (mean ± SEM 20.4 ± 0.3 years. Subjects filled out the Asthma Control Test (ACT and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ. Inflammation was assessed by means of FeNO and B-Eos.Fifty-three per cent of subjects reported food hypersensitivity. A corresponding food allergen sensitization was found in 68% of these subjects. Non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity (n = 31 had lower ACT (19 (15 - 22 vs. 21 (20 - 23, p < 0.001 and Mini-AQLQ -scores (5.3 (4.3 - 6.1 vs. 6.1 (5.5 - 6.5, p < 0.001 than subjects with no food hypersensitivity (n = 190, despite lower levels of FeNO and B-Eos (p < 0.05.Food hypersensitivity was commonly reported among young asthmatics. In a majority of cases, a corresponding food allergen sensitization was found. A novel and clinically important finding was that non-atopic subjects with perceived food hypersensitivity were characterized by poorer asthma control and asthma-related quality of life.

  1. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of Puccinia triticina in 26 spring wheat cultivars/lines. Small but significant cultivar x isolate interactions were observed for LP and IF in seedlings of host genotypes. Isolate specific effect for LP at...

  2. Feasibility of stopping paclitaxel premedication after two doses in patients not experiencing a previous infusion hypersensitivity reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Michael J.; Dunlea, Leslie J.; Rettig, Amy E.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Phillips, Gary S.; Charles L Shapiro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy continues to be an integral component in the treatment of many solid tumors. Prolonged use of paclitaxel may result in repeated doses of premedications and potential unwanted side effects. Infusion hypersensitivity reactions occurring beyond the second dose are infrequent and not well characterized. We hypothesized that patients whose paclitaxel premedications were discontinued after two doses were unlikely to experience infusion hypersensitivity reaction...

  3. Duodenal administered seal oil for patients with subjective food hypersensitivity: an explorative open pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gregersen, Kine; Lind, Ragna Anne; Valeur, Jørgen; Bjørkkjær, Tormod; Berstad, Arnold; Lied, Gülen Arslan

    2010-01-01

    Short-term duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seal oil may improve gastrointestinal complaints in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity, as well as joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present explorative pilot study was to investigate whether 10-day open treatment with seal oil, 10 mL self-administrated via a nasoduodenal tube 3 times daily, could also benefit nongastrointestinal complaints and...

  4. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following intake of alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A.; Berg, N.D.; Gonzalez-Quintela, A.;

    2008-01-01

    symptoms from the upper and lower airways were significantly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma (odds ratios between 3.0 and 8.1, P-value self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following the intake...... of alcoholic drinks are common. These symptoms were markedly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma. The underlying mechanisms and the clinical significance of these symptoms remain to be elucidated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  5. Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Kawase, Shigeo; Kubota, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Akihito

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this stu...

  6. Drug hypersensitivity caused by alteration of the MHC-presented self-peptide repertoire

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrov, David A.; Grant, Barry J.; Pompeu, Yuri A.; Sidney, John; Harndahl, Mikkel; Southwood, Scott; Oseroff, Carla; Lu, Shun; Jakoncic, Jean; de Oliveira, Cesar Augusto F; Yang, Lun; Mei, Hu; Shi, Leming; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; English, A. Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable, dose independent and potentially life threatening; this makes them a major factor contributing to the cost and uncertainty of drug development. Clinical data suggest that many such reactions involve immune mechanisms, and genetic association studies have identified strong linkage between drug hypersensitivity reactions to several drugs and specific HLA alleles. One of the strongest such genetic associations found has been for the antivir...

  7. Beyond the black box: drug- and device-associated hypersensitivity events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Bennett

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Charles L Bennett1,2, Olatokunbo S Adegboro2, Elizabeth A Calhoun2, Dennis Raisch3,41Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 2University of Illinois School of Public Health, Chicago, IL, USA; 3University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Veteran Affairs Cooperative Studies Program, Clinical Research Pharmacy, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground: Drug- and device-associated hypersensitivity reactions are serious toxicities that can result in respiratory failure or acute cardiac ischemic events, or even severe hypersensitivity syndromes such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome. These toxicities are usually poorly described in the “black box” warnings section of the product labels.Methods: Adverse event reports contained in databases maintained by the Project on Medical Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (Med-RADAR, product labels, safety advisories disseminated by pharmaceutical manufacturers, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC were reviewed.Results: Adverse event reports identified three health care workers who developed nevirapineassociated Stevens–Johnson syndrome following occupational exposure to HIV-infected blood or blood products; four persons with localized hypersensitivity and fatal cardiac events associated with rapamycin- or paclitaxel-coated coronary artery stent placements; and six persons with breast cancer who developed severe or fatal anaphylaxis after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with Cremophor-EL containing paclitaxel. Safety advisories from the FDA, CDC, and the relevant pharmaceutical manufacturers were ambiguous in their description in “black box” warning sections of package inserts describing these serious and potentially fatal toxicities. Conclusion: Improvements are needed in pharmacovigilance and subsequent dissemination of safety advisories for drug/device-associated hypersensitivity reactions.Keywords: adverse events

  8. Effects of L-citrulline diet on stress-induced cold hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-citrulline is an amino acid discovered in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae and is a known component of the nitric oxide (NO cycle that plays an important role in adjusting blood circulation and supplying NO and a key component of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of L-citrulline on a newly established stress-induced cold hypersensitivity mouse model. Materials and Methods: When normal mice were forced to swim in water at 25°C for 15 min, their core body temperature dropped to 28.9°C, and then quickly recovered to normal temperature after the mice were transferred to a dry cage at room temperature (25°C. A 1-h immobilization before swimming caused the core body temperature to drop to ca. 24.1°C (4.8°C lower than normal mice, and the speed of core body temperature recovery dropped to 57% of the normal control. We considered this delay in recovery from hypothermia to be a sign of stress-induced cold hypersensitivity. Similar cold hypersensitivity was induced by administration of 50 mM L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, a NO synthesis inhibitor. Results: In this study, we showed that recovery speed from the stress-induced hypothermia remarkably improved in mice fed a 1% L-citrulline-containing diet for 20 days. Furthermore, the nonfasting blood level of L-arginine and L-citrulline increased significantly in the L-citrulline diet group, and higher serum nitrogen oxide levels were observed during recovery from the cold. Conclusions: These results suggested that oral L-citrulline supplementation strengthens vascular endothelium function and attenuates stress-induced cold hypersensitivity by improving blood circulation.

  9. A Novel Phenotype of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity The High-Risk Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan

    2009-01-01

    Background Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-hypersensitive patients develop adverse reactions when challenged with weak cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibitors. Objectives To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of this high-risk population. Materials and methods Patients from 2 outpatient allergy clinics consulting between October 2005 and October 2007 because of adverse reactions to classic NSAIDs were submitted to confirmatory double-blind oral challenges with the s...

  10. A Hyperresponsive HPA Axis May Confer Resilience Against Persistent Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachik, Sharon L; Page, Gayle G

    2016-05-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) treatment is associated with persistent, debilitating neuropathic pain that affects the hands and feet. Female sex and biological stress responsivity are risk factors for persistent pain, but it is unclear whether these important biologically based factors confer risk for PAC-induced neuropathic pain. To determine the relative contributions of sex and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis stress responsivity to PAC-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, we employed a PAC protocol consisting of three, 2-week cycles of every-other-day doses of PAC 1 mg/kg versus saline (Week 1) and recovery (Week 2), totaling 42 days, in mature male and female Fischer 344, Lewis, and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, known to differ in HPA axis stress responsivity. Mechanical sensitivity was operationalized using von Frey filaments, per the up-down method. Among PAC-injected rats, SD rats exhibited significantly greater mechanical hypersensitivity relative to accumulative PAC doses compared to Fischer 344 rats. Lewis rats were not significantly different in mechanical hypersensitivity from SD or Fischer 344 rats. At the end of the protocol, PAC-injected SD rats exhibited profound mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas the PAC-injected Fischer 344 rats appeared relatively resilient to the long-term effects of PAC and exhibited mechanical sensitivity that was not statistically different from their saline-injected counterparts. Sex differences were mixed and noted only early in the PAC protocol. Moderate HPA axis stress responsivity may confer additional risk for the painful effects of PAC. If these findings hold in humans, clinicians may be better able to identify persons who may be at increased risks for developing neuropathic pain during PAC therapy.

  11. Enhancement of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions by a single exposure to UV-A or PUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of irradiation with UV-A and PUVA (8-methoxy-psoralen and UV-A) on delayed hypersensitivity reactions to microbial antigens was studied in healthy human individuals. Skin reactions to Candida albicans antigen and PPD were enhanced by UV-A als well as by PUVA compared with nonirradiated tests. A statistically significant difference was reached with UV-A for both antigens. For PUVA, erythemogenic doses to Candida tests produced a significant increase of response. (orig.)

  12. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the media - a qualitative content analysis of Norwegian newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Huiberts, Åshild; Hjørnevik, Mari Karlsen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Skogen, Jens Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a condition characterized by experiencing symptoms after perceived exposure to weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs). There is substantial debate concerning the aetiology of EHS, but experimental data indicate no association between EHS and actual presence of EMFs. Newspapers play a key role in shaping peoples’ understanding of health-related issues. The aim of this study was to describe the content of newspaper articles concerning aeti...

  13. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon Min Kyung; Choi Joon Yul; Kim Sung Kean; Yoo Tae Keun; Kim Deok Won

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G) mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins...

  14. Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Nordin; Gregory Neely; David Olsson; Monica Sandström

    2014-01-01

    Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise ...

  15. Application of radiobiology methods to investigation of the hypersensitive reaction in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of the hypersensitive reaction (HR) on time intervals between bacteria inoculation and exposure to γ-irradiation is established. In the case of irradiation at doses of 150-500 Gy before the pseudomonas inoculation, the development of HR was accelerated as compared to nonirradiated control. The irradiation by 100-300 Gy in 0-30 min and 5 h after inoculation prevents HR

  16. IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cannabis in Laboratory Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Herzinger, T; Schöpf, P.; Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruëff, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There have been sporadic reports of hypersensitivity reactions to plants of the Cannabinaceae family (hemp and hops), but it has remained unclear whether these reactions are immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. Objective: We examined the IgE-binding and histamine-releasing properties of hashish and marijuana extracts by CAP-FEIA and a basophil histamine release test. Methods: Two workers at a forensic laboratory suffered from nasal congestion, rbinitis, sneezing and asthmatic ...

  17. A Hyperresponsive HPA Axis May Confer Resilience Against Persistent Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachik, Sharon L; Page, Gayle G

    2016-05-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) treatment is associated with persistent, debilitating neuropathic pain that affects the hands and feet. Female sex and biological stress responsivity are risk factors for persistent pain, but it is unclear whether these important biologically based factors confer risk for PAC-induced neuropathic pain. To determine the relative contributions of sex and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis stress responsivity to PAC-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, we employed a PAC protocol consisting of three, 2-week cycles of every-other-day doses of PAC 1 mg/kg versus saline (Week 1) and recovery (Week 2), totaling 42 days, in mature male and female Fischer 344, Lewis, and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, known to differ in HPA axis stress responsivity. Mechanical sensitivity was operationalized using von Frey filaments, per the up-down method. Among PAC-injected rats, SD rats exhibited significantly greater mechanical hypersensitivity relative to accumulative PAC doses compared to Fischer 344 rats. Lewis rats were not significantly different in mechanical hypersensitivity from SD or Fischer 344 rats. At the end of the protocol, PAC-injected SD rats exhibited profound mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas the PAC-injected Fischer 344 rats appeared relatively resilient to the long-term effects of PAC and exhibited mechanical sensitivity that was not statistically different from their saline-injected counterparts. Sex differences were mixed and noted only early in the PAC protocol. Moderate HPA axis stress responsivity may confer additional risk for the painful effects of PAC. If these findings hold in humans, clinicians may be better able to identify persons who may be at increased risks for developing neuropathic pain during PAC therapy. PMID:26512050

  18. A Case of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Caused by Penicillium species in a Home Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Mok; Kim, Yang-Ki; Kim, Shin-Ok; Kim, Sang-Jae; Park, Hae-Sim

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a 30-yr-old female housewife caused by Penicillium species found in her home environment. The patient was diagnosed according to history, chest radiograph, spirometry, high-resolution chest CT, and transbronchial lung biopsy. To identify the causative agent, cultured aeromolds were collected by the open-plate method. From the main fungi cultured, fungal antigens were prepared, and immunoblot analysis with the patient's serum and each fungal ...

  19. Evaluation of dentine hypersensitivity in adult population with chronic periodontitis visiting dental hospital in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Sood

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in chronic periodontitis patients was 37.2% according to questionnaire and 47.8% according to the results of clinical test. Periodontal attachment loss could be an earlier indicator or a possible risk factor of DH. Only 14.36% of the patients with sensitive teeth used desensitizing paste. This could be due to the fact that either the patients did not consider the condition bad enough to warrant treatment or it was not being diagnosed.

  20. Analysis of T-lymphocyte subtypes of the peripheral blood and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lei; Shengshun Tan; Weihui Zeng; Junmin Wang; Panjian Zhang; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the function of cellular immunity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome (HIE). Methods:T-lymphocyte subtypes of the peripheral blood and cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to two recall antigens, tetanus toxoid (TT) and purified protein derivative(PPD), were measured in five patients with HIE and 15 healthy controls, respectively. Results: The CD4+ cell counts in HIE group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0.01). In contrast, CD8 + cells were significantly higher than those in the control ( P < 0.01). The induration sizes of DTH response to two recall antigens were smaller in HIE group than those in the control group ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: There was an immunologic dysfunction of T lymphocytes in the patients with HIE.

  1. Prevention of the induction of allospecific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses by ultraviolet irradiation of corneal allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the immunogenicity of corneal allografts was examined in a mouse model. Corneal allografts differing from the host at the entire MHC and multiple minor H loci were subjected to 200 mJ/cm2 of UVB irradiation immediately prior to heterotropic transplantation. Analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses revealed that UVR treated corneal grafts failed to induce either CTL or DTH responses in C57BL/6 recipients. UVB treatment abolished the immunogenicity of highly immunogenic corneal grafts containing either resident or infiltrating donor-specific Langerhans cells. Sequential grafting experiments demonstrated that UVB-treated grafts rendered the hosts anergic to subsequent immunization with highly immunogenic corneal limbus grafts that contained dense concentrations of Ia+ Langerhans cells of donor origin. The results indicate that UV treatment not only reduces the immunogenicity of the corneal allograft but may also render it tolerogenic

  2. Dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the sigmoid colon and rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkert, Willem; Dimcevski, Georg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H G

    2007-11-01

    Dysmenorrhoea patients experience intense visceral pain during menstruation. Recurrent and/or intense visceral pain can induce facilitation of somatic and visceral nociceptive processing which can lead to viscero-somatic (referred) and viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. Our aim was to study if dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the referred somatic skin area or in the large bowel, i.e., viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. We measured skin sensitivity in the referred area of the sigmoid colon as well as stimulus-response relationships in the sigmoid colon and rectum. The latter were measured using mechanical (balloon) distension applied via a Barostat in 11 dysmenorrhoea patients without gastro-intestinal complaints and 10 healthy and age matched women, again without gastrointestinal complaints. We found no skin hypersensitivity in the colonic referred area. In contrast, significantly lower distension volumes were seen at each threshold in dysmenorrhoea patients, particularly in the sigmoid colon. The mean reduction in colonic distension volume thresholds for dysmenorrhoea patients vs. controls was 57% at the detection threshold and 39% at the pain threshold. There were no differences in compliance between the groups. These findings suggest that, despite the absence of overt gastro-intestinal symptoms or viscero-somatic sensitisation, dysmenorrhoea patients demonstrate intestinal hypersensitivity. This can be regarded as the result of centrally mediated viscero-visceral hyperalgesia due to recurrent intense menstrual pain. PMID:17257758

  3. 咳嗽高敏感性综合征%Cough hypersensitivity syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 邱忠民

    2015-01-01

    Cough hypersensitivity syndrome is a new diagnostic concept for chronic cough and tries to label chronic cough caused by the diverse etiologies under the umbrella of cough hypersensitivity,which may result in a change in the strategy for the management of chronic cough in the future.However,there currently is a controversy on the benefit of cough hypersensitivity syndrome and many issues remain to be solved.Its value of clinical application needs to be clarified by the further study.%咳嗽高敏感性综合征是慢性咳嗽的诊断新概念,试图从咳嗽高敏感性的角度对不同病因导致的慢性咳嗽进行统一的归纳和认识,可能对今后慢性咳嗽的诊治带来观念上的改变.不过,咳嗽高敏感性综合征的益处目前尚有争议,还有许多问题尚待解决,其临床应用价值尚需进一步的研究阐明.

  4. Peripheral corticotropin releasing hormone mediates post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Ho La; Tae-Sik Sung; Hyun-Ju Kim; Tae-Wan Kim; Tong Nook Kang; Il-Suk Yang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether peripheral corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH),which is up-regulated in intestinal inflammation,mediates the post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of colitis.METHODS:We measured mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a marker of inflammation,plasma CRH level,and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) to colorectal distension as a visceral nociceptive response at 2,7 and 14 d after the induction of colitis with 4% acetic acid.RESULTS:Colonic inflammation,quantified by MPO activity,significantly increased on d 2 and subsided thereafter,which indicated a resolution of inflammation within 7 d.On the contrary,plasma CRH level and AWR score were increased on d 2,remained high on d 7,and returned to control level on d 14.Intraperitoneal injection of a CRH antagonist,astressin (30 μg/kg),significantly attenuated the post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity on d 7.Furthermore,intraperitoneal administration of CRH (3 and 10 μg/kg) mimicked the post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in naive rats.CONCLUSION:These results suggest that increased peripheral CRH mediates the enhanced visceral nociception in rats recovered from experimental colitis.

  5. [The reactions of hypersensitivity: the mechanisms of development, clinical manifestations, principles of diagnostic (a lecture)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukavkina, S Yu; Kharseyeva, G G

    2014-05-01

    The article considers the principles of modern classification of hypersensitivity, pathogenic mechanisms of formation of its various types resulting in development of typical clinical symptoms and syndromes. The knowledge and comprehension of these issues is important for physicians of different specializations since it permits to properly make out and formulate diagnosis and timely send patient for examination and treatment to such specialist as allergist-immunologist. The particular attention was paid to description of pathogenesis of diseases and syndromes underlaid by IgE-mediated type of hypersensitivity since their share is highest and clinical manifestations frequently require emergency medical care. The diagnostic of allergic diseases is to be implemented sequentially (step-by-step) and include common clinical and special (specific) methods. In case of choosing of extent of specialized allergological examination the diagnostic significance of techniques and their safety is to be taken into account concerning condition of patient. The diagnosis is objectively formulated only by complex of examination results. It is worth to remember about possibility of development of syndromes similar to IgE-mediated allergy by their clinical manifestations but belonging to non-allergic type of hypersensitivity. It is important to know main causes, mechanisms and ways of formation of such reactions previously named as anaphylactoid ones. PMID:25338461

  6. Influence of PUVA and UVB radiation on delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of guinea pigs to UVA (320--400 nm) radiation following administration of 8-methoxypsoralen by gavage (referred to by the acronym, PUVA) or exposure to UVB (290--320 nm) radiation, produced suppression of the cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction at the site of exposure to radiation and at distant nonexposed sites. In these experiments, the animals were immunized by injection of dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma-globulin (DNP-BGG) in complete Freund's adjuvant and delayed hypersensitivity responses were provoked by intradermal injections of DNP-BGG, DNP and BGG on the flanks. Exposure to erythemogenic doses of either PUVA or UVB radiation for 7 days prior to immunization and for the 7 days between immunization and challenge (total period of radiation: 14 days) produced inhibiton of responses to each of the test substances. In addition, treatment with erythemogenic doses of PUVA either for 7 days prior to immunization or during the interval between immunization and challenge with DNP-BGG, inhibited the delayed hypersensitivity responses at the site of irradiation and at a nonexposed site. These findings suggest that in vivo exposure to nonionizing radiation leads to both local and systemic alteration of certain immune responses

  7. Visceral hypersensitivity and altered colonic motility after subsidence of inflammation in a rat model of colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Ho La; Tae-Wan Kim; Tae-Sik Sung; Jeoung-Woo Kang; Kyun-Ju Kim; Il-Suk Yang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by visceral hypersensitivity and altered bowel motility. There is increasing evidence suggesting the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of IBS, which addresses the possibility that formerly established rat model of colitis could be used as an TBS model after the inflammation subsided.METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4 % acetic acid in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extent of inflammation was assessed by histological examination and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay. After subsidence of colitis, the rats were subjected to rectal distension and restraint stress, then the abdominal withdrawal reflex and the number of stress-induced fecal output were measured,respectively.RESULTS: At 2 days post-induction of colitis, the colon showed characteristic inflammatory changes in histology and 8-fold increase in MPO activity. At 7 days post-induction of colitis, the histological features and MPO activity returned to normal. The rats at 7 days post-induction of colitis showed hypersensitive response to rectal distension without an accompaning change in rectal compliance, and defecated more stools than control animals when under stress.CONCLUSION: These results concur largely with the characteristic features of IBS, visceral hypersensitivity and altered defecation pattern in the absence of detectable disease, suggesting that this animal model is a methodologically convenient and useful model for studying a subset of IBS.

  8. Epidemiological Study to Evaluate the Prevalence of Dentine Hypersensitivity among Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Prasad; Pujari, Siddharth; Patel, Pawan; Gandhewar, Mahesh; Madria, Kunal; Dhume, Swaroop

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common finding with different prevalence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of DH and associated risk factors. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional survey was done among patients coming to dental hospital. The diagnosis of DH was made as the result of both clinical examination and patient's response. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to know demography profile, self-reported DH, the activating factors, preventive measures and frequency. Descriptive statistics were obtained and frequency distribution was calculated using Chi square t test at p value dentine hypersensitivity in this sample was 42.5% and more common among male population (60.8%) and the peak age was between 30 to 39 years (39.2%). Lower anteriors were commonly involved (35.8%) and cold drinks (25.8%) are the main aggravating factor. 6.5% experience it all the time but still some do not take preventive measures. Conclusion: There is high prevalence rate of DH and mainly among males. Some of the patients had it all the time but still they do not want to control the problem. How to cite this article:Rane P, Pujari S, Patel P, Gandhewar M, Madria K, Dhume S. Epidemiological Study to Evaluate the Prevalence of Dentine Hypersensitivity among Patients. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):15-9. PMID:24324299

  9. Ranitidine for prevention of postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Moesgaard, F; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    ranitidine. The 20 control subjects received either no ranitidine or ranitidine in the same dosage as the surgical patients. Skin tests were performed 2 days before and 1 day after operation with the same time schedule in the control subjects. Postoperatively, the diameter of the positive skin test area......Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by skin testing with seven delayed-type common antigens in 20 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and in 20 nonoperative control subjects. The 20 surgical patients were randomized to perioperative ranitidine (50 mg every 6 hours for 72 hours) or no...... decreased in each of 10 patients without ranitidine (p less than 0.006) but increased in 9 and was unchanged in 1 of the ranitidine-treated patients (p less than 0.01). The skin test changes were similar during the two tests in ranitidine-treated surgical patients and the nonoperative control subjects...

  10. Enhanced neuroinflammation and pain hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury in rats expressing mutated superoxide dismutase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavand'homme Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation and nitroxidative stress are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. In view of both processes, microglial and astroglial activation in the spinal dorsal horn play a predominant role. The present study investigated the severity of neuropathic pain and the degree of glial activation in an inflammatory- and nitroxidative-prone animal model. Methods Transgenic rats expressing mutated superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1G93A are classically used as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Because of the associated inflammatory- and nitroxidative-prone properties, this model was used to study thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL. Next to pain hypersensitivity assessment, microglial and astroglial activation states were moreover characterized, as well as inflammatory marker gene expression and the glutamate clearance system. Results PSNL induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in both wild-type (WT and transgenic rats. However, the degree of thermal hypersensitivity was found to be exacerbated in transgenic rats while mechanical hypersensitivity was only slightly and not significantly increased. Microglial Iba1 expression was found to be increased in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord after PSNL but such Iba1 up-regulation was enhanced in transgenic rats as compared WT rats, both at 3 days and at 21 days after injury. Moreover, mRNA levels of Nox2, a key enzyme in microglial activation, but also of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1β and TLR4 were not modified in WT ligated rats at 21 days after PSNL as compared to WT sham group while transgenic ligated rats showed up-regulated gene expression of these 3 targets. On the other hand, the PSNL-induced increase in GFAP immunoreactivity spreading that was evidenced in WT rats was unexpectedly found to be attenuated in transgenic ligated rats. Finally, GLT-1 gene expression and

  11. 磺胺类药物过敏和交叉过敏的研究进展%Progress in sulfonamide hypersensitivity and cross-hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧敏; 蔡宏文; 李天元; 魏尔清

    2012-01-01

    磺胺美药物是指含有-SO2NH2结构的药物.磺胺类药物的交叉过敏仍是困扰临床的一个用药难题.有磺胺类抗菌药过敏史的患者在临床上并不罕见,这些患者是否可以使用其他磺胺类药物,相关药品说明书的描述并不一致,也无标准的操作流程或指南.本文回顾了磺胺类抗菌药发生超敏反应的机制,发现其发生主要与磺胺类抗菌药N4位的芳香胺取代基和N1位的杂环取代基有关,而多数磺胺类非抗菌药(如呋塞米、噻嗪类利尿剂、塞来昔布等)并不含有这两个取代基,因此磺胺类抗菌药和非抗菌药之间发生交叉过敏的可能性较低.此外,本文也对磺胺类药物交叉过敏的相关临床研究进行了回顾.一个大规模的回顾性研究提示,有磺胺类抗菌药过敏史者使用磺胺类非抗菌药过敏反应的发生率较无磺胺过敏史者高,但并非与磺胺基团有关,而是和患者本身过敏反应易感性高有关.磺胺类抗菌药和非抗菌药之间发生交叉过敏的理论和循证依据尚不充分,但鉴于有磺胺类抗菌药过敏史的患者对药物过敏的易感性较高,这些患者是否可使用其他磺胺类药物,取决于相关药品说明书的规定、既往发生过敏反应的严重程度以及是否有其他替代药物.%A sulfonamide is any compound with an -SO2NH2 moiety. The clinical significance of cross-reactivity of medications in a person with a " sulfa" allergy continues to perplex clinicians and complicates decisions regarding patient safety. Patients with hypersensitivity to sulfonamide antibacterials are not rare. The manufacturer's package inserts of different sulfonamides about concerning use in patients with a sulfonamide allergy are not consistent. There are no standard procedures or guidelines for the cautious administration of other sulfonamide-containing medications for patients hypersensitive to sulfonamide antibacterial. In this paper, we reviewed the

  12. Study the Effect of Echinacea Purpurea Extract on Cellular Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and Splenocyte Proliferation in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Purple cone flower plant (Echinacea purpurea is one of the mostimportant Herbal products in many countries. Up to now a lot of experimentsdemonstrated the controversial effects of this herb on immune system . In thisresearch we study the in vivo and in vitro effect of Iranian E.purpurea extract oncellular immunity.Materials and Methods: At first we determined the lethal dose of E.purpurea extract after intraperitoneal injection in BALB/c mice. Then we made five groups of mice and treat them by four times intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml extract at different doses (0, 0.4, 2, 10 and 50 mg/ml during two weeks. Splenocyte proliferation response to extract was assessed by MTT method. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTHresponse was evaluated by priming mice with 1×108 Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC injected subcutaneously in the back on day 7after treatment.Results: As a result no significant variation in weight and spleen index of test groups to control was observed. Splenocyte proliferation and DTH response of test groups to control increased significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: However these data confirmed the results of previous studies, inaddition presented the first results about significant increase in DTH response that could not be seen before. Scince the main reason of this difference refers to active compounds of herb extract, comparing effective component of this extract with that of E.purpurea cultivated in other geographical condition will consider as the next studies.

  13. The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Suayib; Bartetzko, Verena; Börnke, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    XopJ is a Xanthomonas type III effector protein that promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible pepper plants through the inhibition of the host cell proteasome and a resultant suppression of salicylic acid (SA) - dependent defense responses. We show here that Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing XopJ display hypersensitive response (HR) -like symptoms when exogenously treated with SA. This apparent avirulence function of XopJ was further dependent on effector myristoylation as well as on an intact catalytic triad, suggesting a requirement of its enzymatic activity for HR-like symptom elicitation. The ability of XopJ to cause a HR-like symptom development upon SA treatment was lost upon silencing of SGT1 and NDR1, respectively, but was independent of EDS1 silencing, suggesting that XopJ is recognized by an R protein of the CC-NBS-LRR class. Furthermore, silencing of NPR1 abolished the elicitation of HR-like symptoms in XopJ expressing leaves after SA application. Measurement of the proteasome activity indicated that proteasome inhibition by XopJ was alleviated in the presence of SA, an effect that was not observed in NPR1 silenced plants. Our results suggest that XopJ - triggered HR-like symptoms are closely related to the virulence function of the effector and that XopJ follows a two-signal model in order to elicit a response in the non-host plant N. benthamiana.

  14. The Xanthomonas effector XopJ triggers a conditional hypersensitive response upon treatment of N. benthamiana leaves with salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib eÜstün

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available XopJ is a Xanthomonas type III effector protein that promotes bacterial virulence on susceptible pepper plants through the inhibition of the host cell proteasome and a resultant suppression of salicylic acid (SA – dependent defense responses. We show here that Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing XopJ display hypersensitive response (HR –like symptoms when exogenously treated with SA. This apparent avirulence function of XopJ was further dependent on effector myristoylation as well as on an intact catalytic triad, suggesting a requirement of its enzymatic activity for HR-like symptom elicitation. The ability of XopJ to cause a HR-like symptom development upon SA treatment was lost upon silencing of SGT1 and NDR1, respectively, but was independent of EDS1 silencing, suggesting that XopJ is recognized by an R protein of the CC-NBS-LRR class. Furthermore, silencing of NPR1 abolished the elicitation of HR-like symptoms in XopJ expressing leaves after SA application. Measurement of the proteasome activity indicated that proteasome inhibition by XopJ was alleviated in the presence of SA, an effect that was not observed in NPR1 silenced plants. Our results suggest that XopJ - triggered HR-like symptoms are closely related to the virulence function of the effector and that XopJ follows a two-signal model in order to elicit a response in the non-host plant N. benthamiana.

  15. Electroacupuncture diminishes P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia of rats with visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Weng; Luyi Wu; Yuan Lu; Lidong Wang; Linying Tan; Ming Dong; Yuhu Xin

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was used to establish a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia from rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Results demonstrated that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores obviously increased following establishment of the model, indicating visceral hypersensitivity. Simultaneously, P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression increased in dorsal root ganglia. After bilateral electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu and Tianshu, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression decreased in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment improved visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by reducing P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia.

  16. Dermal fibroblasts in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with the lamin A G608G mutation have dysmorphic nuclei and are hypersensitive to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worman Howard J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare sporadic disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per 8 million live births. The phenotypic appearance consists of short stature, sculptured nose, alopecia, prominent scalp veins, small face, loss of subcutaneous fat, faint mid-facial cyanosis, and dystrophic nails. HGPS is caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamins A and C. The most common mutation in subjects with HGPS is a de novo single-base pair substitution, G608G (GGC>GGT, within exon 11 of LMNA. This creates an abnormal splice donor site, leading to expression of a truncated protein. Results We studied a new case of a 5 year-old girl with HGPS and found a heterozygous point mutation, G608G, in LMNA. Complementary DNA sequencing of RNA showed that this mutation resulted in the deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of prelamin A. We characterized a primary dermal fibroblast cell line derived from the subject's skin. These cells expressed the mutant protein and exhibited a normal growth rate at early passage in primary culture but showed alterations in nuclear morphology. Expression levels and overall distributions of nuclear lamins and emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, were not dramatically altered. Ultrastructural analysis of the nuclear envelope using electron microscopy showed that chromatin is in close association to the nuclear lamina, even in areas with abnormal nuclear envelope morphology. The fibroblasts were hypersensitive to heat shock, and demonstrated a delayed response to heat stress. Conclusion Dermal fibroblasts from a subject with HGPS expressing a mutant truncated lamin A have dysmorphic nuclei, hypersensitivity to heat shock, and delayed response to heat stress. This suggests that the mutant protein, even when expressed at low levels, causes defective cell stability, which may be responsible for phenotypic

  17. A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode A Olukolu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR, a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R- genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21, were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genome-wide association (GWA analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants.

  18. Hypersensitive response-like reaction is associated with hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis

  19. Glycerol hypersensitivity in a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency is affected by mutations in eye pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Wightman

    Full Text Available Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374 and dGK (CG7995. As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency.

  20. Case Report About Fatal or Near-Fatal Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cetuximab: Anticetuximab IgE as a Valuable Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Benoît; Mariotte, Delphine; Moldovan, Cristian; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Vergnaud, Marie-Claude; Laroche, Dominique; Gervais, Radj

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions are a classic side effect of cetuximab. We report the cases of three patients who developed life-threatening hypersensitivity to cetuximab, which could have been predicted by assessing the concentration of serum anticetuximab immunoglobulin (Ig)E. The anticetuximab IgE concentration could be an interesting test to predict which patients are at risk of experiencing severe hypersensitivity reactions to cetuximab.

  1. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of an extract from the cell wall and cell membrane of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, A M; Rhodes, J C; Deepe, G S

    1991-01-01

    In order to identify T-cell antigens from Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells, we prepared a detergent extract of the cell wall and cell membrane of yeast-phase H. capsulatum G217B and analyzed its antigenicity and immunogenicity. Mice injected with viable H. capsulatum yeast cells or with 500 or 1,000 micrograms of the extract mounted a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to solubilized cell wall and cell membrane. Vaccination with this antigenic preparation conferred a protective immune r...

  2. Non-IgE-Dependent Hypersensitivity to Rocuronium Reversed by Sugammadex: Report of Three Cases and Hypothesis on the Underlying Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, David; D'Incau, Stéphanie; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Harr, Thomas; Czarnetzki, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present 3 cases of pseudoallergic (anaphylactoid) reactions to perioperatively administered rocuronium, which rapidly resolved after sugammadex injection. Allergological workup showed no evidence for immediate-type hypersensitivity to the drugs used for anesthesia, including rocuronium. However, rocuronium induced an irritative reaction in skin tests in all 3 patients and in 3 healthy individuals. This reaction was specifically suppressed by adding sugammadex at a 1:1 molecular proportion to rocuronium before the skin tests. This observation suggests that the patients suffered from a pseudoallergic reaction, and indicates that sugammadex might act via the inhibition of non-IgE mediated MRGPRX2 (Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2)-triggered mast cell degranulation induced by rocuronium. PMID:27240836

  3. Effects of electroacupuncture on c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and brain of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomei Wang; Huirong Liu; Guanghong Ding; Yunfei Chen; Huangan Wu; Na Li; Enhua Zhou; Xiudi Qin; Lingsong Yuan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity is the main cause of irritable bowel syndrome, c-Fos is a marker of visceral hypersensitivity in the central nervous system. Electroacupuncture can relieve chronic visceral hypersensitivity in rats, but the mechanism is still unknown.OBJECTIVE: To identify c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity, and to test the effects of electroacupuncture on pain sensitivity in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at the Animal Experimental Center, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from January to April, 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 24 neonatal, male, Sprague Dawley rats, aged five days old, were equally and randomly assigned into a normal group, a model group, and an electroacupuncture group. Rabbit anti-rat c-Fos antibody and Evision secondary antibody kits (Sigma, USA), diaminobenzidine kit (Dako, Denmark), and an LD202H electroacupuncture apparatus (Huawei, Beijing, China) were used in this study.METHODS: Neonatal rats from the model and electroacupuncture groups were used to establish rat models of chronic visceral hypersensitivity by the saccule stimulation method. After model establishment, 0.25 mm diameter electric needles were inserted into Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) at a depth of approximately 0.5 cm, with an square wave (alternating current frequency at 100/20 Hz, amplitude ranged 0.2-0.6 ms, intensify at 1 mA) once for 20 minutes, once a day, for seven days. Rats in the normal and model groups were not treated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Following 7 days of treatment, c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex was detected by immunohistochemistry. After the first electroacupuncture treatment, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores were investigated to evaluate the pain threshold for chronic visceral hypersensitivity in rats.RESULTS: Visceral

  4. Restoring Spinal Noradrenergic Inhibitory Tone Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Fang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated whether restoring descending noradrenergic inhibitory tone can attenuate pain in a PD rat model, which was established by stereotaxic infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA into the bilateral striatum (CPu. PD rats developed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the 4th week after surgery. HPLC analysis showed that NE content, but not dopamine or 5-HT, significantly decreased in lumbar spinal cord in PD rats. Additional noradrenergic depletion by injection of N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4 aggravated pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. At the 5th week after injection of 6-OHDA, systemic treatment with pharmacological norepinephrine (NE precursor droxidopa (L-DOPS or α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine significantly attenuated thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Furthermore, application of norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, but not 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors sertraline, significantly inhibited thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Systemic administration of Madopar (L-DOPA or the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole slightly inhibited the thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity in PD rats. Thus, our study revealed that impairment of descending noradrenergic system may play a key role in PD-associated pain and restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone may serve as a novel strategy to manage PD-associated pain.

  5. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  6. Regulative effect of anandamide-mediated cannabinoid receptor in rats with visceral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qin HE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the role of anandamide(ANA-mediated cannabinoid receptor 1(CB1 on the acquisition of visceral hypersensitivity in rats, and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods  The visceral hypersensitivity non-noxious/noxious colorectal distension (NNCRD/NCRD model of rat was reproduced by ovalbumin (OVA sensitization combined with NNCRD/NCRD. Fifty-four rats were randomly divided into control group (n=7, saline+CRD group (n=7, OVA+CRD+dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO group (n=8, OVA+CRD+different concentrations of ANA (0.5, 5.0, 10.0mg/kg groups (8 each, and OVA+CRD+ANA+AM251 group (n=8. The expression and quantitative assessment of CB1 were monitored by immunoflurorescence and laser scanning confocal analysis. The visceral sensitivity was evaluated by the area under curve (AUC of myoelectrical activity of abdominal wall muscle. Results  By NCRD at 80mmHg, the density of CB1 immunofluorescence intensity was significantly higher in L4–L6 of the spinal cord of the rats in saline+CRD group compared with that in control group (P 0.05. By NCRD at 80mmHg, the VMR-AUC increased obviously in OVA+CRD+DMSO group as compared with that of saline+CRD group, but it decreased significantly in OVA+CRD+high concentration ANA group (P < 0.05. When AM251 was intravenously given, VMR-AUC increased significantly in OVA+CRD+ANA+AM251 group compared with that in OVA+CRD+different concentrations of ANA groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Intravenous administration of ANA may mitigate the visceral nociception induced by basic OVAsensitization combined with NCRD stimulation in CB1-mediated manner. It indicated that anandamide-mediated CB1 cannabinoid receptor may regulate the development and maintenance of visceral hypersensitivity.

  7. Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon, E-mail: imimdr@yahoo.co.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Hee, E-mail: lshsophia@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Min, E-mail: sangminlee77@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine, The Korean Armed Force Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye-Ryun, E-mail: helenmed@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heung-Woo, E-mail: guineapark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-Sin, E-mail: ssksting@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Heon, E-mail: shcho@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions. Results: Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.

  8. Follow-up assessment of two cases of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Shun; Huang, Han-Lin; Wu, Qi-Feng; Xia, Li-Hua; Huang, Ming; Qiu, Xin-Xiang; Zhou, Shan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the stability, curability and sequelae of cases of Trichloroethylene (TCE) Hypersensitivity Syndrome (THS), and to investigate the causal allergens of THS. Two cases of THS were followed-up in the current study; both cases were healing following glucocorticoid therapy and were discharged >10 weeks prior to follow-up. A questionnaire investigation, health examination and patch test were performed. Allergens of TCE and its metabolites, including chloral hydrate, trichloroethanol (TCOH) and trichloroacetic acid, were applied in the patch test; 4 controls were included. The two subjects were experiencing itching, pigmentation and xerosis of the skin, and had abnormal results in the ophthalmology Schirmer I test and tear break-up time. The body temperature, liver function, superficial lymph nodes, blood, urine routine and autoimmune antibodies of two subjects were shown to be normal, and no new rashes had appeared. All mass concentration of chloral hydrate and TCOH were positive; 5.0% trichloroacetic acid was weakly positive, 0.5% trichloroacetic acid and all mass concentration of TCE were negative. All patch tests were negative in the 4 control subjects. The results suggest that THS was stable following treatment with glucocorticoid therapy. Dry eye syndrome may continue as a sequelae of THS. The patch test demonstrated that the mechanism underlying THS is delayed-type hypersensitivity induced by TCE. In addition, as the hypersensitivity state in a THS rehabilitee could be sustained over a long period of time, it suggests that the metabolites of TCE, not TCE itself, are responsible for THS. Therefore, patients with THS should avoid contact with TCE and its metabolites, and avoid using hypnotic and anticonvulsive drugs containing chloral hydra as the primary ingredient.

  9. Speech Discrimination Difficulties in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Are Likely Independent of Auditory Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, William A; Enticott, Peter G; Rajan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), characterized by impaired communication skills and repetitive behaviors, can also result in differences in sensory perception. Individuals with ASD often perform normally in simple auditory tasks but poorly compared to typically developed (TD) individuals on complex auditory tasks like discriminating speech from complex background noise. A common trait of individuals with ASD is hypersensitivity to auditory stimulation. No studies to our knowledge consider whether hypersensitivity to sounds is related to differences in speech-in-noise discrimination. We provide novel evidence that individuals with high-functioning ASD show poor performance compared to TD individuals in a speech-in-noise discrimination task with an attentionally demanding background noise, but not in a purely energetic noise. Further, we demonstrate in our small sample that speech-hypersensitivity does not appear to predict performance in the speech-in-noise task. The findings support the argument that an attentional deficit, rather than a perceptual deficit, affects the ability of individuals with ASD to discriminate speech from background noise. Finally, we piloted a novel questionnaire that measures difficulty hearing in noisy environments, and sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds. Psychometric analysis using 128 TD participants provided novel evidence for a difference in sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds, and these findings were reinforced by participants with ASD who also completed the questionnaire. The study was limited by a small and high-functioning sample of participants with ASD. Future work could test larger sample sizes and include lower-functioning ASD participants. PMID:27555814

  10. Speech discrimination difficulties in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder are likely independent of auditory hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrew Dunlop

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, characterised by impaired communication skills and repetitive behaviours, can also result in differences in sensory perception. Individuals with ASD often perform normally in simple auditory tasks but poorly compared to typically developed (TD individuals on complex auditory tasks like discriminating speech from complex background noise. A common trait of individuals with ASD is hypersensitivity to auditory stimulation. No studies to our knowledge consider whether hypersensitivity to sounds is related to differences in speech-in-noise discrimination. We provide novel evidence that individuals with high-functioning ASD show poor performance compared to TD individuals in a speech-in-noise discrimination task with an attentionally demanding background noise, but not in a purely energetic noise. Further, we demonstrate in our small sample that speech-hypersensitivity does not appear to predict performance in the speech-in-noise task. The findings support the argument that an attentional deficit, rather than a perceptual deficit, affects the ability of individuals with ASD to discriminate speech from background noise. Finally, we piloted a novel questionnaire that measures difficulty hearing in noisy environments, and sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds. Psychometric analysis using 128 TD participants provided novel evidence for a difference in sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds, and these findings were reinforced by participants with ASD who also completed the questionnaire. The study was limited by a small and high-functioning sample of participants with ASD. Future work could test larger sample sizes and include lower-functioning ASD participants.

  11. Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions. Results: Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.

  12. Constructing a classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, L K; Calderon, M A; Goldberg, B J; Gayraud, J; Bircher, A J; Casale, T; Li, J; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G; Demoly, P

    2015-06-01

    The global allergy community strongly believes that the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) offers a unique opportunity to improve the classification and coding of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases via inclusion of a specific chapter dedicated to this disease area to facilitate epidemiological studies, as well as to evaluate the true size of the allergy epidemic. In this context, an international collaboration has decided to revise the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases and to validate it for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community. After careful comparison between ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes, we identified gaps and trade-offs allowing us to construct a classification proposal, which was sent to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) sections, interest groups, executive committee as well as the World Allergy Organization (WAO), and American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) leaderships. The crowdsourcing process produced comments from 50 of 171 members contacted by e-mail. The classification proposal has also been discussed at face-to-face meetings with experts of EAACI sections and interest groups and presented in a number of business meetings during the 2014 EAACI annual congress in Copenhagen. As a result, a high-level complex structure of classification for hypersensitivity/allergic diseases has been constructed. The model proposed has been presented to the WHO groups in charge of the ICD revision. The international collaboration of allergy experts appreciates bilateral discussion and aims to get endorsement of their proposals for the final ICD-11. PMID:25736171

  13. Constructing a classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, L K; Calderon, M A; Goldberg, B J; Gayraud, J; Bircher, A J; Casale, T; Li, J; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G; Demoly, P

    2015-06-01

    The global allergy community strongly believes that the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) offers a unique opportunity to improve the classification and coding of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases via inclusion of a specific chapter dedicated to this disease area to facilitate epidemiological studies, as well as to evaluate the true size of the allergy epidemic. In this context, an international collaboration has decided to revise the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases and to validate it for ICD-11 by crowdsourcing the allergist community. After careful comparison between ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes, we identified gaps and trade-offs allowing us to construct a classification proposal, which was sent to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) sections, interest groups, executive committee as well as the World Allergy Organization (WAO), and American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) leaderships. The crowdsourcing process produced comments from 50 of 171 members contacted by e-mail. The classification proposal has also been discussed at face-to-face meetings with experts of EAACI sections and interest groups and presented in a number of business meetings during the 2014 EAACI annual congress in Copenhagen. As a result, a high-level complex structure of classification for hypersensitivity/allergic diseases has been constructed. The model proposed has been presented to the WHO groups in charge of the ICD revision. The international collaboration of allergy experts appreciates bilateral discussion and aims to get endorsement of their proposals for the final ICD-11.

  14. Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Francesca; Sartor, Chiara; Botta, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of the mechanisms of resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in the hybrid-resistant cultivar 'Bouche de Bétizac' (Castanea sativa × Castanea crenata). Larvae and eggs of the insect are found in the buds of this cultivar at the end of winter, but there is no gall development after budburst. The hypothesis of the presence of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the buds was tested using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to detect H(2)O(2) and by Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate the expression of a germin-like protein gene. HR in plants is elicited by the production of reactive oxygen compounds, such as H(2)O(2), and results in the programmed cell death. The DAB test was applied to buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac' and of the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (C. sativa) at different stages of budburst. The DAB staining produced brown areas in the swelling buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac', indicating the presence of H(2)O(2). On the contrary, all uninfested buds, as well as the infested buds of 'Madonna', appeared whitish. Papers report that germin and germin-like proteins (GLP) with oxalate oxidase activity are discrete markers of stress-responsive gene products. A strong expression of the chestnut GLP gene was detected by RT-PCR at bud swelling in infested 'Bouche de Bétizac' buds but not in 'Madonna' ones. The results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of an HR in 'Bouche de Bétizac' as response to the cynipid infestation, resulting in cell and larvae death.

  15. Recurrent dermatitis and dermal hypersensitivity following a jellyfish sting: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Asztalos, Manuela; Rubin, Adam I; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Groft MacFarlane, Caroline; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation often causes an immediate painful vesiculopapular eruption. Less commonly it can cause a type IV allergic hypersensitivity that manifests with delayed or recurrent cutaneous lesions at the primary site or distant from the primary site. These secondary reactivations may be related to high antijellyfish immunoglobulin levels, intracutaneously sequestered antigen, or cross-reacting venom. Immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus and topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy decrease this recurrent dermatitis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a recurrent jellyfish dermatitis lasting more than 1 year after the initial envenomation. The dermatitis finally resolved after treatment with tacrolimus and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy. PMID:24495001

  16. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Pritchett

    2012-01-01

    Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i idiosyncratic reactions, (ii drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy.

  17. 133Xe ventilation study in pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation study using 133Xe were performed to measure regional ventilation in four normal volunteers, four patients with pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia (PIE) and five patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). In both PIE and HP, regional abnormality of ventilation was seen and two indexes of ventilation T1/2, TA/H were in a tendency to be longer in PIE and HP than in normal volunteers. It was suggested that 133Xe ventilation study might be useful for PIE and HP. (author)

  18. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome due to anticonvulsants in a two-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta F J; Vasconcellos, Cidia; Pegas, Jose Roberto P; Cera, Patrícia Calil

    2004-12-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) usually refers to severe cutaneous drug eruption associated with systemic involvement and potentially fatal outcome. We report a 2-year-old Caucasian boy who developed DIHS due to phenytoin and phenobarbital and who showed extensive internal organ involvement. We are alerting that failure to recognize this drug eruption and discontinue the culprit drug may result in increased severity, greater extent of internal organ involvement, and fatal outcome. The recent research about the influence of human herpesvirus 6 co-infection on the pathogenesis of DIHS is also discussed by the authors in this paper. PMID:15801266

  19. Hypersensitivity to mechanical and intra-articular electrical stimuli in persons with painful temporomandibular joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, Emad; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Svensson, P

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether persons with TMJ arthralgia have a modality-specific and site-specific hypersensitivity to somatosensory stimuli assessed by quantitative sensory tests (QST). Forty-three healthy persons and 20 with TMJ arthralgia participated. The QST consisted of: sensory and pain...... detection thresholds and summation threshold to intra-articular electrical stimulation, tactile and pin-prick sensitivity in the TMJ area, pressure-pain threshold and tolerance on the lateral side of the TMJ and on the finger. Persons with TMJ arthralgia had lower pain detection and summation thresholds (P...

  20. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin demonstrated in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Johansen, K S; Bentzon, M W

    1976-01-01

    Skin reactivity to tuberculin has been studied during the course of experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs. A depression of the delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the infected animals. The depression was most pronounced when icterus had developed. The depression was not...... correlated with the amount of infectious units administered or with the demonstration of live leptospirae in the peritoneal cavity. In the infected animals there was no correlation between the initial and the final skin tests which is in contrast to findings in the control group....

  1. Reduction of follistatin-like 1 in primary afferent neurons contributes to neuropathic pain hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Cheng Li; Feng Wang; Yan-Qing Zhong; Ying-Jin Lu; Qiong Wang; Fang-Xiong Zhang; Hua-Sheng Xiao; Lan Bao; Xu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain is difficult to treat in clinic.Lack of comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying such chronic pain hypersensitivity delays the development of more effective therapy.Accumulated evidence shows that peripheral nerve injury alters the expression of many neurotransmitters, receptors, ion channels and signaling molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the dorsal horn of spinal cord [1].Some of these molecular changes in the pain pathway are correlated with the current therapy for neuropathic pain.

  2. Disturbances of motility and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: biological markers or epiphenomenon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Motility and visceral hypersentitivity are regarded as the primary mechanisms of symptom development in irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). While a variety of motor abnormalities have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS, their specificity and relationship to symptoms remain unclear. Visceral hypersensitivity is ubiquitous in functional gastrointestinal disease and is especially common in IBS. Again, however, its specificity for IBS has been questioned. Many factors, including stress and psychopathology,complicate the interpretation of these phenomena and new re-search suggests that mucosal inflammation and luminal factors may be more fundamental to the etiology of this common disorder.

  3. Induction of persistent hypersensitivity to lung tumorigenesis by in utero X-radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single dose (36 rad) of X rays was given to mouse embryos and neonates that were then treated with urethane at 21 days of age. Although in utero X-radiation to mice was not tumorigenic, it significantly increased lung tumor susceptibility to a postnatally-given carcinogen, urethane. X-ray induction of persistent hypersensitivity to lung tumorigenesis was apparent at all stages during days 0 to 14 of gestation (except on day 6), but was not observed at late fetal and neonatal stages

  4. Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California.

    OpenAIRE

    Levallois, Patrick; Neutra, Raymond; Lee, Geraldine; Hristova, Lilia

    2002-01-01

    Cases of alleged hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been reported for more than 20 years, and some authors have suggested some connection with the "multiple chemical sensitivity" illness. We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians. Being "allergic or very sensitive" to being near electrical devices was reported by 68 subjects, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.8, 3.7). Twenty-seven subjects (1.3%)...

  5. Current diagnosis of dentin hypersensitivity in the dental office: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gillam, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this overview is to consider the problems that may be associated with making a diagnosis of dentin hypersensitivity (DHS) and to provide a basis for clinicians to effectively diagnose and manage this troublesome clinical condition. Materials and methods A PUBMED literature research was conducted by the author using the following MESH terms: (‘diagnosis’[Subheading] OR ‘diagnosis’[All Fields] OR ‘diagnosis’[MeSH Terms]) AND (‘therapy’[Subheading] OR ‘therapy’[All Fields] ...

  6. ERK1/2通路对内脏高敏感大鼠肠道树突细胞表面MHC-Ⅱ分子表达的影响%Effect of ERK1/2 pathway in the expression of MHC-Ⅱ of intestinal dendritic cells in viscerally hypersensitive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙; 胡玥; 王霄腾; 吕宾; 张梦; 陈超英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the phenotypic alteration of intestinal dendritic cells (DC) in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the change of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway,in order to explore the potential mechanism of ERK1/2 pathway mediation in abnormal DC immune response.Methods IBS rat model was established by combining neonatal maternal separation and colorectal distension in 10 SD rats,and 10 healthy rats served as controls.Visceral sensitivity was evaluated with abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR).Mesenteric lymph node DC (MLNDC) was isolated and purified by magnetic label-based technique after modeling.Expression of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-lⅡ in control rats was determined by flow cytometric analyses.Western-blot was used to determine the expression of MHC-]Ⅱ,p-p38,p38,phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase (p-ERK1/2),ERK1/2,phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK),and JNK in MLNDC.Results Visceral sensitivity was significantly higher in the IBS group than in the control group.The purity of the OX62 positivity MLNDC following magnetic sorting was about 85.57% ± 7.67%.MLNDC in the control group expressed high level of MHC-Ⅱ.The expression of MHC-Ⅱ and p-ERK1/2 in MLNDC in the IBS group were higher than those in the control group (1.05 ± 0.13 vs 0.67 ± 0.18,t =-2.973,P =0.041;3.21 ± 0.48 vs 2.34 ± 0.85,t =-3.130,P =0.035);while there was no significant difference in the expressions of p-JNK and p-p38 compared with the control groups (0.95 ± 0.17 vs 0.76 ± 0.36,t =0.808,P =0.464;1.07 ± 1.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.91,t =0.137,P =0.897).Conclusion The intestinal DC in IBS rats show a upregulated expression of MHC-Ⅱ,which may be related to the activation of intracellular ERK1/2 pathway.%目的 研究肠易激综合征(IBS)肠道树突细胞(DC)表型变化及细胞内丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(MAPK)信号通路的变化,初步探讨ERK1/2通路在介导DC异常免疫应答

  7. Effects of a non-selective TRPC channel blocker, SKF-96365, on melittin-induced spontaneous persistent nociception and inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ding; Jia-Rui Zhang; Yan Wang; Chun-Li Li; Dan Lu; Su-Min Guan; Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Melittin is the main peptide in bee venom and causes both persistent spontaneous nociception and pain hypersensitivity.Our recent studies indicated that both transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and canonical TRPs (TRPCs) are involved in mediating the melittin-induced activation of different subpopulations of primary nociceptive cells.Here,we further determined whether TRPC channels are involved in melittin-induced inflammatory nociceptive responses in behavioral assays.Methods The anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects of localized peripheral administration of three doses of the non-selective TRPC antagonist,SKF-96365 (1-{β-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl}-1H-imidazole hydrochloride),were evaluated in melittin tests.Pain-related behaviors were rated by counting the number of paw flinches,and measuring paw withdrawal thermal latency (s) and paw withdrawl mechanical threshold (g),over a 1-h time-course.Results Localized peripheral SKF-96365 given before melittin prevented,and given after melittin significantly suppressed,the melittin-evoked persistent spontaneous nociception.Pre-blockade and post-suppression of activation of primary nociceptive activity resulted in decreased hypersensitivity to both thermal and mechanical stimuli applied to the primary injury site of the ipsilateral hindpaw,despite dose-effect differences between thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia.However,local administration of SKF-96365 into the contralateral hindpaw had no significant effect on any pain-associated behaviors.In addition,SKF-96365 had no effect on baseline threshold for either thermal or mechanical sensitivity under normal conditions.Conclusion Besides TRPV1,SKF-96365-sensitive TRPC channels might also be involved in the pathophysiological processing of melittin-induced inflammatory pain and hypersensitivity.Therapeutically,SKF-96365 is equally effective in preventing primary thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia as well as

  8. NMDA receptor subunit expression and PAR2 receptor activation in colospinal afferent neurons (CANs during inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Robert M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a clinical observation made when diagnosing patients with functional bowel disorders. The cause of visceral hypersensitivity is unknown but is thought to be attributed to inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that a unique set of enteric neurons, colospinal afferent neurons (CANs, co-localize with the NR1 and NR2D subunits of the NMDA receptor as well as with the PAR2 receptor. The aim of this study was to determine if NMDA and PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs contribute to visceral hypersensitivity following inflammation. Recently, work has suggested that dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 receptor mediate inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, in order to study CAN involvement in visceral hypersensitivity, DRG neurons expressing the TRPV1 receptor were lesioned with resiniferatoxin (RTX prior to inflammation and behavioural testing. Results CANs do not express the TRPV1 receptor; therefore, they survive following RTX injection. RTX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in TRPV1 expressing neurons in the colon and immunohistochemical analysis revealed no change in peptide or receptor expression in CANs following RTX lesioning as compared to control data. Behavioral studies determined that both inflamed non-RTX and RTX animals showed a decrease in balloon pressure threshold as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the NR1 cassettes, N1 and C1, of the NMDA receptor on CANs were up-regulated following inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation resulted in the activation of the PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs. Conclusion Our data show that inflammation causes an up-regulation of the NMDA receptor and the activation of the PAR2 receptor expressed on CANs. These changes are associated with a decrease in balloon pressure in response to colorectal distension in non-RTX and RTX lesioned

  9. Proteomics Study on Nonallergic Hypersensitivity Induced by Compound 4880 and Ovalbumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Xu

    Full Text Available Nonallergic hypersensitivity reaction (NHR accounts for more than 77% of all immune-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions and has become a serious threat to public health. Here, proteomics was used to study the NHR mechanism of two typical substances, the compound 4880 and ovalbumin. Twelve different proteins were suggested as potential biomarkers for examining the NHR mechanism, and our results revealed that the mechanism mainly encompassed 2 processes, i.e., generation and effect processes. The generation process could be classified as direct stimulation, complement (classical and alternative, coagulation, kallikrein-kinin, and integrated pathways. Thus glutathione peroxidase 1, terminal complement complex (complement factor 4d and Bb, coagulation 13, kininogen-1, and IgE could be used as candidate biomarkers for the indication of the corresponding pathways respectively, the proteins were further confirmed by ELISA. And the effect process was mainly composed of histamine as well as proteins such as DCD and MYLPF, which could be used as important indices for the symptoms of NHR. Our study differs from previous studies in that C4880 was found to not only be involved in the direct stimulation pathway, but also in the activated complement and kallikrein-kinin pathways through the coagulation pathway. We also report for the first time that ovalbumin-induced NHR could be a combination of the coagulation, classical complement, and integrated pathways.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  12. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Diseases Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV{sub 1}, FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  13. [A case of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by shiitake mushroom spores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Sato, T; Yonei, T; Genba, K; Nogami, N; Yamadori, I

    2000-12-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a low-grade fever, dry cough and dyspnea on exertion as the chief complaints. She had been a professional shiitake mushroom grower for 50 years. Three years before visiting our hospital, she had been suspected of having hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a result of chest X-ray examination, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy performed at another clinic. No antigens were identified at that time, but prednisolone was administered. On admission to our hospital, chest radiography and chest computed tomography revealed an interstitial shadow with subpleural honey-combing in both lower lung fields. After steroid pulse therapy, dyspnea on exertion and hypoxia improved moderately. Because of recurrence of the dyspnea, however, she was admitted on four separate occasions. On the second admission, an increase in lymphocytes was found by bronchoalveolar lavage, and septal lymphocytic infiltration accompanying fibrosis was demonstrated by transbronchial lung biopsy. On the fourth admission, a detailed immunological examination and an environmental survey were performed. The environmental provocation test yielded clinical symptoms similar to those experienced at the mushroom farm. Furthermore, tests of precipitation and lymphocyte proliferation in response to shiitake mushroom extracts were positive. Finally a diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by shiitake mushrooms was confirmed. PMID:11244726

  14. Dentin hypersensitivity clinical study comparing LILT and LEDT keeping the same irradiation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common condition associated with high dental pain. A new LED-based (light emitting diode) light source has been used as an experimental tool in some studies. Purpose: The main objective was to compare these two light sources emitting in the same spectral band (red – from 625 to 660 nm) to promote pain relief. Material and methods: A total of 6 sessions were accomplished, being three irradiation sessions and three follow-up sessions. This single-blind study compared a control group (Placebo) and two other groups with different equipments: low laser intensity treatment (LILT) and a light emitting diode system treatment (LEDT). Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between LILT and LEDT groups, however, both were better than control group (p ≤ 0.01) in terms of treatment efficiency; there is no difference between the second and the third sessions for both treatment, it means that the third session was not necessary; finally, the improvement at the end of the entire research (follow up care of 30 days) was very expressive in comparison to pre-treatment situation for all teeth (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion: LILT and LEDT were equally effective to treat dentine hypersensitivity, a 3rd treatment session was not necessary/two sessions are enough

  15. Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Emma; Ashwin, Chris; Tavassoli, Teresa; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2009-01-01

    We argue that hyper-systemizing predisposes individuals to show talent, and review evidence that hyper-systemizing is part of the cognitive style of people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). We then clarify the hyper-systemizing theory, contrasting it to the weak central coherence (WCC) and executive dysfunction (ED) theories. The ED theory has difficulty explaining the existence of talent in ASC. While both hyper-systemizing and WCC theories postulate excellent attention to detail, by itself excellent attention to detail will not produce talent. By contrast, the hyper-systemizing theory argues that the excellent attention to detail is directed towards detecting ‘if p, then q’ rules (or [input–operation–output] reasoning). Such law-based pattern recognition systems can produce talent in systemizable domains. Finally, we argue that the excellent attention to detail in ASC is itself a consequence of sensory hypersensitivity. We review an experiment from our laboratory demonstrating sensory hypersensitivity detection thresholds in vision. We conclude that the origins of the association between autism and talent begin at the sensory level, include excellent attention to detail and end with hyper-systemizing. PMID:19528020

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms not Responding to Proton Pump Inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, Esophageal Hypersensitivity or Dyspepsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bashashati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy.

  17. Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous iron: guidance for risk minimization and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampton, David; Folkersen, Joergen; Fishbane, Steven; Hedenus, Michael; Howaldt, Stefanie; Locatelli, Francesco; Patni, Shalini; Szebeni, Janos; Weiss, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous iron is widely used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia when oral iron is inappropriate, ineffective or poorly tolerated. Acute hypersensitivity reactions during iron infusions are very rare but can be life-threatening. This paper reviews their frequency, pathogenesis and risk factors, and provides recommendations about their management and prevention. Complement activation-related pseudo-allergy triggered by iron nanoparticles is probably a more frequent pathogenetic mechanism in acute reactions to current formulations of intravenous iron than is an immunological IgE-mediated response. Major risk factors for hypersensitivity reactions include a previous reaction to an iron infusion, a fast iron infusion rate, multiple drug allergies, severe atopy, and possibly systemic inflammatory diseases. Early pregnancy is a contraindication to iron infusions, while old age and serious co-morbidity may worsen the impact of acute reactions if they occur. Management of iron infusions requires meticulous observation, and, in the event of an adverse reaction, prompt recognition and severity-related interventions by well-trained medical and nursing staff. PMID:25420283

  18. Clustering of foodstuffs in food hypersensitivity. An inquiry study in pollen allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E

    1984-01-01

    600 pollen allergic patients were questioned about hypersensitivity symptoms from various foodstuffs. The answers regarding one foodstuff were compared with those of other foodstuffs making 780 tables, from which the Spearmen 's correlation coefficients were calculated. Most of the combinations of foodstuffs showed statistically significant correlations. The highest value of the correlation coefficient was found for certain combinations: Various nuts reciprocally as well as nuts combined with apple and stone fruits. Stone fruits reciprocally and even stone fruits combined with apple and pear. Apple and pear. Kiwi fruit and avocado. Potato and carrot. Swede , parsnip and celery reciprocally. Strawberry and wild strawberry. Fish and bread, fish and cheese. Beer and wine. Several of the foodstuffs showing high degrees of correlation are known to be associated with birch pollen allergies. It is probable that at least some of these correlations are due to true IgE-mediated cross-reactivity with common allergens in birch pollen and foodstuffs. Other, hitherto less well understood mechanisms, might be at work as well. It is concluded that clustering of foodstuffs is common in food hypersensitivity and that in Sweden this phenomenon mostly is due to the association between birch pollen and some foodstuffs.

  19. Clustering of foodstuffs in food hypersensitivity. An inquiry study in pollen allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E

    1984-01-01

    600 pollen allergic patients were questioned about hypersensitivity symptoms from various foodstuffs. The answers regarding one foodstuff were compared with those of other foodstuffs making 780 tables, from which the Spearmen 's correlation coefficients were calculated. Most of the combinations of foodstuffs showed statistically significant correlations. The highest value of the correlation coefficient was found for certain combinations: Various nuts reciprocally as well as nuts combined with apple and stone fruits. Stone fruits reciprocally and even stone fruits combined with apple and pear. Apple and pear. Kiwi fruit and avocado. Potato and carrot. Swede , parsnip and celery reciprocally. Strawberry and wild strawberry. Fish and bread, fish and cheese. Beer and wine. Several of the foodstuffs showing high degrees of correlation are known to be associated with birch pollen allergies. It is probable that at least some of these correlations are due to true IgE-mediated cross-reactivity with common allergens in birch pollen and foodstuffs. Other, hitherto less well understood mechanisms, might be at work as well. It is concluded that clustering of foodstuffs is common in food hypersensitivity and that in Sweden this phenomenon mostly is due to the association between birch pollen and some foodstuffs. PMID:6731203

  20. Amyloid goiter presented as a subacute thyroiditis-like symptom in a patient with hypersensitivity vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Y; Ohta, M; Yokoyama, H; Takamura, T; Kobayashi, K I

    1998-06-01

    We present a 25-year-old woman with amyloid goiter due to hypersensitivity vasculitis, who developed transient thyrotoxicosis resembling subacute thyroiditis. She received prednisolone (20 mg/ day) for three years for hypersensitivity vasculitis, and was diagnosed as having secondary amyloidosis by biopsies of the stomach, rectum and kidneys. She noticed neck swelling with severe right neck tenderness, palpitation, hyperhidrosis and weight loss. An elastic firm diffuse goiter was palpable, and the upper pole of the right lobe was extremely tender. Her serum free T4 and T3 levels were high, and the serum TSH was suppressed to subnormal. She was positive for serum C-reactive protein. Anti-thyroidal autoantibodies were all negative. Her thyrotoxicosis subsided spontaneously within one week. Serum titers of antibodies to various viruses were unchanged during the clinical course for two weeks, but she was positive for HLA B35. Examination of a needle-biopsy specimen of the thyroid gland showed extensive amyloid deposition and no evidence of subacute thyroiditis. We considered her transient thyrotoxicosis to be associated with amyloid goiter. The clinical course of this case was similar to the subacute thyroiditis-like syndrome, first described by Ikenoue et al. When patients with primary or secondary amyloidosis have symptoms and signs of subacute thyroiditis, but develop an unusual course, amyloid goiter should be considered. PMID:9790279